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Captain Cook's Journal During the First Voyage Round the World by James Cook

Part 10 out of 11

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12 o'Clock, with the wind at South, then Tack'd and stood to the Westward
2 Hours, when the wind veer'd to the South-West and West-South-West, and
then we stood to the Southward. In the Morning found the Variation to be
1 degree 10 minutes West by the Amplitude, and by the Azimuth 1 degree 27
minutes West; at Noon we were by Observation in the Latitude of 9 degrees
45 minutes South, Longitude 234 degrees 12 minutes West, and about 6 or 7
Leagues from the land, which extended from North 31 degrees East to
West-South-West 1/2 West. Winds at South-South-West, a Gentle breeze.

Friday, 14th. Light Land and Sea breezes; the former we had from West by
North, and only a few hours in the morning, the latter we had from the
South-South-West and South. With these winds we advanced but slowly to
the Westward. At Noon we were about 6 or 7 Leagues from the Land, which
extended from North by East to South 78 degrees West; our Latitude by
Observation was 9 degrees 54 minutes South. Course and Distance sail'd
since Yesterday noon South 68 degrees West, 24 Miles. We saw several
Smoakes ashore in the P.M., and fires in the night, both upon the Low
land and up in the Mountains.

Saturday, 15th. In the P.M. had the Sea breezes at South-South-West and
South, with which we stood to the Westward until 8 o'Clock, when being
about 3 Leagues from the Land, and having very little wind, we tack'd and
lay her Head off Shore. At 11 o'Clock we got the Land wind at North by
West, with which we steer'd South-West by West along shore, keeping about
4 or 5 Miles from the Land on which in the morning we saw several Houses,
Plantations, etc. At 9 o'Clock we got the wind at North-East by East, a
light breeze; at Noon we were about 2 Leagues from the Land, which
extended as far to the Southward as South-West by West; our Latitude by
observation was 10 degrees 1 minute South. Course and Distance sail'd
since Yesterday at Noon South 78 degrees 45 minutes West, 36 Miles.

Sunday, 16th. Light breezes from the North-East by East, with clear
weather, except in the morning, when we had it cloudy, with a few small
Showers of Rain. Steer'd along shore South-West and South-West by West
until 6 o'Clock in the morning, when we steer'd West-South-West, and at
9, West, at which time we saw the Island Rotte right ahead. At Noon we
were in the Latitude of 10 degrees 39 minutes, Longitude 235 degrees 57
minutes; the South end of Timor bore North-North-West, distant 5 or 6
Leagues; the Island of Rotte extending from South 75 degrees West to
North 67 degrees West, and the Island of Anaboa as Dampier calls it, or
Seman* (* Semao. This island lies off the Dutch settlement of Koepang or
Concordia in Timor; but Cook was right in supposing he would have
received but a cold reception there. The Dutch discouraged any visits at
their outlying settlements. Rotte is a large island lying off the
south-west end of Timor.) as it is called in the Charts, which lies of
the South end of Timor, bore North-West. Course and distance sail'd since
Yesterday noon South 55 degrees 15 minutes West, 67 Miles. Dampier, who
has given us a large and, so far as I know, an Accurate discription of
the Island of Timor, says that it is 70 Leagues long and 16 Broad, and
that it lies North-East and South-West. I found the East side to lie
nearest North-East by East and South-West by West, and the South end to
lie in the Latitude 10 degrees 23 minutes South, Longitude 236 degrees 5
minutes West from Greenwich. We run about 45 Leagues along the East side,
which I observed to be free from Danger, and, excepting near the South
end, the Land which bounds the Sea is low for 2, 3, or 4 Miles inland,
and seem'd in many places to be intersected with Salt Creeks. Behind the
low land are Mountains, which rise one above another to a considerable
height. We continually saw upon it smoakes by day and fires by night, and
in many places houses and plantations. I was strongly importuned by some
of my Officers to go to the Dutch settlement at Concordia, on this
Island, for refreshments; but this I refused to comply with, knowing that
the Dutch look upon all Europeans with a Jealous Eye that come among
these Islands, and our necessities were not so great as to oblige me to
put into a place where I might expect to be but indifferently treated.

[Anchor at Savu.]

Monday, 17th. Winds Easterly, with which we steer'd West-North-West until
2 o'Clock, when being pretty near the North end of Rotte, we hauled up
North-North-West, in order to go between it and Anaboa. After steering 3
Leagues upon this Course we edged away North-West by West, and by 6 we
were clear of all the Islands; at this time the South part of Anaboa,
which lies in the Latitude of 10 degrees 15 minutes South, bore
North-East, distant 4 Leagues, and the Island of Rotte extending as far
to the Southward as South 36 degrees West. The North End of this Island
and the South end of Timor lies North 1/2 East and 1/2 West, distant
about 3 or 4 Leagues from each other. At the West end of the Passage
between Rotte and Anaboa are two Small Islands; the one lays near the
Rotte shore and the other off the South-West point of Anaboa; there is a
good Channel between the 2 of 5 or 6 Miles broad, which we came thro'.
Being now clear of the Islands we steer'd a West course all night until 6
a.m., when we unexpectedly saw an Island* (* Savu. An island about twenty
miles in length. It is but little visited or known by others than the
Dutch to this day.) bearing West-South-West, for by most of the Maps we
had on board we were to the Southward of all the Islands that lay between
Timor and Java; at least there were none laid down so near Timor in this
Latitude by almost one half, which made me at first think it a new
discovery; but in this I was mistaken. We now steer'd directly for it,
and by 10 o'Clock were close in with the North side, where we saw Houses,
Cocoa Nutt Trees, and a Flock of Cattle grazing; these were Temptations
hardly to be withstood by people in our situation, especially such as
were but in a very indifferent State of Health, and I may say mind too,
for in some this last was worse than the other, since I refused to touch
at the Island of Timor, whereupon I thought I could not do less than to
try to procure some refreshments here, as there appeared to be plenty.*
(* Cook's utter indifference as to what he eat or drank made him regard
privations in the matter of food with an equanimity which was not shared
by the rest of his companions.) With this View we hoisted out the
Pinnace, in which I sent Lieutenant Gore in shore to see if there were
any Convenient place to land, sending some trifles along with him to give
to the Natives in case he saw any. Mr. Gore landed in a small sandy cove
near to some Houses, and was met on the beach by 8 or 10 of the people,
who from both their behaviour and what they had about them shew'd that
they had Commerce with Europeans; upon Mr. Gore's returning with this
report, and likewise that there was No Anchorage for the Ship, I sent him
away with both money and goods to try to purchase some refreshments,
while we keept standing on and off with the Ship. At Noon we were about a
Mile from the Shore of the Island, which extends from South-East to
West-North-West, Latitude 10 degrees 27 minutes, Longitude 237 degrees 31
minutes West.

Tuesday, 18th. As soon as Mr. Gore landed he was meet on the beach by
several people, both Horse and Foot, who gave him to understand that
there was a Bay to Leeward where we could Anchor, and likewise get
refreshments. Upon Mr. Gore's return with this intelligence we bore away
for the Bay, in which we Anchor'd at 7 o'Clock in 38 fathoms Water, Clean
sandy bottom. About a Mile from Shore the North point of the Bay bore
North 30 degrees East, 2 1/2 Miles, and the South point or West end of
the Island bore South 63 degrees West. Two hours before we Anchor'd we
saw Dutch Colours hoisted in a Village which stands about a Mile inland,
and at day light in the Morning the same Colours were hoisted on the
beach abreast of the Ship. By this I was no longer in doubt but what here
was a Dutch settlement, and accordingly sent Lieutenant Gore on shore to
wait upon the Governor, or chief person residing here, to acquaint him
with the reasons that induced us to touch at this Island. Upon Mr. Gore's
landing we could perceive that he was received by a Guard of the Natives,
and not Dutch Troops, and Conducted up to the Village where the Colours
were hoisted last night. Some time after this I received a message from
him, acquainting me that he was there with the king of the Island, who
had told him that he could not supply him with anything without leave
from the Dutch Governor, who resided at another part of the Island, but
that he had sent to acquaint him of our Arrival and request.

[At Anchor. Savu.]

Wednesday, 19th. At 2 P.M. the Dutch Governor, and king of this part of
the Island, with his attendance, came on board with Mr. Gore (he having
left 2 Gentlemen ashore as Hostages). We entertained them at Dinner in
the best Manner we could, gave them plenty of good Liquor, made them some
considerable presents, and at their going away Saluted them with 9 Guns.
In return for these favours they made many fair Promises that we should
be immediately supplied with everything we wanted at the same price the
Dutch East India Company had it; and that in the morning Buffaloes, Hogs,
Sheep, etc., should be down on the beach for us to look at, and agree
upon a price. I was not at all at a loss for Interpreters, for both Dr.
Solander and Mr. Sporing understood Dutch enough to keep up a
Conversation with the Dutchman, and several of the Natives could speak
Portuguese, which language 2 or 3 of my people understood. In the morning
I went on shore, accompanied by Mr. Banks and several of the Officers and
Gentlemen, to return the King's Visit; but my Chief Business was to see
how well they would perform their Promises in regard to the things I
wanted. We had not been long ashore before we found that they had
promised more than they ever intended to perform; for, instead of finding
Buffaloes upon the beach, we did not so much as see one, or the least
preparations making for bringing any down, either by the Dutch Factor or
the King. The former pretended he had been very ill all night, and told
us that he had had a letter from the Governor of Concordia in Timor,
acquainting him that a ship (meaning us) had lately passed that Island,
and that if she should touch at this, and be in want of anything, he was
to supply her; but he was not to suffer her to make any stay, nor to
distribute, or leave behind her to be distributed, any valuable presents
to the inferior Natives. This we looked upon to be Afection that hardly
answer'd any purpose, unless it was leting us see how the Dutch had
insinuated themselves into favour with these people, which never could be
his intention. However, both he and the King still promised we should
have what we wanted, but pretended the Buffaloes were far in the Country,
and could not be brought down before night. With these excuses we were
obliged to be satisfied. The King gave us a dinner of boil'd Pork and
Rice, served up in Baskets after their manner, and Palm wine to drink;
with this, and some of our own Liquor, we fair'd Tolerable well. After we
had dined our Servants were called in to pertake of what remain'd, which
was more than they could Eat.

Thursday, 20th. We stay'd at the King's Pallace all the Afternoon, and at
last were obliged to return on board without doing anything farther than
a promise of having some Buffaloes in the morning; which we had now no
great reason to rely on. In the morning I went on shore again, and was
showed one small Buffaloe, which they asked 5 Guineas for. I offer'd 3,
which the man told me he would gladly take, and sent a Message to the
king to let him know what I had offer'd. The Messenger soon return'd, and
let me know that I could not have it under 5 Guineas; and this I refused
to give, knowing it was not worth one fifth part of the money. But this,
my refusal, had like to have overset all we had before done, for soon
after about 100 Men, some Arm'd with Musquets, others with Lances, came
down to the Landing Place. Besides the officer that commanded this party,
there came along with them a Man who spoke Portuguese, and I believe was
born of Portuguese Parents. This man is here (as we afterwards
Understood) as an Assistant to the Dutch Factor. He deliver'd to me the
King's order, or rather those of the Dutch Factor, the purport of which
was that we were to stay no longer than this day, pretending that the
people would not trade with us because we wanted their provisions for
nothing, etc.; whereas the Natives shew'd the greatest inclination
imaginable to supply us with whatever they had, and were far more
desirous of goods than money, and were, before this man came, selling us
Fowls and Syrup as fast as they could bring these things down. From this
and other Circumstances we were well Assured that this was all the
Dutchman's doing, in order to extort from us a sum of Money to put into
his own pocket. There hapned to be an old Raja at this time upon the
beach, whose Interest I had secured in the Morning by presenting him with
a Spy-glass; this man I now took by the hand, and presented him with an
old broad sword. This effectually secured him in our Interest, for the
Moment he got it he began to flourish it over the old Portuguese, and
made him and the Officer commanded the party to sit down at his back
side. Immediately after this trade was restored again for Fowls, etc.,
with more Spirit than ever; but before I could begin a Trade for
Buffaloes, which was what we most wanted, I was obliged to give 10
Guineas for 2, one of which weigh'd only 160 pounds. After this I bought
7 more at a more reasonable price, one of which we lost after he was paid
for. I might now have purchased as many as I pleased, for they now drove
them down to the Water side by Herds; but having got as many as I well
know'd what to do with, and likewise a number of Fowls, and a large
quantity of Syrup, I resolved to make no longer stay.

Friday, 21st. We got under sail, and stood away to the Westward along the
North side of the Island, and another smaller Island, which lies farther
to the Westward, which last bore from us at Noon South-South-East,
distant 2 Leagues.

[Description of Savu.]

Before we proceed any further it will be proper in this place to say
something of the Island we have been last at, which is called by the
Natives Savu. The Middle of it lies in about the Latitude of 10 degrees
35 minutes South, Longitude 237 degrees 30 minutes West. It may be about
8 Leagues in length from East to West, but of what breadth I know not,
because I only saw the North side. There are, as I am told, 3 Bays where
Ships can Anchor; the best is on the South-West side of the South-East
point; the one we lay in, called Seba, lies on the North-West side of the
Island. This bay is very well sheltered from the South-East Trade wind,
but lays wholy open to the North-West. The Land of this Island which
bounds the Sea is, in general, low, but in the Middle of the Island are
Hills of a moderate height, and the whole is agreeably diversified with
woods and Lawns, which afford a most pleasing prospect from the Sea. We
were told that the Island is but indifferently water'd in the dry Season,
especially towards the latter end of it, at which time there is no
running Stream upon the whole Island, only small Springs, which are all
at a distance from the Sea side. The dry seasons commences in March or
April, and ends in November; the remaining 3 or 4 Months they have
Westerly winds with rain, and this the time their Crops of Rice,
Calivances, and Indian Corn are brought forth, which are Articles that
this Island produceth.

