Part 7 out of 11
which we bore away North-East 1/4 East along shore, keeping about 4 or 5
miles off. At Noon the Northermost point of land in sight bore North 60
degrees East, distant 10 Miles; Latitude per Observation 44 degrees 5
minutes; Longitude made from Cape West 2 degrees 8 minutes East.
Saturday, 17th. Continued our Course along shore, having in the P.M. the
advantage of a fresh Gale at South-West. At 2, past by the point
afore-mentioned, which is of a Moderate height, with deep Red Clifts,
down which falls 4 Small streams of Water, on which account it is named
Cascades Point. Latitude 44 degrees 0 minutes South; Longitude 2 degrees
20 minutes East from Cape West. From this point the land at first Trends
North 76 degrees East, but afterwards more to the Northward
East-North-East, 8 Leagues. From this point and near the Shore lies a
small low Island, which bore from us South by East, distant 1 1/2
Leagues. At 7 o'Clock we Shortned sail, and brought too under the
Topsails, with her head off Shore, having 33 fathoms, and fine sandy
bottom. At 10, had 50 fathoms, and at 12, wore in 65 fathoms, having
drove about 5 Miles North-North-West since we brought too. Two hours
after this had no ground with 140 fathoms; which shews that the soundings
extend but a little way from the land. From 2 to 8 a.m. had it Calm and
hazey, with drizzling rain, at which time a breeze sprung up at
South-West, with which we steer'd along shore North-East by East 1/4
East, keeping about 3 Leagues from the land. At Noon had no Observation,
being Hazey with rain. Our run since Yesterday at Noon is North-East by
East, 55 Miles; Longitude from Cape West 3 degrees 12 minutes East.
[Off West Coast of Middle Island, New Zealand.]
Sunday, 18th. In the P.M. had a fresh breeze at South-West by West,
attended with drizzling rain. At 8, being about 3 Leagues from the land,
shortned sail, and brought too, having run 10 Leagues North-East by East
since noon; at this time had 44 fathoms, and 2 hours before had 17
fathoms, fine sandy bottom, being then about 1 League from the land. Had
it Calm the most part of the Night, and until 10 a.m., when a light
breeze sprung up at South-West by West. We Made sail along shore
North-East by North, having a large swell from the West-South-West, which
had risen in the Night. At Noon Latitude in per Observation 43 degrees 4
minutes South; Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday is North 54
degrees East, 54 Miles; Longitude made from Cape West 4 degrees 12
minutes East. The Mountains and some of the Vallies we observed this
morning were wholy cover'd with Snow, part of which we suppos'd to have
fallen in the P.M. and fore part of the Night, at the time that we had
rain--and yet the weather is not Cold.* (* They did not see Mount Cook,
12,300 feet high, and the highest mountain in New Zealand; no doubt the
summit was in the clouds.)
Monday, 19th. In the P.M. had a fresh breeze at South-West by West and
West-South-West, which we made the most of until 6, when we shortned
sail, and at 10 brought too, and sounded 115 fathoms, judging ourselves
to be about 5 Leagues from the land. At midnight it fell little wind, on
which account we made sail. At 8 a.m. the wind veer'd to the North-West
by North, with which we stood to the North-East close upon a wind until
noon, at which time we Tack'd, being about 3 Leagues from the land, and
by Observation in the Latitude of 42 degrees 8 minutes and Longitude from
Cape West 5 degrees 5 minutes East* (* The Endeavour had passed the mouth
of the Grey River, the district of the great coalfields of New Zealand.)
Course and distance run since Yesterday at Noon North 35 degrees East, 68
Miles; Depth of Water 65 fathoms, the land extending from North-East by
North to South-South-West.
Tuesday, 20th. Fresh Gales at North-West by North and North by West. P.M.
fair weather; the remainder hazey, with rain, and Squall, which brought
us under close Reeft Topsails. Stood to the Westward until 2 a.m., when
we made a Trip to the Eastward, and afterwards stood to the Westward
until Noon, when, by our reckoning, we were in the Latitude of 42 degrees
23 minutes South. Course and distance sail'd South 74 degrees West, 54
Miles; Longitude made from Cape West 5 degrees 55 minutes East. Tack'd
and stood to the Eastward.
Wednesday, 21st. In the P.M. had a fresh Gale at North by West, attended
with rain until 6, when the Wind shifted to South and South-South-West,
and continued to blow a fresh Gale, with which we steer'd North-East by
North until 6 A.M., at which time we haul'd in East by North in order to
make the land which we saw soon after. At Noon our Latitude per Account
was 41 degrees 37 minutes, and Longitude from Cape West 5 degrees 42
minutes East; Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday North 60 degrees
East, 92 miles. At this time we were not above 3 or 4 Leagues from the
land, but being very foggy upon it we could see nothing distinct, and as
we had not much wind, and a prodigious swell rowling in upon the Shore
from the West-South-West, I did not think it safe to go nearer.
Thursday, 22nd. In the P.M. had a Gentle breeze from the
South-South-West, with which we steer'd along shore North-East until 8,
when being about 2 or 3 Leagues from shore we sounded, and had 34
fathoms, upon which we haul'd off North-West by North until 11, then
brought too, having at this time 64 fathoms. At 4 a.m. made sail to the
North-East, wind at South-South-West, a light breeze. At 8 the wind
veer'd to the Westward, and soon after fell Calm; at this time we were
about 3 or 4 Miles from the Shore, and in 54 fathoms, having a large
swell from the West-South-West rowling Obliquely upon the Shore, which
put me under a good deal of Apprehension that we should be obliged to
Anchor; but by the help of a light Air now and then from the South-West
quarter we were Enabled to keep the Ship from driving much nearer the
shore. At Noon the Northermost land in sight bore North-East by East 1/4
East, distant 8 or 10 Leagues; our Latitude by account was 40 degrees 55
minutes South, Longitude from Cape West 6 degrees 35 minutes East; Course
and distance sail'd since Yesterday at Noon North 36 degrees East, 42
Miles; very foggy over the Land.
[Off Cape Farewell, Middle Island, New Zealand.]
Friday, 23rd. Light Airs from the Southward, at intervals Calm, the fore
part hazey, the remainder clear, pleasant weather. At Noon our Latitude,
by observation, 40 degrees 36 minutes 30 seconds South, Longitude from
Cape West 6 degrees 52 minutes East; the Eastermost point of Land in
sight* (* Cape Farewell, the north point of the Middle Island.) bore East
10 degrees North, distant 7 Leagues, and a bluff head or point we were
abreast of yesterday at Noon, off which lay some rocks above Water, bore
South 18 degrees West, distant 6 Leagues. This point I have named Rocks
Point, Latitude 40 degrees 55 minutes South. Having now nearly run down
the whole of this North-West Coast of Tovy Poenammu, it is time I should
describe the face of the Country as it hath at different times appeared
to us. I have mentioned on the 11th Instant, at which time we were off
the Southern part of the Island, that the land seen then was rugged and
mountainous; and there is great reason to believe that the same ridge of
Mountains extends nearly the whole length of the Island from between the
Westermost Land seen that day and the Eastermost seen on the 13th. There
is a space of about 6 or 8 Leagues of the sea Coast unexplored, but the
Mountains inland were Visible enough. The land near the Shore about Cape
West is rather low, and riseth with a gradual assent up to the foot of
the Mountains, and appear'd to be mostly covered with wood. From Point
Five Fingers down to the Latitude of 44 degrees 20 minutes there is a
narrow ridge of Hills rising directly from the Sea, which are Cloathed
with wood; close behind these hills lies the ridge of Mountains, which
are of a Prodidgious height, and appear to consist of nothing but barren
rocks, covered in many places with large patches of Snow, which perhaps
have lain there since the Creation. No country upon Earth can appear with
a more rugged and barren Aspect than this doth; from the Sea for as far
inland as the Eye can reach nothing is to be seen but the Summits of
these rocky Mountains, which seem to lay so near one another as not to
admit any Vallies between them. From the Latitude of 44 degrees 20
minutes to the Latitude 42 degrees 8 minutes these mountains lay farther
inland; the Country between them and the Sea consists of woody Hills and
Vallies of Various extent, both for height and Depth, and hath much the
Appearance of Fertility. Many of the Vallies are large, low, and flatt,
and appeared to be wholy covered with Wood; but it is very probable that
great part of the land is taken up in Lakes, Ponds, etc., as is very
common in such like places. From the last mentioned Latitude to Cape
Farewell, afterwards so Called, the land is not distinguished by anything
remarkable; it rises into hills directly from the Sea, and is covered
with wood. While we were upon this part of the Coast the weather was
foggy, in so much that we could see but a very little way inland;
however, we sometimes saw the Summits of the Mountains above the fogg and
Clouds, which plainly shew'd that the inland parts were high and
Mountainous, and gave me great reason to think that there is a Continued
Chain of Mountains from the one End of the Island to the other.* (* This
is, to a great extent, the case.)
Saturday, 24th. In the P.M. had a Gentle breeze at South-West, which by
Dark run us the length of the Eastern Point set at Noon, and not knowing
what Course the land took on the other side, we brought too in 34 fathoms
about one League from the land. At 8, it falling little wind, we fill'd
and stood on until 12, at which time we brought too until 4 a.m., then
made Sail. At daylight we saw low land extending from the above point to
the East-South-East as far as the Eye could reach, the Eastern Extremity
of which appear'd in round Hillocks; by this time the wind had veer'd to
the Eastward, which obliged us to ply to windward. At Noon the point
above mention'd bore South-West by South, distant 16 miles; Latitude
observ'd 40 degrees 19 minutes South. This point I afterwards named Cape
Farewell, for reasons which will be given in their proper place.
Sunday, 25th. Winds Easterly; towards Noon had little winds and hazey,
with rain. Made several trips, but gain'd nothing to Windward, so that at
Noon our Situation was nearly as Yesterday.
Monday, 26th. At 3 p.m. the wind came to North, and we Steer'd
East-South-East with all the Sail we could set until dark, when we
shortned sail until the morning, having thick Misty weather. All Night we
keept the lead going continually, and had from 37 to 48 fathoms. At day
light we saw the land bearing South-East by East, and an Island laying
near it bearing East-South-East, distant 5 Leagues. This I knew to be the
Island* (* Stephens Island.) seen from the Entrance of Queen Charlotte's
sound, from which it bears North-West by North, Distant 9 Leagues. At
Noon it bore South-East, distant 4 or 5 miles, and the North-West head of
Queen Charlotte's sound bore South-East by South, distant 10 1/2 Leagues;
Latitude ohserv'd 43 degrees 33 minutes South.
[In Admiralty Bay, Middle Island, New Zealand.]
Tuesday, 27th. Fresh breeze of Wind Westerly, and hazey, Misty weather,
with Drizling rain. As we have now Circumnavigated the whole of this
Country, it is time for me to think of quitting it; but before I do this
it will be necessary to compleat our Water first, especially as we have
on board above 30 Tons of Casks empty, and knowing that there is a Bay
between the above-mentioned Island and Queen Charlotte's sound, wherein
no doubt there is Anchorage and convenient Watering places. Accordingly,
in the P.M. we hauled round the Island and into the bay,* (* Admiralty
Bay.) leaving 3 more Islands* (* Rangitoto Islets.) on our Starboard
hand, which lay close under the West Shore 3 or 4 Miles within the
Entrance. As we run in we keept the lead going, and had from 40 to 12
fathoms. At 6 we Anchor'd in 11 fathoms, Muddy bottom, under the West
Shore, in the Second Cove within the fore-mentioned Island. At daylight I
took a Boat and went to look for a Watering place, and a proper birth to
moor the Ship in, both of which I found convenient enough. After the Ship
was moor'd I sent an Officer ashore to Superintend the Watering, and the
Carpenter with his Crew to cut wood, while the Long boat was employed
carrying on shore Empty Casks.
Wednesday, 28th. Winds Westerly, which in the A.M. blow'd a fresh Gale,
attended with rain. Employ'd getting on board Wood and Water and fishing;
in the Latter we were pretty Successfull.
Thursday, 29th. In the P.M. had a Strong Gale from the Westward. A.M.
Variable light Airs from the Eastward and hazey rainy weather the whole
day; which, however, did not prevent us getting on board Wood and Water.
Friday, 30th. Winds at South-East, a moderate breeze; the first and
middle part dark, Hazey weather, with rain; the latter, fair. In the
A.M., as the wind seem'd to be settled at South-East, and having nearly
compleated our Water, we warped the Ship out of the Cove in order to have
room to get under Sail. Before this was done it was Noon, at which time I
went away in the Pinnace, in order to examine the Bay, and to Explore as
much of it as the little time I had would Admit.
Saturday, 31st. In the P.M., after rowing a League and a half or 2
Leagues up the Bay, I Landed upon a point of Land on the West side,
where, from an Eminency, I could see this Western Arm of the Bay run in
South-West by West, about 5 Leagues farther, yet did not see the Head of
it. There appeared to be several other inlets, or at least small bays,
between this and the North-West head of Queen Charlotte's sound, in every
one of which I make no doubt but what there is Anchorage and Shelter for
Shipping, as they are partly cover'd from the Sea wind by these Islands
that lay without them.* (* There is a maze of inlets and harbours between
Admiralty Bay and Queen Charlotte's Sound, a distance of 20 miles.) The
land about this bay, at least what I could see of it, is of a very hilly,
uneven Surface, and appears to be mostly cover'd with wood, Shrubs,
Firns, etc., which renders Travelling both difficult and Fatiguing. I saw
no inhabitants, neither have we seen any since we have been in this bay,
but met with several of their Huts, all of which appear'd to have been at
least 12 Months deserted.
