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Captain Cook's Journal During the First Voyage Round the World by James Cook

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supervision and wise management to enforce the adoption of these odd
foods and customs.

It is evident that it is to Cook's personal action the success was due.
Wallis and Byron had anti-scorbutics, but they suffered from scurvy;
Furneaux, sailing with Cook in the second voyage, under precisely similar
circumstances, suffered from scurvy. It was only in Cook's ships, and in
the Discovery, commanded and officered by men who had sailed with Cook,
and seen his methods, that exemption occurred.

Cook did more, incomparably more, than any other navigator to discover
new lands. This was only accomplished by dint of hard work; and yet his
men suffered less than in any ships, British or foreign, or similar
expeditions. Though his tracks were in new and unknown waters, we never
hear of starvation; he always manages to have an abundant supply of
water.

The completeness and accuracy of his accounts and charts are no less
remarkable.

M. de La Perouse, one of the foremost of the great French navigators,
told Captain Phillip, the founder of the Colony of New South Wales, that
"Cook had left him nothing but to admire." This was all but literally
true; wherever Cook went he finished his work, according to the
requirements of navigation of his time. He never sighted a land but he
determined its dimensions, its shape, its position, and left true guides
for his successors. His charts are still for some parts unsuperseded, and
his recorded observations still save us from hasty and incorrect
alterations desired by modern navigators.

Well may Englishmen be proud that this greatest of navigators was their
countryman.

PERSONS WHO LEFT ENGLAND IN H.M.S. ENDEAVOUR, 26TH AUGUST, 1768.

Those not otherwise disposed of were paid off on 1st August, 1771.

COLUMN 1: NAME.
COLUMN 2: RANK OR RATING.
COLUMN 3: DISPOSAL.
COLUMN 4: DATE.

James Cook : Lieutenant in Command.

Zachary Hicks : Lieutenant : Died : 25 May, 1771.

John Gore : Lieutenant.

Robert Molineux : Master : Died : 15 April, 1771.

Rich. Pickersgill : Master's Mate, Master, 16 April, 1771.

Chas. Clerke : Master's Mate, A.B., 20 August, 1768, Master's Mate, 17
April, 1771, Lieutenant, 26 May, 1771.

Francis Wilkinson : A.B., Master's Mate, 20 August, 1768.

John Bootie : Midshipman : Died : 4 February, 1771.

Jonathan Monkhouse : Midshipman : Died : 6 February, 1771.

Patrick Saunders : Midshipman, A.B., 24 May, 1770 : Deserted :
25 December, 1770.

Isaac Smith : A.B., Midshipman, 24 May, 1770, Master's Mate, 27 May, 1771.

William Harvey : Lieutenant's Servant, Midshipman, 8 February, 1771.

Jos. Magra : A.B., Midshipman, 27 May, 1771.

Isaac Manley : Master's Servant, Midshipman, 5 February, 1771.

William B. Monkhouse : Surgeon : Died : 5 November, 1770.

William Perry : Surgeon's Mate, Surgeon, 6 November, 1770.

Rich. Orton : Clerk.

Stephen Forwood : Gunner.

John Gathray : Boatswain : Died : 4 February, 1771.

John Satterly : Carpenter : Died : 12 February, 1771.

John Thompson : Cook : Died : 31 January, 1771.

Sam Evans : Quarter Master, Boatswain, 6 February, 1771.

Alex. Weir : Quarter Master : Drowned : 14 September, 1768.

Thos. Hardman : Boatswain's Mate, A.B., 26 March, 1769, Sailmaker,
2 February, 1771.

John Reading : Boatswain's Mate : Died : 29 August, 1769.

Benjamin Jordan : Carpenter's Mate : Died : 31 January, 1771.

John Ravenhill : Sailmaker : Died : 27 January, 1771.

George Nowell : A.B., Carpenter, 14 February, 1771.

Isaac Parker : A.B., Boatswain's Mate, 26 November, 1769.

Robt. Anderson : A.B., Quarter Master, 16 September, 1768.

James Gray : A.B., Quarter Master, 6 February, 1771.

Robert Taylor : Armourer : Died : 1 August, 1771.

Rich. Hutchins : A.B., Boatswain's Mate, 1 September, 1769.

Joseph Childs : A.B., Cook, 1 February, 1771.

Peter Flowers : A.B. : Drowned : 2 December, 1768.

Timothy Rearden : A.B. : Died : 24 December, 1770.

John Rainsay : A.B.

William Dawson : A.B.

Francis Haite : A.B. : Died : 1 February, 1771.

Sam Jones. : A.B.

James Nicholson : A.B. : Died : 31 January, 1771.

Forby Sutherland : A.B. : Died : 30 April, 1770.

Thomas Simmonds : A.B.

Rich. Hughes : A.B., Carpenter's Mate, 14 February, 1771.

Sam Moody : A.B. : Died : 31 January, 1771.

Isaac Johnson : A.B.

Robt. Stainsby : A.B.

William Collett : A.B.

Archibald Wolfe : A.B. : Died : 31 January, 1771.

Matthew Cox : A.B.

Chas. Williams : A.B.

Alex. Simpson : A.B.. : Died : 21 February, 1771.

Thos. Knight : A.B.

Hy. Stevens : A.B.

Thos. Jones (2) : A.B.

Antony Ponto : A.B.

Jeh. Dozey : A.B. : Died : 7 April, 1771.

Jas. Tunley : A.B.

Mich. Littleboy : A.B.

John Goodjohn : A.B.

John Woodworth : A.B. : Died : 24 December, 1770.

William Peckover : A.B.

Robt. Littleboy : A.B.

Henry Jeffs : A.B. : Died : 27 February, 1771.

William Howson : Captain's Servant : Died : 30 June, 1771.

Nathl. Morey : Lieutenant's Servant.

Thos. Jones : Surgeon's Servant : Discharged : 5 November, 1770.

Ed. Terrell : Carpenter's Servant, A.B. 1 September, 1769.

Thos. Jordan : Boatswain's Servant.

Thos. Matthews : Cook's Servant.

Danl. Roberts : Gunner's Servant : Died. : 2 February, 1771.

John Thurmand (Pressed at Madeira) : A.B. : Died : 3 February, 1771.

MARINES.

John Edgecombe : Sergeant R.M.

John Trusslove : Corporal : Died : 24 January, 1771.

Thos. Rossiter : Drummer.

William Judge : Private.

Hy. Paul : Private.

Danl. Preston : Private : Died : 16 February, 1771.

William Wiltshire : Private.

William Greenslade : Private : Drowned : 6 April, 1769.

Saml. Gibson : Private, Corporal, 26 January, 1771.

Thos. Dunster : Private : Died : 26 January, 1771.

Clement Webb : Private.

John Bowles : Private.

CIVILIANS AND STAFF.

Joseph Banks, Esquire.

Charles Solander : Naturalist.

Charles Green : Astronomer : Died : 29 January, 1771.

John Reynolds : Artist : Died : 18 December, 1770.

Sydney Parkinson : Artist : Died : 26 January, 1771.

Alexander Buchan : Artist : Died : 17 April, 1769.

Herman Sporing : Died : -- : 24 January, 1771.

James Roberts : Servant.

Peter Briscoe : Servant.

Thomas Richmond : Negro Servant : Frozen to death : 16 January, 1769.

George Dorlton : Negro Servant : Frozen to death : 16 January, 1769.

TOTAL LOSS.

1768: Drowned 2.
1769: Drowned 1.
1769: Frozen 2.
1769: Died 2.
1770: Died 5.
1771: Died 26.
Total: 38.

***

A JOURNAL OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF HIS MAJESTY'S BARK ENDEAVOUR, ON A VOYAGE
ROUND THE WORLD, BY
LIEUTENANT JAMES COOK, COMMANDER, COMMENCING THE 25TH OF MAY, 1768.

EXPLANATION (FROM JOURNAL).

IT is necessary to premise by way of explanation, that in this Journal
(except while we lay at George's Island) the day is supposed to begin and
end at noon, as for instance, Friday the 27th May, began at noon on
Thursday 26th, and ended the following noon according to the natural day,
and all the courses and bearings are the true courses and bearings
according to the Globe, and not by Compass. The longitude is counted West
from the meridian of Greenwich where no other place is particularly
mentioned. The proportional length of the log-line to the half minute
glass, by which the ships run was measured, is as thirty seconds is to
thirty feet.

While the ship lay in port or was coasting in sight of land, or sailing
in narrow seas, this Journal is not kept in the usual form, but the
degrees of Latitude and Longitude the ship passes over are put down at
the top of each page, by which together with the notes in the margin* an
easy reference will be had to the Chart. (* These notes in the margin
have not been printed. ED.)

CHAPTER 1. ENGLAND TO RIO JANEIRO.

REMARKABLE OCCURRENCES ON BOARD HIS MAJESTY'S BARK ENDEAVOUR.

1768.