They also breed a great Number of Cattle, viz., Buffaloes, Horses, Hogs,
Sheep, and Goats. Many of the former are sent to Concordia, where they
are kill'd and salted, in order to be sent to the more Northern Islands,
which are under the Dominion of the Dutch. Sheep and Goats' flesh is
dried upon this Island, packed up in Bales, and sent to Concordia for the
same purpose. The Dutch resident, from whom we had this information, told
us that the Dutch at Concordia had lately behaved so ill to the Natives
of Timor that they were obliged to have recourse to this Island and
others Adjacent for provisions for their own subsistance, and likewise
Troops (Natives of this Island) to assist the Dutch against those of
Timor. Besides the above productions, here are an Emmence Number of Palm
Trees, from which is extracted the Palm Wine, as it is called, a very
sweet, agreeable, cooling Liquor. What they do not immediately use they
boil down and make Syrup or Sugar of, which they keep in Earthen Jarrs.
Here are likewise Cocoa Nutts, Tamerind Trees, Limes etc., but in no
great plenty; Indico, Cotton, and Cinnamon, sufficient to serve the
Natives; these last Articles, we were told, the Dutch discourage the
growth of.

The Island is divided into 5 Kingdoms, which have lived in Peace and
Amity with each other for these hundred Years. At present the whole
Island is partly under the direction of the Dutch East India Company, who
have a Resident or Factor who constantly lives here, without whose leave
the Natives are not to supply any other Nation with anything whatever;
but the whole produce of the Island, besides what serves themselves, is
in a manner the property of the Company. The Company by way of a Tribute
oblige them to raise and pay Annually a certain quantity of Rice, Indian
Corn, and Callivances, for which the Company makes Each of the Kings a
yearly present of a Cask of Arrack, and some other Trifles; the live
stock, Sheep and Goats' flesh, etc., they pay for in goods. The small
Islands which lie about a League to the Westward of this pays Annually a
Certain quantity of Arica Nutts, which is almost the only produce of that

The Island of Rotte is upon the same footing as this of Savu; both these
Islands, and the 3 Solors, belong to the Government of Concordia. From
what we could learn of the Island of Timor, it seems to be much upon the
same footing as it was in Dampier's time, which is that the Dutch possess
little more of that Island than what lies under the Command of the Fort
Concordia; the rest is in possession either of the Native Indians or the
Portuguese. We were likewise told that the Island of Ende belongs to the
Portuguese; that the principal settlement is at Larentucha, where there
is a Fort and a good Harbour. We were told that the Concordia, on the
Island Timor, is a free Port for Ships of any nation to touch at, where
they would not only be supplied with refreshments, but Naval Stores also.
Trading ships might probably meet with a good reception, but Kings'
ships, I am perswaided, would be looked upon as Spys. For my own part was
I only in want of refreshments, and obliged to touch at any of these
Islands, I should prefer going to a Portuguese settlement before any of
the Dutch, and when I was solicited by the Officers to call at Timor, I
proposed going to one of the Portuguese settlements; but this Mr. Hicks
made some Objections to, which was sufficient for me to lay it aside, as
I had not the least inclination to touch any where till we arriv'd at
Batavia, for my falling in with Savu was more chance and not design.

But to return to this Island, the Natives of which are of a Dark brown
Colour, with long lank Hair; their Cloathing is a peice of Calicoe or
other Cotton Cloath wrapped about their Middle; the better sort have
another peice, which they wear over their Shoulders, and the most of them
wear Turbands or Handkercheifs tyed round their Heads. They Eat of all
the Tame Animals they have got, viz., Hogs, Horses, Buffaloes, Cocks and
Hens, Dogs, Catts, Sheep and Goats, and are esteem'd much in the same
order, as I have mentioned; that is, their Hog flesh, which is certainly
as good as any in the world, they prefer before anything else; next to
Hogs, Horses, and so on. Fish is not esteem'd by them, and is only eat by
the common or poor people, who are allowed little else of meat kind.

They have a Custom among them, that whenever a king dies all the Cattle,
etc., that are upon his Estate are kill'd, with which the Successor makes
a feast, to which is invited all the principal people of the Island, who
stay until all is consumed; after this they every one, according to his
Abilities, make the young King a present, by which means he gets a fresh
stock, which he is obliged to Husband for some time. The other principal
men make also feasts, which are as extraordinary as these, for they
seldom end so long as the giver has got anything left alive upon his
Estate. They are said to be a people of good Morals, Virtuous and Chaste,
each man having only one wife, which he keeps for life; Fornication and
Adultry is hardly known among them. When a great Man marrys he makes
presents to all his Wife's relations of European and other Foreign
commodities to the value of 100 Rix Dollars. This Custom the Dutch East
India Company find it to their Interest to incourage. They speak a
Language peculiar to themselves, into which the Dutch have caus'd the new
Testament to be Translated, and have introduced it, with the use of
letters and writing, among them. By this means several hundred of them
have been converted to Christianity; the rest are some heathens, and
others of no religion at all, and yet they all stick up to the strict
rules of Morality. They all, both Men and Women, Young and Old, Chew of
the Beetle Leaf, Areca Nutts, and a sort of white lime, which I believe
is made from Coral stone; this has such an effect upon the Teeth that
very few, even of the Young people, have hardly any left in their Heads,
and those they have are as black as Ink. Their houses are built on posts
about 4 feet from the Ground; we asked the reason why they built them so,
and was told that it was only Custom; they are, however, certainly the
Cooler for it. They are thatched with Palm Leaves, and the Floors and
sides are boarded.

The man who resides upon this Island in behalf of the Dutch East India
Company is a German by birth. His name is Johan Christopher Lange. It is
hard to say upon what footing he is here. He is so far a Governor that
the Natives dare do nothing without his consent, and yet he can transact
no sort of business with Foreigners either in his own or that of the
Company's name; nor can it be a place of either Honour or Profit. He is
the only white man upon the Island, and has resided there ever since it
has been under the direction of the Dutch, which is about 10 Years. He is
allowed 50 Slaves (Natives of the Island) to attend upon him. These
belong to, and are Maintained by, the Company. He goes the Circuit of the
Island once in 2 Months; but on what account he did not tell us. When he
makes these rounds he carries with him a certain quantity of Spirit to
treat the great men with, which, he says, he is obliged to look well
after, otherwise they would steal it and get drunk; and yet, at another
time, he told us that he never knew a theft committed in the Island; but
some of the Natives themselves contradicted him in this by stealing from
us an Axe. However, from their behaviour to us in general I am of opinion
that they are but seldom guilty of these Crimes. This going round the
Island once in Two Months is most likely to see that the Natives make the
necessary preparations for fulfilling their engagements with the Dutch,
and to see that the Large Boats or small Vessels are taken proper care
of, which the Dutch keep in all the Bays of this Island in order to
collect and carry the grain, etc., to the Ship which comes Annually here.
They are likewise employed in carrying cattle, grain, etc., to Timor;
and, when not wanted, they are hauled aShore into Houses or Sheds built
on purpose. As I have mentioned Slaves, it is necessary to observe that
all the great men have Slaves which are the Natives of the Island. They
can dispose of them one to another, but cannot sell them to go out of the
Island. The price of a Slave is a good, large, fatt Hogg, Horse, etc. I
have before mentioned that many of the people can speak Portuguese, but
hardly any one Dutch. From this it is probable that this Island was
formerly under the Jurisdiction of the Portuguese, tho' the Dutch
Government never own'd as much, but said that the Dutch had Traded here
these hundred years past.* (* This account of the economy of Savu is a
good example of Cook's powers of observation. He was only four days at
the island, and yet gives us a good idea of the place and its

[Sail from Savu.]

Saturday, 22nd. Winds at South-South-East, South-East, and East; a gentle
breeze, which we steer'd West-South-West by Compass. At 4 o'Clock we
discover'd a small low Island* (* Dama Island.) bearing South-South-West,
distant 3 Leagues. The Island hath no place in any of our Charts:
Latitude 10 degrees 47 minutes South, Longitude 238 degrees 28 minutes
West. At Noon we were in the Latitude of 11 degrees 9 minutes South,
Longitude 239 degrees 26 minutes West. Course and distance sail'd since
yesterday noon, South 63 West, 67 miles.

Sunday, 23rd. Winds Easterly; a moderate breeze, which by noon brought us
into the Latitude of 11 degrees 10 minutes South, Longitude 240 degrees
48 minutes West. Course and distance saild since yesterday at noon is
West, 8 miles.

Monday, 24th. Winds at East and South-East; a moderate breeze, and fine,
pleasant weather. In the evening found the Variation to be 2 degrees 44
minutes West. At noon our Latitude was 11 degrees 8 minutes South,
Longitude 242 degrees 13 minutes West. Since we have been clear of the
Islands we have had constantly a swell from the Southward which I do not
suppose is owing to the winds blowing anywhere from thence, but to the
Sea, being so determined by the portion of the Coast of New Holland.

Tuesday, 25th. Moderate breezes at South-East, and clear, pleasant
weather. At Noon our Latitude was 11 degrees 13 minutes South, and
Longitude 244 degrees 41" West.

Wednesday, 26th. Winds and weather as yesterday. At Noon Latitude in 11
degrees 10 minutes, Longitude 245 degrees 41" West.

Thursday 27th. Winds at South-South-East; a fresh breeze. In the evening
found the variation to be 3 degrees 10 minutes West. At noon we were in
the Longitude of 247 degrees 42 minutes West, and Latitude 10 degrees 47
minutes, which is 25 Miles to the Northward of the Log, which I know not
how to account for.

Friday 28th. Winds at South-South-East and South-East; a fresh breeze and
Cloudy, with some Showers of rain. At Noon Latitude observed 10 degrees
51 minutes South, which is agreeable to the Logg, Longitude in 250
degrees 9 minutes, West.

Saturday, 29th. Moderate breeze at South-East and clear pleasant weather,
Steer'd North-West all this day, in order to make the land of Java. At
Noon we were by Observation in the Latitude of 9 degrees 31 minutes South
and Longitude 251 degrees 40 minutes West.

Sunday, 30th. Fresh gales and fair weather. In the A.M. I took into my
possession the Officers', Petty Officers' and Seamen's Log Books and
Journals, at least all that I could find, and enjoin'd every one not to
divulge where they had been.* (* These logs are now in the Public Record
Office. Mr. Green's log ends on the 2nd October. Not being an officer,
Cook doubtless overlooked it at first. This log should by rights have
been returned to Mr. Green, but as he died shortly after leaving Batavia,
it has found its way, with the others, to the Record Office.) At noon our
Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday at noon, is North 20 degrees
West, 126 Miles, which brought us into the Latitude of 7 degrees 34
minutes South and Longitude 252 degrees 23 minutes West.

[October 1770. Enter Sunda Strait. ]

Monday, 1st October. First and latter parts fresh breezes at South-East
and fair weather; the Middle squally with Lightning and rain. At 7 p.m.,
being then in the Latitude of Java head, and not seeing any land, assured
us that we had got too far to the Westward; upon which we hauld up
East-North-East, having before Steerd North by East. At 12 o'Clock saw
the Land bearing East, Tack'd, and stood to the South-West until 4, then
stood again to the Eastward, having very unsettled squally weather which
split the Main Topsail very much, and obliged us to bend the other; many
of our Sails are now so bad that they will hardly stand the least puff of
Wind. At 6 o'Clock Java head, on the West end of Java, bore South-East by
East, distant 5 Leagues; soon after this saw Princes Island, bearing East
1/2 South. At 10 o'Clock saw the Island of Cracatoa* (* The great
eruption, and consequent destruction of the larger part of this island in
1883, will be remembered. It lies in the centre of Sunda Strait.) bearing
North-East, distant 7 Leagues; Princes Island extending from South 53
degrees East to South by West, distant 3 Leagues. Course and distance
saild since Yesterday at Noon is North 24 degrees 30 minutes East, 70
Miles. Latitude in per Observation, 6 degrees 29 minutes South, Longitude
251 degrees 54 minutes; but either our Longitude must be erroneous or the
Straits of Sunda must be faltily laid down in all Books and Charts; but
this no doubt we shall have an opportunity to settle.* (* Cook's
longitude was in error nearly three degrees. No lunars had been taken
since they left Savu, and there is a current running westward. It is a
good example of the error of dead reckoning, even with the most careful
of navigators.)

Tuesday, 2nd. In the P.M., had the wind at South-South-East, South-East
by South and South-South-East, with which we stood to the Eastward close
upon a wind. At 6 o'Clock the Hill on Princes Island bore South-West by
South, and Cracatoa Island, North 10 Miles; in this situation had 58
fathoms, standing still to the Eastward. At 8 o'Clock had 52 fathoms,
muddy bottom, at 10 23 fathoms. By 4 in the morning we fetched close in
with the Java shore in 15 fathoms, then steer'd along shore. At 5 it fell
Calm, which continued with some Variable light Airs until noon, at which
time Anger Point bore North-East, distant 1 League, and Thwart-the-way
Island North. In the morning I sent a Boat ashore to try to get some
fruits for Tupia, who is very ill, and, likewise, to get some grass,
etc., for the Buffaloes we have still left. The Boats return'd with only
4 Cocoa Nutts, a small bunch of Plantains, which they purchased of the
Natives for a Shilling, and a few Shrubs for the Cattle.