Upon my return to the Ship, in the Evening, I found the Water, etc., all
on board, and the Ship ready for Sea; and being now resolv'd to quit this
Country altogether, and to bend my thought towards returning home by such
a rout as might Conduce most to the Advantage of the Service I am upon, I
consulted with the Officers upon the most Eligible way of putting this in
Execution. To return by the way of Cape Horn was what I most wished,
because by this rout we should have been able to prove the Existance or
Non-Existance of a Southern Continent, which yet remains Doubtfull; but
in order to Ascertain this we must have kept in a higher Latitude in the
very Depth of Winter, but the Condition of the Ship, in every respect,
was not thought sufficient for such an undertaking. For the same reason
the thoughts of proceeding directly to the Cape of Good Hope was laid
aside, especially as no discovery of any Moment could be hoped for in
that rout. It was therefore resolved to return by way of the East Indies
by the following rout: upon Leaving this Coast to steer to the Westward
until we fall in with the East Coast of New Holland, and then to follow
the direction of that Coast to the Northward, or what other direction it
might take us, until we arrive at its Northern extremity; and if this
should be found impracticable, then to Endeavour to fall in with the Land
or Islands discovered by Quiros.* (* Quiros, a Spanish navigator,
discovered in 1605 Espiritu Santo, the northern island of the New
Hebrides, which he supposed to be a part of a great southern continent.
Cook, in his second voyage, thoroughly explored the New Hebrides group;
and for some of the islands his charts are still the only guide.)
With this view, at daylight we got under Sail and put to Sea, having the
Advantage of a fresh Gale at South-East and Clear weather. At Noon the
Island, which lies off the North-West point of the Bay, bore East 9
degrees South, distant 10 Miles; our Latitude, by Observation, was 40
degrees 35 minutes South. This bay I have named Admiralty Bay; the
North-West point Cape Stephens, and the East Point Jackson, after the 2
Secretarys.* (* The two secretaries of the Admiralty, Philip Stephens and
George Jackson, both of whom showed great appreciation of Cook.) It may
always be known by the Island above mentioned, which is pretty high, and
lies North-East, 2 Miles from Cape Stephens; Latitude 40 degrees 37
minutes South; Longitude 185 degrees 6 minutes West. Between this Island
and Cape Farewell, which is West by North and East by South, distant 14
or 15 Leagues from each other, the Shore forms a large deep Bay, the
bottom of which we could hardly see in sailing in a Strait line from the
one Cape to the other; but it is not at all improbable but what it is all
lowland next the Sea, as we have met with less water here than on any
other part of the Coast at the same distance from Land; however, a Bay
there is, and is known on the Chart by the Name of Blind Bay, but I have
reason to believe it to be Tasman's Murderers' Bay.* (* Blind Bay is now
also known as Tasman Bay, and Massacre Bay is supposed to be a smaller
bay in it, on the north-western side.)
Before I quit this land altogether I shall give a short general
discription of the Country, its inhabitants, their manners, Customs,
etc., in which it is necessary to observe that many things are founded
only on Conjecture, for we were too short a time in any one place to
learn much of their interior policy, and therefore could only draw
conclusions from what we saw at different times.
[Description of New Zealand.]
SOME ACCOUNT OF NEW ZEALAND.
Part of the East* (* This should be West Coast.) Coast of this Country
was first discovered by Abel Tasman in 1642, and by him called New
Zeland; he, however, never landed upon it; probably he was discouraged
from it by the Natives killing 3 or 4 of his People at the first and only
place he Anchor'd at. This country, which before now was thought to be a
part of the imaginary Southern Continent, consists of 2 large Islands,
divided from each other by a Strait or Passage of 4 or 5 Leagues broad.
They are situated between the Latitude of 34 and 48 degrees South, and
between the Longitude of 181 and 194 degrees West from the Meridian of
Greenwich. The situation of few parts of the world are better determin'd
than these Islands are, being settled by some hundreds of Observations of
the Sun and Moon, and one of the Transit of Mercury made by Mr. Green,
who was sent out by the Royal Society to observe the Transit of Venus.
The Northermost of these Islands, as I have before observed, is called by
the Natives Aeheinomouwe and the Southermost Tovy Poenammu. The former
name, we were well assured, comprehends the whole of the Northern Island;
but we were not so well satisfied with the latter whether it comprehended
the whole of the Southern Islands or only a part of it. This last,
according to the Natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound, ought to consist of
2 Islands, one of which at least we were to have sail'd round in a few
days; but this was not verify'd by our own Observations. I am inclinable
to think that they know'd no more of this land than what came within the
Limits of their sight.* (* As before remarked, the natives at Queen
Charlotte's Sound doubtless were speaking of the large peninsula and the
islands which lie west of the Sound. There is a spot at the isthmus where
canoes could be hauled over.) The Chart* (* See copy of this chart.)
which I have drawn will best point out the figure and Extent of these
Islands, the situation of the Bays and Harbours they contain, and the
lesser Islands lay about them.
And now I have mentioned the Chart, I shall point out such places as are
drawn with sufficient accuracy to be depended upon and such as are not,
beginning at Cape Pallisser and proceed round Aeheinomouwe by the East
Cape, etc. The Coast between these 2 Capes I believe to be laid down
pretty accurate, both in its figure and the Course and distance from
point to point; the opportunities I had and the methods I made use on to
obtain these requisites were such as could hardly admit of an Error. From
the East Cape to Cape Maria Van Diemen, altho' it cannot be perfectly
true, yet it is without any very Material error; some few places,
however, must be excepted, and these are very Doubtfull, and are not only
here, but in every other part of the Chart pointed out by a Pricked or
broken line. From Cape Maria Van Diemen up as high as the Latitude of 36
degrees 15 minutes we seldom were nearer the Shore than from 5 to 8
Leagues, and therefore the line of the Sea Coast may in some places be
erroneous. From the above Latitude to nearly the Length of Entry Island
we run along and near the shore all the way, and no circumstance occurd
that made me liable to commit any Material error. Excepting Cape
Teerawhitte, we never came near the Shore between Entry Island and Cape
Pallisser, and therefore this part of the coast may be found to differ
something from the truth; in Short, I believe that this Island will never
be found to differ Materially from the figure I have given it, and that
the Coast Affords few or no Harbours but what are either taken notice of
in this Journal, or in some Measure pointed out in the Chart; but I
cannot say so much for Tovy Poenammu. The Season of the Year and
Circumstance of the Voyage would not permit me to spend so much time
about this Island as I had done at the other, and the blowing weather we
frequently met with made it both dangerous and difficult to keep upon the
Coast. However, I shall point out the places that may be Erroneous in
this as I have done in the other. From Queen Charlotte's sound to Cape
Campbell, and as far to the South-West as the Latitude 43 degrees, will
be found to be pretty Accurate; between this Latitude and the Latitude 44
degrees 20 minutes the coast is very Doubtfully laid down, a part of
which we hardly, if at all, saw. From this last mentioned Latitude to
Cape Saunders we were generally at too great a distance to be Particular,
and the weather at the same time was unfavourable. The Coast, as it is
laid down from Cape Saunders to Cape South, and even to Cape West, is no
doubt in many places very erroneous, as we hardly were ever able to keep
near the Shore, and were sometimes blown off altogether. From the West
Cape down to Cape Farewell, and even to Queen Charlotte's sound, will in
most places be found to differ not much from the truth.* (* Cook's open
and plain statement as to the comparative accuracy of different parts of
his chart is much to be commended. It has been too much the fashion with
first explorers to leave such matters to be discovered by the student.
But the astonishing accuracy of his outline of New Zealand must be the
admiration of all who understand the difficulties of laying down a coast;
and when it is considered that this coastline is 2400 miles in extent,
the magnitude of the task will be realised by everybody. Never has a
coast been so well laid down by a first explorer, and it must have
required unceasing vigilance and continual observation, in fair weather
and foul, to arrive at such a satisfactory conclusion; and with such a
dull sailer as the Endeavour was, the six and a half months occupied in
the work must be counted as a short interval in which to do it.)
[Animals, Timber, etc., New Zealand.]
Mention is likewise made in the Chart of the appearance or aspect of the
face of the Country. With respect to Tovy Poenammu, it is for the most
part very Mountainous, and to all appearance a barren Country. The people
in Queen Charlotte's sound--those that came off to us from under the
Snowy Mountain, and the five we saw to the South-West of Cape
Saunders--were all the inhabitants, or Signs of inhabitants, we saw upon
the whole Island; but most part of the Sea Coast of Aeheinomouwe, except
the South-West side, is well inhabited; and although it is a hilly,
Mountainous Country, yet the very Hills and Mountains are many of them
cover'd with wood, and the Soil of the plains and Valleys appear'd to be
very rich and fertile, and such as we had an opportunity to examine we
found to be so, and not very much incumber'd with woods.
It was the Opinion of every body on board that all sorts of European
grain, fruit, Plants, etc., would thrive here; in short, was this Country
settled by an industrious people they would very soon be supplied not
only with the necessaries, but many of the Luxuries, of Life. The Sea,
Bays, and Rivers abound with a great Variety of Excellent Fish, the most
of them unknown in England, besides Lobsters, which were allowed by every
one to be the best they ever had eat. Oysters and many other sorts of
shell fish all Excellent in their kind. Sea and Water Fowls of all sorts
are, however, in no great plenty; those known in Europe are Ducks, Shags,
Gannets, and Gulls, all of which were Eat by us, and found exceeding
good; indeed, hardly anything came Amiss to us that could be Eat by Man.
Land fowl are likewise in no great plenty, and all of them, except
Quails, are, I believe, unknown in Europe; these are exactly like those
we have in England. The Country is certainly destitute of all sorts of
beasts, either wild or tame, except dogs and Rats; the former are tame,
and lived with the people, who breed and bring them up for no other
purpose than to Eat, and rats are so scarce that not only I, but many
others in the Ship, never see one. Altho' we have seen some few Seals,
and once a Sea Lion upon this Coast, yet I believe they are not only very
scarce,* (* There are a good many seals round the southern part of New
Zealand, and a regular fishery is now established on Stewart Island. Cook
saw nothing of the few natives that occupied the southern parts of the
Island.) but seldom or ever come ashore; for if they did the Natives
would certainly find out some Method of Killing them, the Skins of which
they no doubt would preserve for Cloathing, as well as the Skins of Dogs
and birds, the only Skins we ever saw among them. But they must sometimes
get Whales, because many of the Patta Pattoas are made of the bones of
some such fish, and an Ornament they wear at their breast (on which they
set great Value), which are supposed to be made of the Tooth of a Whale;
and yet we know of no method or instrument they have to kill these
In the woods are plenty of Excellent Timber, fit for all purposes except
Ships' Masts; and perhaps upon a Close Examination some might be found
not improper for that purpose. There grows spontainously everywhere a
kind of very broad-bladed grass, like flags of the Nature of Hemp,* (*
The New Zealand flax (Phormium Tenax) is now a considerable article of
commerce. It furnishes a very strong fibre, and is made into rope, etc.)
of which might be made the very best of Cordage and Canvas, etc. There
are 2 sorts, one finer than the other; of these the Natives make Cloth,
rope, Lines, netts, etc. Iron Ore is undoubtedly to be found here,
particularly about Mercury Bays, where we found great quantities of Iron
sand; however, we met with no Ore of any Sort, neither did we ever see
any sort of Metal with the Natives. We met with some stones at Admiralty
Bay that appear'd to be Mineral in some degree, but Dr. Solander was of
Opinion that they contain'd no Sort of Metal* (* Gold and coal have been
found in New Zealand in large quantities. Gold at Otago and Hokatika in
the South Island, and at Thames in the North. The coalfields round the
Grey River are enormous, and have no doubt a great future; and this
useful mineral is also found in the Bay of Islands, and other places in
the North Island. Other metals, as copper, silver, antimony, have also
been found and worked.) The white stone we saw near the South Cape and
some other parts to the Southward, which I took to be a kind of Marble,
such as I had seen on one of the Hills I was upon in Mercury Bay, Mr.
Banks--I afterwards found--was of Opinion that they were Mineral to the
highest degree; he is certainly a much better Judge of these things than
I am, and therefore I might be mistaken in my opinion, which was only
founded on what I had before seen not only in this Country, but in other
parts where I have been; and at the same time I must observe we were not
less than 6 or 8 Leagues from the Land, and nearer it was not possible
for us at that time to come without running the Ship into Apparent
Danger. However, I am no Judge how far Mineral can be distinguished as
such; certain it is that in Southern parts of this Country there are
whole Mountains of Nothing Else but stone, some of which, no doubt, may
be found to contain Metal.
Should it ever become an object of settling this Country, the best place
for the first fixing of a Colony would be either in the River Thames or
the Bay of Islands; for at either of these places they would have the
advantage of a good Harbour, and by means of the former an Easy
Communication would be had, and settlements might be extended into the
inland parts of the Country. For a very little trouble and Expence small
Vessels might be built in the River proper for the Navigation thereof. It
is too much for me to assert how little water a Vessel ought to draw to
Navigate this River, even so far up as I was in the Boat; this depends
intirely upon the Depth of Water that is upon the bar or flat that lay
before the narrow part of the River, which I had not an opportunity of
making myself acquainted with, but I am of Opinion that a Vessel that
draws not above 10 or 12 feet may do it with Ease. So far as I have been
able to Judge of the Genius of these people it does not appear to me to
be at all difficult for Strangers to form a settlement in this Country;
they seem to be too much divided among themselves to unite in opposing,
by which means, and kind and Gentle usage, the Colonists would be able to
form strong parties among them.