[May to July 1768.]

RIVER THAMES, Friday, May 27th, to Friday, July 29th. Moderate and fair
weather; at 11 a.m. hoisted the Pendant, and took charge of the Ship,
agreeable to my Commission of the 25th instant, she lying in the Bason in
Deptford Yard. From this day to the 21st of July we were constantly
employed in fitting the Ship, taking on board Stores and Provisions, etc.
The same day we sailed from Deptford and anchored in Gallions reach, were
we remained until the 30th. The transactions of Each Day, both while we
lay here and at Deptford, are inserted in the Log Book, and as they
contain nothing but common Occurrences, it was thought not necessary to
insert them here.

[July to August 1768.]

July 30th to August 7th. Saturday, July 30th, Weighed from Gallions, and
made sail down the River, the same day Anchored at Gravesend, and the
next Morning weighed from thence, and at
Noon Anchored at the Buoy of the Fairway. On Wednesday, 3rd of August,
Anchored in the Downs in 9 fathoms of water, Deal Castle North-West by
West. On Sunday, 7th, I joined the Ship, discharged the Pilot, and the
next day saild for Plymouth.

Monday, 8th. Fresh Breezes and Cloudy weather the most part of these 24
hours. At 10 a.m. weighed and came to sail; at Noon the South Foreland
bore North-East 1/2 North, distant 6 or 7 Miles. Wind West by North,
North-West.

Tuesday, 9th. Gentle breezes and Cloudy weather. At 7 p.m. the Tide being
against us, Anchored in 13 fathoms of Water; Dungeness South-West by
West. At 11 a.m. Weighed and made Sail down Channel; at Noon, Beachy
Head, North by East 1/2 East, distant 6 Leagues, Latitude observed 50
degrees 30 minutes North. Wind North-West to North.

Wednesday, 10th. Variable: light Airs and Clear weather. At 8 p.m. Beachy
Head North-East by East, distant 4 Leagues, and at 8 a.m. it bore
North-East by North, 9 Leagues. Found the Variation of the Compass to be
23 degrees West; at Noon the Isle of Wight North-West by North. Wind West
by North, North-East by East.

Thursday, 11th. Light Airs and Clear weather. At 8 p.m. Dunnose North by
West 5 Leagues, and at 4 a.m. it bore North-North-East 1/2 East, distant
5 Leagues. Wind Variable.

Wednesday, 12th. Light Airs and Calms all these 24 Hours. At Noon the
Bill of Portland bore North-West 1/2 West, distant 3 Leagues. Latitude
Observed 50 degrees 24 minutes North. Wind Easterly.

Thursday, 13th. Ditto weather. At Noon the Start Point West 7 or 8 miles.
Latitude Observed 50 degrees 12 minutes North, which must be the Latitude
of the Start, as it bore West.* (* This is correct.) Wind Variable.

Sunday, 14th. Fine breezes and Clear weather. At 1/2 past 8 p.m. Anchored
in the Entrance of Plymouth Sound in 9 fathoms water. At 4 a.m. weighed
and worked into proper Anchoring ground, and Anchored in 6 fathoms, the
Mewstone South-East, Mount Batten North-North-East 1/2 East, and Drake's
Island North by West. Dispatched an Express to London for Mr. Banks and
Dr. Solander to join the Ship, their Servants and Baggage being already
on board. Wind North-Easterly.

Monday, 15th. First and latter parts Moderate breezes and fair; Middle
squally, with heavy showers of rain. I this day received an order to
Augment the Ship's Company to 85 Men, which before was but 70. Received
on board fresh Beef for the Ship's Company. Wind South-West to
South-East.

Tuesday, 16th. First part moderate and Hazey; Middle hard Squalls with
rain; the Latter moderate and fair. Received on board a supply of Bread,
Beer, and Water. A Sergeant, Corporal, Drummer, and 9 Private Marines as
part of the Complement. Wind South-South-East to North-East.

Wednesday, 17th. Little wind and Hazey weather. Sent some Cordage to the
Yard in order to be Exchanged for Smaller. Several Shipwrights and
Joiners from the Yard Employed on board refitting the Gentlemen's Cabins,
and making a Platform over the Tiller, etc. Wind South-East to East by
South.

Thursday, 18th. Little wind and Cloudy. Struck down 4 guns into the Hold.
Received on board 4 More, with 12 Barrels of Powder and several other
Stores. Shipwrights and Joiners Employed on board. Wind Easterly.

Friday, 19th. Former part little wind with rain; remainder fair weather;
a.m. Read to the Ship's Company the Articles of War and the Act of
Parliament, they likewise were paid two Months' Wages in advance. I also
told them that they were to Expect no additional pay for the performance
of our intended Voyage; they were well satisfied, and Expressed great
Cheerfulness and readiness to prosecute the Voyage. Received on board
another Supply of Provisions, Rum, etc. Wind North-West to South-West.

Saturday, 20th. First part little wind with rain; remainder fresh Gales
and thick rainy weather. Employed making ready for Sea. Wind
West-South-West.

Sunday, 21st. Fresh Gales and Ditto Weather. The Shipwrights having
finished their Work, intended to have sailed, instead of which was
obliged to let go another Anchor. Wind South-West, West-South-West.

Monday, 22nd. Fresh Gales, with heavy squalls of Wind and Rain all this
24 hours. Wind South-West.

Tuesday, 23rd. Ditto weather. Struck Yards and Topmasts; Anchored between
the Island and the Main His Majesty's Ship Gibraltar. Wind West by South.

Wednesday, 24th. Fresh Gales and Hazey weather; a.m. hove up the Small
Bower Anchor and got Topmasts and Yards. Wind West by South.

Thursday, 25th. Moderate and Cloudy weather; a.m. received on Board a
supply of Beer and Water, and returned all our Empty Casks. Loosed the
Topsails as a Signal for Sailing. Wind West, North by West, North-West by
West.

[Sailed from Plymouth.]

Friday, 26th. First part fresh Breezes and Cloudy, remainder little wind
and Clear. At 2 p.m. got under Sail and put to Sea, having on board 94
Persons, including Officers, Seamen, Gentlemen, and their Servants; near
18 Months' Provisions, 10 Carriage Guns, 12 Swivels, with good Store of
Ammunition and Stores of all kinds. At 8 the Dodman Point
West-North-West, distant 4 or 5 Leagues; at 6 a.m. the Lizard bore
West-North-West 1/2 West, 5 or 6 Leagues distant. At Noon Sounded and had
50 fathoms, Grey sand with small Stones and broken Shells. Wind North by
West, North-West, West by South; course South 21 degrees East; distance
23 miles; latitude 49 degrees 30 minutes North, longitude 5 degrees 52
minutes West; at noon, Lizard North 21 degrees West distant 23 miles.

Saturday, 27th. First part Light Airs and Clear weather, remainder fresh
breezes and Cloudy. Berthed the Ship's Company, Mustered the Chests and
Stove all that were unnecessary. Wind North-West, North-East, South-East;
course South-West; distance 77 miles; latitude 48 degrees 42 minutes
North, longitude 6 degrees 49 minutes West; at noon, Lizard North 29
degrees East, 80 miles.

Sunday, 28th. Former part fresh Gales and Hazey with rain; remainder a
Moderate breeze and Cloudy. Wind Easterly; course South 48 degrees West;
distance 130 miles; latitude 47 degrees 16 minutes North, longitude 9
degrees 7 minutes West; at noon Lizard North 40 degrees 5 minutes East;
69 leagues.

Monday, 29th. Light Airs and Hazey the Most part of these 24 hours with
some Rain. Wind North-Westerly; course South 21 degrees West; distance 41
miles; latitude 46 degrees 38 minutes North, longitude 9 degrees 29
minutes West; at noon, Lizard North 37 degrees 45 minutes East, 86
leagues.

Tuesday, 30th. Fresh Gales all these 24 Hours. At 1/2 past 1 p.m. Spoke
with His Majesty's Ship Guardaloupe; at 6 Close Reeft the Topsails, and
got down the Top Gallant Yards. Wind Westerly; course South 27 degrees
West; distance 33 miles; latitude 46 degrees 9 minutes North, longitude 9
degrees 52 minutes West; at noon, Lizard North 36 degrees East, 96
leagues.

Wednesday, 31st. First and Middle parts, Moderate breezes and Clear;
Latter, fresh Gales and Cloudy. At 6 p.m. loosed the 2nd Reef out of the
Topsails, and at 8 a.m. took them in again; at Noon Tacked and stood to
the North-West, having stood before to the Southward. Wind West to
South-West; course South 36 degrees East; distance 82 miles; latitude 45
degrees 3 minutes North, longitude 8 degrees 43 minutes West; at noon,
Lizard North-North-East, 105 leagues.

[September 1768. Plymouth to Madeira.]