Wednesday, 3rd. Soon after 12 o'Clock it fell quite Calm, which obliged
us to Anchor in 18 fathoms, Muddy bottom, about 2 Miles from shore, where
we found a strong Current setting to the South-West. Not long before we
Anchor'd we saw a Dutch Ship laying off Anger Point, on board which I
sent Mr. Hicks to enquire after News.* (* It will be recollected that the
Endeavour was now two years and two months from England, without the
slightest chance of any news from home. We can imagine the anxiety and
excitement on board on thus approaching civilisation, though they had no
prospect of personal letters. With the frequent communication of modern
times, we can scarcely realise such circumstances, and should certainly
consider them as an exceeding hardship.) Upon his return he inform'd me
that there were 2 Dutch Ships from Batavia, one bound for Ceylon, and the
other to the Coast of Mallabar, besides a small Fly-boat or Packet, which
is stationed here to carry all Packets, Letters, etc., from all Dutch
Ships to Batavia; but it seems more Probable that she is stationed here
to examine all Ships that pass and repass these Straits. We now first
heard the agreeable news of His Majesty's Sloop The Swallow being at
Batavia about 2 Years ago.* (* The Swallow, Captain Cartaret, had sailed
with the Dolphin in 1766, but separated from her on emerging from the
Strait of Magellan. The Dolphin had reached England some months before
Cook sailed, but nothing had been heard of the Swallow, and fears were
entertained of her loss.) At 7 o'Clock a breeze sprung up at
South-South-West, with which we weighed and stood to the North-East
between Thwart-the-way Island and the Cap:* (* Thwart-the-Way is an
island that lies right across the fairway of Sunda Strait. The Cap is
another smaller island that lies North-East of it.) soundings from 18 to
26 fathoms. We had but little Wind all night, and having a Strong Current
against us, we got no further by 8 o'Clock in the morning than under
Bantam Point. At this time the wind came to North-East, and obliged us to
Anchor in 22 fathoms about 2 Miles from the Shore. The above point bore
North-East by East, distant 1 League. Here we found a strong Current
setting to the North-West. In the morning we saw the Dutch packet
standing after us, but after the wind Shifted to the North-East she bore
away. One of the Dutch Captains told Mr. Hicks yesterday that the Current
sets constantly to the South-Westward, and that it would continue to set
so for a Month or Six Weeks longer.

[In Sunda Strait.]

Thursday, 4th. In the P.M. had the wind at North-East by North, which
obliged us to lay fast. About 6 o'Clock in the evening one of the Country
Boats came alongside in which was the Commander of the Packet before
mentioned; he seem'd to have 2 Motives for coming, one to take an account
of the Ship, and the other to sell us refreshments, for in the Boat were
Turtle, Fowls, Birds, etc., all of which they held at a pretty high
Price, and had brought to a bad market, as our Savu stock was not all
expended. I gave a Spanish Dollar for a small Turtle which weighed only
36 pounds. With respect to the Ship, he wanted to know her name, the
Captain's, the place we came last from and were bound, as I would not see
him myself. I order'd that no account should be given him from whence we
came; but Mr. Hicks, who wrote the Ship's name down in his book, put down
from Europe. Seeing this he expressed some surprise, and said that we
might write down what we pleased, for it was of no other use than for the
information of such of our Country men as might pass these Streights. At
7 o'Clock a light breeze sprung up at South-South-East, with which we got
under sail. At 1 A.M. Anchor'd again, having not wind to stem the Current
which we found to run 3 Knotts; at 2 o'Clock we weighed again, but,
finding that we lost ground, we were obliged to Anchor in 18 fathoms, the
Island Pulo Morack, which lies close under the Shore 3 Miles to the
Westward of Bantam Point: bore South-East by South, distance 1 1/2 miles.
Latitude observed, 5 degrees 55 minutes South.

Friday, 5th. At 5 in the P.M. we weighed with a light breeze at
South-West by South, which continued not long before it fell Calm, and
obliged us to Anchor again. At 1 o'Clock we weigh'd with the Land wind at
South-South-East, which died away in the Morning, and the Current running
strong against us we Anchor'd in 17 fathoms. A little before this, a Proe
came alongside, wherein was a Dutch Officer who came upon the same
business as the other. He sent me down a printed paper in English
containing 9 Articles or Questions, of which this is a Copy.

"The Commanders and Officers of the Ships where this Paper may be
presented, will be pleased to answer on the following Questions: viz.,
1. "To what Nation the Ship belongs, and its Name.
2. "If it comes from Europe or any other place.
3. "From what place it lastly departed from.
4. "Where unto design'd to go.
5. "What, and how many, ships of the Dutch Company by departure from the
last shore there lay'd, and their names.
6. "If one or more of these ships in Company with this is departed for
this or any other place.
7. "If during the Voyage any particularity is hapned or seen.
8. "If not any ships in Sea, or the Streights of Sunda have seen or
Hail'd in, and which.
9. "If any other News worth Attention at the place from whence the Ship
lastly departed or during the vogage is hapned.

"Batavia in the Castle,
By Order of the Governor
General and the Counselors of India.


The first and fourth of these Questions I only answer'd, which when the
Officer saw, he made use of the very same words the other had done
before, viz.: that we might write what we pleased, for it was of no
consequence, etc., and yet he immediately said that he must send that
very paper away to Batavia by water, and that it would be there by
to-morrow noon, which shows that the Governor and Counselors of India
look upon such papers to be of some consequence. Be this as it may, my
reason for taking notice of it in this Journal, is because I am well
inform'd that it is but of very late years that the Dutch have taken upon
them to examine all Ships that pass these Streights. At 10 o'Clock we
weigh'd with a light breeze at South-West, but did little more than stem
the Current. At Noon, Bantam Point* (* Bantam Point, now called St.
Nicholas Point, is the north-west point of Java, and forms the
north-eastern extreme of Sunda Strait.) and Pula Baba, in one bearing
East by North, distant from the Point 1 1/2 Mile. Latitude observed, 5
degrees 53 minutes South.

Saturday, 6th. At 2 o'Clock P.M., finding we could not stem the Current,
we anchor'd, with the Kedge Anchor, under Bantam Point, where we lay
until 9, at which time Current made Slowly to the Eastward, and at the
same time a light breeze springing up, we weigh'd and stood to the East
until 10 o'Clock in the A.M., when the Current oblig'd us again to Anchor
in 22 fathoms, Pula Baba bearing East by South 1/2 South, distant 3 or 4
Miles. Our sounding from Bantam Point to this place was from 36 to 22

Sunday 7th. Light Air from the Southward with frequent Calms. At 6
o'Clock P.M., weighed with a light breeze at South-South-West, which was
not sufficient to stem the current, and was therefore obliged to come too
again, in 15 fathoms. At 10 o'Clock weighed again and stood to the
Eastward with the Wind at South-South-East. At 11 A.M., Anchor'd in 21
fathoms, the West end of Wapping Island bore South, distant 3 Miles, and
the Thousand Islands North by East 1/2 East, distant 3 or 4 Miles. Found
the Current still set to the Westward.

Monday, 8th. Had it Calm until 4 in the P.M., when we got the Sea breeze
at North-East very faint, with which we weighed and stood to the
Eastward, past Wapping Island, and the first Island to the Eastward of
it. Falling little wind we were carried by the Current between this last
Island and the 2nd Island, to the Eastward of Wapping Island, where we
were obliged to Anchor in 30 fathoms, being very near a ledge of Rocks
which spitted out from one of the Islands. At 1/2 past 2 o'Clock in the
A.M., weighed with the land wind at South and stood out clear of the
shoal, where we were again obliged to come to an Anchor, having Variable
light winds attended with Thunder and rain. At 5 o'Clock the weather
being fair, and a light breeze at South, we weighed, but making little or
no way against the Current, we soon came too again, in 28 fathoms, near a
small Island not laid down in the Charts; Pulo Pare* (* Wapping Island is
now known as Hoorn, and Pulo Pare as Agenietan Islands. They lie, among
many others, to the north-west of Batavia Roads.) bore East-North-East,
distant 6 or 7 Miles. While we lay here a Proe came alongside, where in
were 2 Malays, who sold us 3 Turtles, weighing 147 pounds, for a Spanish
Dollar. Some on board thought them dear, but I thought they were cheap,
founding my Judgment on the price the two Dutchmen that were on board
before set upon those they had, one of which we paid a Dollar for, that
weighed only 36 pounds.

Tuesday, 9th. A little past Noon weigh'd with a light breeze at
North-East, and stood to the Eastward until 5 o'Clock, when, not being
able to weather Pulo Pare, we Anchor'd in 30 fathoms, the said Island
extending from South-East to South-South-West, distant 1 Mile. At 10 got
the land wind at South, with which we weighed and stood to the
East-South-East all night; depth of water, from 30 to 22 fathoms, and
from 22 to 16 fathoms. When we Anchor'd at 10 o'Clock in the A.M. to wait
for the Sea breeze, the Island of Edam bore South-West by West, distant 6
or 7 Miles. At Noon we weighed and stood in for Batavia Road, having the
advantage of the Sea breeze at North-North-East.

[Arrival at Batavia.]

Wednesday, 10th, according to our reckoning, but by the people here
Thursday, 11th. At 4 o'Clock in the P.M. Anchor'd in Batavia road, where
we found the Harcourt Indiaman from England, 2 English Country Ships,* (*
A country ship is a vessel under the English flag, but belonging to a
port in English possessions abroad.) 13 Sail of large Dutch Ships, and a
number of small Vessels. As soon as we Anchor'd* (* The Endeavour took
nine days, and had to anchor fifteen times, in getting from Java Head, at
the entrance of Sunda Strait, to Batavia, a distance of 120 miles.) I
sent Lieutenant Hicks a shore to acquaint the Governor of our Arrival,
and to make an excuse for not Saluting; as we could only do it with 3
Guns I thought it was better let alone.

[At Batavia.]

The Carpenter now deliver'd me in the defects of the ship, of which the
following is a copy:--

"The Defects of His Majesty's Bark Endeavour, Lieutenant James Cook,

"The Ship very leaky (as she makes from 12 to 6 Inches water per hour),
occasioned by her Main Kiel being wounded in many places and the Scarfe
of her Stem being very open. The false Kiel gone beyond the Midships
(from Forward and perhaps further), as I had no opportunity of seeing for
the water when hauld ashore for repair. Wounded on her Starboard side
under the Main Chains, where I immagine is the greatest leakes (but could
not come at it for the water). One pump on the Starboard side useless,
the others decayed within 1 1/2 Inch of the bore, otherwise Masts, Yards,
Boats, and Hull in pretty good condition.

"Dated in Batavia Road,

"this 10th of October, 1770.


Previous to the above, I had consulted with the Carpenter and all the
other Officers concerning the Leake, and they were all unanimously of
Opinion that it was not safe to proceed to Europe without first seeing
her bottom; accordingly I resolved to apply for leave to heave her down
at this place, and, as I understood that this was to be done in writing,
I drew up the following request to be presented to the Governor, etc.,

"Lieutenant James Cook, commander of His Brittannick Majesty's Bark
Endeavour, Requests of the Right Hon'ble Petrus Albertus Van der Parra,
Governor-General, etc., etc., etc., the Indulgence of the following
Articles, viz.:

"Firstly, That he may be allow'd a proper and convenient place to heave
down and repair His Brittannick Majesty's Ship under his command.

"Secondly, That he may have leave to purchase such few Trifling Naval
stores as he may be in want of.

"Thirdly, That he may be permitted daily to purchase such provisions as
he may want; also such an Additional quantity as may enable him to
proceed on his passage home to England.

"Dated on board His Brittannick Majesty's
Bark Endeavour, in Batavia Road, the 11th
October, 1770.


In the morning I went on shore myself and had the foregoing request
Translated into Dutch by a Scotch Gentleman, a Merchant here.

Friday, 12th. At 5 o'clock P.M. I was introduced to the Governor-General,
who received me very politely and told me that I should have every thing
I wanted, and that in the Morning my request should be laid before the
Council where I was desir'd to attend.

About 9 o'clock in the Evening we had much rain, with some very heavy
Claps of Thunder, one of which carried away a Dutch Indiaman's Main Mast
by the Deck, and split it, the Maintopmast and Topgallantmast all to
shivers. She had had an Iron Spindle at the Maintopgallant Mast head
which had first attracted the Lightning. The ship lay about 2 Cable
lengths from us, and we were struck with the Thunder at the same time,
and in all probability we should have shared the same fate as the
Dutchman, had it not been for the Electrical Chain which we had but just
before got up; this carried the Lightning or Electrical matter over the
side clear of the Ship. The Shock was so great as to shake the whole ship
very sencibly. This instance alone is sufficient to recommend these
Chains to all Ships whatever, and that of the Dutchman ought to Caution
people from having Iron Spindles at their Mast heads.* (* No instance is
known of ships fitted with properly constructed lightning conductors
having received any damage.)

[At Batavia.]

In the morning I went on shore to the Council Chamber and laid my request
before the Governour and Council, who gave me for answer that I should
have every thing I wanted.