The Natives of this Country are a Strong, rawboned, well made, Active
People, rather above than under the common size, especially the Men; they
are of a very dark brown colour, with black hair, thin black beards, and
white teeth, and such as do not disfigure their faces by tattowing, etc.,
have in general very good features. The Men generally were their Hair
long, Coomb'd up, and tied upon the Crown of their Heads; some of the
women were it long and loose upon their Shoulders, old women especially;
others again were it crop'd short. Their coombs are made some of bones,
and others of Wood; they sometimes Wear them as an Ornament stuck upright
in their Hair. They seem to enjoy a good state of Health, and many of
them live to a good old Age.* (* The Maoris were remarkable for
longevity, and for health and strength in old age.) Many of the old and
some of the Middle aged Men have their faces mark'd or tattow'd with
black, and some few we have seen who have had their buttocks, thighs, and
other parts of their bodies marked, but this is less common. The figures
they mostly use are spirals, drawn and connected together with great
nicety and judgement. They are so exact in the application of these
Figures that no difference can be found between the one side of the face
and the other, if the whole is marked, for some have only one side, and
some a little on both sides; hardly any but the old Men have the whole
tattow'd. From this I conclude that it takes up some time, perhaps Years,
to finish the Operation, which all Who have begun may not have
perseverance enough to go through, as the manner in which it must be done
must certainly cause intollerable pain, and may be the reason why so few
are Marked at all--at least I know no other. The Women inlay the Colour
of Black under the skins of their lips, and both sexes paint their faces
and bodies at times more or less with red Oker, mixed with fish Oil.
[Clothing of New Zealanders.]
Their common Cloathing are very much like square Thrumb'd Matts, that are
made of rope Yarns, to lay at the doors or passages into houses to clean
ones shoes upon. These they tie round their necks, the Thrumb'd side out,
and are generally large enough to cover the body as low as the knee; they
are made with very little Preparation of the broad Grass plant before
mentioned. Beside the Thrumb'd Matts, as I call them, they have other
much finer cloathing, made of the same plant after it is bleached and
prepared in such a Manner that it is as white and almost as soft as flax,
but much stronger. Of this they make pieces of cloth about 5 feet long
and 4 broad; these are wove some pieces close and others very open; the
former are as stout as the strongest sail cloth, and not unlike it, and
yet it is all work'd or made by hand with no other Instrument than a
Needle or Bodkin. To one end of every piece is generally work'd a very
neat border of different colours of 4 or 6 inches broad, and they very
often Trim them with pieces of Dog Skin or birds' feathers. These pieces
of Cloth they wear as they do the other, tying one End round their Necks
with a piece of string, to one end of which is fixed a Needle or Bodkin
made of Bone, by means of which they can easily fasten, or put the string
through any part of the Cloth; they sometimes wear pieces of this kind of
Cloth round their Middles, as well as over their Shoulders. But this is
not common, especially with the Men, who hardly ever wear anything round
their Middles, observing no sort of Decency in that respect; neither is
it at all uncommon for them to go quite Naked without any one thing about
them besides a belt round their waists, to which is generally fastened a
small string, which they tye round the prepuse; in this manner I have
seen hundreds of them come off to and on board the Ship, but they
generally had their proper Cloathing in the boat along with them to put
on if it rain'd, etc. The Women, on the other hand, always wear something
round their Middle; generally a short, thrumbd Matt, which reaches as low
as their Knees. Sometimes, indeed, I have seen them with only a Bunch of
grass or plants before, tyed on with a piece of fine platting made of
sweet-scented grass; they likewise wear a piece of cloth over their
Shoulders as the Men do; this is generally of the Thrum kind. I hardly
ever saw a Woman wear a piece of fine cloth. One day at Talago I saw a
strong proof that the Women never appear naked, at least before
strangers. Some of us hapned to land upon a small Island where several of
them were Naked in the Water, gathering of Lobsters and shell fish; as
soon as they saw us some of them hid themselves among the Rocks, and the
rest remain'd in the Sea until they had made themselves Aprons of the Sea
Weed; and even then, when they came out to us, they shew'd Manifest signs
of Shame, and those who had no method of hiding their nakedness would by
no means appear before us.
The Women have all very soft Voices, and may by that alone be known from
the Men. The Making of cloth and all other Domestick work is, I believe,
wholy done by them, and the more Labourious work, such as building Boats,
Houses, Tilling the ground, etc., by the Men. Both men and women wear
ornaments at their Ears and about their Necks; these are made of stone,
bone, Shells, etc., and are variously shaped; and some I have seen wear
human Teeth and finger Nails, and I think we were told that they did
belong to their deceased friends. The Men, when they are dressed,
generally wear 2 or 3 long white feathers stuck upright in their Hair,
and at Queen Charlotte's sound many, both men and women, wore Round Caps
made of black feathers.
[War Practices of New Zealanders.]
The old men are much respected by the younger, who seem to be govern'd
and directed by them on most Occasions. We at first thought that they
were united under one head or Chief, whose Name is Teeratu; we first
heard of him in Poverty Bay, and he was own'd as Chief by every one we
met with from Cape Kidnappers to the Northward and Westward as far as the
Bay of Plenty, which is a great extent of territories for an Indian
Prince. When we were upon the East Coast they always pointed inland to
the Westward for the place of his residence, which I believe to be in the
Bay of Plenty, and that those Hippas or fortified Towns are Barrier Towns
either for or against him; but most likely the former, and if so, may be
the utmost Extent of his Dominions to the Westwards, for at Mercury bay
they did not own him as their Prince, nor no where else either to the
Westward or Southward, or any other single person; for at whatever place
we put in at, or whatever people we spoke with upon the Coast, they
generally told us that those that were at a little distance from them
were their Enemies; from which it appear'd to me that they were very much
divided into Parties, which make war one with another, and all their
Actions and behaviour towards us tended to prove that they are a brave,
open, war-like people, and void of Treachery.
Whenever we were Visited by any number of them that had never heard or
seen anything of us before they generally came off in the largest Canoe
they had, some of which will carry 60, 80, or 100 people. They always
brought their best Cloaths along with them, which they put on as soon as
they came near the Ship. In each Canoe were generally an old Man, in some
2 or 3; these used always to direct the others, were better Cloathed, and
generally carried a Halbard or Battle Axe in their hands, or some such
like thing that distinguished them from the others. As soon as they came
within about a Stone's throw of the Ship they would there lay, and call
out, "Haromoi harenta a patoo ago!" that is, "Come here, come ashore with
us, and we will kill you with our patoo patoos!" and at the same time
would shake them at us. At times they would dance the War dance, and
other times they would trade with and talk to us, and Answer such
Questions as were put to them with all the Calmness imaginable, and then
again begin the War Dance, shaking their Paddles, Patoo patoos, etc., and
make strange contortions at the same time. As soon as they had worked
themselves up to a proper pitch they would begin to attack us with Stones
and darts, and oblige us, wether we would or no, to fire upon them.
Musquetry they never regarded unless they felt the Effect; but great Guns
they did, because they threw stones farther than they could Comprehend.
After they found that our Arms were so much superior to theirs, and that
we took no advantage of that superiority, and a little time given them to
reflect upon it, they ever after were our very good friends; and we never
had an instance of their attempting to surprize or cut off any of our
people when they were ashore; opportunity for so doing they must have had
at one time or another.
It is hard to account for what we have every where been told, of their
Eating their Enemies killed in Battle, which they most Certainly do;
Circumstances enough we have seen to Convince us of the Truth of this.
Tupia, who holds this Custom in great aversion, hath very often Argued
with them against it, but they have always as streniously supported it,
and never would own that it was wrong. It is reasonable to suppose that
men with whom this custom is found, seldom, if ever, give Quarter to
those they overcome in battle; and if so, they must fight desperately to
the very last. A strong proof of this supposition we had from the People
of Queen Charlotte's sound, who told us, but a few days before we Arrived
that they had kill'd and Eat a whole boat's crew. Surely a single boat's
crew, or at least a part of them, when they found themselves beset and
overpowered by numbers would have surrender'd themselves prisoners was
such a thing practised among them. The heads of these unfortunate people
they preserved as Trophies; 4 or 5 of them they brought off to shew to
us, one of which Mr. Banks bought, or rather forced them to sell, for
they parted with it with the utmost reluctancy, and afterwards would not
so much as let us see one more for any thing we could offer them.
In the Article of Food these People have no great Variety; Fern roots,
Dogs, Fish, and wild fowl is their Chief diet, for Cocos, Yams, and Sweet
Potatoes is not Cultivated every where. They dress their Victuals in the
same Manner as the people in the South Sea Islands; that is, dogs and
Large fish they bake in a hole in the ground, and small fish, birds, and
Shell fish, etc., they broil on the fire. Fern roots they likewise heat
over the fire, then beat them out flat upon a stone with a wooden Mallet;
after this they are fit for Eating, in the doing of which they suck out
the Moist and Glutinous part, and Spit out the Fibrous parts. These ferns
are much like, if not the same as, the mountain ferns in England.
They catch fish with Seans, Hooks and line, but more commonly with hooped
netts very ingeniously made; in the middle of these they tie the bait,
such as Sea Ears, fish Gutts, etc., then sink the Nett to the bottom with
a stone; after it lays there a little time they haul it Gently up, and
hardly ever without fish, and very often a large quantity. All their
netts are made of the broad Grass plant before mentioned; generally with
no other preparation than by Splitting the blade of the plant into
threads. Their fish hooks are made of Crooked pieces of Wood, bones, and
[New Zealand Canoes, Houses, etc.]
The people shew great ingenuity and good workmanship in the building and
framing their boats or Canoes. They are long and Narrow, and shaped very
much like a New England Whale boat. Their large Canoes are, I believe,
built wholy for war, and will carry from 40 to 80 or 100 Men with their
Arms, etc. I shall give the Dimensions of one which I measured that lay
ashore at Tolago. Length 68 1/2 feet, breadth 5 feet, and Depths 3 1/2,
the bottom sharp, inclining to a wedge, and was made of 3 pieces hollow'd
out to about 2 Inches or an Inch and a half thick, and well fastned
together with strong platting. Each side consisted of one Plank only,
which was 63 feet long and 10 or 12 Inches broad, and about 1 1/4 Inch
thick, and these were well fitted and lashed to the bottom part. There
were a number of Thwarts laid a Cross and Lashed to each Gunwale as a
strengthening to the boat. The head Ornament projected 5 or 6 feet
without the body of the Boat, and was 4 feet high; the Stern Ornament was
14 feet high, about 2 feet broad, and about 1 1/2 inch thick; it was
fixed upon the Stern of the Canoe like the Stern post of a Ship upon her
Keel. The Ornaments of both head and Stern and the 2 side boards were of
Carved Work, and, in my opinion, neither ill design'd nor executed. All
their Canoes are built after this plan, and few are less than 20 feet
long. Some of the small ones we have seen with Outriggers, but this is
not Common. In their War Canoes they generally have a quantity of Birds'
feathers hung in Strings, and tied about the Head and stern as Additional
Ornament. They are as various in the heads of their Canoes as we are in
those of our Shipping; but what is most Common is an odd Design'd Figure
of a man, with as ugly a face as can be conceived, a very large Tongue
sticking out of his Mouth, and Large white Eyes made of the Shells of Sea
Ears. Their paddles are small, light, and neatly made; they hardly ever
make use of sails, at least that we saw, and those they have are but ill
contrived, being generally a piece of netting spread between 2 poles,
which serve for both Masts and Yards.
The Houses of these People are better calculated for a Cold than a Hot
Climate; they are built low, and in the form of an oblong square. The
framing is of wood or small sticks, and the sides and Covering of thatch
made of long Grass. The door is generally at one end, and no bigger than
to admit of a man to Creep in and out; just within the door is the fire
place, and over the door, or on one side, is a small hole to let out the
Smoke. These houses are 20 or 30 feet long, others not above half as
long; this depends upon the largeness of the Family they are to contain,
for I believe few familys are without such a House as these, altho' they
do not always live in them, especially in the summer season, when many of
them live dispers'd up and down in little Temporary Hutts, that are not
sufficient to shelter them from the weather.
The Tools which they work with in building their Canoes, Houses, etc.,
are adzes or Axes, some made of a hard black stone, and others of green
Talk. They have Chiszels made of the same, but these are more commonly
made of Human Bones. In working small work and carving I believe they use
mostly peices of Jasper, breaking small pieces from a large Lump they
have for that purpose; as soon as the small peice is blunted they throw
it away and take another. To till or turn up the ground they have wooden
spades (if I may so call them), made like stout pickets, with a piece of
wood tied a Cross near the lower end, to put the foot upon to force them
into the Ground. These Green Talk Axes that are whole and good they set
much Value upon, and never would part with them for anything we could
offer.* (* The weapons of greenstone, found in the South Islands, were
much prized. This hard material required years to shape into a mere, or
short club, and these were handed down from father to son as a most
valuable possession.) I offer'd one day for one, One of the best Axes I
had in the Ship, besides a number of Other things, but nothing would
induce the owner to part with it; from this I infer'd that good ones were
scarce among them.
Diversions and Musical instruments they have but few; the latter Consists
of 2 or 3 sorts of Trumpets and a small Pipe or Whistle, and the former
in singing and Dancing. Their songs are Harmonious enough, but very
doleful to a European ear. In most of their dances they appear like mad
men, Jumping and Stamping with their feet, making strange Contorsions
with every part of the body, and a hideous noise at the same time; and if
they happen to be in their Canoes they flourish with great Agility their
Paddles, Pattoo Pattoos, various ways, in the doing of which, if there
are ever so many boats and People, they all keep time and Motion together
to a surprizing degree. It was in this manner that they work themselves
to a proper Pitch of Courage before they used to attack us; and it was
only from their after behaviour that we could tell whether they were in
jest or in Earnest when they gave these Heivas, as they call them, of
their own accord, especially at our first coming into a place. Their
signs of Friendship is the waving the hand or a piece of Cloth, etc.
We were never able to learn with any degree of certainty in what manner
they bury their dead; we were generally told that they put them in the
ground; if so it must be in some secret or by place, for we never saw the
least signs of a burying place in the whole Country.* (* The burying
places were kept secret. The body was temporarily buried, and after some
time exhumed; the bones were cleaned, and hidden in some cave or cleft in
the rocks. As bones were used by enemies to make implements, it was a
point to keep these depositories secret, to prevent such desecration.)