Thursday, September 1st. Very hard gales, with some heavy showers of
Rain, the most part of these 24 Hours, which brought us under our two
Courses, Broke one of our Main Topmast phuttock Plates, washed overboard
a small Boat belonging to the Boatswain, and drowned between 3 and 4
Dozen of our Poultry, which was worst of all. Towards Noon it moderated,
so that we could bear our Maintopsail close Reefd. At Midnight wore and
stood to the Southward. Wind Westerly; course South 70 degrees West;
distance 20 miles; latitude 44 degrees 56 minutes North, longitude 9
degrees 9 minutes West; at noon, Lizard North 28 degrees 15 minutes West,
109 leagues.

Friday, 2nd. Fresh Gales and Cloudy the most part of these 24 hours. P.M.
got up the spare Mainsail to dry, it being Wet by the Water getting into
the Sail room, occasioned by the Ship being very Leakey in her upper
works. At 5 a.m. loosed 2 Reefs out of each Topsail, and saw the Land,
which we judged to be Cape Finister and Cape Ortugal. At 10 Tackt, being
about 4 miles off Shore, and stood to the North-West; at Noon, Cape
Ortugal bore East by South, distance about 8 Leagues. Wind North by West,
West, South-West, West-South-West; course South by West; distance 64
miles; latitude 43 degrees 53 minutes North, longitude 9 degrees 26
minutes West; at noon, Lizard North-North-East, 130 leagues.

Saturday, 3rd. First part little wind and Hazey, with rain; remainder
strong Gales with hard squalls, which brought us under our close Reeft
Topsails, and obliged us to strike Topgallant Yards. At 8 a.m. wore ship
and stood to the Southward. Wind South-West and West; course South 68
degrees 45 minutes West; distance 44 miles; latitude 44 degrees 9 minutes
North, longitude 10 degrees 20 minutes West; at noon, Lizard North 29 1/2
degrees East, 138 leagues.

Sunday, 4th. Fore part fresh Gales and Clear; remainder light Airs and
Calm. At 6 a.m. Cape Finister bore South by West 1/2 West, distance 10 or
11 leagues. Loosed all the Reefs out of the Topsails, and got Topgallant
Yards across. Wind Westerly, Calm; at noon, Island of Cyserga,* (*
Sisarga, near Coruna.) East-South-East 3 leagues.

Monday, 5th. Light breezes and Calm all these 24 hours. At 2 p.m. had an
Observation of the Sun and Moon, which gave the Longitude 8 degrees 42
minutes West from Greenwich. At 6 Cape Finister bore South by West 1/2
West, 6 Leagues. Variation of the Compass per Azimuth 18 degrees 42
minutes West. At Noon, Cape Finister South by East, distant 4 leagues;
latitude observed 43 degrees 4 minutes, therefore Cape Finister must lay
in latitude 42 degrees 53 minutes North.* (* This is correct.) Wind
Westerly, North-West, Calm.

Tuesday, 6th. Moderate breezes and Clear weather these 24 Hours. A.M.
found the Variation by the Mean of 5 Azimuth to be 21 degrees 40 minutes
West, 3 Degrees more than what it was found Yesterday, which I cannot
account for,* (* Cook, as all other navigators of his time, was unaware
of the deviation of the compass caused by the iron of the ship.) as both
Observations appeared to me to be equally well made. At 10.28 had an
Observation of the sun and moon, which gave the Longitude 9 degrees 40
minutes West from Greenwich. By this Observation Cape Finister must lay
in 8 degrees 52 minutes, and by that made yesterday in 8 degrees 40
minutes. The Mean of the two is 8 degrees 46 minutes West of Greenwich
the Longitude of the Cape,* (* The correct longitude is 9 degrees 15
minutes West.) its latitude being 42 degrees 53 minutes North. Wind
North-West; course South 42 degrees West; distance 70 miles; latitude 42
degrees 1 minute North, longitude 9 degrees 50 minutes West; at noon,
Cape Finister North 42 degrees East, 70 miles.

Wednesday, 7th. Moderate breezes and Clear weather; found the Variation
to be 21 degrees 4 minutes West. Wind West-North-West; course South by
West; distance 92 miles; latitude 40 degrees 29 minutes North, longitude
10 degrees 11 minutes West; at noon, Cape Finister North 13 degrees East,
49 leagues.

Thursday, 8th. Fresh Gales and Cloudy weather. A.M. Past by 2 Sail, which
were standing to the North-East. Wind West-North-West to West by South;
course South 4 degrees East; distance 111 miles; latitude 38 degrees 33
minutes North, longitude 10 degrees West; at noon, Cape Finister North 12
degrees East, 88 leagues.

Friday, 9th. First part fresh Gales; remainder moderate breezes and fine,
Clear weather. Set up the Topmast rigging, and found the Variation to be
19 degrees 50 minutes West. Wind West by North to North-East; course
South 40 degrees West; distance 116 miles; latitude 37 degrees 4 minutes
North, longitude 11 degrees 33 minutes West; at noon, Cape Finister North
20 degrees East, 124 leagues.

Saturday, 10th. A steady, fresh breeze and fine Clear weather. Found the
Variation of the Compys by the Evening and Morning Amplitude and by 2
Azimuth to be 20 degrees 59 minutes West. Wind North-East by East; course
South 36 minutes West; distance 130 miles; latitude 35 degrees 20 minutes
North, longitude 13 degrees 28 minutes West; at noon, Cape Finister North
24 degrees East, 166 leagues.

Sunday, 11th. The same Winds and weather Continue. Found the Variation to
be this Evening 18 degrees 54 minutes, and in the Morning 17 degrees 58
minutes West, they both being the mean result of several good
Observations. Wind North-East by East, North by East; course South 32
degrees West; distance 94 miles; latitude 34 degrees 1 minute North,
longitude 14 degrees 29 minutes West; at noon, Cape Finister North 26 1/2
degrees East, 198 leagues.

Monday, 12th. Moderate breezes and fine Clear weather. At 6 a.m. the
Island of Porto Santo bore North-West by West, distance 9 or 10 leagues.
Hauld the Wind to the westward at noon, the Deserters extending from
West-South-West to South-West by South, the Body of Madeira West 1/2
South, and Porto Santo North-North-West 1/2 West. Wind North-North-West;
course South 40 degrees West; distance 102 miles; latitude 32 degrees 43
minutes North, longitude 15 degrees 53 minutes West.

Tuesday, 13th. Fresh breezes and clear weather. At 8 p.m. anchored in
Funchal Road in 22 fathoms. Found here His Majesty's Ship Rose and
several Merchants' Vessels. In the Morning new berthed the Ship, and
Moor'd with the Stream Anchor, half a Cable on the Best Bower and a
Hawser and a half on the Stream Wind North-West.

MOORED IN FUNCHAL ROAD, MADEIRA, Wednesday, 14th. First part fine, Clear
weather, remainder Cloudy, with Squals from the land, attended with
Showers of rain. In the Night the Bend of the Hawsers of the Stream
Anchor Slip'd owing to the Carelessness of the Person who made it fast.
In the Morning hove up the Anchor in the Boat and carried it out to the
Southward. In heaving the Anchor out of the Boat Mr. Weir, Master's Mate,
was carried overboard by the Buoy rope and to the Bottom with the Anchor.
Hove up the Anchor by the Ship as soon as possible, and found his Body
intangled in the Buoy rope. Moor'd the Ship with the two Bowers in 22
fathoms Water; the Loo Rock West and the Brazen Head East. Saild His
Majesty's Ship Rose. The Boats employed carrying the Casks a Shore for
Wine, and the Caulkers caulking the Ship Sides. Wind Easterly.

Thursday, 15th. Squals of Wind from the Land, with rain the most part of
these 24 Hours. Received on board fresh Beef and Greens for the Ship's
Company, and sent on shore all our Casks for Wine and Water, having a
Shore Boat employed for that purpose. Wind North-East to South-East.

Friday, 16th. The most part fine, Clear weather. Punished Henry Stevens,
Seaman, and Thomas Dunster, Marine, with 12 lashes each, for refusing to
take their allowance of Fresh Beef. Employed taking on board Wine and
Water. Wind Easterly.

Saturday, 17th. Little wind, and fine Clear weather. Issued to the whole
Ship's Company 20 pounds of Onions per Man. Employed as Yesterday. Wind
Westerly.

Sunday, 18th. Ditto Weather. P.M. received on board 270 pounds of fresh
Beef, and a Live Bullock charged 613 pounds. Compleated our Wine and
Water, having received of the former 3032 Gallons, of the Latter 10 Tuns.
A.M. unmoor'd and prepar'd for Sailing. Funchall, in the Island of
Madeira, by Observations made here by Dr. Eberton, F.R.S., lies in the
latitude of 32 degrees 33 minutes 33 seconds North and longitude West
from Greenwich 16 degrees 49 minutes,* (* Modern determination is 32
degrees 38 minutes North, 16 degrees 54 minutes West.) the Variation of
the Compass 15 degrees 30 minutes West, decreasing as he says, which I
much doubt;* (* Cook was right: the variation was increasing.) neither
does this Variation agree with our own Observations. The Tides flow full,
and Change North and South, and rise Perpendicular 7 feet at Spring Tides
and 4 feet at Niep tides. We found the North point of the Diping Needle,
belonging to the Royal Society, to Dip 77 degrees 18 minutes. The
Refreshments for Shipping to be got at this place are Wine, Water, Fruit
of Several Sorts, and Onions in Plenty, and some Sweatmeats; but Fresh
Meat and Poultry are very Dear, and not to be had at any rate without
Leave from the Governour. Wind southerly, East-South-East, South-West.