Saturday, 13th. Received on board a Cask of Arrack and some Greens for
the Ship's Company.

Sunday, 14th. Early this morning a ship sail'd from hence for Holland by
which I had just time to write 2 or 3 lines to Mr. Stephens, Secretary of
the Admiralty, to acquaint him of our Arrival, after which I went on
shore and waited upon the Shabander, who has the direction of the Town,
Port, etc., to get an order to the Superintendent at Onrust to receive us
at that Island, but this, I was told, would not be ready before Tuesday
next. Received from the Shore Fresh Beef and Greens for the Ship's

Monday, 15th. Fresh Sea and land breezes and fair weather. I had forgot
to mention, that upon our arrival here I had not one man upon the Sick
List; Lieut. Hicks, Mr. Green, and Tupia were the only people that had
any complaints occasioned by a long continuance at Sea.* (* This was an
achievement indeed, and Cook records it in this simple observation. Of
the many ships which had arrived at Batavia after voyages across the
Pacific, none but had come to an anchor with crews decimated and
enfeebled through scurvy. Hawksworth mentions, probably on the authority
of Banks, that when passing Torres Straits there were several incipient
cases of this disease in the Endeavour. The fresh provisions obtained at
Savu probably dissipated these symptoms, if they were symptoms; but Mr.
Perry, the surgeon, in his report, given in the Introduction, distinctly
states that there were no cases after leaving Tahiti.)

Tuesday, 16th. Finding, by a strict inquiry, that there were no private
person or persons in the place that could at this time advance me a
sufficient sum of money to defray the charge I might be at in repairing
and refitting the Ship--at least, if there were any, they would be afraid
to do it without leave from the Governor--wherefore I had nothing left
but to apply to the Governor himself, and accordingly drew up the
following request, which I laid before the Governor and Council this
morning, in consequence of which the Shebander had orders to supply me
with what money I wanted out of the Company's Treasure:--

"Lieutenant James Cook, Commander of His Brittannick Majesty's Bark the
Endeavour, begs leave to represent to His Excellency the Right Honourable
Petrus Albertus Van der Parra, Governor-General, etc., etc., That he will
be in want of a Sum or Sums of Money in order to defray the Charge he
will be at in repairing and refiting His Brittannick Majesty's Ship at
this place; which sum or sums of money he is directed by his
Instructions, and empower'd by his commission, to give Bills of Exchange
on the respective Offices which Superintend His Brittannick Majesty's

"The said Lieutenant James Cook Requests of His Excellency, That he will
be pleased to order him to be supply'd with such sum or sums of money,
either out of the Company's Treasure, or permit such private persons to
do it as may be willing to advance money for Bills of Exchange on the
Honourable and Principal Officers and Commissioners of His Brittannick
Majesty's Navy, the Commissioners for Victualling His Majesty's Navy, and
the Commissioners for taking care of the Sick and Hurt.

"Dated on board His Brittannick Majesty's
Bark the Endeavour, in Batavia Road,
the 16th of October, 1770.


Wednesday, 17th. In the P.M. I waited upon the Superintendent of Onrust,
with an order from the Shebander, to receive us at that Island, but this
order, the Superintendent told me, was not sufficient to impower him to
give me the conveniences and assistance I wanted, and when I came to call
upon the Shebander, I found this mistake was owing to the word "heave
down" being wrong translated; this Circumstance, trifling as it is, will
cause a delay of some days, as it cannot be set to rights until next
Council day, which is not till Friday.

Thursday, 18th. In the P.M. received on board 2 live Oxen, 150 Gallons of
Arrack, 3 Barrels of Tar, and one of Pitch; at daylight in the A.M. took
up our Anchor and run down to Onrust.

At 9 Anchor'd in 7 fathoms off Coopers Island, which lies close to
Onrust. There are wharfs at both of these Islands, and ships land there
stores, sometimes on the one and sometimes on the other, but it is only
at Onrust where the proper conveniences are for heaving down. Soon after
we Anchor'd I went on shore to the Officer of the Yard, to see if they
could not allow us some place to land our stores, but this could not be
granted without orders.

Friday, 19th. In the P.M. I sent a Petty Officer to Mr. Hicks, who Lodges
ashore at Batavia for the recovery of his health, with orders to desire
him to wait upon the Shebander, in order to get the necessary orders
respecting us dispatched to this place as soon as possible.

Saturday, 20th. Employ'd unrigging the ship, etc.

Sunday, 21st. In the P.M. orders came down to the Officers of the yard to
comply with everything I wanted, but we could not yet get a Wharfe to
land our Stores, they being all taken up by shipping.

Monday, 22nd. In the A.M. two ships went from the Wharfes at Coopers
Island, when we prepared to go along side one of them.

Tuesday, 23rd. In the P.M. hauled along side one of the Wharfes, in order
to take out our stores, etc., after which the Ship is to be deliver'd
into the Charge of the proper Officers at Onrust, who will (as I am
inform'd) heave her down, and repair her, with their own people, while
ours must stand and look on, who, if we were permitted, could do every
thing wanting to the Ship ourselves.* (* Here Mr. Corner's copy of the
Journal ends abruptly. The record for the next day explains the reason,
and there is no doubt that this was the copy of the Journal sent home.
The Queen's copy ends on 10th October. The remainder of the Journal is
taken from the Admiralty copy.)

[Reports Sent Home from Batavia.]

Wednesday, 24th. Employ'd clearing the Ship, having a Store House to put
our Stores, etc., in. In the P.M. I went up to Town in order to put on
board the first Dutch Ship that Sails, a pacquet for the Admiralty
containing a Copy of my Journal, a Chart of the South Sea, another of New
Zeeland, and one of the East Coast of New Holland. In the morning the
General, accompanied by the Water Fiscall, some of the Council, and the
Commodore, each in their respective Boats, went out into the Road on
board the oldest Captain, in order to appoint him Commodore of the Fleet,
ready to Sail for Holland. The Ships was drawn up in 2 Lines, between
which the General past to the new Commodore's Ship, which lay the
farthest out. Each ship as he passed and repassed gave him 3 Cheers, and
as soon as he was on board, and the Dutch Flag Hoisted at the Main
Topmast Head, the other Commodore Saluted him with 21 Guns, and
immediately after Struck his Broad Pendant, which was again hoisted as
soon as the General left the other Ship; he was then Saluted with 17 Guns
by the new made Commodore, who now hoisted a Common Pendant. This
Ceremony of appointing a Commodore over the Grand Fleet, as they call it,
we were told is Yearly perform'd. I went out in my Boat on purpose to see
it, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, because we were told it
was one of the Grandest sights Batavia afforded; that may be too, and yet
it did not recompense us for our trouble. I thought that the whole was
but ill conducted, and the Fleet appear'd to be very badly mann'd. This
fleet consists of 10 or 12 stout Ships; not only these, but all or most
of their other Ships are pierced for 50 Guns, but have only their upper
Tier mounted, and these are more by half than they have men to fight.

Thursday, 25th. In the evening I sent the Admiralty Packet on board the
Kronenburg, Captain Fredrick Kelger, Commodore, who, together with
another Ship, sails immediately for the Cape, where she waits for the
remainder of the Fleet.*

(* The following letter to the Secretary of the Admiralty (now in Public
Record Office) was also dispatched:--

"To Philip Stephens, Esq.


"Please to acquaint my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty that I left
Rio de Janeiro the 8th of December, 1768, and on the 16th of January
following arrived in Success Bay in Straits La Maire, where we recruited
our Wood and Water; on the 21st of the same month we quitted Straits La
Maire, and arrived at George's Island on the 13th of April. In our
Passage to this Island I made a far more Westerly Track than any Ship had
ever done before; yet it was attended with no discovery until we arrived
within the Tropick, where we discovered several Islands. We met with as
Friendly a reception by the Natives of George's Island as I could wish,
and I took care to secure ourselves in such a manner as to put it out of
the power of the whole Island to drive us off. Some days preceeding the
3rd of June I sent Lieutenant Hicks to the Eastern part of this Island,
and Lieutenant Gore to York Island, with others of the Officers (Mr.
Green having furnished them with Instruments), to observe the Transit of
Venus, that we may have the better Chance of succeeding should the day
prove unfavourable; but in this We were so fortunate that the
observations were everywhere attended with every favourable Circumstance.
It was the 13th of July before I was ready to quitt this Island, after
which I spent near a month in exploring some other Islands which lay to
the Westward, before we steer'd to the Southward. On the 14th of August
we discovered a small Island laying in the Latitude of 22 degrees 27
minutes South, Longitude 150 degrees 47 minutes West. After quitting this
Island I steered to the South, inclining a little to the East, until we
arrived in the Latitude 40 degrees 12 minutes South, without seeing the
least signs of Land. After this I steer'd to the Westward, between the
Latitude of 30 and 40 degrees until the 6th of October, on which day we
discovered the East Coast of New Zeland, which I found to consist of 2
large Islands, extending from 34 to 48 degrees of South Latitude, both of
which I circumnavigated. On the 1st of April, 1770, I quitted New Zeland,
and steer'd to the Westward, until I fell in with the East Coast of New
Holland, in the Latitude of 30 degrees South. I coasted the shore of this
Country to the North, putting in at such places as I saw Convenient,
until we arrived in the Latitude of 15 degrees 45 minutes South, where,
on the night of the 10th of June, we struck upon a Reef of Rocks, were we
lay 23 Hours, and received some very considerable damage. This proved a
fatal stroke to the remainder of the Voyage, as we were obliged to take
shelter in the first Port we met with, were we were detain'd repairing
the damage we had sustain'd until the 4th of August, and after all put to
Sea with a leaky Ship, and afterwards coasted the Shore to the Northward
through the most dangerous Navigation that perhaps ever ship was in,
until the 22nd of same month, when, being in the Latitude of 10 degrees
30 minutes South, we found a Passage into the Indian Sea between the
Northern extremity of New Holland and New Guinea. After getting through
the Passage I stood for the Coast of New Guinea, which we made on the
29th; but as we found it absolutely necessary to heave the Ship down to
Stop her leaks before we proceeded home, I made no stay here, but quitted
this Coast on the 30th of September, and made the best of my way to
Batavia, where we Arrived on the 10th instant, and soon after obtained
leave of the Governor and Council to be hove down at Onrust, where we
have but just got alongside of the Wharf in order to take out our Stores,

"I send herewith a copy of my Journal, containing the Proceedings of the
whole Voyage, together with such Charts as I have had time to Copy, which
I judge will be sufficient for the present to illustrate said Journal. In
this Journal I have with undisguised truth and without gloss inserted the
whole Transactions of the Voyage, and made such remarks and have given
such discriptions of things as I thought was necessary in the best manner
I was Capable off. Altho' the discoverys made in this Voyage are not
great, yet I flatter myself they are such as may Merit the Attention of
their Lordships; and altho' I have failed in discovering the so much
talked of Southern Continent (which perhaps do not exist), and which I
myself had much at heart, yet I am confident that no part of the Failure
of such discovery can be laid to my charge. Had we been so fortunate not
to have run a shore much more would have been done in the latter part of
the Voyage than what was; but as it is, I presume this Voyage will be
found as compleat as any before made to the South Seas on the same
account. The plans I have drawn of the places I have been at were made
with all the Care and accuracy that time and Circumstances would admit
of. Thus far I am certain that the Latitude and Longitude of few parts of
the World are better settled than these. In this I was very much assisted
by Mr. Green, who let slip no one opportunity for making of Observations
for settling the Longitude during the whole Course of the Voyage; and the
many Valuable discoveries made by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander in Natural
History, and other things useful to the learned world, cannot fail of
contributing very much to the Success of the Voyage. In justice to the
Officers and the whole Crew, I must say they have gone through the
fatigues and dangers of the whole Voyage with that cheerfulness and
Allertness that will always do Honour to British Seamen, and I have the
satisfaction to say that I have not lost one Man by sickness during the
whole Voyage. I hope that the repairs wanting to the Ship will not be so
great as to detain us any length of time. You may be assured that I shall
make no unnecessary delay either here or at any other place, but shall
make the best of my way home. I have the Honour to be with the greatest


"Your most Obedient Humble Servant,

"(Signed) JAMES COOK.

"Endeavour Bark,
at Onrust, near Batavia,
the 23rd of October, 1770."

"Although the discoveries made in this voyage are not great." In these
modest words does Cook describe his work. I read them to mean that with
his love of accuracy he did not wish to claim his explorations of New
Zealand and the East Coast of Australia as discoveries, as it was already
known that lands existed there; but seeing how little was known, and how
completely he did his work, there are but few men who would have
refrained from classing them, as indeed he truly might have, as

Friday, 26th. Set up the Ship's Tent for the reception of the Ship's
Company, several of them begin to be taken ill, owing, as I suppose, to
the extream hot weather.

[Heaving down at Batavia.]

Saturday, 27th. Employed getting out Stores, Ballast, etc.

Sunday, 28th. Employ'd as above.

Monday, 29th, Tuesday, 30th, Wednesday, 31st. Employ'd clearing the Ship.

[November 1770.]

Thursday, November 1st. Got every thing out of the Ship, and all clear
for going alongside of the Carreening, but about Noon I received a
message from the Officer at Onrust acquainting me that they could not
receive us there until they had first despatched the Ships bound to
Europe, which were down here taking in pepper.

Friday, 2nd, Saturday, 3rd, Sunday, 4th. Employ'd overhauling the
rigging, and making rope, making and repairing Sails.