Their Custom of mourning for a friend or relation is by cutting and
Scarifying their bodys, particularly their Arms and breasts, in such a
manner that the Scars remain indelible, and, I believe, have some
signification such as to shew how near related the deceased was to them.
[Maori and Tahiti Words.]
With respect to religion, I believe these people trouble themselves very
little about it; they, however, believe that there is one Supream God,
whom they call Tawney,* (* Probably Tane-mahuta, the creator of animal
and vegetable life. The Maori does not pray.) and likewise a number of
other inferior deities; but whether or no they worship or Pray to either
one or the other we know not with any degree of certainty. It is
reasonable to suppose that they do, and I believe it; yet I never saw the
least Action or thing among them that tended to prove it. They have the
same Notions of the Creation of the World, Mankind, etc., as the people
of the South Sea Islands have; indeed, many of their notions and Customs
are the very same. But nothing is so great a proof of their all having
had one Source as their Language, which differ but in a very few words
the one from the other, as will appear from the following specimens,
which I had from Mr. Banks, who understands their Language as well, or
better than, any one on board.
COLUMN 1: ENGLISH.
COLUMN 2: NEW ZEALAND.
COLUMN 3: SOUTH SEA ISLANDS.
A Chief : Eareete : Eare.
A Man : Taata : Taata.
A Woman : Ivahina : Ivahine.
The Head : Eupo : Eupo.
The Hair : Macauve : --.
The Ear : Terringa : Terrea.
The Forehead : Erai : Erai.
The Eyes : Matu : Matu.
The Cheek : Paparinga : Paparea.
The Nose : Ahewh : Ahew.
The Mouth : Hangoutou : Outou.
The Chinn : Ecouwai : --.
The Teeth : Hennihu : Nihio.
The Arm : Haringaringu : Rema.
The Finger : Maticara : Maneow.
The Belly : Ateraboo : Oboo.
The Naval : Apeto : Peto.
Come here : Haromai : Haromai.
Fish : Heica : Eyca.
A Lobster : Kooura : Tooura.
Coccos : Taro : Taro.
Sweet Potatoes : Cumala : Cumala.
Yamms : Tuphwhe : Tuphwhe.
Birds : Mannu : Mannu.
The Wind : Mebaw : Mattai.
A Thief : Amootoo : Teto.
To examine : Mataketake : Mataibai.
To sing : Eheiva : Heiva.
Bad : Keno : Eno.
Trees : Oratou : Eraou.
Grand Father : Toubouna : Toubouna.
Friend : -- : Tio.
No : Kaoura : Oure.
Number 1 : Tahai : Tahai.
Number 2 : Rua : Rua.
Number 3 : Torou : Torou.
Number 4 : Ha : Hea.
Number 5 : Rema : Remo.
Number 6 : Ono : Ono.
Number 7 : Etu : Hetu.
Number 8 : Wharou : Wharou.
Number 9 : Iva : Hyva.
Number 10 : Angahourou : Ahourou.
What do you call this or that? : Owy Terra : Owy Terra.
[Speculations on a Southern Continent.]
There are some small differance in the Language spoke by the
Aeheinomoweans and those of Tovy Poenammu; but this differance seem'd to
me to be only in the pronunciation, and is no more than what we find
between one part of England and another. What is here inserted as a
Specimen is that spoke by the People of Aeheinomouwe. What is meant by
the South Sea Islands are those Islands we ourselves Touched at; but I
gave it that title because we have always been told that the same
Language is universally spoke by all the Islanders, and that this is a
Sufficient proof that both they and the New Zelanders have had one Origin
or Source, but where this is even time perhaps may never discover.
It certainly is neither to the Southward nor Eastward, for I cannot
perswaide myself that ever they came from America; and as to a Southern
Continent, I do not believe any such thing exist, unless in a high
Latitude. But as the Contrary opinion hath for many Years prevail'd, and
may yet prevail, it is necessary I should say something in support of
mine more than what will be directly pointed out by the Track of this
Ship in those Seas; for from that alone it will evidently appear that
there is a large space extending quite to the Tropick in which we were
not, or any other before us that we can ever learn for certain. In our
route to the Northward, after doubling Cape Horn, when in the Latitude of
40 degrees, we were in the Longitude of 110 degrees; and in our return to
the Southward, after leaving Ulietea, when in the same Latitude, we were
in the Longitude of 145 degrees; the differance in this Latitude is 35
degrees of Longitude. In the Latitude of 30 degrees the differance of the
2 Tracks is 21 degrees, and that differance continues as low as 20
degrees; but a view of the Chart will best illustrate this.
Here is now room enough for the North Cape of the Southern Continent to
extend to the Northward, even to a pretty low Latitude. But what
foundation have we for such a supposition? None, that I know of, but
this, that it must either be here or no where. Geographers have indeed
laid down part of Quiros' discoveries in this Longitude, and have told us
that he had these signs of a Continent, a part of which they have
Actually laid down in the Maps; but by what Authority I know not. Quiros,
in the Latitude of 25 or 26 degrees South, discover'd 2 Islands, which, I
suppose, may lay between the Longitude of 130 and 140 degrees West.
Dalrymple lays them down in 146 degrees West, and says that Quiros saw to
the Southward very large hanging Clouds and a very thick Horizon, with
other known signs of a Continent. Other accounts of their Voyage says not
a word about this; but supposing this to be true, hanging Clouds and a
thick Horizon are certainly no signs of a Continent--I have had many
proofs to the Contrary in the Course of this Voyage; neither do I believe
that Quiros looked upon such things as known signs of land, for if he had
he certainly would have stood to the Southward, in order to have
satisfied himself before he had gone to the Northward, for no man seems
to have had discoveries more at heart than he had. Besides this, this was
the ultimate object of his Voyage.* (* It is conjectured that what Quiros
saw was Tahiti, but his track on this voyage is very vague. There are
certainly no islands in the latitude given except Pitcairn.) If Quiros
was in the Latitude of 26 degrees and Longitude 146 degrees West, then I
am certain that no part of the Southern Continent can no where extend so
far to the Northward as the above mentioned Latitude. But the Voyage
which seems to thrust it farthest back in the Longitude I am speaking of,
viz., between 130 and 150 degrees West, is that of Admiral Roggeween, a
Dutchman, made in 1722, who, after leaving Juan Fernandes, went in search
of Davis's Island; but not finding it, he ran 12 degrees more to the
West, and in the Latitude of 28 1/2 degrees discover'd Easter Island.
Dalrymple and some others have laid it down in 27 degrees South and 106
degrees 30 minutes West, and supposes it to be the same as Davis's Isle,
which I think cannot be from the Circumstance of the Voyage; on the other
hand Mr. Pingre, in his Treatise concerning the Transit of Venus, gives
an extract of Roggeween's Voyage and a map of the South Seas, wherein he
places Easter Island in the Latitude of 28 1/2 degrees South, and in the
Longitude of 123 degrees West* (* Easter Island is in longitude 110
degrees West, and is considered identical with Davis' Island.) his reason
for so doing may be seen at large in the said Treatise. He likewise lays
down Roggeween's rout through those South Seas very different from any
other Author I have seen; for after leaving Easter Island he makes him to
steer South-West to the height of 34 degrees South, and afterwards
West-North-West. If Roggeween really took this rout, then it is not
probable that there is any Main land to the Northward of 35 degrees
South. However, Mr. Dalrymple and some Geographers have laid down
Roggeween's track very different from Mr. Pingre. From Easter Isle they
have laid down his Track to the North-West, and afterwards very little
different from that of La Maire; and this I think is not probable, that a
man who, at his own request, was sent to discover the Southern Continent
should take the same rout thro' these Seas as others had done before who
had the same thing in View; by so doing he must be Morally certain of not
finding what he was in search of, and of course must fail as they had
done. Be this as it may, it is a point that cannot be clear'd up from the
published accounts of the Voyage, which, so far from taking proper notice
of their Longitude, have not even mentioned the Latitude of several of
the Islands they discover'd, so that I find it impossible to lay down
Roggeween's rout with the least degree of accuracy.* (* Roggeween's track
is still unknown.)
But to return to our own Voyage, which must be allowed to have set aside
the most, if not all, the Arguments and proofs that have been advanced by
different Authors to prove that there must be a Southern Continent; I
mean to the Northward of 40 degrees South, for what may lie to the
Southward of that Latitude I know not. Certain it is that we saw no
Visible signs of Land, according to my Opinion, neither in our rout to
the Northward, Southward, or Westward, until a few days before we made
the Coast of New Zeland. It is true we have often seen large flocks of
Birds, but they were generally such as are always seen at a very great
distance from land; we likewise saw frequently peices of Sea or Rock
Weed, but how is one to know how far this may drive to Sea. I am told,
and that from undoubted Authority, that there is Yearly thrown up upon
the Coast of Ireland and Scotland a sort of Beans called Oxe Eyes, which
are known to grow no where but in the West Indies; and yet these 2 places
are not less than 1200 Leagues asunder. Was such things found floating
upon the Water in the South Seas one would hardly be perswaided that one
was even out of sight of Land, so apt are we to Catch at everything that
may at least point out to us the favourite Object we are in persuit of;
and yet experiance shews that we may be as far from it as ever.
Thus I have given my Opinion freely and without prejudice, not with any
View to discourage any future attempts being made towards discovering the
Southern Continent; on the Contrary, as I think this Voyage will
evidently make it appear that there is left but a small space to the
Northward of 40 degrees where the grand object can lay. I think it would
be a great pity that this thing, which at times has been the Object of
many Ages and Nations, should not now be wholy be clear'd up; which might
very Easily be done in one Voyage without either much trouble or danger
or fear of Miscarrying, as the Navigator would know where to go to look
for it; but if, after all, no Continent was to be found, then he might
turn his thoughts towards the discovery of those Multitude of Islands
which, we are told, lay within the Tropical regions to the South of the
Line, and this we have from very good Authority, as I have before hinted.
This he will always have in his power; for, unless he be directed to
search for the Southern lands in a high Latitude, he will not, as we
were, be obliged to go farther to the Westward in the Latitude of 40
degrees than 140 or 145 degrees West, and therefore will always have it
in his power to go to George's Island, where he will be sure of meeting
with refreshments to recruit his people before he sets out upon the
discovery of the Islands.* (* Cook carried out this programme in his
second voyage, when he set at rest for ever the speculation regarding the
Southern Continent.) But should it be thought proper to send a Ship out
upon this Service while Tupia lives, and he to come out in her, in that
case she would have a prodidgious Advantage over every ship that hath
been upon discoveries in those Seas before; for by means of Tupia,
supposing he did not accompany you himself, you would always get people
to direct you from Island to Island, and would be sure of meeting with a
friendly reception and refreshment at every Island you came to. This
would enable the Navigator to make his discoveries the more perfect and
Compleat; at least it would give him time so to do, for he would not be
Obliged to hurry through those Seas thro' any apprehentions of wanting
[Tupia's List of Islands.]
I shall now add a list of those Islands which Tupia and Several others
have given us an account of, and Endeavour to point out the respective
Situations from Otaheite, or George's Island; but this, with respect to
many of them, cannot be depended upon. Those marked thus (*) Tupia
himself has been at, and we have no reason to doubt his Veracity in this,
by which it will appear that his Geographical knowledge of those Seas is
pretty Extensive; and yet I must observe that before he came with us he
hardly had an Idea of any land being larger than Otaheite.
COLUMN 1: NAME OF THE ISLANDS NORTH-EAST QUARTER.
COLUMN 2: BEARINGS FROM OTAHEITE.
Oopate : Between the North and North-North-East.
Ooura : Between the North and North-North-East.
Teohcoa : Between the North and North-North-East.
Oryvoa : Between the North and North-North-East.
Ohevapato : Between the North and North-North-East.
Otaah : North-North-East to North-East by North.
Ohevaroa : North-North-East to North-East by North.
Temanno : North-North-East to North-East by North.
Ootta : North-North-East to North-East by North.
COLUMN 1: NAME OF THE ISLANDS SOUTH-EAST QUARTER.
COLUMN 2: BEARINGS FROM OTAHEITE.
Moutou : South to South-East.
Toomitoaroaro : South to South-East.
*Tennowhammeatane : South to South-East.
Ohitetamaruire : South to South-East.
Ouropoe : South to South-East.
*Mytea or Oznaburg Island : East-South-East and East.
Ohevanue : East-South-East and East.
Ohirotah : East-South-East and East.
COLUMN 1: NAME OF THE ISLANDS SOUTH-WEST QUARTER.
COLUMN 2: BEARINGS FROM OTAHEITE.
*Imao or York Island : West by South and West-South-West.
*Tapooamanue or Saunders Island : West by South and West-South-West.
*Manua : Between the South and South-West.
*Honue : Between the South and South-West.
*Ohiteroa : Between the South and South-West.
Onawhaa : Between the South and South-West.
Otaohoera : Between the South and South-West.
Opooroo : Between the South and South-West.
Ooonow : Between the South and South-West.
Teorooromatiwhatea : Between the South and South-West.
*Teatowhite : Between the South and South-West.
Oheavie : Between the South-West and West-South-West.
Pooromathetua : Between the South-West and West-South-West.
Teamoorohete : Between the South-West and West-South-West.
Ohetotarive : Between the South-West and West-South-West.
Ohetotareva : Between the South-West and West-South-West.
Ohitetoutoumi : Between the South-West and West-South-West.
*Mooenatayo : West.
Tetupatunaeo : West.
Ohiteteutenatu : West.
Ohitepoto : West.
COLUMN 1: NAME OF THE ISLANDS NORTH-EAST QUARTER.
COLUMN 2: BEARINGS FROM OTAHEITE.
Whareva : North-East.
Whatteruro : North-East.
Tetioo : North-East.
Tetineohva : North-East.
Terouwhah : North-East.