[Sailed from Madeira.]

Monday, 19th. Light breezes and fine Clear weather. At Midnight Sailed
from Funchall. At 8 a.m. the high land over it bore North 1/2 East.
Unbent the Cables, stow'd the Anchors, and issued to the Ship's Company
10 pounds of Onions per Man. Ship's Draught of Water, Fore 14 feet 8
inches; Aft 15 feet 1 inch. Wind East-South-East; latitude 31 degrees 43
minutes North; at noon, High land over Funchall North 7 degrees East, 49
miles.

Tuesday, 20th. Light Airs and Clear weather. P.M. took several Azimuth,
which gave the Variation 16 degrees 30 minutes West. Put the Ship's
Company to three Watches. Wind variable; course South 21 degrees 30
minutes West; distance 28 miles; latitude 31 degrees 17 minutes,
longitude 17 degrees 19 minutes West; at noon, Funchall, Island of
Madeira, North 13 degrees East, 76 miles.

Wednesday, 21st. First part light Airs, remainder fresh Breezes and Clear
weather. Served Hooks and Lines to the Ship's Company, and employed them
in the day in making Matts, etc., for the Rigging. Wind South-West to
South-West by West; course South 60 degrees East; distance 60 miles;
latitude 30 degrees 46 minutes North, longitude 16 degrees 8 minutes
South; at noon, Funchall North 10 degrees West, 113 miles.

Thursday, 22nd. Genteel breezes and Clear weather. At 4 p.m. saw the
Salvages bearing South; at 6, the Body of the Island bore South 1/2 West,
distant about 5 leagues. Found the Variation of the Compass by an Azimuth
to be 17 degrees 50 minutes West. At 10 the Isles of Salvages bore West
by South 1/2 South, distance 2 leagues. I make those Islands to be in
latitude 30 degrees 11 minutes South, and South 16 degrees East, 58
leagues from Funchall, Madeira. Wind South-West; course South 35 degrees
30 minutes East; distance 73 miles; latitude 29 degrees 40 minutes North,
longitude 15 degrees 31 minutes West; at noon, Funchall North 21 degrees
West, 62 leagues.

Friday, 23rd. Light breezes and Clear weather. At 6 a.m. saw the Peak of
Teneriff bearing West by South 1/2 South, and the Grand Canaries South
1/2 West. The Variation of the Compass from 17 degrees 22 minutes to 16
degrees 30 minutes, Wind South-West, North-East; course South 26 degrees
West; distance 54 miles; latitude 28 degrees 51 minutes North, longitude
15 degrees 50 minutes West; at noon, Funchal North 12 degrees 45 minutes
West, 77 leagues.

Saturday, 24th. A fresh Breeze and Clear weather the most part of these
24 Hours. I take this to be the North-East Trade we have now got into. At
6 p.m. the North-East end of the Island of Teneriff West by North,
distance 3 or 4 Leagues. Off this North-East point lies some Rocks high
above the water. The highest is near the point, and very remarkable. By
our run from Yesterday at Noon this end of the Island must lie in the
latitude of 28 degrees 27 minutes and South 7 degrees 45 minutes East,
distance 83 leagues from Funchal, and South 18 degrees West, 98 miles
from the Salvages. At 1 a.m. the Peak of Teneriff bore West-North-West.
Found the Variation to be this morning 16 degrees 14 minutes West. The
Peak of Teneriff (from which I now take my departure) is a very high
Mountain upon the Island of the same name--one of the Canary Islands. Its
perpendicular higth from Actual Measurement is said to be 15,396 feet.*
(* The received height is 12,180 feet. Latitude 28 degrees 16 minutes
North, Longitude 16 degrees 38 minutes West.) It lies in the Latitude of
28 degrees 13 minutes North, and Longitude 16 degrees 32 minutes from
Greenwich. Its situation in this respect is allowed to be pretty well
determined. Wind North-East by East; latitude 27 degrees 10 minutes
North; at noon Peak of Teneriff North 18 degrees 45 minutes, 74 miles.

Sunday, 25th. A Steady Trade Wind and Clear Weather. The Variation by the
Amplitude this Evening was 14 degrees 58 minutes West. Wind East by
North, East-North-East; course South 41 degrees West; distance 126 miles;
latitude 25 degrees 36 minutes North; at noon Peak of Teneriff North 33
degrees 15 minutes East, 61 leagues.

Monday, 26th. Fresh breezes and somewhat Hazey. Variation by this Evening
Amplitude 15 degrees 1 minute West. Wind North-East by East; course South
22 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 122 miles; latitude 23 degrees 43
minutes North; at noon Peak of Teneriff North 29 degrees East, 317 miles.

Tuesday, 27th. Ditto weather. Served Wine to the Ship's Company, the Beer
being all Expended but 2 Casks, which I intend to keep some time Longer,
as the whole has proved very good to the last Cask. At Noon found the
Ship by Observation 10 miles a Head of the Log, which I suppose may be
owing to a Current setting in the same direction of the Trade Wind. Wind
North-East; course South 19 degrees West; distance 145 miles; latitude 21
degrees 26 minutes North; at noon, Peak of Teneriff, North 26 degrees
East, 154 leagues.

Wednesday, 28th. A Fresh Trade wind and Hazey weather. The Variation of
the Compass by the mean of Several Azimuth taken this Evening 12 degrees
46 minutes, and in the Morning by the same Method 12 degrees 43 minutes
West. This day's Log and Observed Latitude agree, which is not
reconcilable to Yesterday. Exercised the People at Small Arms. Wind
North-East, East-North-East; course South 12 degrees 30 minutes West;
distance 150 miles; latitude 18 degrees 59 minutes North; at noon, Peak
of Teneriff North 23 degrees 15 minutes East, 204 leagues.

Thursday, 29th. Fresh breezes and Hazey weather. The Variation 12 degrees
33 minutes West; the Observed Latitude ahead of that given by the Log 10
miles. Wind North-East by North; course South 14 degrees West; distance
90 miles; latitude 17 degrees 32 minutes North; at noon Peak of Teneriff,
North 33 degrees East, 236 leagues.

[Off Cape de Verd Islands.]

Friday, 30th. A Steady breeze and Pleasant weather. At 6 a.m. saw the
Island of Bonavista (one of the Cape de Verd islands), Extending from
South by East to South-West by South, distance 3 or 4 Leagues. Ranged the
East side of this Island at the Distance of 3 or 4 miles from the Shore,
until we were obliged to Haul Off to avoid a Ledge of Rocks which
stretched out South-West by West from the Body or South-East Point of the
Island 1 1/2 leagues. Had no ground with 40 fathoms a Mile without this
Ledge. The Island of Bonavista is in Extent from North to South about 5
leagues, is of a very uneven and hilly Surface, with low sandy beaches on
the East side. The South-East part of the Island, from which I take my
Departure, by an Observation this day at Noon lies in the latitude of 16
degrees North, and according to our run from Madeira in the longitude of
21 degrees 51 minutes West from Greenwich, and South 21 degrees West; 260
leagues from Tenerriff. Drawings Numbers 1 and 2 represent the appearance
of the East side of this Island, where (2) is the South-East point, with
the hill over it, which is high, of a round Figure, and the southermost
on the Island. Wind North-East; course South 12 degrees 30 minutes West;
distance 97 miles; latitude 15 degrees 37 minutes North per observation;
Teneriffe, North 20 degrees 43 minutes East, 262 1/3 leagues; at noon the
hill on the South-East Point of the Island Bonavista North 69 degrees
West, distant from the shore 3 leagues.

[October 1768.]

Saturday, October 1st. A steady gale and somewhat Hazey. Variation by
very good Azimuths this Evening 10 degrees 37 minutes, and by the same in
the Morning 10 degrees 0 minutes West; at Noon found the ship a Head of
the Log 5 Miles. Wind North, North-North-East; course South 12 degrees 12
minutes West; distance 114 miles; latitude 14 degrees 6 minutes North,
longitude 22 degrees 10 minutes West; at noon Island of Bonavista,
South-East point, North 9 degrees West, 116 miles.