Monday, 5th. Clear, hot sultry weather. In the A.M. transported the ship
over to Onrust, alongside one of the Carreening Wharfs.

Tuesday, 6th. In the A.M. the officers of the Yard took the Ship in hand,
and sent on board a number of Carpenters, Caulkers, Riggers, Slaves,
etc., to make ready to heave down.

Wednesday, 7th. Employ'd getting ready to heave down in the P.M. We had
the misfortune to loose Mr. Monkhouse, the Surgeon, who died at Batavia
of a Fever after a short illness, of which disease and others several of
our people are daily taken ill, which will make his loss be the more
severely felt; he was succeeded by Mr. Perry, his mate, who is equally as
well skilled in his profession.

Thursday, 8th. In the night had much Thunder, Lightning, and Rain; during
the day fair weather, which gave us time to get everything in readiness
for heaving down.

Friday, 9th. In the P.M. hove the Larboard side of the Ship, Kiel out,
and found her bottom to be in a far worse condition than we expected; the
false kiel was gone to within 20 feet of the Stern post, the main Kiel
wounded in many places very considerably, a great quantity of Sheathing
off, and several planks much damaged, especially under the Main Channell
near the Kiel, where 2 planks and a 1/2, near 6 feet in length, were
within 1/8th of an inch of being cutt through; and here the worms had
made their way quite into the timbers, so that it was a matter of
surprise to every one who saw her bottom how we had kept her above water,
and yet in this condition we had sailed some hundreds of Leagues, in as
dangerous a Navigation as in any part of the World, happy in being
ignorant of the continual danger we were in. In the evening righted the
Ship, having only time to patch up some of the worst places to prevent
the water getting in in large quantitys for the present. In the morning
hove her down again, and most of the Carpenters and Caulkers in the Yard
(which are not a few) were set to work upon her Bottom, and at the same
time a number of Slaves were employ'd bailing the water out of the Hold.
Our people, altho' they attend, were seldom called upon; indeed, by this
time we were so weakned by sickness that we could not muster above 20 Men
and Officers that were able to do duty, so little should we have been
able to have hove her down and repair'd her ourselves, as I at one time
thought us capable of.

Saturday, 10th. In the P.M. we were obliged to righten the ship before
night, by reason of her making water in her upper works faster than we
could free; it made it necessary to have her weather works inside and out
caulked, which before was thought unnecessary.

Sunday, 11th. In the A.M., having caulked her upper works, hove out the
Larboard side again, which a number of Workmen were employ'd repairing.

Monday, 12th. In the P.M. finished the Larboard side, and in the A.M.
began to get ready to heave out the other.

Tuesday, 13th. This day they hove the Starboard side Kiel out, which we
found very little damaged, and was therefore soon done with.

Wednesday, 14th. Employ'd clearing the Ship of the Carreening gear, her
bottom being now thoroughly repair'd, and very much to my satisfaction.
In justice to the Officers and Workmen of this Yard, I must say that I do
not believe that there is a Marine Yard in the World where work is done
with more alertness than here, or where there are better conveniences for
heaving Ships down both in point of safety and despatch. Here they heave
down by 2 masts, which is not now Practised by the English; but I hold it
to be much safer and more expeditious than by heaving down by one mast; a
man must not only be strongly bigotted to his own customs, but in some
measure divested of reason, that will not allow this, after seeing with
how much ease and safety the Dutch at Onrust heave down their largest

Thursday, 15th. In the A.M. transported the Ship from Onrust to Cooper's
Island, and moored her alongside the Wharf.

Friday, 16th. Employ'd taking in Coals and Ballast; sent one of the
decay'd Pumps up to Batavia to have a new one made by it.

Saturday, 17th, Sunday, 18th, Monday, 19th, Tuesday, 20th, Wednesday,
21st, Thursday, 22nd, Friday, 23rd, Saturday, 24th, Sunday, 25th.
Employ'd rigging the Ship, getting on board Stores and Water, which last
we have sent from Batavia at the rate of Six shillings and 8 pence a
Leager, or 150 Gallons. We are now become so sickly that we seldom can
muster above 12 or 14 hands to do duty.

Monday, 26th. In the night had much rain, after which the Westerly
Monsoons set in, which blow here generally in the night from the
South-West or from the land, in the day from the North-West or North.

Tuesday, 27th, Wednesday, 28th, Thursday, 29th, Friday, 30th, [December
1770.] Saturday, December 1st, Sunday, 2nd, Monday, 3rd, Tuesday, 4th,
Wednesday, 5th, Thursday, 6th, Friday, 7th. Employ'd getting on board
Stores, Provisions, Water, rigging the Ship, repairing and bending the
Sails. On the last of these days, having got all the Sick on board, and
every other thing from the Island, we hauled off from the Wharfe with a
design to run up to Batavia road, but the Wind proving scant obliged us
to lay at anchor.

[At Batavia.]

Saturday, 8th. Fresh breezes Westerly, and fair weather. At 10 A.M.
weigh'd and run up to Batavia road, where we anchor'd in 4 1/2 fathoms

Sunday, 9th. First and latter parts ditto weather, middle squally with
rain. In the P.M. sent on shore a Boat load of empty casks, and at the
same time went myself in order to forward the things we wanted, and in
the evening sent on board the new Pump, with some other stores that were
immediately wanting.

Monday, 10th. For the most part Squally, with rain; the people employ'd
scraping the paint work.

Tuesday, 11th, Wednesday, 12th, Thursday, 13th, Friday, 14th. For the
most part of these days fair weather. Employ'd taking on board Provisions
and Water; this last is put on board at 5 shillings a Leager or 150

Saturday, 15th. In the P.M. anchor'd here the Earl of Elgin, Captain
Cooke, an English East India Company Ship from Madras, bound to China,
but having lost her passage, put in here to wait for the next Season.

Sunday, 16th, Monday, 17th. Employ'd taking on board Provisions; Scraping
and Painting the Ship.

Tuesday, 18th. Gentle breezes and fair weather. Anchored here the
Phoenix, Captain Black, an English Country Ship from Bencoolen.

Wednesday, 19th, Thursday, 20th, Friday, 21st, Saturday, 22nd, Sunday,
23rd, Monday, 24th. Fresh breezes, and for the most part fair weather.
Completed taking on board Provisions, Water, etc., and getting the Ship
ready for sea.

Tuesday, 25th. Having now compleatly refitted the ship, and taken in a
sufficient quantity of Provisions of all kinds, I this afternoon took
leave of the General, and such others of the principal Gentlemen as I had
any connection with, all of whom upon every occasion gave me all the
assistance I required. A small dispute, however, now hapned between me
and some of the Dutch Naval Officers about a Seaman that had run from one
of the Dutch Ships in the Road, and enter'd on board mine; this man the
General demanded as a Subject of Holland, and I promised to deliver him
up provided he was not an English Subject, and sent the necessary orders
on board for that purpose. In the morning the Commodore's Captain came
and told me that he had been on board my ship for the man, but that the
Officer had refused to give him up, alledging that he was an Englishman,
and that he, the Captain, was just then come from the General to demand
the man of me as a Deanish Subject, he standing upon their Ship's books
as born at Elsinore. I told him that I believed there must be some
mistake in the General's message, for I apprehended he would not demand a
Deanish Seaman from me who had committed no other crime than preferring
the English Service before that of the Dutch; but to convince him how
unwilling I was to disoblige any one concerned, I had sent orders on
board to deliver the man to him in case he was found to be a Foreigner;
but as that was not done I suspected that the man was a Subject of
England, and if I found him to be such I was resolved to keep him. Soon
after this I received a letter from Mr. Hicks, which I carried to the
Shabander, and desired that it might be shewn to the General, and at the
same time to acquaint him that, after my having such unanswerable proof
of the man's being an English Subject, as was mentioned in that letter,
it was impossible for me to deliver him up. After this I heard no more
about it.

Wednesday, 26th. In the P.M. myself, Mr. Banks, and all the Gentlemen
came on board, and at 6 a.m. weigh'd and came to sail with a light breeze
at South-West. The Elgin Indiaman saluted us with 3 cheers and 13 Guns,
and soon after the Garrison with 14, both of which we return'd. Soon
after this the Sea breeze set in at North by West, which obliged us to
Anchor just without the Ships in the Road. The number of Sick on board at
this time amounts to 40 or upwards, and the rest of the Ship's Company
are in a weakly condition, having been every one sick except the
Sailmaker, an old Man about 70 or 80 years of age; and what is still more
extraordinary in this man is his being generally more or less drunk every
day. But notwithstanding this general sickness, we lost but 7 men in the
whole: the Surgeon, 3 Seamen, Mr. Green's Servant, and Tupia and his
Servant, both of which fell a sacrifice to this unwholesome climate
before they had reached the object of their wishes. Tupia's death,
indeed, cannot be said to be owing wholy to the unwholesome air of
Batavia; the long want of a Vegetable Diet, which he had all his life
before been used to, had brought upon him all the Disorders attending a
Sea life. He was a shrewd, sensible, ingenious man, but proud and
obstinate, which often made his situation on board both disagreeable to
himself and those about him, and tended much to promote the diseases
which put a Period to his Life.* (* It is rather curious that Cook does
not here record his sense of the value of Tupia's services as
interpreter, which he has before alluded to in the Journal. There is no
doubt that his presence on board when the ship was in New Zealand was the
greatest advantage, affording a means of communication with the natives,
which prevented the usual gross misunderstandings which arise as to the
object of the visit of an exploring ship. Without him, even with Cook's
humane intention and good management, friendly relations would have been
much more difficult to establish.)

[Description of Batavia.]

Batavia is a place that hath been so often visited by Europeans, and so
many accounts of it extant, that any discription I could give would seem
unnecessary; besides, I have neither abilities nor materials sufficient
for such an undertaking, for whoever gives a faithful account of this
place must in many things contradict all the Authors I have had an
opportunity to consult; but this task I shall leave to some abler hand,
and only take notice of such things that seem to me necessary for Seamen
to know.

The City of Batavia is situated on a low flatt near the Sea, in the
Bottom of a large Bay of the same name, which lies on the North side of
Java, about 8 Leagues from the Straits of Sunda; it lies in 6 degrees 10
minutes South Latitude, and 106 degrees 50 minutes East Longitude from
the Meridian of Greenwich, settled by Astronomical Observations made on
the spot by the Reverend Mr. Mohr, who has built a very ellegant
Observatory, which is as well furnished with Instruments as most in
Europe. Most of the Streets in the City have canals of water running
through them, which unite into one Stream about 1/2 a mile before they
discharge themselves into the Sea; this is about 100 feet broad, and is
built far enough out into the Sea to have at its entrance a sufficient
depth of Water to admit Small Craft, Luggage boats, etc. The
communication between the Sea and the City is by this Canal alone, and
this only in the day; for it is shut up every night by a Boom, through
which no Boats can pass from about 6 o'clock in the evening to between 5
and 6 the next morning. Here stands the Custom house, where all goods,
either imported or exported, pay the Customary Dutys; at least, an
Account is here taken of them, and nothing can pass without a Permit,
wether it pays duty or no. All kinds of refreshments, Naval Stores, and
Sea Provisions are to be had here; but there are few Articles but what
bear a very high Price, especially if you take them of the Company, which
you are obliged to do if you want any Quantity; that is, of such Articles
as they monoplie to themselves, which are all manner of Naval Stores and
Salted Provisions.

The Road of Batavia, or place where Shipping Anchor, lies right before
the City, and is so large as to contain any number of Shipping. You
anchor with the Dome of the Great Church, bearing about South in 7, 6, or
5 fathoms water, about 1 1/2 or 2 miles from the Shore; and nearer you
cannot come with Large Ships, by reason of a Mud bank which lines all the
Shore of the Bay. The ground that you Anchor in is of such a nature that
the Anchors buries themselves so deep that it is with difficulty they are
got out; for this reason Ships always lays at Single Anchor, being in no
manner of danger of fouling them. You lay apparently open to the winds
from the North-West to the East-North-East; but the Sea that is caused by
these winds is a good deal broke before it reaches the Road by the small
Islands and Shoals without. These Shoals have all of them either Buoys or
Beacons upon them; but if these Guides should be moved, there is a very
good Chart of this Bay and the Coast of Java as far as the Straits of
Sunda, bound up in the English East India Pilot, sold by Mount & Page. In
this Chart everything seems to be very accurately delineated.

Fresh water and wood for fuel must be purchased here. The water is put on
board the Ship in the Road at a Spanish Dollar, or 5 shillings a Leager,
containing 150 Gallons; but if sent to Onrust, which is one League from
the Road, it cost a Duccatoon, or 6 shillings 8 pence. The supplying
shipping with water, especially Foreigners, is a perquisite of the
Commodore, who is always an Officer in the State's Service, but acts here
under the Company. He takes care to tell you that the Water is very good,
and will keep sweet at Sea; whereas everybody else tells you that it is
not so.

Be this as it will, Batavia is certainly a place that Europeans need not
covet to go to; but if necessity obliges them, they will do well to make
their stay as short as possible, otherwise they will soon feel the
effects of the unwholesome air of Batavia, which, I firmly believe, is
the Death of more Europeans than any other place upon the Globe of the
same extent. Such, at least, is my opinion of it, which is founded on
facts. We came in here with as healthy a Ship's Company as need go to
Sea, and after a stay of not quite 3 months left it in the condition of
an Hospital Ship, besides the loss of 7 men; and yet all the Dutch
Captains I had an opportunity to converse with said that we had been very
lucky, and wondered that we had not lost half our people in that time.*
(* Batavia bears an evil reputation for health to this day; but it must
be remembered that the Endeavour lay there during the rainy or most
unhealthy season.)