Whaoa : North-North-East.
Whaterretaah : North-North-East.
Whaneanea : North-North-East.
Ohevatoutua : East by North.
COLUMN 1: NAME OF THE ISLANDS NORTH-WEST QUARTER.
COLUMN 2: BEARINGS FROM OTAHEITE.
*Tethuroa : North by West.
Oonnah : North by West.
Obaha : North by West.
Maataah : North by West.
*Huiheine : Between the North and West.
*Ulietea : Between the North and West.
*Otaha : Between the North and West.
*Bolabola : Between the North and West.
*Tubai : Between the North and West.
*Maurua : Between the North and West.
Opoopooa : Between the North and West.
Opopatea : Between the North and West.
*Whennuaouda : Between the North by West and West.
*Motehea : Between the North by West and West.
*Oourio : Between the North by West and West.
*Orurutu : Between the North by West and West.
*Oateea : Between the North by West and West.
Oahooahoo : Between the North by West and West.
Oweha : Between the North by West and West.
Orotuma : Between the North by West and West.
Tenuna : Between the North by West and West.
Orevavie : Between the North by West and West.
Toutepa : Between the North by West and West.
Orarathoa : Between the North by West and West.
Oryvavai : Between the North by West and West.
Oahourou : Between the North by West and West.
The above list* was taken from a Chart of the Islands drawn by Tupia's
own hands. (* This list is hopeless. With the exception of the Society
Group (Huiheine, and the names that follow), Imao (Eimeo), Tapooamanuo,
Tethuroa, and Ohiteroa, all lying near Tahiti, none can be recognised.
Those north and east are no doubt names of the Paumotu Group, low coral
islands, disposed in rings round lagoons, whose innumerable names are
very little known to this day, and very probably the Tahitians had their
own names for them.) He at one time gave us an account of near 130
Islands, but in his Chart he laid down only 74; and this is about the
number that some others of the Natives of Otaheite gave us an account of;
but the account taken by and from different people differ sencibly one
from another both in names and numbers. The first is owing to the want of
rightly knowing how to pronounce the names of the Islands after them; but
be this as it may, it is very certain that there are these number of
Islands, and very Probably a great many more, laying some where in the
Great South Sea, the greatest part of which have never been seen by any
[Historical Notes on New Zealand.]
NOTES ON NEW ZEALAND.
As already stated by Cook in the Journal, New Zealand was first
discovered by Abel Tasman, a Dutch navigator, in the year 1642. Sailing
from Tasmania, he sighted the northern part of the Middle island, and
anchored a little east of Cape Farewell in Massacre (Golden) Bay, so
called by him because the Maoris cut off one of his boats, and killed
three of the crew.
Tasman never landed anywhere, but coasted from Massacre Bay along the
western side of the North Island to the north point. He passed outside
the Three Kings, and thence away into the Pacific, to discover the
No European eye again sighted New Zealand until Cook circumnavigated and
mapped the islands.
The warlike character of the natives is well shown in this Journal. On
nearly every occasion they either made, or attempted to make, an attack,
even on the ships, and in self-defence firearms had constantly to be
used. Nevertheless, Cook's judgment enabled him to inaugurate friendly
relations in most places where he stopped long enough to enable the
natives to become acquainted with the strangers.
It was not so with other voyagers. De Surville, a Frenchman, who called
at Doubtless Bay very shortly after Cook left it, destroyed a village,
and carried off a chief. Marion de Fresne was, in 1772, in the Bay of
Islands, killed by the natives, with sixteen of his people, and eaten,
for violation of some of their customs, and illtreatment of some
Other outrages followed, committed on both sides, and it is no wonder
that, though Cook represented the advantages of the island for
colonization, it was not considered a desirable place in which to settle.
The cannibalism of the Maoris especially made people shy of the country.
Intermittent communication took place between New Zealand and the new
Colony of New South Wales, and at last, in 1814, Samuel Marsden, a
clergyman of the Church of England, who had seen Maoris in New South
Wales, landed in the Bay of Islands with other missionaries. This
fearless and noble-minded man obtained the confidence of the Maoris, and
a commencement of colonization was made.
It was not, however, until 1840 that the New Zealand Company was formed
to definitely colonize. They made their station at Wellington.
In the same year Captain Hobson, R.N., was sent as Lieutenant-Governor.
Landing first at the Bay of Islands, he transferred his headquarters to
the Hauraki Gulf in September 1840, where he founded Auckland, which
remained the capital until 1876, when the seat of Government was
transferred to Wellington.
The North Island, in which all these occurrences took place, contained by
far the greater number of the natives, and it seems strange now that the
first efforts to settle were not made in the Middle Island, which has
proved equally suitable for Europeans, and where the difficulties of
settlement, from the existence of a less numerous native population, were
not so great. It is not necessary here to follow the complicated history
of New Zealand in later years, which unfortunately comprises several
bloody wars with the Maoris.
The present prosperous condition of this great colony is well known, but
it has not been effected without the rapid diminution of the natives, who
have met with the fate of most aborigines in contact with Europeans,
especially when the former were naturally bold and warlike.
The Maoris have retained the tradition of the original arrival of their
race in a fleet of canoes from a country called Hawaiki, which is by some
supposed to be Hawaii in the Sandwich Group. As we have seen, the
language was practically the same as that of Tahiti, and there is no
doubt that they came from some of the Polynesian islands. The date of the
immigration is supposed to be the fifteenth century.
Each canoe's crew settled in different parts of the North Island, and
were the founders of the different great tribes into which the New
Zealanders were divided. The more celebrated canoes were the Arawa,
Tainui, Aotea, Kuruhaupo, Takitumu, and others.
The Arawa claimed the first landing, and the principal idols came in her.
One of these is now in the possession of Sir George Grey. A large tribe
on the east coast still bears the name of Arawa, and her name, that of
the Tainui, and other of the canoes, are now borne by some of the great
steamships that run to New Zealand.
Cook, in the voyage with which we have to deal, completely examined the
whole group. His pertinacity and determination to follow the whole coast
is a fine instance of his thoroughness in exploration. No weather nor
delay daunted him, and the accuracy with which he depicted the main
features of the outline of the islands is far beyond any of the similar
work of other voyagers. It is true that he missed in the south island
many of the fine harbours that have played such an important part in the
prosperity of the Colony; but when we consider the narrowness of their
entrances, and the enormous extent of the coast line which he laid down
in such a short time, this is not astonishing.
His observations on the natives and on the country display great
acuteness of observation, and had the settlers displayed the same spirit
of fair treatment and respect for the customs of the natives, much of the
bloody warfare that has stained the annals of the Colony might have been
averted; though it is scarcely possible that with such a high-spirited
race the occupation of the islands, especially the North island, where
the majority of the Maoris were, could have taken place without some
New Zealand now contains 630,000 Europeans, and 41,000 Maoris. Its
exports are valued at 10,000,000 pounds, and the imports at 6,250,000
pounds. There are 2000 miles of railways open. Such is the result of
fifty years of colonization in a fertile and rich island, the climate of
which may be described as that of a genial England.
CHAPTER 7. PASSAGE FROM NEW ZEALAND TO NEW HOLLAND.
[April 1770. From New Zealand to Australia.]
SUNDAY, 1st April. In the P.M. had a moderate breeze at East, which in
the Night Veer'd to the North-East, and was attended with hazey, rainy
weather. I have before made mention of our quitting New Zeland with an
intention to steer to the Westward, which we accordingly did, taking our
departure from Cape Farewell in the Latitude of 40 degrees 30 minutes
South and Longitude 185 degrees 58 minutes West from Greenwich, which
bore from us at 5 p.m. West 18 degrees North, distance 12 Miles. After
this we steer'd North-West and West-North-West, in order to give it a
good berth, until 8 o'Clock a.m., at which time we steered West, having
the Advantage of a fresh Gale at North by East. At Noon our Latitude by
account was 40 degrees 12 minutes South, Longitude made from Cape
Farewell 1 degree 11 minutes West.
Monday, 2nd. In the P.M. had a moderate Gale at North, with thick hazey
weather, attended with rain. At 8 it fell little wind, and Veer'd to
West-South-West, at which time we Tack'd. At Midnight the wind came to
South-South-West, and increased to a brisk gale with fair Cloudy weather,
which we made the most of as soon as it was daylight. At Noon our
Latitude, by Observation, was 40 degrees 0 minutes, and Longitude made
from Cape Farewell 2 degrees 31 minutes West.
Tuesday, 3rd. Cloudy weather; Winds at South-West and South-South-West, a
fresh Gale, with which we made our Course good North-West by West, and
distance run from Yesterday at Noon to this day at Noon 38 1/2 Leagues.
Latitude, by observation, 38 degrees 56 minutes South; Longitude made
from Cape Farewell 4 degrees 36 minutes West.
Wednesday, 4th. Had a steady brisk Gale at South-South-West with some
flying showers of rain and large hollow Sea from the Southward. In the
P.M. unbent the Maintopsail to repair, and brought another to the Yard
and set it close reefed. At Noon our Latitude, by Observation, was 37
degrees 56 minutes South; Course and distance since Yesterday at Noon
North 60 degrees West, 122 Miles; Longitude made from Cape Farewell 6
degrees 54 minutes West.
Thursday, 5th. Fresh Gales at South, which in the A.M. veer'd to
South-East by South. At Noon our Latitude, by observation, was 37 degrees
23 minutes South, Longitude made from Cape Farewell 9 degrees 10 minutes
West; Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday at Noon North 73 degrees
15 minutes West, 37 Leagues.
Friday, 6th. Winds between the South by East and South-East, with a
Continued swell from the South-South-West. At Noon our Latitude in per
Observation 37 degrees 18 minutes South; Course and distance sail'd since
Yesterday at Noon North 85 degrees West, 58 Miles. Longitude made from
Cape Farewell 10 degrees 35 minutes West.
Saturday, 7th. Gentle breezes at North-East, which in the A.M. Veer'd to
North-West. In the P.M. found the Variation by the Mean of several
Azimuths to be 13 degrees 50 minutes East, being then in the Latitude of
37 degrees 23 minutes South, and Longitude 196 degrees 44 minutes West.
In the A.M. Punished Jno. Bowles, Marine, with 12 lashes for refusing to
do his duty when order'd by the Boatswain's Mate and Serjeant of Marines.
At Noon Latitude per Observation 37 degrees 35 minutes South, Longitude
made from Cape Farewell 11 degrees 34 minutes West; Course and distance
run since Yesterday noon South 70 degrees 15 minutes West, 50 Miles.
Sunday, 8th. Gentle breezes from the North-West and North. In the P.M.
found the Variation to be 13 degrees 56 minutes East. At Noon Latitude in
per Observation 38 degrees 0 minutes South, Longitude made from Cape
Farewell 13 degrees 2 minutes West; Course and distance sail'd since
Yesterday noon South 70 degrees 15 minutes West, 74 Miles.
Monday, 9th. Gentle breezes at North-West; pleasant weather and a Smooth
Sea. In the A.M. saw a Tropic Bird, which, I believe, is uncommon in such
high Latitudes. At Noon Latitude observ'd 38 degrees 29 minutes South,
Longitude made from Cape Farewell 14 degrees 45 minutes West; Course and
distance sail'd since Yesterday noon South 70 degrees 15 minutes West, 86
Tuesday, 10th. Gentle breezes at North-West by North, and clear settled
weather. In the A.M. found the Variation, by the Amplitude, to be 11
degrees 25 minutes East, and by Azimuth 11 degrees 20 minutes. At Noon
the observed Latitude was 38 degrees 51 minutes South, and Longitude made
from Cape Farewell 16 degrees 45 minutes; Longitude in 202 degrees 43
minutes West; Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday noon South 76
degrees 45 minutes West, 96 Miles.
Wednesday, 11th. Gentle breezes from the North-West, and pleasant
weather, with some few showers of rain. In the A.M. found the Variation
to be 13 degrees 48 minutes East, which is 2 1/2 degrees more than it was
yesterday, altho' I should have expected to have found it less, for the
observations were equally good. At Noon Latitude in 39 degrees 7 minutes
South, Longitude made from Cape Farewell 17 degrees 23 minutes; and
Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday noon South 62 degrees West, 34
Thursday, 12th. Calm, with now and then light Airs from the North-East
and North-West; cloudy weather, but remarkably warm, and so it hath been
for some days past. At Noon we were in the Latitude of 39 degrees 11
minutes, and Longitude from Cape Farewell 17 degrees 35 minutes West;
Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday noon South 66 degrees West, 10
Friday, 13th. Light Airs next to a Calm, with Clear pleasant weather;
what little wind we had was from the North-West quarter. In the Course of
this day found the Variation to be 12 degrees 27 minutes East, being at
Noon, by observation, in the Latitude of 39 degrees 23 minutes South, and
Longitude 204 degrees 2 minutes West; Course and distance since Yesterday
noon South 62 degrees West, 26 Miles, and Longitude made from Cape
Farewell 18 degrees 4 minutes West.
Saturday, 14th. Calm serene weather, with sometimes light Airs from the
Northward. At sun set found the Variation to be 11 degrees 28 minutes
East, and in the Morning to be 11 degrees 30 minutes East. The Spritsail
Topsail being wore to rags, it was condemn'd as not fit for its proper
use, and Converted to repair the 2 Top Gallant Sails, they being of
themselves so bad as not to be worth the Expence of new Canvas, but with
the help of this sail may be made to last some time longer. At Noon
Latitude in 39 degrees 25 minutes South, Longitude made from Cape
Farewell 18 degrees 21 minutes West; Course and distance since Yesterday
noon South 18 degrees West, 13 Miles.
Sunday, 15th. In the P.M. had light Airs at North, which in the A.M.
increased to a fresh Gale, with which we made the best of our way to the
Westward, and by noon had run since yesterday upon a South 86 degrees 15
minutes West Course, 79 Miles. Latitude in, by Observation, 39 degrees 30
minutes South, and Longitude made from Cape Farewell 20 degrees 2 minutes
West. Some flying fish seen this day.