Sunday, 2nd. First part a Steady breeze and pleasant weather, remainder
light breezes and Cloudy. At noon found the Ship by Observation ahead of
the Log 7 miles. Wind North by East, North-North-West; course South 1
degree West; distance 92 miles; latitude 12 degrees 34 minutes North,
longitude 22 degrees 10 minutes West; at noon Bonavista, South-East
point, North 5 degrees 45 minutes East, 69 leagues.

Monday, 3rd. Cloudy weather, with light winds and Calms. Variation by
this Evening Amplitude South 8 degrees 49 minutes West. A.M. hoisted out
a Boat to try if there was any Current; found one setting to the
South-East at the rate of 3/4 of a Mile per hour. Wind North, calm,
South-South-West 1/2 West; course South 3 degrees 30 minutes East;
distance 20 miles; latitude 12 degrees 14 minutes North, longitude 22
degrees 10 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 5
degrees East, 76 leagues.

Tuesday, 4th. Calm for the Greatest part of the 24 Hours. By an
Observation we had this Morning of the Sun and Moon found our Selves in
the Longitude of 22 degrees 32 minutes 30 seconds West from Greenwich;
that by account is 21 degrees 58 minutes, the Difference being 34 miles
Westerly, which does not agree with the Setting of the Current, for
having try'd it twice to-day and found it set to the East-South-East 1
Mile per Hour, and at the same time found the Ship to the Southward of
the Log by the Noon Observation 10 miles. Served Portable soup and Sour
kroutt to the Ship's Company. Wind variable; course South 53 degrees
West; distance 17 miles; latitude 11 degrees 53 minutes North, longitude
22 degrees 33 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 2
degrees East, 82 leagues.

Wednesday, 5th. Light breezes of Wind, sometimes Clear and sometimes
Cloudy weather. Variation 6 degrees 10 minutes West by an Amplitude and
Azimuth this evening. At noon found the Ship by the Observed Latitude 7
Miles to the Southward of the Log, and by the Observed Longitude 30
degrees to the Eastward of Yesterday's Observations; and as these
Observations for finding the Longitude (if carefully observed with good
Instrument) will generally come within 10 or 15 Miles of each other, and
very often much nearer, it therefore can be no longer in Doubt but that
there is a Current setting to the Eastward;* (* This was the Counter
Equatorial Current.) yet we cannot have had this Current long, because
the Longitude by account and that by Observation agree to-day, but
Yesterday she was 28 miles to the Westward of the Observation. Wind calm,
North-East, East; course South 29 degrees East; distance 57 miles;
latitude 10 degrees 56 minutes North, longitude 22 degrees 3 minutes
West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 2 degrees East, 101
leagues.

Thursday, 6th. First part light Breezes and Cloudy; Middle frequent heavy
Squalls, with rain, till towards Noon when we had again little wind.
Found the Variation by the mean of 3 Azimuth, taken this Morning, to be 8
degrees 52 minutes West, which makes the Variation found Yesterday
doubtful. Wind North-East, South-East, Southerly; course South 10 degrees
30 minutes West; distance 77 miles; latitude 9 degrees 40 minutes North,
longitude 22 degrees 28 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East
point, North 4 degrees East, 128 leagues.

Friday, 7th. Variable light Airs and Calm all these 24 Hours. At Noon
found the Current to set South-East 1/4 South one Mile per hour, and yet
by Observation at Noon I find the Ship 12 Miles to the Northward of
Account, a Circumstance that hath not happened for many days, and which I
believe to be owing to the heavy Squalls we had Yesterday from the
South-East, which obliged us to put frequently before the Wind. Wind
Southerly, calm, Northerly; course South 5 degrees West; distance 10
miles; latitude 9 degrees 42 minutes North, longitude 22 degrees 19
minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 4 degrees East,
127 leagues.

[Between Cape de Verd Islands and Equator.]

Saturday, 8th. First part, light Airs and Clear weather; Middle, Squally,
with Thunder and Lightning all round; latter part, Moderate breezes and
Clear weather. Had several Azimuths both in the Evening and Morning,
which gave the Variation South 8 degrees 30 minutes West. At Noon found
by Observation that the Ship had outrun the Log 20 Miles, a Proof that
there is a Current setting to the Southward. Wind North-East by North to
East-South-East; course South by East; distance 78 miles; latitude 8
degrees 25 minutes North, longitude 22 degrees 4 minutes West; at noon,
Bonavista, South-East point, North 1 degree 45 minutes East, 152 leagues.

Sunday, 9th. Light Airs and fine Clear weather. Found the Variation by a
great Number of Azimuth made this Afternoon to be 8 degrees 21 minutes 30
seconds West, and by the Morning Amplitude 7 degrees 48 minutes. At Noon
try'd the Current, and found it set North-North-West 3/4 West, 1 1/8
miles per hour. The Shifting of the Current was conformed by the Observed
Latitude Wind East-South-East; course South 16 degrees West; distance 29
miles; latitude 7 degrees 58 minutes North, longitude 22 degrees 13
minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 2 degrees 40
minutes, 161 leagues.

Monday, 10th. First part, light breezes and Clear weather; Middle,
squally, with heavy Showers of Rain; latter, Variable, light Airs and
Calm and dark gloomy weather. At 3 p.m. found the Current to set
North-North-East 1/4 East, 1 1/4 Mile per Hour, and at Noon found it to
set North-East 3/4 North at the same rate, and the Variation to be 8
degrees 39 minutes West by the Mean of Several Azimuth. Wind South-East
by East, Southerly; course South; distance 10 miles; latitude 7 degrees
48 minutes North; longitude 22 degrees 13 minutes West; at noon,
Bonavista, South-East point, North 3 degrees East, 164 leagues.

Tuesday, 11th. Very Variable weather, with frequent Squalls rain, and
Lightning. By the Observed Latitude at Noon I find the Ship hath only
made 22 Miles Southing since the last Observation two days ago, whereas
the Log gives 55 Miles, a Proof that there is a Current setting to the
Northward. Wind South-East; course South 52 degrees West; distance 18
miles; latitude 7 degrees 36 minutes North, longitude 22 degrees 8
minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 3 degrees East,
168 leagues.

Wednesday, 12th. Much the same weather as Yesterday the first part, the
remainder mostly Calm and cloudy weather. A.M. try'd the Current and
found it set South by West 1/4 West, 1/2 Mile per Hour, which is not
agreeable to yesterday's remark. Wind variable; course South 33 degrees
30 minutes West; distance 20 miles; latitude 7 degrees 21 minutes North,
longitude 22 degrees 39 minutes West; at noon Bonavista North 5 degrees
East, 174 leagues.

Thursday, 13th. Light Airs of Wind, with some heavy showers of rain.
Variation by Azimuth and Amplitude this Evening 8 degrees 46 minutes
West. At Noon try'd the Current, and found it set South 3/4 East, 1/3 of
a Mile per Hour; but finding the Observation and Log agree, I am
inclinable to think it hath had no effect upon the Ship. Wind South-West,
West-South-West; course South 16 degrees 45 minutes East; distance 21
miles; latitude 7 degrees 1 minute North, longitude 22 degrees 32 minutes
West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 5 degrees East, 181
leagues.

Friday, 14th. Dark, gloomy weather, with much rain, the Wind Variable
from West-South-West to South-South-East, sometimes on one Tack and
sometimes on the other. Wind West-South-West to South-South-East; course
South 5 degrees East; distance 24 miles; latitude 6 degrees 38 minutes
North, longitude 22 degrees 30 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista,
South-East point, North 3 degrees 15 minutes, 188 leagues.

Saturday, 15th. First part, little wind and Cloudy; Middle, Squally, with
rain; latter part, light Airs and Clear weather. A little before Noon
took several Observations of the sun and moon, the mean result of which
gave the Longitude to be 23 degrees 46 minutes West from Greenwich, which
is 1 degree 22 minutes more Westerly than that by account carried on from
the last Observation; and the Observed Latitude is 24 Miles more
Northerly than the Log since the Last Observation 2 days ago, all of
which shows that the North-Westerly Current hath prevailed for this some
Days past. Wind South-South-West to South-East; course South 30 degrees
East per log; distance 12 miles; latitude 6 degrees 50 minutes North;
longitude 22 degrees 23 minutes West per account, 23 degrees 46 minutes
per sun and moon; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North by East,
187 leagues.

Sunday, 16th. First part Calm, the remainder Gentle breezes and fine,
Pleasant weather. At 3 hours 30 minutes 39 seconds Apparent time p.m. the
observed distance of the sun and moon's nearest Limb was 52 degrees 42
minutes 30 seconds; the Altitude of the sun's lower limb 32 degrees 39
minutes; the Altitude of the moon's lower limb 58 degrees 36 minutes; the
longitude of the Ship from the aforegoing Observations 23 degrees 33
minutes 33 seconds West from Greenwich, differing 13 minutes from those
made this Morning or Yesterday, the Ship laying all the time becalmed.
Variation of the Compass 8 degrees 45 minutes West. Wind South-East,
variable, North-East; course South 2 degrees East; distance 72 miles;
latitude 5 degrees 38 minutes North, longitude 23 degrees 45 minutes
West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 5 degrees 15 minutes
East, 208 leagues.