[December 1770.]

THURSDAY, 27th. Moderate breezes at West and North-West, with fair
weather. At 6 a.m. weighed, and stood out to Sea; at Noon the Island of
Edam bore North by East, distant 3 miles.

Friday, 28th. Winds variable between the North and West. At 6 in the
Evening anchored in 13 fathoms, Edam Island bearing East, distant 1 1/2
miles. At day light in the morning weighed again, and keept plying to
windward between Edam and Duffin's Island, but gained very little owing
to the variableness of the winds.

Saturday, 29th. In the P.M. anchored in 12 fathoms water in the Evening
until daylight, when we got again under Sail, with the wind at
West-South-West, and stood out North-West for the Thousand Islands.
Before noon the wind veer'd to North-West, and we endeavour'd to turn
through between Pulo Pare and Wapping Island.

Sunday, 30th. After making a short trip to the North-East, we tacked, and
weather'd Pulo Pare, and stood in for the Main, having the wind at
North-West, a fresh breeze. We fetched Maneaters Island (a small island
laying under the Main midway between Batavia and Bantam) after making a
trip to the North-East, and finding that we lost ground, we stood in
shore again and anchored in 13 fathoms, the above mentioned Island
bearing South-West by West, distant 1 mile, and in one with Bantam Hill.
At 7 A.M. weighed, with the wind at West-South-West, and stood to the
North-West, and weather'd Wapping Island, having the current in our

Monday, 31st. At 1 P.M. the wind veer'd to the Northward; we tack and
stood to the Westward, and weather'd Pulo Baby. In the Evening Anchor'd
between this Island and Bantam Bay, the Island bearing North, distant 2
miles, and Bantam Point West; at 5 a.m. weighed with the wind at West by
South, which afterwards proved variable; at noon Bantam Point South-West
1/2 West, distant 3 Leagues.

JANUARY, 1771.

Tuesday, 1st. In the P.M. stood over for the Sumatra Shore, having the
wind at South-South-West, a fresh breeze, and the current in our favour;
but this last shifted and set to the Eastward in the Evening, and obliged
us to Anchor in 30 fathoms, under the Islands which lay off Verekens
point, which point constitutes the narrowest part of the Straits of
Sunda. Here we found the current set to the South-West the most part of
the night; at 5 a.m. weigh'd with the wind at North-West, and stood to
the South-West between the Island Thwart-the-way and Sumatra; the wind
soon after coming to the westward we stood over for the Java Shore. At
noon the South point of Peper Bay bore South-West by South, and Anger
Point North-East 1/2 East, distant 2 Leagues; tacked and stood to the

Wednesday, 2nd. First and middle parts fresh breezes at South-West, and
fair the remainder, squally with rain; plying to windward between
Cracatoa and the Java shore without gaining anything.

Thursday, 3rd. In the P.M. had it very squally, with heavy showers of
rain; at 1/2 past 7 anchor'd in 19 fathoms, Cracatoa Island South-West,
distance 3 Leagues. In the morning came to sail, having very squally
variable weather; at Noon Cracatoa West 2 Leagues.

Friday, 4th. Most part of these 24 hours squally, rainy weather, winds
variable between the North-North-West and South-South-West; at 5 p.m.
anchor'd in 28 fathoms water, Cracatoa West, distant 3 miles. Some time
after the wind veer'd to North-West, with which we got under sail, but
the wind dying away we advanced but little to the South-West before noon,
at which time Princes Island bore South-West, distance 8 or 9 Leagues.

Saturday, 5th. Had fresh breezes at South-West, with squally, rainy
weather until the evening, when it clear up, and the wind veer'd to South
and South-East, with which we stood to the South-West all night. In the
morning the wind veer'd to North-East, which was still in our favour; at
noon Princes Island bore West 1/2 South, distant 3 Leagues.

[At Anchor. Princes Island, Sunda Strait.]

Sunday, 6th. At 3 o'clock in the P.M. anchor'd under the South-East side
of Princes Island in 18 fathoms water, in order to recruite our wood and
water, and to procure refreshments for the people, which are now in a
much worse state of health than when we left Batavia. After coming to an
anchor I went on shore to look at the watering place, and to speak with
the Natives, some of whom were upon the Beach. I found the watering place
convenient, and the water to all appearance good, Provided proper care is
taken in the filling of it. The Natives seemed inclined to supply us with
Turtle, Fowls, etc.; Articles that I intended laying in as great a stock
as possible for the benefit of the Sick, and to suffer every one to
purchase what they pleased for themselves, as I found these people as
easy to traffick with as Europeans. In the morning sent the Gunner ashore
with some hands to fill water, while others were empboy'd putting the
whole to rights, sending on shore Empty Casks, etc. Served Turtle to the
Ship's Company. Yesterday was the only Salt meat day they have had since
our arrival at Java, which is now near 4 months.

Monday, 7th. From this day till Monday 14th we were employ'd wooding and
watering, being frequently interrupted by heavy rains. Having now
compleated both we hoisted in the Long boat, and made ready to put to
Sea, having on board a pretty good stock of refreshments, which we
purchased of the natives, such as Turtle, Fowls, Fish, two species of
Deer, one about as big as a small sheep, the other no bigger than a
Rabbit; both sorts eat very well, but are only for present use, as they
seldom lived above 24 hours in our possession. We likewise got fruit of
several sorts, such as Cocoa Nutts, plantains, Limes, etc. The Trade on
our part was carried on chiefly with money (Spanish Dollars); the natives
set but little value upon any thing else. Such of our people as had not
this Article traded with Old Shirts, etc., at a great disadvantage.

[Batavia to Capetown.]

Tuesday, 15th. Had variable light airs of wind, with which we could not
get under sail until the morning, when we weighed with a light breeze at
North-East, which was soon succeeded by a calm.

Wednesday, 16th. Had it calm all P.M., which at 5 o'clock obliged us to
Anchor under the South Point of Princes Island, the said Point bearing
South-West by West, distance 2 miles. At 8 o'clock in the A.M. a light
breeze sprung up at North, with which we weigh'd and stood out to Sea. At
noon Java Head bore South-East by South, distance 2 Leagues, and the West
Point of Princes Island North-North-West, distance 5 Leagues; Latitude
Observed 6 degrees 45 minutes South. Java Head, from which I take my
departure, lies in the Latitude of 6 degrees 49 minutes South, and
Longitude 255 degrees 12 minutes West from the Meridian of Greenwich,
deduced from several Astronomical Observations made at Batavia by the
Reverend Mr. Mohr.* (* The true longitude of Java Head is 254 degrees 49
minutes West.)

Thursday, 17th. Little wind and fair at 6 p.m. Java head bore
East-North-East, distant 4 or 5 Leagues; at 6 a.m. it bore
North-North-East, 12 Leagues. Wind North-East; course South 27 degrees 15
minutes West; distance 48 miles; latitude 7 degrees 32 minutes South;
longitude 255 degrees 35 minutes West.

Friday, 18th. Light Airs and Calms, with Showers of Rain. Wind Variable;
course South-West 1/2 South; distance 30 miles; latitude 7 degrees 55
minutes South; longitude 255 degrees 54 minutes West.

Saturday, 19th. For the most part of these 24 hours had little wind and
fair weather. Wind Westerly; course South 3 degrees East; distance 53
miles; latitude 8 degrees 48 minutes South; longitude 255 degrees 51
minutes West.

Sunday, 20th. Light Airs and Calms, with some Showers of Rain. Saw 2 Sail
in the North-West Quarter standing to the South-West; one of them shew'd
Dutch Colours. Wind North Westerly; course South 44 degrees West;
distance 36 miles; latitude 9 degrees 14 minutes South; longitude 256
degrees 15 minutes West.

Monday, 21st. First part Little wind, the remainder a Gentle breeze; the
2 Sail in sight. Wind Easterly; course South 57 degrees West; distance 58
miles; latitude 9 degrees 46 minutes South; longitude 257 degrees 5
minutes West.

Tuesday, 22nd. Little wind and fair weather. Wind South-Westerly; course
North 10 degrees West; distance 17 miles; latitude 9 degrees 29 minutes
South; longitude 257 degrees 8 minutes West.

Wednesday, 23rd. Ditto weather; a swell from the Southward, and which we
have had ever since we left the Straits of Sunda. Wind Ditto; course East
Southerly; distance 18 miles; latitude 9 degrees 30 minutes South;
longitude 256 degrees 50 minutes West.

Thursday, 24th. First part Light Airs, the remainder Calm. In the A.M.
died John Trusslove, Corporal of Marines, a man much esteem'd by every
body on board. Many of our people at this time lay dangerously ill of
Fevers and Fluxes. We are inclinable to attribute this to the water we
took in at Princes Island, and have put lime into the Casks in order to
purifie it. Wind South-West by South to South-South-East; course South;
distance 4 miles; latitude 9 degrees 34 minutes South; longitude 256
degrees 50 minutes West.

Friday, 25th. Light Airs and Calms; hot, sultry weather. Departed this
life Mr. Sporing, a Gentleman belonging to Mr Banks's retinue. Wind
Variable and Calms; course South 30 degrees East; distance 12 miles;
latitude 9 degrees 44 minutes South; longitude 256 degrees 44 minutes

Saturday, 26th. First part little wind, the remainder calm and very hot;
set up the Topmast Rigging, and clear'd ship between Decks, and wash her
with Vinegar. Wind South Westerly; course South-East; distance 17 miles;
latitude 9 degrees 56 minutes South; longitude 256 degrees 32 minutes

Sunday, 27th. Little wind, and sometimes calm. In the evening found the
Variation to be 2 degrees 51 minutes West. Departed this life Mr. Sydney
Parkinson, Natural History Painter to Mr. Banks, and soon after John
Ravenhill, Sailmaker, a man much advanced in years. Wind Variable; course
South 30 degrees West; distance 19 miles; latitude 10 degrees 12 minutes
South; longitude 256 degrees 41 minutes West.

Monday, 28th. Moderate breezes, with some Squalls, attended with Showers
of Rain. Wind West-North-West, North-East; course South 43 degrees West;
distance 66 miles; latitude 11 degrees 0 minutes South; longitude 257
degrees 27 West.

Tuesday, 29th. Very variable weather; sometimes squally, with rain, other
times little wind and calms. In the Night died Mr. Charles Green, who was
sent out by the Royal Society to observe the Transit of Venus. He had
long been in a bad state of health, which he took no care to repair, but,
on the contrary, lived in such a manner as greatly promoted the disorders
he had had long upon him; this brought on the Flux, which put a period to
his life. Wind North Westerly; course South 40 degrees West; distance 74
miles; latitude 11 degrees 57 minutes South; longitude 258 degrees 15
minutes West.

Wednesday, 30th. First and Latter parts moderate breezes and Cloudy
weather; the middle Squally, with rain, Thunder, and Lightning. Died of
the Flux Samuel Moody and Francis Haite, 2 of the Carpenter's Crew. Wind
Easterly; course South 40 degrees West; distance 67 miles; latitude 12
degrees 48 minutes South; longitude 258 degrees 59 minutes West.

Thursday, 31st. First part Moderate and fair, the remainder frequent
Squalls, attended with Showers of Rain. In the course of this 24 Hours we
have had 4 men died of the Flux, viz., John Thompson, Ship's Cook;
Benjamin Jordan, Carpenter's Mate; James Nickolson and Archibald Wolf,
Seamen; a melancholy proof of the calamitieous situation we are at
present in, having hardly well men enough to tend the Sails and look
after the Sick, many of whom are so ill that we have not the least hopes
of their recovery. Wind East-South-East; course South-West; distance 80
miles; latitude 13 degrees 42 minutes South; longitude 259 degrees 55
minutes West.

[February 1771.]

Friday, February 1st. Fresh Gales, with flying showers of rain. Clean'd
between Decks, and washed with Vinegar. Wind South-East by South; course
South 58 1/2 degrees West; distance 119 miles; latitude 14 degrees 44
minutes South; longitude 261 degrees 40 minutes West.

Saturday, 2nd. A Fresh Trade, and mostly fair weather. Departed this life
Daniel Roberts, Gunner's Servant, who died of the Flux. Since we have had
a fresh Trade Wind this fatal disorder hath seem'd to be at a stand; yet
there are several people which are so far gone, and brought so very low
by it, that we have not the least hopes of their recovery. Wind
East-South-East; course South 61 degrees West; distance 131 miles;
latitude 15 degrees 48 minutes South; longitude 264 degrees 16 minutes

Sunday, 3rd. Ditto weather. In the Evening found the variation to be 2
degrees 56 minutes West. Departed this life John Thurman, Sailmaker's
Assistant. Wind Ditto; course South 65 degrees West; distance 128 miles;
latitude 16 degrees 40 minutes South; longitude 266 degrees 16 West.

Monday, 4th. A fresh Trade and hazey weather, with some Squalls, attended
with Small Rain; unbent the Main Topsail to repair, and bent another. In
the night died of the Flux Mr. John Bootie, Midshipman, and Mr. John
Gathrey, Boatswain. Wind South-East; course South 69 degrees West;
distance 141 miles; latitude 17 degrees 30 minutes South; longitude 268
degrees 32 minutes West.