Monday, 16th. Fresh Gales at North-North-West, with Cloudy, hazey
weather. In the P.M. saw an Egg Bird, and yesterday a Gannet was seen;
these are Birds that we reckon never to go far from land. We kept the
lead going all night, but found no soundings with 100 and 130 fathoms
line. At noon we were in the Latitude of 39 degrees 40 minutes South, and
had made 22 degrees 2 minutes of Longitude from Cape Farewell; course and
distance sail'd since Yesterday at Noon South 82 degrees West, 108 Miles.
Tuesday, 17th. At 2 p.m. the wind came to West-South-West, at which time
we Tack'd and stood to the North-West. Before 5 o'Clock we were obliged
to close reef our Topsails, having a Strong gale, with very heavy
squalls; about this time a Small land bird was seen to pearch upon the
rigging. We sounded, but had no ground with 120 fathoms of line. At 8
o'Clock we wore and stood to the Southward until 12 at Night, then wore
and stood to the North-West until 4 a.m., when we again stood to the
Southward, having a fresh Gale at West-South-West, attended with Squalls
and dark hazey unsettled weather until 9; at which time it fell little
wind, and the weather soon after Clear'd up, which, a little after 11,
gave us an Opportunity of taking several observations of the Sun and
Moon, the Mean result of which gave 207 degrees 56 minutes West Longitude
from the Meridian of Greenwich. From these observations the Longitude of
the Ship at Noon was 207 degrees 58 minutes, and by the Log 208 degrees
20 minutes, the difference being only 22 minutes; and this Error may as
well be in the one as the other. Our Latitude at Noon was 39 degrees 36
minutes South, the Longitude made from Cape Farewell 22 degrees 22
Wednesday, 18th. Winds Southerly, a hard gale, with heavy squalls,
attended with Showers of rain and a great Sea from the same Quarter. At 3
p.m. Close reeft the Topsails, handed the Main and Mizen Topsail, and got
down Top Gallant Yards. At 6 the Gale increased to such a height as to
oblige us to take in the Foretopsail and Mainsail, and to run under the
Foresail and Mizen all night; Sounding every 2 hours, but found no ground
with 120 fathoms. At 6 a.m. set the Mainsail, and soon after the
Foretopsail, and before Noon the Maintopsail, both close reeft. At Noon
our Latitude by observation was 38 degrees 45 minutes South, Longitude
from Cape Farewell 23 degrees 43 minutes West; and Course and distance
run since Yesterday noon North 51 degrees West, 82 Miles. Last night we
saw a Port Egmont Hen, and this morning 2 More, a Pintado bird, several
Albetrosses, and black sheer Waters. The first of these birds are Certain
signs of the nearness of land; indeed we cannot be far from it. By our
Longitude we are a degree to the Westward of the East side of Van
Diemen's Land, according to Tasman, the first discoverer's, Longitude of
it, who could not err much in so short a run as from this land to New
Zeland; and by our Latitude we could not be above 50 or 55 Leagues to the
Northward of the place where he took his departure from.
CHAPTER 8. EXPLORATION OF EAST COAST OF AUSTRALIA.
THURSDAY, 19th. In the P.M. had fresh Gales at South-South-West and
Cloudy Squally weather, with a large Southerly Sea; at 6 took in the
Topsails, and at 1 A.M. brought too and Sounded, but had no ground with
130 fathoms of line. At 5, set the Topsails close reef'd, and 6, saw
land* (* The south-east coast of Australia. See chart.) extending from
North-East to West, distance 5 or 6 Leagues, having 80 fathoms, fine
sandy bottom. We continued standing to the Westward with the Wind at
South-South-West until 8, at which time we got Topgallant Yards a Cross,
made all sail, and bore away along shore North-East for the Eastermost
land we had in sight, being at this time in the Latitude of 37 degrees 58
minutes South, and Longitude of 210 degrees 39 minutes West. The
Southermost point of land we had in sight, which bore from us West 1/4
South, I judged to lay in the Latitude of 38 degrees 0 minutes South and
in the Longitude of 211 degrees 7 minutes West from the Meridian of
Greenwich. I have named it Point Hicks, because Lieutenant Hicks was the
first who discover'd this Land. To the Southward of this point we could
see no land, and yet it was clear in that Quarter, and by our Longitude
compared with that of Tasman's, the body of Van Diemen's land ought to
have bore due South from us, and from the soon falling of the Sea after
the wind abated I had reason to think it did; but as we did not see it,
and finding the Coast to trend North-East and South-West, or rather more
to the Westward, makes me Doubtfull whether they are one land or no.* (*
Had not the gale on the day before forced Cook to run to the northward,
he would have made the north end of the Furneaux Group, and probably have
discovered Bass Strait, which would have cleared up the doubt, which he
evidently felt, as to whether Tasmania was an island or not. The fact was
not positively known until Dr. Bass sailed through the Strait in a
whale-boat in 1797. Point Hicks was merely a rise in the coast-line,
where it dipped below the horizon to the westward, and the name of Point
Hicks Hill is now borne by an elevation that seems to agree with the
position.) However, every one who compares this Journal with that of
Tasman's will be as good a judge as I am; but it is necessary to observe
that I do not take the Situation of Vandiemen's from the Printed Charts,
but from the extract of Tasman's Journal, published by Dirk Rembrantse.
At Noon we were in the Latitude of 37 degrees 50 minutes and Longitude of
210 degrees 29 minutes West. The extreams of the Land extending from
North-West to East-North-East, a remarkable point, bore North 20 degrees
East, distant 4 Leagues. This point rises to a round hillock very much
like the Ramhead going into Plymouth sound, on which account I called it
by the same name; Latitude 37 degrees 39 minutes, Longitude 210 degrees
22 minutes West. The Variation by an Azimuth taken this morning was 8
degrees 7 minutes East. What we have as yet seen of this land appears
rather low, and not very hilly, the face of the Country green and Woody,
but the Sea shore is all a white Sand.
Friday, 20th. In the P.M. and most part of the night had a fresh Gale
Westerly, with Squalls, attended with Showers of rain. In the A.M. had
the Wind at South-West, with Severe weather. At 1 p.m. saw 3 Water Spouts
at once; 2 were between us and the Shore, and one at some distance upon
our Larboard Quarter. At 6, shortned sail, and brought too for the Night,
having 56 fathoms fine sandy bottom. The Northermost land in sight bore
North by East 1/2 East, and a small Island* (* Gabo Island.) lying close
to a point on the Main bore West, distant 2 Leagues. This point I have
named Cape Howe* (* Cape Howe, called after Admiral Earl Howe, is the
south-east point of Australia. The position is almost exact.); it may be
known by the Trending of the Coast, which is North on the one Side and
South-West on the other. Latitude 37 degrees 28 minutes South; Longitude
210 degrees 3 minutes West. It may likewise be known by some round hills
upon the main just within it. Having brought too with her head off Shore,
we at 10 wore, and lay her head in until 4 a.m., at which time we made
sail along shore to the Northward. At 6, the Northermost land in sight
bore North, being at this time about 4 Leagues from the Land. At Noon we
were in the Latitude of 36 degrees 51 minutes South and Longitude of 209
degrees 53 minutes West, and 3 Leagues from the land. Course sail'd along
shore since Yesterday at Noon was first North 52 degrees East, 30 miles,
then North by East and North by West, 41 Miles. The weather being clear
gave us an opportunity to View the Country, which had a very agreeable
and promising aspect, diversified with hills, ridges, plains, and
Valleys, with some few small lawns; but for the most part the whole was
covered with wood, the hills and ridges rise with a gentle slope; they
are not high, neither are there many of them.
[Off Cape Dromedary, New South Wales.]
Saturday, 21st. Winds Southerly, a Gentle breeze, and Clear weather, with
which we coasted along shore to the Northward. In the P.M. we saw the
smoke of fire in several places; a Certain sign that the Country is
inhabited. At 6, being about 2 or 3 Leagues from the land, we shortned
Sail, and Sounded and found 44 fathoms, a sandy bottom. Stood on under an
easey sail until 12 o'Clock, at which time we brought too until 4 A.M.,
when we made sail, having then 90 fathoms, 5 Leagues from the land. At 6,
we were abreast of a pretty high Mountain laying near the Shore, which,
on account of its figure, I named Mount Dromedary (Latitude 36 degrees 18
minutes South, Longitude 209 degrees 55 minutes West). The shore under
the foot of the Mountain forms a point, which I have named Cape
Dromedary, over which is a peaked hillock. At this time found the
Variation to be 10 degrees 42 minutes East. Between 10 and 11 o'Clock Mr.
Green and I took several Observations of the Sun and Moon, the mean
result of which gave 209 degrees 17 minutes West Longitude from the
Meridian of Greenwich. By observation made yesterday we were in the
Longitude 210 degrees 9 minutes. West 20 minutes gives 209 degrees 49
minutes the Longitude of the Ship to-day at noon per yesterday's
observation, the Mean of which and to-day's give 209 degrees 33 minutes
West, by which I fix the Longitude of this Coast. Our Latitude at Noon
was 35 degrees 49 minutes South; Cape Dromedary bore South 30 degrees
West, distant 12 Leagues. An Open Bay* (* Bateman Bay.) wherein lay 3 or
4 Small Islands, bore North-West by West, distant 5 or 6 Leagues. This
Bay seem'd to be but very little Shelter'd from the Sea Winds, and yet it
is the only likely Anchoring place I have yet seen upon the Coast.
Sunday, 22nd. In the P.M. had a Gentle breeze at South by West with which
we steer'd along shore North by East and North-North-East at the distance
of about 3 Leagues. Saw the smoke of fire in several places near the Sea
beach. At 5, we were abreast of a point of land which, on account of its
perpendicular Clifts, I call'd Point Upright; Latitude 35 degrees 35
minutes South; it bore from us due West, distant 2 Leagues, and in this
Situation had 31 fathoms, Sandy bottom. At 6, falling little wind, we
hauld off East-North-East; at this time the Northermost land in sight
bore North by East 1/2 East, and at midnight, being in 70 fathoms, we
brought too until 4 A.M., at which time we made sail in for the land, and
at daylight found ourselves nearly in the same Place we were at 5 o'Clock
in the evening, by which it was apparent that we had been drove about 3
Leagues to the Southward by a Tide or Current in the night. After this we
steer'd along shore North-North-East, having a Gentle breeze at
South-West, and were so near the Shore as to distinguish several people
upon the Sea beach. They appeared to be of a very dark or black Colour;
but whether this was the real Colour of their skins or the Cloathes they
might have on I know not. At Noon we were by Observation in the Latitude
of 35 degrees 27 minutes and Longitude 209 degrees 23 minutes; Cape
Dromedary bore South 28 degrees West, distance 15 Leagues. A remarkable
peak'd hill laying inland, the Top of which looked like a Pigeon house,
and occasioned my giving it that name, bore North 32 degrees 33 minutes
West, and a small low Island, laying close under the Shore, bore
North-West, distance 2 or 3 Leagues; Variation of the Compass 9 degrees
50 minutes East. When we first discover'd this Island in the morning I
was in hopes, from its appearance, that we should have found Shelter for
the Ship behind it; but when we came to approach it near I did not think
that there was even security for a Boat to land. But this, I believe, I
should have attempted had not the wind come on Shore, after which I did
not think it safe to send a Boat from the Ship, as we had a large hollow
Sea from the South-East rowling in upon the land, which beat every where
very high upon the Shore; and this we have had ever since we came upon
the Coast. The land near the Sea coast still continues of a moderate
height, forming alternately rocky points and Sandy beaches; but inland,
between Mount Dromedary and the Pigeon house, are several pretty high
Mountains, 2 only of which we saw but what were covered with Trees, and
these lay inland behind the Pigeon House, and are remarkably flat a Top,
with Steep rocky clifts all round them. As far as we could see the Trees
in this Country hath all the appearance of being stout and lofty. For
these 2 days past the observed Latitude hath been 12 or 14 Miles to the
Southward of the Ship's account given by the Log, which can be owing to
nothing but a Current set to the Southward.
Monday, 23rd. In the P.M. had a Gentle breeze at East, which in the night
veer'd to North-East and North. At 1/2 past 4 P.M., being about 5 Miles
from the Land, we Tack'd and stood off South-East and East until 4 A.M.,
at which time we Tack'd and stood in, being then about 9 or 10 Leagues
from the land. At 8, it fell little wind, and soon after Calm. At Noon we
were by Observation in the Latitude of 35 degrees 38 minutes and about 6
Leagues from the land, Mount Dromedary bearing South 37 degrees West,
distant 17 Leagues, and the Pidgeon house North 40 degrees West; in this
situation had 74 fathoms.
Tuesday, 24th. In the P.M. had Variable light Airs and Calms until 6
o'Clock, at which time a breeze sprung up at North by West; at this time
we had 70 fathoms Water, being about 4 or 5 Leagues from the land, the
Pidgeon house bearing North 40 degrees West, Mount Dromedary South 30
degrees West, and the Northermost land in sight North 19 degrees East.
Stood to the North-East until Noon, having a Gentle breeze at North-West,
at which time we Tack'd and stood to the Westward, being then, by
observation, in the Latitude of 35 degrees 10 minutes South and Longitude
208 degrees 51 minutes West. A point of land which I named Cape St.
George, we having discovered it on that Saint's day, bore West, distant
19 Miles, and the Pidgeon house South 7 degrees West, the Latitude and
Longitude of which I found to be 35 degrees 19 minutes South and 209
degrees 42 minutes West. In the morning we found the Variation to be, by
the Amplitude, 7 degrees 50 minutes East, by several Azimuths 7 degrees
54 minutes East.
[Off Jervis Bay, New South Wales.]