Monday, 17th. Variable, light Airs and Calm clear weather. 1/2 past 1
p.m. took two Distances of the sun and moon, the first of which gave the
Longitude 23 degrees 45 minutes 56 seconds, and the last 23 degrees 44
minutes West, the difference being not quite two miles, which shows how
near to one another these observations can be made. Wind South,
South-East, variable; course South by West 1/2 West; distance 11 miles;
latitude 5 degrees 17 minutes North, longitude 23 degrees 47 minutes
West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 5 degrees 15 minutes
East, 212 leagues.

Tuesday, 18th. Sometimes little wind, sometimes Squally, with rain and
Lightning. Wind South to East-South-East; course South 48 degrees West;
distance 45 miles; latitude 4 degrees 47 Minutes North, longitude 24
degrees 23 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 12
degrees East, 229 leagues.

Wednesday, 19th. Fresh breezes and Cloudy weather. The Observed Latitude
to the Northward of that given by the Log 9 miles, which I suppose must
be owing to a Current. Wind South by East to South-East by South; course
South 42 degrees West; distance 88 miles; latitude 3 degrees 44 minutes
North, longitude 25 degrees 23 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista,
South-East point, North 14 degrees East, 253 leagues.

Thursday, 20th. A Genteel gale and Clear weather. At a little before 5
p.m. had an Observation of the sun and moon, which gave the Longitude 25
degrees 46 minutes West from Greenwich, which is more Westerly than that
by account carried on from the last Observation; and the Observed
latitude being again to the Northward shows that there must be a current
setting between the North and West. Wind South by East to South-East by
South; course South 52 degrees West; distance 48 miles; latitude 3
degrees 16 minutes North, longitude 26 degrees 20 minutes West; at noon,
Bonavista, North 18 degrees 30 minutes East, 270 leagues.

[Crossing Equator.]

Friday, 21st. A moderate breeze, and for the most part clear weather.
Longitude per the Mean of 2 Observations of the sun and moon made at 4
hours 45 minutes and at 4 hours 54 minutes p.m., 26 degrees 33 minutes
West. Variation of the Compass 4 degrees 7 minutes West, and the Observed
Latitude at Noon to the Northward of the Log 7 Miles. Wind South-East to
South-South-East; course South 58 degrees West; distance 57 miles;
latitude 2 degrees 46 minutes North, longitude 27 degrees 11 minutes
West; at noon, Bonavista South-East point, North 21 degrees East, 281
leagues.

Saturday, 22nd. Moderate breezes and fine, pleasant weather. Variation 3
degrees 17 minutes West. Wind South-East by South; course South 43
degrees 15 minutes West; distance 87 miles; latitude 1 degree 40 minutes
North, longitude 28 degrees 12 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista,
South-East point, North 23 degrees East, 312 leagues.

Sunday, 23rd. A moderate, Steady breeze and fine Clear weather. The Ship
by Observation at Noon is 8 Miles to the Northward of the Log. Wind
South-South-East; course South; distance 5 miles; latitude 1 degree 40
minutes North, longitude 28 degrees 12 West; at noon, Bonavista,
South-East point, North 23 degrees East, 312 leagues.

Monday, 24th. First part ditto weather; remainder fresh Breezes and
Cloudy, with some flying Showers of rain. Variation per Azimuth this
morning 3 degrees West. At Noon by Observation found the Ship 11 Miles
ahead of the Log. Wind South by East to South-East by South; course South
49 degrees West; distance 50 miles; latitude 1 degree 7 minutes North;
longitude 28 degrees 50 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East
point, North 25 degrees East, 328 leagues.

Tuesday, 25th. A Genteel breeze and Clear weather, with a Moist Air. Soon
after sunrise found the Variation of the Compass to be 2 degrees 24
minutes West, being the Mean result of several very good Azimuths. This
was just before we crossed the Line in the Longitude of 29 degrees 29
minutes West from Greenwich. We also try'd the Diping Needle belonging to
the Royal Society, and found the North point to Dip 26 degrees below the
Horizon; but this Instrument cannot be used at Sea to any great degree of
accuracy on account of the Motion of the Ship, which hinders the Needle
from resting. However, as the Ship was pretty steady, and by means of a
Swinging Table I had made for that purpose, we could be Certain of the
Dip to two Degrees at most. The Observed Latitude and that by account
nearly Agree. Wind South-East to South-East by East; course South 30
degrees West; distance 95 miles; latitude 0 degrees 15 minutes South,
longitude 29 degrees 30 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East
point, North 26 degrees East, 358 leagues.

Wednesday, 26th. First part light Airs and Cloudy weather, the remainder
a Moderate Breeze and Cloudy. After we had got an observation, and it was
no longer Doubted that we were to the Southward of the Line, the Ceremony
on this occasion practis'd by all Nations was not Omitted. Every one that
could not prove upon the Sea Chart that he had before Crossed the Line
was either to pay a Bottle of Rum or be Duck'd in the Sea, which former
case was the fate of by far the Greatest part on board; and as several of
the Men chose to be Duck'd, and the weather was favourable for that
purpose, this Ceremony was performed on about 20 or 30, to the no small
Diversion of the Rest. Wind South-East to South-South-East; course South
31 degrees West; distance 77 miles; latitude 1 degree 21 minutes South,
longitude 30 degrees 18 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East
point, North 25 degrees 30 minutes East, 385 leagues.

Thursday, 27th. Fresh Gales and Close Cloudy weather. Variation 2 degrees
48 minutes West. Wind South-South-East to South-East; course South 38
degrees 15 minutes West; distance 79 miles; latitude 2 degrees 23 minutes
South, longitude 31 degrees 7 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista,
South-East point, North 26 degrees East, 410 leagues.

Friday, 28th. Fresh Breeze and fine Clear weather. At a little past 1
a.m. Longitude in by the 3 following Observations--viz., by the Moon and
the star Arietis, 32 degrees 27 minutes; by the Moon and Pollux, 32
degrees 0 minutes 15 seconds; by ditto, 31 degrees 48 minutes 32 seconds;
the mean of the whole is 32 degrees 5 minutes 16 seconds West from
Greenwich, which is 31 minutes more Westerly than the longitude by
account carried on since the last Observation. The two first observations
were made and computed by Mr. Green, and the last by myself. The star
Arietis was on one side of the Moon and Pollux on the other. This day at
Noon, being nearly in the latitude of the Island Ferdinand Noronha, to
the Westward of it by some Charts and to the Eastward by others, was in
Expectation of seeing it or some of those Shoals that are laid down in
most Charts between it and the Main; but we saw neither one nor a Nother.
We certainly passed to the Eastward of the Island, and as to the Shoals,
I don't think they Exhist, grounding this my Opinion on the Journal of
some East India Ships I have seen who were detain'd by Contrary winds
between this Island and the Main, and being 5 or 6 Ships in Company,
doubtless must have seen some of them did they lay as Marked in the
Charts.* (* There is a very dangerous reef, As Rocas, 80 miles west of
Fernando Noronha. The Endeavour passed 60 miles east of latter.) Wind
South-East to South-East by East; course South 33 degrees West; distance
93 miles, latitude 3 degrees 41 minutes South, longitude 32 degrees 29
minutes West.

Saturday, 29th. Fresh Breezes and pleasant weather. Variation of the
Compass 2 degrees 25 minutes West. Wind East-South-East; course South by
West; distance 101 miles; latitude 5 degrees 25 minutes South, longitude
32 degrees 48" West.

Sunday, 30th. A Steady breeze, and for the most part close cloudy
weather. Variation by several Azimuths 1 degree 31 minutes West. At noon
the observed latitude 7 miles southward of account. Wind East-South-East;
course South 3/4 West; distance 107 miles; latitude 7 degrees 8 minutes
South, longitude 33 degrees 4 minutes West.

Monday, 31st. A Fresh breeze and Clear weather. Variation 0 degrees 15
minutes West. Observed Latitude again to the Southward of the Log. Wind
East to East-South-East; course, South 1/2 West; distance 114 miles;
latitude 9 degrees 1 minute South, longitude 33 degrees 16 minutes West.

[November 1768. Between Equator and Rio.]

Tuesday, November 1st. Moderate breezes, for the most part Cloudy.
Variation by the mean of Several Azimuths 0 degrees 58 minutes West in
the Evening, and in the Morning found it to be 0 degrees 18 minutes West.
Wind East-South-East; course South 3/4 West; distance 98 miles; latitude
10 degrees 38 minutes South.