Tuesday, 5th. A fresh Trade wind, and hazey, cloudy weather. Employ'd
repairing Sails; appointed Samuel Evans, one of the Boatswain's Mates,
and Coxswain of the Pinnace, to be Boatswain, in the room of Mr. Gathrey,
deceased, and order'd a Survey to be taken of the Stores. Wind East by
South; course West 15 degrees South; distance 141 miles; latitude 18
degrees 6 minutes South; longitude 270 degrees 54 minutes West.

Wednesday, 6th. A Fresh Trade wind and fair weather. In the night died
Mr. John Monkhouse, Midshipman, and Brother to the late Surgeon. Wind
South-East; course West 12 degrees South; distance 126 miles; latitude 18
degrees 30 minutes South; longitude 272 degrees 28 minutes West.

Thursday, 7th. Gentle Gales, with some Showers in the night. In the
Evening found the variation to be 3 degrees 24 minutes West, and in the
Morning I took several observations of the Sun and Moon, the mean result
of which, carried on to Noon, gave 276 degrees 19 minutes West Longitude
from Greenwich, which is 2 degrees to the Westward of that given by the
Log; this, I believe, is owing to a following Sea, which I have not as
yet allowed, for I judge it to be 6 miles a day since we have had the
South-East Trade wind. Wind South-East; course South 75 degrees 15
minutes West; distance 110 miles; latitude 18 degrees 58 minutes South;
longitude 274 degrees 20 minutes per Log, 276 degrees 19 minutes per

Friday, 8th. Winds as Yesterday; clear weather in the day, and Showrey in
the Night. In the morning took Observations again of the Sun and Moon,
the mean result of which, reduced to noon, gave 278 degrees 50 minutes
West, which is 2 degrees 31 minutes West of Yesterday's Observation; the
log gives 2 degrees 20 minutes. Wind South-East; course South 78 degrees
West; distance 127 miles; latitude 19 degrees 24 minutes South; longitude
276 degrees 40 minutes per Log, 278 degrees 50 minutes per Observation.

Saturday, 9th. Gentle Gales and fair weather in the morning. Saw a Ship
on our Larboard Quarter, which hoisted Dutch Colours. Wind South-East;
course South 74 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 127 miles; latitude 19
degrees 58 minutes South.

Sunday, 10th. Fresh breezes and Hazey weather. Lost sight in the night of
the Dutch Ship, she having out sail'd us. Wind South-East quarter; course
South 77 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 136 miles; latitude 20 degrees
28 minutes South; longitude 281 degrees 12 minutes West.

Monday, 11th. Winds and weather as Yesterday. Some hands constantly
employ'd repairing Sails. Wind Ditto; course South 75 degrees West;
distance 126 miles; latitude 20 degrees 58 minutes South; longitude 283
degrees 22 minutes West.

Tuesday, 12th. Gentle breezes and fair weather. At 7 a.m. died of the
Flux, after a long and painful illness, Mr. John Satterly, Carpenter, a
man much Esteem'd by me and every Gentleman on board. In his room I
appoint George Nowell, one of the Carpenter's Crew, having only him and
one more left. Wind South-South-East; course South 71 minutes West;
distance 83 miles; latitude 21 degrees 25 minutes South; longitude 284
degrees 46 minutes West.

Wednesday, 13th. Weather as Yesterday. Employ'd Surveying the Carpenter's
Stores and repairing Sails. Wind Ditto; course South 72 degrees 30
minutes West; distance 87 miles; latitude 21 degrees 51 minutes South;
longitude 286 degrees 15 minutes West.

Thursday, 14th. Moderate breezes and Cloudy, with some Showers of Rain.
Variation per Azimuth 4 degrees 10 minutes West. Died Alexander Lindsay,
Seaman; this man was one of those we got at Batavia, and had been some
time in India. Winds Ditto; course South 73 degrees 15 minutes West;
distance 105 miles; latitude 22 degrees 21 minutes South; longitude 288
degrees 3 minutes West.

Friday, 15th. Ditto Weather. Died of the Flux Daniel Preston, Marine.
Wind South-East by East; course South 81 degrees 15 minutes West;
distance 123 miles; latitude 22 degrees 40 minutes; longitude 290 degrees
15 minutes West.

Saturday, 16th. A Fresh Trade and Cloudy weather. Employ'd repairing
Sails, rigging, etc. Wind Ditto; course South 84 degrees West; distance
115 miles; latitude 22 degrees 52 minutes South; longitude 292 degrees 20
minutes West.

Sunday, 17th. Fresh Gales, with some Showers of rain. Variation per
Azimuth 10 degrees 20 minutes Westerly. Wind South-East by South; course
South 79 degrees 45 minutes West; distance 157 miles; latitude 23 degrees
20 minutes South; longitude 295 8 minutes West.

Monday, 18th. Fair and pleasant weather. Wind South-East by East; course
South 75 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 148 miles; latitude 23 degrees
57 minutes South; longitude 297 degrees 46 minutes West.

Tuesday, 19th. Ditto weather. Wind South-East by East and South; course
South 77 degrees West; distance 130 miles; latitude 24 degrees 26 minutes
South; longitude 300 degrees 5 minutes West.

Wednesday, 20th. Fresh Gales and clear weather. Variation per Azimuth 12
degrees 15 minutes West. This morning the Carpenter and his Mate set
about repairing the Long boat, being the first day they have been able to
work since we left Princes Island. Wind South; course South 75 degrees 45
minutes West; distance 127 miles; latitude 24 degrees 57 minutes South;
longitude 302 degrees 21 minutes West.

Thursday, 21st. First and middle parts fair weather; Latter Squally,
attended with Showers of Rain. Between 2 and 3 o'Clock p.m. took several
Observations of the Sun and Moon; the mean result of them gave 306
degrees 33 minutes West Longitude from Greenwich, which is 1 degree 55
minutes West of account, and corresponds very well with the last
Observations, for at that time the Ship was 2 degrees 10 minutes West of
account. In the Night died of the Flux Alexander Simpson, a very good
Seaman. In the Morning punished Thomas Rossiter with 12 lashes for
getting Drunk, grossly assaulting the Officer of the Watch, and beating
some of the Sick. Wind South to East-South-East; course West by South;
distance 126 miles; latitude 25 degrees 21 minutes South; longitude 304
degrees 39 minutes per Account, 306 degrees 34 minutes per Observation.

Friday, 22nd. Fresh Trade and fair weather. Nothing remarkable. Wind
South-East by South; course South 70 degrees 45 minutes West; distance
133 miles; latitude 26 degrees 5 minutes South; longitude 306 degrees 59
minutes West, 308 degrees 54 minutes per Observation.

Saturday, 23rd. Ditto Winds and weather. Variation per Evening Amplitude
17 degrees 30 minutes West. Wind Ditto; course South 64 degrees 14
minutes West; distance 124 miles; latitude 26 degrees 59 minutes;
longitude 309 degrees 6 minutes West, 311 degrees 28 minutes per

Sunday, 24th. Gentle breezes and fair weather. In the A.M. took the
opportunity of a fine morning to stay the Main Mast, and set up the
Topmast Rigging. Saw an Albatross. Wind Ditto; course South 66 degrees 45
minutes West; distance 117 miles; latitude 27 degrees 45 minutes South;
longitude 311 degrees 7 minutes West, 313 degrees 41 minutes per

Monday, 25th. Gentle Gales, and fair weather. Variation per Evening
Azimuth 24 degrees 20 minutes West, and by the Morning Amplitude 24
degrees West Longitude; by Observation of the [circle around a dot, sun]
and [crescent, moon] is 3 degrees to the Westwarn of the Log, which shews
that the Ship has gain'd upon the Log 1 degree 5 minutes in 3 Days, in
which time we have always found the Observ'd Latitude to the Southward of
that given by the Log. These Joint Observations proves that there must be
a current setting between the South and West. Wind East by South; course
South 58 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 122 miles; latitude 28 degrees
49 minutes South; longitude 313 degrees 6 minutes West, 316 degrees 6
minutes per Observation.

Tuesday, 26th. Fresh Gales. Variation by Azimuth in the Evening 26
degrees 10 minutes West. Wind South-East by East; course South 82 degrees
West; distance 122 miles; latitude 29 degrees 6 minutes South; longitude
315 degrees 24 minutes West.

Wednesday, 27th. Ditto Gales and Cloudy. In the A.M. died of the Flux
Henry Jeffs, Emanuel Parreyra, and Peter Morgan, Seamen; the last came
Sick on board at Batavia, of which he never recover'd, and the other 2
had long been past all hopes of recovery, so that the death of these 3
men in one day did not in the least alarm us.* (* These were the last
deaths directly attributable to the dysentery contracted at Batavia.
Though always enjoying an unenviable reputation, Batavia seems to have
had, this year, a more unhealthy season than usual. The Endeavour lost
seven persons while at Batavia, and twenty-three after sailing up to this
date.) On the contrary, we are in hopes that they will be the last that
will fall a sacrifice to this fatal disorder, for such as are now ill of
it are in a fair way of recovering. Wind East by South, East by
North-North-East; course South 77 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 108
miles; latitude 29 degrees 30 minutes South; longitude 317 degrees 25
minutes West.

Thursday, 28th. Moderate breezes and fair weather until near 5 o'Clock in
the A.M., when a heavy Squall from the South-West, attended with rain,
took us all aback, and obliged us to put before the wind, the better to
take in our Sails; but before this could be done the Foretopsail was
split in several places. By 6 o'clock the Topsails and Mainsail were
handed, and we brought too under the Foresail and Mizen; at 8 it fell
more moderate, and we set the Mainsail, and brought another Foretopsail
to the Yard; at Noon had strong Gales and Cloudy weather. Wind North-East
by East, North, and South-West; course South 85 1/2 degrees West;
distance 88 miles; latitude 29 degrees 37 minutes South; longitude 319
degrees 5 minutes West.

[March 1771.]

Friday, March 1st. Fresh Gales and Cloudy. Found the Bitts which secures
the foot of the Bowsprit, loose; this obliged us to put before the wind
until they were secured in the best manner our situation would admit;
this done, we hauld our wind again to the Westward under the Courses and
close Reef'd Topsails. Wind South-West to South by West; course South 86
degrees 45 minutes West; distance 71 miles; latitude 29 degrees 41
minutes South; longitude 320 degrees 26 minutes West.

Saturday, 2nd. First part fresh Gales and Cloudy; remainder little wind,
with some few showers of rain; a Sea from the South-West. Wind Southerly;
course South 60 degrees West; distance 80 miles; latitude 30 degrees 21
minutes South; longitude 321 degrees 46 minutes West.

Sunday, 3rd. First part little wind; remainder Gentle gales and clear
weather, and the Sea pretty smooth. Wind North-East; course South 58
degrees 15 minutes West; distance 71 miles; latitude 31 degrees 1 minute
South; longitude 323 degrees 2 minutes West.

Monday, 4th. In the P.M. had a moderate breeze, which continued until 5
o'clock in the A.M., when it fell calm, and soon after a breeze sprung up
at South-West. In the Evening, and most part of the Night, the weather
was dark and cloudy, with much Lightning to the Westward. Variation 25
degrees 35 minutes West. Winds North-East to South-West; course South 67
degrees 45 minutes West; distance 87 miles; latitude 31 degrees 54
minutes South; longitude 324 degrees 36 minutes West.

[Off Coast of Natal.]

Tuesday, 5th. Fresh Gales from the South-South-West, with squally, rainy
weather, with which we stood to the Westward. In the evening some people
thought they saw the appearance of land to the Northward; but this
appear'd so improbable that I, who was not on deck at this time, was not
acquainted with it until dark, when I order'd them to sound, but found no
ground with 80 fathoms, upon which we concluded that no land was near.
But daylight in the Morning proved this to be a mistake by shewing us the
land at the distance of about 2 Leagues off. We had now the wind at
South-East, blowing fresh right upon the land. When we made the land we
were standing to the Westward; but, thinking the other the best tack to
get off on, we wore, and hauld off to the Eastward, and by Noon had got
an Offing of about 4 Leagues, the land at this time extending from
North-East by North to West-South-West. This part of the Coast of Africa
which we fell in with lies in about the Latitude of 32 degrees 0 minutes
South, and Longitude 331 degrees 29 minutes West, and near to what is
called in the Charts Point Nattall.* (* Natal.) It was a steep, craggy
point, very much broke, and looked as if the high, craggy rocks were
Islands. To the North-East of this point the land in General appear'd to
rise, sloping from the Sea to a Moderate height; the Shore, alternately
Rocks and Sands. About 2 Leagues to the North-East of the Point appear'd
to be the mouth of a River, which probably may be that of St. Johns. At
this time the weather was very hazey, so that we had but a very imperfect
view of the land, which did not appear to great advantage. Wind
South-South-West to South-East; course per Log North 31 degrees West;
distance 32 miles; latitude 31 degrees 5 minutes South per Observation,
31 degrees 7 minutes per Reckoning; longitude 331 degrees 19 minutes per
Observation, 324 degrees 56 minutes per Reckoning.

Wednesday, 6th. Moderate Gales, with hazey, rainy weather. Stood to the
Eastward all the day, having the land in sight, which at 4 p.m. extended
from North-East by North to South-West by West, distant 5 Leagues. At 6
in the Morning we could only see it at West distant 7 or 8 Leagues. At
Noon found the Ship by Observation 90 Miles to the Southward of account.
Thus far the current has carried us to the South since the last
observation, which was only 2 days ago; but it is plain, from the
position of the Coast, that we have been carried full as far to the West
also, notwithstanding we have been standing all the time to the
East-North-East* (* The ship was now in the Agulhas Current.) Wind
Southerly; course South 54 degrees East; distance 37 miles; latitude 32
degrees 4 minutes South; 330 degrees 44 minutes per Observation, 323
degrees 36 minutes per Reckoning.