Wednesday, 25th. In the P.M. had a fresh breeze at North-West until 3
o'Clock, at which time it came to West, and we Tack'd and stood to the
Northward. At 5 o'Clock, being about 5 or 6 Leagues from the land, the
Pidgeon house bearing West-South-West, distant 9 Leagues, sounded and had
86 fathoms. At 8, being very squally, with lightning, we close reef'd the
Topsails and brought too, being then in 120 fathoms. At 3 A.M. made sail
again to the Northward, having the advantage of a fresh Gale at
South-West. At Noon we were about 3 or 4 Leagues from the land and in the
Latitude of 34 degrees 22 minutes and Longitude 208 degrees 36 minutes
West. Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday noon is North by East 49
Miles. In the Course of this day's run we saw the Smoke of fire in
several places near the Sea beach. About 2 Leagues to the Northward of
Cape St. George the Shore seems to form a bay,* (* Jervis Bay, a very
fine port, but little use has been made of it up to the present time.)
which appear'd to be shelter'd from the North-East winds; but as we had
the wind it was not in my power to look into it, and the appearance was
not favourable enough to induce me to loose time in beating up to it. The
North point of this bay, on account of its Figure, I nam'd Long Nose.
Latitude 45 degrees 4 minutes South, 8 Leagues to the Northward of this,
is a point which I call'd Red Point; some part of the Land about it
appeared of that Colour (Latitude 34 degrees 29 minutes South, Longitude
208 degrees 49 minutes West). A little way inland to the North-West of
this point is a round hill, the top of which look'd like the Crown of a
Thursday, 26th. Clear, serene weather. In the P.M. had a light breeze at
North-North-West until 5, at which time it fell Calm, we being then about
3 or 4 Leagues from the land and in 48 fathoms. Variation by Azimuth 8
degrees 48 minutes East, the extreams of the land from North-East by
North to South-West by South. Saw several smokes along shore before dark,
and 2 or 3 times a fire. In the Night we lay becalm'd, driving in before
the Sea, until one o'Clock A.M., at which time we got a breeze from the
land, with which we steer'd North-East, being then in 38 fathoms water.
At Noon it fell little Wind, and veer'd to North-East by North, we being
then in the Latitude of 34 degrees 10 minutes and Longitude 208 degrees
27 minutes West, and about 5 Leagues from the land, which extended from
South 37 degrees West to North 1/2 East. In this Latitude are some White
Clifts, which rise perpendicular from the Sea to a moderate height.
Friday, 27th. Var'ble light Airs between the North-East and North-West,
clear pleasant weather. In the P.M. stood off Shore until 2, then Tackt
and Stood in till 6, at which time we tack'd and stood off, being then in
54 fathoms and about 4 or 5 miles from the land, the Extreams of which
bore from South, 28 degrees West to North 25 degrees 30 minutes East. At
12 we tack'd and stood in until 4 A.M., then made a Trip off until day
light, after which we stood in for the land; in all this time we lost
ground, owing a good deal to the Variableness of the winds, for at Noon
we were by Observation in the Latitude of 34 degrees 21 minutes South,
Red Point bearing South 27 degrees West, distant 3 Leagues. In this
Situation we were about 4 or 5 Miles from the land, which extended from
South 19 degrees 30 minutes West to North 29 degrees East.
Saturday, 28th. In the P.M. hoisted out the Pinnace and Yawl in order to
attempt a landing, but the Pinnace took in the Water so fast that she was
obliged to be hoisted in again to stop her leakes. At this time we saw
several people a shore, 4 of whom where carrying a small Boat or Canoe,
which we imagin'd they were going to put in to the Water in order to Come
off to us; but in this we were mistaken. Being now not above 2 Miles from
the Shore Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, Tupia, and myself put off in the Yawl,
and pull'd in for the land to a place where we saw 4 or 5 of the Natives,
who took to the Woods as we approached the Shore; which disappointed us
in the expectation we had of getting a near View of them, if not to speak
to them. But our disappointment was heightened when we found that we no
where could effect a landing by reason of the great Surf which beat
everywhere upon the shore. We saw haul'd up upon the beach 3 or 4 small
Canoes, which to us appeared not much unlike the Small ones of New
Zeland. In the wood were several Trees of the Palm kind, and no under
wood; and this was all we were able to observe from the boat, after which
we return'd to the Ship about 5 in the evening.* (* The place where Cook
attempted to land is near Bulli, a place where there is now considerable
export of coal. A large coal port, Wollongong, lies a little to the
southward.) At this time it fell Calm, and we were not above a Mile and a
half from the Shore, in 11 fathoms, and within some breakers that lay to
the Southward of us; but luckily a light breeze came off from the Land,
which carried us out of danger, and with which we stood to the Northward.
At daylight in the morning we discover'd a Bay,* (* Botany Bay.) which
appeared to be tollerably well shelter'd from all winds, into which I
resolved to go with the Ship, and with this View sent the Master in the
Pinnace to sound the Entrance, while we keept turning up with the Ship,
having the wind right out. At noon the Entrance bore North-North-West,
distance 1 Mile.
[At Anchor, Botany Bay, New South Wales.]
Sunday, 29th. In the P.M. wind Southerly and Clear weather, with which we
stood into the bay and Anchored under the South shore about 2 miles
within the Entrance in 5 fathoms, the South point bearing South-East and
the North point East. Saw, as we came in, on both points of the bay,
several of the Natives and a few hutts; Men, Women, and Children on the
South Shore abreast of the Ship, to which place I went in the Boats in
hopes of speaking with them, accompanied by Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and
Tupia. As we approached the Shore they all made off, except 2 Men, who
seem'd resolved to oppose our landing. As soon as I saw this I order'd
the boats to lay upon their Oars, in order to speak to them; but this was
to little purpose, for neither us nor Tupia could understand one word
they said. We then threw them some nails, beads, etc., a shore, which
they took up, and seem'd not ill pleased with, in so much that I thought
that they beckon'd to us to come ashore; but in this we were mistaken,
for as soon as we put the boat in they again came to oppose us, upon
which I fir'd a musquet between the 2, which had no other Effect than to
make them retire back, where bundles of their darts lay, and one of them
took up a stone and threw at us, which caused my firing a Second Musquet,
load with small Shott; and altho' some of the shott struck the man, yet
it had no other effect than making him lay hold on a Target. Immediately
after this we landed, which we had no sooner done than they throw'd 2
darts at us; this obliged me to fire a third shott, soon after which they
both made off, but not in such haste but what we might have taken one;
but Mr. Banks being of Opinion that the darts were poisoned, made me
cautious how I advanced into the Woods. We found here a few small hutts
made of the Bark of Trees, in one of which were 4 or 5 Small Children,
with whom we left some strings of beads, etc. A quantity of Darts lay
about the Hutts; these we took away with us. 3 Canoes lay upon the beach,
the worst I think I ever saw; they were about 12 or 14 feet long, made of
one piece of the Bark of a Tree, drawn or tied up at each end, and the
middle keept open by means of pieces of Stick by way of Thwarts. After
searching for fresh water without success, except a little in a Small
hole dug in the Sand, we embarqued, and went over to the North point of
the bay, where in coming in we saw several people; but when we landed now
there were nobody to be seen. We found here some fresh Water, which came
trinkling down and stood in pools among the rocks; but as this was
troublesome to come at I sent a party of men ashore in the morning to the
place where we first landed to dig holes in the sand, by which means and
a Small stream they found fresh Water sufficient to Water the Ship. The
String of Beads, etc., we had left with the Children last night were
found laying in the Hutts this morning; probably the Natives were afraid
to take them away. After breakfast we sent some Empty Casks a shore and a
party of Men to cut wood, and I went myself in the Pinnace to sound and
explore the Bay, in the doing of which I saw some of the Natives; but
they all fled at my Approach. I landed in 2 places, one of which the
people had but just left, as there were small fires and fresh Muscles
broiling upon them; here likewise lay Vast heaps of the largest Oyster
Shells I ever saw.
Monday, 30th. As Soon as the Wooders and Waterers were come on board to
Dinner 10 or 12 of the Natives came to the watering place, and took away
their Canoes that lay there, but did not offer to touch any one of our
Casks that had been left ashore; and in the afternoon 16 or 18 of them
came boldly up to within 100 yards of our people at the watering place,
and there made a stand. Mr. Hicks, who was the Officer ashore, did all in
his power to intice them to him by offering them presents; but it was to
no purpose, all they seem'd to want was for us to be gone. After staying
a Short time they went away. They were all Arm'd with Darts and wooden
Swords; the darts have each 4 prongs, and pointed with fish bones. Those
we have seen seem to be intended more for striking fish than offensive
Weapons; neither are they poisoned, as we at first thought. After I had
return'd from sounding the Bay I went over to a Cove on the North side of
the Bay, where, in 3 or 4 Hauls with the Sean, we caught about 300 pounds
weight of Fish, which I caused to be equally divided among the Ship's
Company. In the A.M. I went in the Pinnace to sound and explore the North
side of the bay, where I neither met with inhabitants or anything
remarkable. Mr. Green took the Sun's Meridian Altitude a little within
the South Entrance of the Bay, which gave the Latitude 34 degrees 0
Tuesday, May 1st. Gentle breezes, Northerly. In the P.M. 10 of the
Natives again visited the Watering place. I, being on board at this time,
went immediately ashore, but before I got there they were going away. I
follow'd them alone and unarm'd some distance along shore, but they would
not stop until they got farther off than I choose to trust myself. These
were armed in the same manner as those that came Yesterday. In the
evening I sent some hands to haul the Saine, but they caught but a very
few fish. A little after sunrise I found the Variation to be 11 degrees 3
minutes East. Last night Forby Sutherland, Seaman, departed this Life,
and in the A.M. his body Was buried ashore at the watering place, which
occasioned my calling the south point of this bay after his name. This
morning a party of us went ashore to some Hutts, not far from the
Watering place, where some of the Natives are daily seen; here we left
several articles, such as Cloth, Looking Glasses, Coombs, Beads, Nails,
etc.; after this we made an Excursion into the Country, which we found
diversified with Woods, Lawns, and Marshes. The woods are free from
underwood of every kind, and the trees are at such a distance from one
another that the whole Country, or at least great part of it, might be
Cultivated without being obliged to cut down a single tree. We found the
Soil every where, except in the Marshes, to be a light white sand, and
produceth a quantity of good Grass, which grows in little Tufts about as
big as one can hold in one's hand, and pretty close to one another; in
this manner the Surface of the Ground is Coated. In the woods between the
Trees Dr. Solander had a bare sight of a Small Animal something like a
Rabbit, and we found the Dung of an Animal* (* This was the kangaroo.)
which must feed upon Grass, and which, we judge, could not be less than a
Deer; we also saw the Track of a Dog, or some such like Animal. We met
with some Hutts and places where the Natives had been, and at our first
setting out one of them was seen; the others, I suppose, had fled upon
our Approach. I saw some Trees that had been cut down by the Natives with
some sort of a Blunt instrument, and several Trees that were barqued, the
bark of which had been cut by the same instrument; in many of the Trees,
especially the Palms, were cut steps of about 3 or 4 feet asunder for the
conveniency of Climbing them. We found 2 Sorts of Gum, one sort of which
is like Gum Dragon, and is the same, I suppose, Tasman took for Gum lac;
it is extracted from the largest tree in the Woods.
Wednesday, 2nd. Between 3 and 4 in the P.M. we return'd out of the
Country, and after Dinner went ashore to the watering place, where we had
not been long before 17 or 18 of the Natives appeared in sight. In the
morning I had sent Mr. Gore, with a boat, up to the head of the Bay to
drudge for Oysters; in his return to the Ship he and another person came
by land, and met with these people, who followed him at the Distance of
10 or 20 Yards. Whenever Mr. Gore made a stand and faced them they stood
also, and notwithstanding they were all Arm'd, they never offer'd to
Attack him; but after he had parted from them, and they were met by Dr.
Monkhouse and one or 2 more, who, upon making a Sham retreat, they
throw'd 3 darts after them, after which they began to retire. Dr.
Solander, I, and Tupia made all the haste we could after them, but could
not, either by words or Actions, prevail upon them to come near us, Mr.
Gore saw some up the Bay, who by signs invited him ashore, which he
prudently declined. In the A.M. had the wind in the South-East with rain,
which prevented me from making an Excursion up the head of the bay as I
Thursday, 3rd. Winds at South-East, a Gentle breeze and fair weather. In
the P.M. I made a little excursion along the Sea Coast to the Southward,
accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. At our first entering the
woods we saw 3 of the Natives, who made off as soon as they saw us; more
of them were seen by others of our people, who likewise made off as soon
as they found they were discover'd. In the A.M. I went in the Pinnace to
the head of the bay, accompanied by Drs. Solander and Monkhouse, in order
to Examine the Country, and to try to form some Connections with the
Natives. In our way thither we met with 10 or 12 of them fishing, each in
a Small Canoe, who retir'd into Shoald water upon our approach. Others
again we saw at the first place we landed at, who took to their Canoes,
and fled before we came near them; after this we took Water, and went
almost to the head of the inlet, were we landed and Travel'd some
distance in land. We found the face of the Country much the same as I
have before described, but the land much richer for instead of sand I
found in many places a deep black soil, which we thought was Capable of
producing any kind of grain. At present it produceth, besides Timber, as
fine Meadow as ever was seen; however, we found it not all like this,
some few places were very rocky, but this, I believe, to be uncommon. The
stone is sandy, and very proper for building, etc. After we had
sufficiently examin'd this part we return'd to the Boat, and seeing some
Smoke and Canoes at another part we went thither, in hopes of meeting
with the people, but they made off as we approached. There were 6 Canoes
and 6 small fires near the Shore, and Muscles roasting upon them, and a
few Oysters laying near; from this we conjectured that there had been
just 6 people, who had been out each in his Canoe picking up the Shell
fish, and come a Shore to eat them, where each had made his fire to dress
them by. We tasted of their Cheer, and left them in return Strings of
beads, etc. The day being now far spent, we set out on our return to the
Friday, 4th. Winds northerly, serene weather. Upon my return to the Ship
in the evening I found that none of the Natives had Appear'd near the
Watering place, but about 20 of them had been fishing in their Canoes at
no great distance from us. In the A.M., as the Wind would not permit us
to sail, I sent out some parties into the Country to try to form some
Connections with the Natives. One of the Midshipmen met with a very old
man and Woman and 2 Small Children; they were Close to the Water side,
where several more were in their Canoes gathering of Shell fish, and he,
being alone, was afraid to make any stay with the 2 old People least he
should be discovr'd by those in the Canoes. He gave them a bird he had
Shott, which they would not Touch; neither did they speak one word, but
seem'd to be much frightned. They were quite Naked; even the Woman had
nothing to cover her nudities. Dr. Monkhouse and another Man being in the
Woods, not far from the watering place, discover'd 6 more of the Natives,
who at first seem'd to wait his coming; but as he was going up to them he
had a dart thrown at him out of a Tree, which narrowly escaped him. As
soon as the fellow had thrown the dart he descended the Tree and made
off, and with him all the rest, and these were all that were met with in
the Course of this day.