Wednesday, 2nd. A Steady breeze and fine pleasant weather. This
Afternoon, by the mean of Several Azimuths and the Amplitude, found the
Variation to be 0 degrees 34 minutes East, from which it appears that
about the aforegoing Noon we have Crossed the Line of no Variation in the
Latitude of 10 degrees 38 minutes South, and, according to the following
Observations, in 32 degrees 0 minutes West longitude from Greenwich. At 5
hours 5 minutes 0 seconds Apparent time a.m. the longitude of the Ship
and the Observation of the moon and the star Aldebaran was found to be 32
degrees 0 minutes 45 seconds; at 8 hours 17 minutes 0 seconds, per sun
and moon, 32 degrees 25 minutes 0 seconds; and at 9 hours 0 minutes 16
seconds, 32 degrees 19 minutes 0 seconds. The mean of the three is 32
degrees 14 minutes 55 seconds. And again at 7 hours 12 minutes 52
seconds, per sun and moon, 32 degrees 10 minutes 4 seconds; and at 7
hours 19 minutes 42 seconds, per sun and moon, 32 degrees 15 minutes 20
seconds. The mean of these two is 32 degrees 12 minutes 42 seconds, and
the mean of the whole is 32 degrees 13 minutes 43 seconds West from
Greenwich, which is less by a whole Degree than that by account, which is
a Considerable Error to be made in 5 Days in these low Latitudes. One
would think from this that we must have had a Current setting to the
Eastward, which is not likely that it should set against the settled
trade wind. The 3 first of these Observations were made by Mr. Green, and
the 2 last by myself. Wind East-South-East, South; course South by West;
distance 132 miles; latitude 12 degrees 48 minutes South, longitude 32
degrees 20 minutes West per Observation.

Thursday, 3rd. A Fresh Trade wind and fair weather. Variation per Azimuth
this Evening 0 degrees 47 minutes East, and at a little past 9 a.m.
longitude in per sun and moon 33 degrees 0 minutes West of Greenwich.
Wind East by South-East; course South 15 degrees West; distance 128
miles; latitude 14 degrees 51 minutes South, longitude 33 degrees 7
minutes West.

Friday, 4th. A Steady Gale and fair weather. P.M. Variation per Azimuth 1
degree 29 minutes West, ditto 1 degree 28 minutes West, and by the
Amplitude 1 degree 12 minutes West; mean 1 degree 23 minutes West, by
which it appears that we have again Crossed the Line of no Variation. At
1/2 past 9 a.m. the longitude of the Ship, per Observation of the sun and
moon, 33 degrees 26 minutes 30 seconds. Wind East by South; course South
19 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 125 miles; latitude 16 degrees 49
minutes South, longitude 33 degrees 37 minutes West.

Saturday, 5th. Fine pleasant weather. Variation per Azimuth this morning
3 degrees 21 minutes East, which makes me Doubtful of the Variation found
yesterday, tho' at the time I had not the least room to doubt of the
Accuracy of the Observations. Longitude per Observation 34 degrees 43
minutes 30 seconds West. Wind East to North-East; course South 30 degrees
35 minutes West; distance 109 miles; latitude 18 degrees 22 minutes
South, longitude 34 degrees 50 minutes West.

Sunday, 6th. First and Latter part squally, with heavy Showers of rain;
middle moderate and fair. I now determined to put into Rio de Janeiro in
preferance to any other port in Brazil or Falkland Islands, for at this
place I knew we could recruit our Stock of Provisions, several Articles
of which I found we should in time be in want of, and at the same time
procure Live Stock and refreshment for the People; and from the reception
former Ships had met with here I doubted not but we should be well
received. Wind North-North-East, variable, South; course South 55 degrees
West; distance 74 miles; latitude 19 degrees 3 minutes South, longitude
35 degrees 50 minutes West.

Monday, 7th. Moderate breezes and Clear weather. P.M. found the Variation
to be 4 degrees 49 minutes East. At 6 Sounded and had 32 fathoms Water;
the Bottom Coral Rocks, fine Sand and Shells, which Soundings we carried
upon a South-West 1/2 West Course 9 or 10 leagues, and then had no ground
with 100 fathom. We were by our account and per run afterwards 54 Leagues
East from the Coast of Brazil and to the Southward of the Shoals called
Abrollos, as they are laid down in Most Charts. Wind South-East to
North-East; course South 58 degrees West; distance 68 miles; latitude 19
degrees 46 minutes South, longitude 36 degrees 50 minutes West.

Tuesday, 8th. Fresh breezes and Cloudy weather. P.M. variation by the
Mean of 12 Azimuths 5 degrees 26 minutes East, and by an Amplitude in the
Morning 7 degrees 52 minutes. At 6 a.m. saw the Land of Brazil bearing
North-West 1/2 North, distance 8 or 10 leagues. At 8 Sounded, had 37
fathoms, Coarse Sand, broken Shells, and Coral Rocks. At 9 brought too
and Spoke with a Fishing Boat, who informed us that the land in sight lay
to the Southward of Santo Espiritu. It appears high and Mountainous; the
drawing Number (3) exhibits a View of this Land as it appeared from the
Ship (A), being near to Santo Espiritu, and a remarkable hill (B) bore
North-West 1/2 North, distance 7 or 8 leagues. Made Sail in Shore, the
wind being Southerly. Had from the above Depth to 14 fathoms the same
sort of Bottom. Found the Ship at Noon by Observation 10 Miles to the
Southward of account, which I suppose to be occasioned by a Current
setting between the South and West. Wind North-North-East, North by West,
South-South-West to South by West; course South 50 degrees West; distance
140 miles; latitude 21 degrees 16 minutes South, longitude 37 degrees 35
minutes West.

Wednesday, 9th. First and Latter part Hazey, with a Moderate Breeze;
Middle, fresh Gales, with Thunder, Lightning, and rain. At 3 p.m. tack't
in 16 fathoms, distance from the Shore 5 Leagues, the land Extending from
the North-West by West to North-East. At 5 took the 2nd Reef in the
Topsails and got down Topgallant Yards, stood to the South-East until
Midnight, then tack'd, Sounding from 16 to 55 fathoms. At 8 a.m. Loosed
the Reefs out of the Topsails and got Topgallant Yards a Cross; unstowed
the Anchors and bent the Cables. At Noon Latitude Observed 21 degrees 29
minutes South, the Land Extending from South-West by South to
North-North-West, distance 4 leagues, Soundings from 55 to 10 fathoms.
Wind South-South-East, South-South-West, South; course South 62 degrees
15 minutes West; distance 28 miles; latitude 21 degrees 29 minutes South.

[Nearing Rio Janeiro.]

Thursday, 10th. Moderate breezes and Hazey upon the Land. Stood in for
the Shore South-West 1/2 West. Depth of water from 10 to 9 fathoms and
from 9 to 16 fathoms, being then 4 Leagues from the Land. From 16 fathoms
it shoalded gradually to 5 fathoms; then we tacked, being about 1 1/2
Leagues from the Shore. The extreams of the Land to the Southward, which
we took for Cape St. Thomas, bore South 3/4 West, distance 4 leagues. The
Land from Cape St. Thomas to the Northward lies North by East 1/2 East.
Along the Shore is low land covered with Wood and Sandy Beaches, but
inland are very high Mountains, the greatest part of them being hid in
the Clouds. Stood off until 5 in the Morning East and East by South.
Depth of Water 10, 20, 16, 23, and 30 fathoms. At Noon Latitude Observed
21 degrees 30 minutes; Depth of Water 14 fathoms; Grey sand with black
Specks. Extreams of the Land from South-West by West to North-North-West;
distance 12 or 14 leagues. Wind South-South-East, South-East by South,
South by East; course East 1/4 South; distance 17 miles; latitude 21
degrees 30 minutes South, longitude 37 degrees 43 minutes West per
account.

Friday, 11th. First and Latter parts, moderate breezes and fair, but
Cloudy and Hazey over the Land; middle, a fresh breeze and Cloudy. At 8
tack'd and Stood to the North-East. Extream of the Land to the southward,
which we took for Cape St. Thomas, South-West 1/2 South; distance 5 or 6
leagues; Depth of Water 13 fathoms, Grey sand. At 11 a.m. tack'd in 14
fathoms and Stood to the South-South-East, and at 3 a.m. Stood over a
Shoal or Bank of 6 fathoms, afterwards the Depth increased to 30 fathoms,
at Noon in 36 fathoms. Latitude Observed 22 degrees 37 minutes South,
which is 10 miles to the Southward of the Log. No Land in sight. Wind
South-East to East; course South 5 degrees West; distance 67 miles;
latitude 23 degrees 37 minutes South, longitude 37 degrees 49 minutes
West.