Thursday, 7th. Cloudy, hazey weather; winds varying between the
South-West by South and South-East by South; a light breeze at 1 p.m.
Tack'd, and stood to the Westward, land at North, distant about 8
Leagues. At 6 saw it extending from North by West to West by North,
distant 5 or 6 Leagues; at 8 tack'd, and stood to the Eastward till 12;
then again to the Westward, standing 4 hours on one tack, and 4 on the
other. At Noon very cloudy; had no observation; saw the land extending
from North by West to West by North. Wind Southerly; course South 156
degrees 5 minutes West; distance 72 miles; latitude 32 degrees 54 minutes
South; longitude 331 degrees 56 minutes West per Observation, 323 degrees
54 per Reckoning.

Friday, 8th. In the P.M. stood to the Westward, with the wind at South by
West until 4 o'clock; then again to the Eastward, having the land in
sight, extending from North-North-East to West by North, distant 8
Leagues. At 12 the wind veer'd to the Eastward, and before Noon blow'd a
fresh breeze, with which we steer'd South-West. At 7, the land extending
from North-North-West to East-North-East, distant 10 or 12 Leagues, found
the Variation by the Amplitude to be 28 degrees 30 minutes West, and by
an Azimuth 28 degrees 8 minutes West. At Noon Latitude observ'd 34
degrees 18 minutes, which is 93 miles to the Southward of that given by
the Log, or dead reckoning since the last observation. Wind Easterly;
course South 39 1/2 degrees West; distance 109 miles; latitude 34 degrees
18 minutes South; longitude 333 degrees 19 minutes West per Observation,
324 degrees 23 minutes per Reckoning.

Saturday, 9th. A steady, fresh Gale, and settled weather. At 4 in the
P.M. had high land in sight, bearing North-East by North. At Noon had
little wind and clear weather; the observed Latitude 46 miles to the
Southward of the Log, which is conformable to what has hapned the 4
preceeding days; and by Observation made of the Sun and Moon this morning
found that the Ship had gain'd 7 degrees 4 minutes West of the Log since
the last observation, 13 days ago. Wind Ditto; course South 65 degrees
West; distance 210 miles; latitude 35 degrees 44 minutes South; longitude
337 degrees 6 minutes West per Observation, 326 degrees 53 minutes per

Sunday, 10th. In the P.M. had a light breeze at North-East until 4
o'clock, when it fell calm, and continued so until 11, at which time a
breeze sprung up at West-North-West, with which we stood to the
Northward. In the Morning found the Variation to be 22 degrees 46
minutes; at Noon the observ'd Latitude was 14 Miles to the Northward of
the Log, which shews that the current must have shifted. Wind North-East
Westerly; course North 17 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 55 miles;
latitude 34 degrees 52 minutes South; longitude 337 degrees 25 minutes
West per Observation, 327 degrees 12 minutes per Reckoning.

Monday, 11th. First part light Airs at West; the remainder had a fresh
gale at South-East, with which we steer'd West and West-North-West, in
order to make the Land, which was seen from the Deck at 10 A.M. At Noon
it extended from North-East to North-West, distant 5 Leagues; the middle
appear'd high and mountainous, and the two Extremes low. Took several
Observations of the Sun and Moon, which gave the Longitude, reduced to
Noon, as per Column. Wind Ditto South-East; course North 85 degrees West;
distance 79 miles; latitude 34 degrees 45 minutes South; longitude 338
degrees 48 minutes West per Observation, 328 degrees 35 minutes per

[Off Cape Agulhas.]

Tuesday, 12th. In the P.M. had the wind at South-East and East, with
which we steer'd along shore West and West-South-West. At 6 Cape
Laguillas* (* L'Agulhas.) bore West, distance 3 Leagues. At 8, the wind
being then at South, we tack'd and stood off, being about 2 Leagues from
the Cape, which bore about West-North-West. In this Situation had 33
fathoms water; the Wind continued between South-West and South all night,
in times very Squally, with rain. At 2 a.m. tacked to the Westward until
near 8, when we again stood off Cape Laguillas, North-West, distance 2 or
3 Leagues. At 9 the weather clear'd up, and the wind fix'd at South by
West. We tack'd, and stood to the Westward. At Noon Cape Laguillas bore
North-East by North, distant 4 Leagues. The land of this Cape is very low
and sandy next the Sea; inland it is of a moderate height. Latitude 34
degrees 50 minutes South, Longitude 339 degrees 23 minutes West, or 20
degrees 37 minutes East, deduced from Yesterday's Observations. Wind
East-South-East Southerly; course South 69 degrees 30 minutes West;
distance 37 miles; Latitude 34 degrees 58 minutes South; longitude 339
degrees 30 minutes per Observation, 329 degrees 17 minutes per Reckoning.

Wednesday, 13th. In the P.M., having the wind at South, we steer'd along
shore West by South 1/2 South until 3 o'clock, when, finding this course
carried us off from the land, we steer'd West by North; at 6 o'clock Cape
Laguillas, or the high land over it, bore East by North 12 Leagues
distance, and the westermost land in sight North-West 1/2 West. We
continued a West by North course, with the wind at South-East until day
light in the Morning, when we haul'd in North-West and North-West by
North; at 8 the Cape of Good Hope North-West by North, and at 10 we were
abreast of it, and distance off about 1 League or little more. We passed
close without a rock, on which the Sea broke very high; it lies about a
League right out to Sea from the Cape. After passing the Cape we kept
along shore at the distance of about 1 League off, having a fresh Gale at
South-East; at noon the Cape bore South-East, distance 4 Leagues.
Latitude observed 34 degrees 15 minutes South, Longitude in, by our
reckoning, corrected by the last observation, 341 degrees 7 minutes West,
or 18 degrees 53 minutes East from Greenwich, by which the Cape lies in
34 degrees 25 minutes South Latitude, and 19 degrees 1 minute East
Longitude from Greenwich, which nearly agrees with the observations made
at the Cape Town by Messrs. Mason and Dixon in 1761; a proof that our
observations have been well made, and that as such they may always be
depended upon to a surprizing degree of accuracey. If we had had no such
guide we should have found an error of 10 degrees 13 minutes of
Longitude, or perhaps more to the East, such an effect the current must
have had upon the ship.

Thursday, 14th. Winds at South-East, a fresh Gale, but as we approached
the Lyons Tail or West point, Table Bay, we had flurries of wind from all
Points of the Compass; this was occasioned by the high land, for clear of
it the wind was still at South-East, and bbow'd so strong out of the Bay
that we could not work the Ship in; we were therefore obliged to Anchor a
good way without all the Ships at Anchor in the Road, in the whole 16
Sail, viz., 8 Dutch, 3 Danes, 4 French, a Frigate, and 3 Store Ships, and
one English East Indiamen, who saluted us with 11 Guns; we returned 9.
The Gale continued, which obliged us to lay fast all the morning.

Friday, 15th. Strong Gales at South-East all the Afternoon and most part
of the Night, though in the Evening it fell a little moderate, which gave
the Indiaman's Boat an opportunity to come on board us, with a Complement
of a Basket of Fruit, etc,; she was the Admiral Pocock, Captain Riddell,
homeward bound from Bombay. In the morning we got under sail, and stood
into the Road, having variable light airs mostly from the Sea. A Dutch
boat from the Shore came on board, in which were the Master Attendant and
some other Gentlemen; the former directed us to a proper birth, where
about 10 o'clock we anchored in 7 fathoms water, a Ouzey bottom; the Lyon
Tail, or West point of the Bay, bore West-North-West, and the Castle
South-West, distance 1 1/2 miles. I now sent a Petty Officer on shore to
know if they would return our Salute, but before he return'd we Saluted,
which was immediately return'd with the same number of Guns; after this I
waited myself upon the Governour, who was pleased to tell me that I
should have everything I wanted that the place afforded. My first care
was to provide a proper place ashore for the reception of the Sick, for
which purpose I order'd the Surgeon to look out for a House where they
could be lodged and dieted. This he soon found, and agreed with the
people of the house for 2 shillings a day per man; which I found was the
customary Price and method of proceeding. I afterwards gave the Surgeon
an order to superintend the whole.

[Remarks on Dysentery.]

Few remarks have hapned since we left Java Head that can be of much use
to the Navigator, or any other Person, into whose hand this Journal may
fall; such, however, as have occur'd I shall now insert. After our
leaving Java head we were 11 days before we got the General South-East
Trade wind, in which time we did not advance above 5 degrees to the South
and 3 degrees to the West, having all the time Variable light Airs of
Wind, interrupted by frequent Calms, the weather all the time hot and
sultry, and the Air unwholesome, occasioned most probably by the Vast
Vapours brought into these Latitudes by the Easterly Trade wind and
Westerly Monsoons, both of which blow at this time of the Year in this
Sea. The Easterly winds prevail as far as 12 or 10 degrees South, and the
Westerly winds as far as 6 or 8 degrees; between them the winds are
Variable, and I believe always more or less unwholesome, but to us it was
remarkable from the Fatal Consequences that attended it, for whatever
might be the cause of First bringing on the Flux among our people, this
unwholesome Air had a Great share in it, and increased it to that degree
that a Man was no sooner taken with it than he look'd upon himself as
Dead. Such was the Despondency that reigned among the Sick at this time,
nor could it be by any Means prevented, when every Man saw that Medicine,
however skillfully Administered, had not the least effect. I shall
mention what Effect only the immaginary approach of this disorder had
upon one man. He had long tended upon the Sick, and injoyed a tolerable
good State of Health; one morning, coming upon Deck, he found himself a
little griped, and immediately began to stamp with his feet, and exclaim,
"I have got the Gripes, I have got the Gripes; I shall die, I shall die!"
In this manner he continued until he threw himself into a fit, and was
carried off the Deck, in a manner, Dead; however he soon recover'd, and
did very well.

We had no sooner got into the South-East Trade wind than we felt its
happy Effect, tho' we lost several men after, but they were such as were
brought so low and weak that there were hardly a possibility of there
recovery; and yet some of them linger'd out in a State of Suspence a
month after, who, in all Probability, would not have lived 24 Hours
before this Change hapned. Those that were not so far gone remained in
the same state for some time, and at last began to recover; some few,
however, were seized with the disorder after we got into the Trade wind,
but they had it but slightly, and soon got over it. It is worth
remarking, that of all those who had it in its last stage only one man
lived, who is now in a fair way of recovering; and I think Mr. Banks was
the only one that was cured at the first Attack'd that had it to a great
degree, or indeed at all, before we got into the South-East Trade, for it
was before that time that his Cure was happily effected.

It is to be wished, for the good of all Seamen, and mankind in general,
that some preventative was found out against this disease, and put in
practice in Climates where it is common, for it is impossible to Victual
and water a Ship in those Climates but what some one article or another,
according to different Peoples opinions, must have been the means of
bringing on the Flux. We were inclinable to lay it to the water we took
in at Princes Island, and the Turtle we got their, on which we lived
several days; but there seems to be no reason for this when we consider
that all the Ships from Batavia this Year suffer'd by the same disorder
as much as we have done, and many of them arrived at this place in a far
worse State; and yet not one of the Ships took any water in at Princes
Island. The same may be said of the Harcourt Indiaman, Captain Paul, who
sail'd from Batavia soon after our arrival, directly for the Coast of
Sumatra; we afterwards heard that she, in a very short time, lost by
Sickness above 20 men; indeed, this seem to have been a year of General
Sickness over most parts of India, the Ships from Bengal and Madrass
bring Melancholly Accounts of the Havock made there by the united force
of Sickness and famine.

Some few days after we left Java we saw, for 3 or 4 evenings succeeding
one another, boobies fly about the ship. Now, as these birds are known to
roost every night on land they seem'd to indicate that some Island was in
our neighbourhood; probably it might be the Island Selam, which Island I
find differently laid down in different Charts, both in Name and

The variation of the Compass off the West Coast of Java is about 3
degrees West, which Variation continues, without any sencible difference
in the Common Track of Ships, to the Longitude of 288 degrees West,
Latitude 22 degrees 0 minutes South. After this it begins to increase
apace, in so much that in the Longitude of 295 degrees, Latitude 23
degrees, the Variation was 10 degrees 20 minutes West; in 7 degrees more
of Longitude and one of Latitude it increased 2 degrees; in the same
space farther to the West it increased 5 degrees; in the Latitude of 28
degrees and Longitude 314 degrees it was 24 degrees 20 minutes; in the
Latitude 29 degrees and Longitude 317 degrees it was 26 degrees 10
minutes, and continued to be much the same for the space of 10 degrees
farther to the West; but in the Latitude of 34 degrees, Longitude 333
degrees we observed it twice to be 28 1/4 degrees West; but this was the
greatest Variation we observed, for in the Latitude of 35 1/2 degrees,
Longitude 337 degrees, it was 24 degrees, and continued decreasing, so
that of Cape Laguillas it was 22 degrees 30 minutes and in Table Bay it
was 20 degrees 30 minutes West.

From what I have observed of the Current it doth not appear that they are
at all considerable until you draw near the Meridian of Madagascar, for
after we had made 52 degrees of Longitude from Java head we found, by

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