Saturday, 5th. In the P.M. I went with a party of Men over to the North
Shore, and while some hands were hauling the Sean, a party of us made an
Excursion of 3 or 4 Miles into the Country, or rather along the Sea
Coast. We met with nothing remarkable; great part of the Country for some
distance inland from the Sea Coast is mostly a barren heath, diversified
with Marshes and Morasses. Upon our return to the Boat we found they had
caught a great number of small fish, which the sailors call leather
Jackets on account of their having a very thick skin; they are known in
the West Indies. I had sent the Yawl in the morning to fish for Sting
rays, who returned in the Evening with upwards of four hundred weight;
one single one weigh'd 240 pounds Exclusive of the entrails. In the A.M.,
as the wind Continued Northerly, I sent the Yawl again a fishing, and I
went with a party of Men into the Country, but met with nothing
[Description of Botany Bay, New South Wales.]
Sunday, 6th. In the evening the Yawl return'd from fishing, having Caught
2 Sting rays weighing near 600 pounds. The great quantity of plants Mr.
Banks and Dr. Solander found in this place occasioned my giving it the
Name of Botany Bay.* (* The Bay was at first called Stingray Bay. The
plan of it at the Admiralty is called by this name, and none of the logs
know Botany Bay. It seems probable that Cook finally settled on the name
after the ship left, and when Banks had had time to examine his
collections. A monument was erected in 1870 near the spot, on the
southern side, where Cook first landed. Botany Bay was intended to be the
site where the first settlement of convicts should be made, but on the
arrival of Captain Phillip, on January 18th, 1788, he found it so
unsuited for the number of his colony that he started in a boat to
examine Broken Bay. On his way he went into Port Jackson, and immediately
decided on settling there. On the 25th and 26th the ships went round, and
Sydney was founded.) It is situated in the Latitude of 34 degrees 0
minutes South, Longitude 208 degrees 37 minutes West. It is capacious,
safe, and Commodious; it may be known by the land on the Sea Coast, which
is of a pretty even and moderate height, Rather higher than it is inland,
with steep rocky Clifts next the Sea, and looks like a long Island lying
close under the Shore. The Entrance of the Bay lies about the Middle of
this land. In coming from the Southward it is discover'd before you are
abreast of it, which you cannot do in coming from the Northward; the
entrance is little more than a Quarter of a Mile broad, and lies in
West-North-West. To sail into it keep the South shore on board until
within a small bare Island, which lies close under the North Shore. Being
within that Island the deepest of Water is on that side, 7, 6 and 5
fathoms a good way up; there is Shoald Water a good way off from the
South Shore--from the inner South Point quite to the head of the harbour;
but over towards the North and North-West Shore is a Channell of 12 or 14
feet at low Water, 3 or 4 Leagues up, to a place where there is 3 or 4
fathoms; but there I found very little fresh Water. We Anchor'd near the
South Shore about a Mile within the Entrance for the Conveniency of
Sailing with a Southerly wind and the getting of Fresh Water; but I
afterwards found a very fine stream of fresh Water on the North shore in
the first sandy Cove within the Island, before which the Ship might lay
almost land locked, and wood for fuel may be got everywhere. Although
wood is here in great plenty, yet there is very little Variety; the
bigest trees are as large or larger than our Oaks in England, and grows a
good deal like them, and Yields a reddish Gum; the wood itself is heavy,
hard, and black like Lignum Vitae. Another sort that grows tall and
Strait something like Pines--the wood of this is hard and Ponderous, and
something of the Nature of America live Oak. These 2 are all the Timber
trees I met with; there are a few sorts of Shrubs and several Palm Trees
and Mangroves about the Head of the Harbour. The Country is woody, low,
and flat as far in as we could see, and I believe that the Soil is in
general sandy. In the Wood are a variety of very beautiful birds, such as
Cocatoos, Lorryquets, Parrots, etc., and crows Exactly like those we have
in England. Water fowl is no less plenty about the head of the Harbour,
where there is large flats of sand and Mud, on which they seek their
food; the most of these were unknown to us, one sort especially, which
was black and white, and as large as a Goose, but most like a Pelican.*
(* Most probably the Black and White or Semipalmated Goose, now
exterminated in these parts.) On the sand and Mud banks are Oysters,
Muscles, Cockles, etc., which I believe are the Chief support of the
inhabitants, who go into Shoald Water with their little Canoes and peck
them out of the sand and Mud with their hands, and sometimes roast and
Eat them in the Canoe, having often a fire for that purpose, as I
suppose, for I know no other it can be for. The Natives do not appear to
be numerous, neither do they seem to live in large bodies, but dispers'd
in small parties along by the Water side. Those I saw were about as tall
as Europeans, of a very dark brown Colour, but not black, nor had they
woolly, frizled hair, but black and lank like ours. No sort of Cloathing
or Ornaments were ever seen by any of us upon any one of them, or in or
about any of their Hutts; from which I conclude that they never wear any.
Some that we saw had their faces and bodies painted with a sort of White
Paint or Pigment. Altho' I have said that shell fish is their Chief
support, yet they catch other sorts of fish, some of which we found
roasting on the fire the first time we landed; some of these they strike
with Gigs,* (* A fishing implement like a trident.) and others they catch
with hook and line; we have seen them strike fish with gigs, and hooks
and lines are found in their Hutts. Sting rays, I believe, they do not
eat, because I never saw the least remains of one near any of their Hutts
or fire places. However, we could know but very little of their Customs,
as we never were able to form any Connections with them; they had not so
much as touch'd the things we had left in their Hutts on purpose for them
to take away. During our stay in this Harbour I caused the English
Colours to be display'd ashore every day, and an inscription to be cut
out upon one of the Trees near the Watering place, setting forth the
Ship's Name, Date, etc. [Off Port Jackson, New South Wales.]Having seen
everything this place afforded, we, at daylight in the morning, weigh'd
with a light breeze at North-West, and put to Sea, and the wind soon
after coming to the Southward we steer'd along shore North-North-East,
and at Noon we were by observation in the Latitude of 33 degrees 50
minutes South, about 2 or 3 Miles from the Land, and abreast of a Bay,
wherein there appear'd to be safe Anchorage, which I called Port
Jackson.* (* Cook having completed his water at Botany Bay, and having
many hundreds of miles of coast before him, did not examine Port Jackson,
the magnificent harbour in which Sydney, the capital of New South Wales,
now lies. His chart gives the shape of what he could see very accurately,
but the main arm of the harbour is hidden from the sea. He named the bay
after Mr. (afterwards Sir George) Jackson, one of the Secretaries of the
Admiralty. This fact is recorded on a tablet in the Bishop Stortford
Church to the memory of Sir George Duckett, which name Sir George had
assumed in later years. This interesting evidence was brought to light by
Sir Alfred Stephen, Lieutenant-Governor of New South Wales, and puts an
end to the legend which was long current, that Port Jackson was named
after a sailor who first saw it. There was, moreover, no person of the
name of Jackson on board.) It lies 3 leagues to the Northward of Botany
Bay. I had almost forgot to mention that it is high water in this Bay at
the full and change of the Moon about 8 o'Clock, and rises and falls upon
a Perpendicular about 4 or 5 feet.
Monday, 7th. Little wind, Southerly, and Serene pleasant Weather. In the
P.M. found the Variation by several Azimuths to be 8 degrees East; at
sunset the Northermost land in sight bore North 26 degrees East; and some
broken land that appear'd to form a bay bore North 40 degrees West,
distant 4 Leagues. This Bay I named Broken bay,* (* The Hawkesbury River,
the largest on the east coast of Australia, runs into Broken Bay.)
Latitude 33 degrees 36 minutes South. We steer'd along shore
North-North-East all night at the distance of about 3 Leagues from the
land, having from 32 to 36 fathoms, hard sandy bottom. A little after sun
rise I took several Azimuths with 4 Needles belonging to the Azimuth
Compass, the mean result of which gave the Variation of 7 degrees 56
minutes East. At Noon we were by observation in the Latitude of 33
degrees 22 minutes South, and about 3 Leagues from the land, the
Northermost part of which in sight bore North 19 degrees East. Some
pretty high land which projected out in 3 bluff Points, and occasioned my
calling it Cape 3 Points (Latitude 33 degrees 33 minutes South), bore
South-West, distant 5 Leagues; Longitude made from Botany Bay 0 degrees
19 minutes East.
Tuesday, 8th. Variable Light Airs and Clear weather. In the P.M. saw some
smooks upon the Shore, and in the Evening found the Variation to be 8
degrees 25 minutes East; at this time we were about 2 or 3 Miles from the
land, and had 28 fathoms Water. Our situation at Noon was nearly the same
as Yesterday, having advanced not one Step to the Northward.
Wednesday, 9th. Winds northerly; most part a fresh breeze, with which we
stood off Shore until 12 at Night. At the distance of 5 Leagues from the
land had 70 fathoms, at the distance of 6 Leagues 80 fathoms, which is
the Extent of the Soundings, for at the Distance of 10 Leagues off we had
no ground with 150 fathoms. Stood in Shore until 8 o'Clock A.M., and
hardly fetched Cape Three Points; having a little wind at North-West by
North, we tack'd, and stood off until Noon, at which Time we Tack'd with
the wind at North-North-East, being then in the Latitude of 33 degrees 37
minutes South, Cape Three Points bearing North West by West, distance 4
Thursday, 10th. In the P.M., had the wind at North-East by North, with
which we stood in Shore until near 4 o'Clock, when we Tack'd in 23
fathoms Water, being about a Mile from the land, and as much to the
Southward of Cape 3 Points. In the night the wind veer'd to North-West
and West, and in the morning to South-West. Having the advantage of a
light Moon, we made the best of our way along shore to the Northward. At
Noon we were by observation in the Latitude of 32 degrees 53 minutes
South, and Longitude 208 degrees 0 minutes West, and about 2 Leagues from
the land, which extended from North 41 degrees East to South 41 degrees
West. A small round rock or Island,* (* Nobby Head, at the entrance of
Newcastle Harbour, formed by the Hunter River. Newcastle is the great
coal port of New South Wales. It has a population of 20,000, and exports
1,500,000 tons of coal in the year.) laying close under the land, bore
South 82 degrees West, distance 3 or 4 Leagues. At sunrise in the Morning
found the Variation to be 8 degrees East. In the Latitude of 33 degrees 2
minutes South, a little way inland, is a remarkable hill, that is shaped
like the Crown of a Hatt, which we past about 9 o'Clock in the forenoon.
[Off Cape Hawke, New South Wales.]
Friday, 11th. Winds Southerly in the day, and in the night Westerly; a
Gentle breeze and Clear weather. At 4 P.M. past, at the distance of one
Mile, a low rocky point which I named Point Stephens (Latitude 32 degrees
45 minutes); on the North side of this point is an inlet which I called
Port Stephens* (* Called after Mr. Stephens, one of the Secretaries to
the Admiralty. It is a large and fine harbour.) (Latitude 32 degrees 40
minutes; Longitude 207 degrees 51 minutes), that appear'd to me from the
Masthead to be shelter'd from all Winds. At the Entrance lay 3 Small
Islands, 2 of which are of a Tolerable height, and on the Main, near the
shore, are some high round hills that make at a distance like Islands. In
passing this bay at the distance of 2 or 3 miles from the Shore our
soundings were from 33 to 27 fathoms; from which I conjectured that there
must be a sufficient depth of Water for Shipping in the bay. We saw
several smokes a little way in the Country upon the flat land; by this I
did suppose that there were Lagoons which afforded subsistance for the
Natives, such as shell-fish, etc., for we as yet know nothing else they
have to live upon. At 1/2 past 5, the Northermost land in sight bore
North 36 degrees East, and Point Stephens South-West, distant 4 Leagues,
at which time we took in our Steerings,* (* Studding sails.) and run
under an Easey sail all night until 4 A.M., when we made all sail; our
soundings in the night were from 48 to 62 fathoms, at the distance of
between 3 and 4 Leagues from the land. At 8 we were abreast of a high
point of Land, which made in 2 Hillocks; this point I called Cape Hawke*
(* After Admiral Sir Edward Hawke, First Lord of the Admiralty.)
(Latitude 32 degrees 14 minutes South, Longitude 207 degrees 30 minutes
West). It bore from us at this time West distant 8 Miles, and the same
time the Northermost land in sight bore North 6 degrees East, and
appear'd high and like an Island. At Noon this land bore North 8 degrees
East, the Northermost land in sight North 13 degrees East, and Cape Hawke
South 37 degrees West. Latitude in per Observation 32 degrees 2 minutes
South, which was 12 Miles to the Southward of that given by the Log,