Saturday, 12th. Genteel breezes and fine Clear weather. At 2 p.m.
Sounded, but had no ground with 38 fathoms, and soon after sounded and
had none at 50 fathoms, from which it appears that we are to the
Southward of the Bank we have been upon this 2 days past. It Extends off
from the Land between the Latitude 21 degrees and 22 degrees nor less
than 18 or 20 Leagues, How much farther I know not. Standing in from Sea,
the Depth of Water very soon diminisheth from 30 to 20 and 17 fathoms,
afterwards gradually from 9, 8 and even to 6 fathoms; but between this
Shoal Water and the Main, which is 6 or 7 leagues, you will have 10, 12
and even 16 fathoms, till you come within 2 or 3 leagues of the Shore.
The Bottom is of Various kinds, sometimes Coral Rocks, Coral Rocks and
broken Shells, Coarse sand and broken Shells, Small Stones and at other
times fine Sand varying at almost every Cast of the Lead. At 5 p.m. saw
the Land bearing North-West by West 1/2 West, distance 10 or 12 leagues,
which proved to be the Island of Cape Frio; it appeared in two Hillocks,
and from the Deck looked like two Islands. Took several Azimuth of the
Sun, which gave the Variation 6 degrees 40 minutes East. At 8 a.m. the
Isle of Cape Frio bore West by North 4 leagues. This Island is situated
in the Latitude of 23 degrees 2 minutes South, and according to our
Reckoning in the Longitude of 38 degrees 45 minutes West from Greenwich,
but from many Circumstances I have good reason to think that our
reckoning is wrong and that it lies in the Longitude 41 degrees 10
minutes West. It is not of a Large Circuit, but Tolerable high, with a
hollow in the Middle, which makes it look like 2 Islands when it first
makes its appearance out of the Water. It lays not far from the Main,
which with the Island forms a right Angle, one side trending North and
the other West. To the northward of the Island and between it and the
Main there appears to lay several smaller Islands near each other. The
Main land on the Sea Coast appears to be low, but inland are high
Mountains. Drawing Number 4 exhibits a View of this Island when it bore
West-North-West, distance 4 leagues. Wind North-East, East-North-East;
course South 60 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 59 miles; latitude 23
degrees 6 minutes South; Isle of Cape Frio North 60 degrees East, 4
leagues.

Sunday, 13th. First and Latter parts a Genteel Sea breeze and Clear
weather, the Middle Calm. P.M. standing along Shore for Rio De Janeiro
observed that the land on the Sea Coast is high and Mountainous, and the
shore forms some small Bays or Coves wherein are Sandy Beaches. At 8
Shortned Sail; the Sugar Loaf Hill at the West Entrance to Rio De Janeiro
West-North-West, distant 4 or 5 leagues, at the same time was abreast of
2 Small rocky Islands, that lie about 4 Miles from the Shore. At 9 a.m.
Sprung up a light breeze at South-East, at which time we made Sail for
the Harbour, and sent the Pinnace with a Lieutenant before us up to the
city of Rio De Janeiro, to acquaint the Vice Roy with the reason that
induced us to put in here, which was to procure Water and other
refreshments, and to desire the Assistance of a Pilot to bring us into
proper Anchoring ground; at Noon Standing in for the Harbour.

[At Rio Janeiro.]

ARRIVAL AT RIO DE JANEIRO, Monday, 14th. Moderate Sea and Low breezes and
fine pleasant weather. At 5 p.m. Anchored in 5 fathoms just above the
Isle of Cobras, which lies before the City of Rio De Janeiro. A little
before we Anchor'd the Pinnace return'd and informed me that the Vice Roy
had thought proper to detain the Officer until I went ashore. Soon after
we Anchored a Boat came on board bringing several of the Vice Roy's
Officers, who asked many Questions in respect to the Ship: Cargo, from
whence she came, Number of Guns, Men, etc., all of which was Answered to
their satisfaction. They told me it was the Custom of the Port to Detain
the first Officer that came from any Ship on her first Arrival until a
Boat from the Vice Roy had Visited her; that my Officer would be sent on
board as soon as they got on shore, which was accordingly done. About
this time a Boat filled with Soldiers kept rowing about the Ship, which
had orders, as I afterwards understood, not to Suffer any one of the
Officers or Gentlemen, except myself, to go out of the Ship. In the
Morning I waited upon the Vice Roy and obtained leave to purchase
Provisions, Refreshments, etc., for the Ship, but obliged me to employ a
person to buy them for me under a pretence that it was the Custom of the
Place, and he likewise insisted (notwithstanding all I could say to the
contrary), on putting a Soldier into the Boats that brought anything to
or from the Ship, alledging that it was the Orders of his Court, and they
were such as he could not Dispence with, and this indignity I was obliged
to submit to, otherwise I could not have got the supplys I wanted; being
willing, as much as in me lay, to avoid all manner of Disputes that might
cause the least delay, and at the same time to Convince him that we did
not come here to Trade, as I believe he imagined--for he Certainly did
not believe a word about our being bound to the Southward to observe the
Transit of Venus, but looked upon it only as an invented story to cover
some other design we must be upon, for he could form no other Idea of
that Phenomenon (after I had explained it to him), than the North Star
Passing through the South Pole; these were his own words. He would not
permit the Gentlemen to reside ashore during our Stay here, nor permit
Mr. Banks to go into the country to gather plants, etc.; but not the
least hint was given me at this time that no one of the Gentlemen was to
come out of the Ship but myself, or that I was to be put under a Guard
when I did come; but this I was soon Convinced of after I took my leave
of His Excellency and found that an Officer was to attend upon me
whereever I went, which at first the Vice Roy pretended was only meant as
a Complement, and to order me all the Assistance I wanted. This day the
People were Employed in unbending the Sails, in fitting and rigging the
Spare Topmasts in the room of the others, and getting on shore Empty
Water Casks.

Tuesday, 15th. Fine pleasant weather. Received on board fresh Beef and
Greens for the Ship's Company, with which they was served every Day
During our Stay here. Got all the Empty Casks on shore, and set the
Coopers to Work to repair them; Heeld and Boot Topt the Starboard side.

Wednesday, 16th. Set up the Forge to repair the Iron Work; the People
employed in Heeling and Boot Topping the Larboard side, Blacking the
Yards, etc.

Thursday, 17th. Set some People to repair the Sails and the Caulkers to
Caulk the Ship; the rest of the People employed in the Hold and about the
Rigging. For 3 days past I have remonstrated to the Vice Roy and his
Officers against his putting a Guard into my Boat, thinking I could not
Answer it to the Admiralty the tamely submitting to such a Custom, which,
when practiced in its full force, must bring Disgrace to the British
Flag. On the other hand, I was loath to enter into Disputes, seeing how
much I was like to be delay'd and imbarrassed in getting the supplys I
wanted, for it was with much difficulty that I obtained leave for one of
my People to attend the Market to buy necessaries for my Table and to
assist the Agent to buy the things for the Ship. Having gained this Point
and settled everything with the Agent in regard to what was wanting for
the Ship, I resolved, rather than be made a Prisoner in my own Boat, not
to go any more ashore unless I could do it without having a Soldier put
into the Boat, as had hitherto been done; and thinking that the Vice Roy
might lay under some Mistake, which on proper Application might be
clear'd up, I therefore drew up a Memorial stating the whole case and
sent to the Vice Roy this afternoon; and thus a Paper War commenced
between me and His Excellency, wherein I had no other Advantage than the
racking his invention to find reasons for treating us in the manner he
did, for he never would relax the least from any one point.

Friday, 18th. This day I received an Answer to my Memorial, wherein he
tells me, amongst other things, that if I think it hard submitting to the
Customs of this Port I may leave it when I please; but this did not suit
my purpose at present, but I resolved to make my stay as short as
possible. I must own that the Memorial of the Vice Roy's was well drawn
up and very much to the Purpose, which is more than I can say of any of
the subsequent ones.

Saturday, 19th. Close cloudy weather. Employed getting aboard Rum, Water,
and other necessaries. Caulking and refitting the Ship. Punished John
Thurman, Seaman, with 12 Lashes for refusing to assist the Sailmaker in
repairing the Sails.

Sunday, 20th. First part cloudy weather; the Middle very hard Storms of
Wind and Rain; the Latter moderate, with rain. This Afternoon sent
Lieutenant Hicks in the Pinnace with an Answer to the Vice Roy's
Memorial, with orders not to Suffer a Soldier to be put into the Boat;
upon which the Guard Boat attended him to the Landing Place and reported
it to the Vice Roy, who refused to receive the Memorial, and ordered Mr.
Hicks on board Again; but in the Meantime they had put a Guard into the
Boat, which Mr. Hicks insisted should be order'd out, that he might
return on board in the same manner as he came, without a Guard; and upon
his refusing to return other way, all the Crew were by Arm'd force taken
out of the Boat (though they gave no provocation nor made the least
resistance) and hurried to Prison, where they remained until the next
day. Mr. Hicks was then put into one of their Boats, and brought on board
under the Custody of a Guard. Immediately upon my hearing of this I wrote
to the Vice Roy demanding my Boat and Crew and his Excellency's reason
for detaining her, and inclosed the Memorial he had before refused to
receive. This I sent by a petty Officer, as I had never objected against
a Guard being put into any of my Boats wherein was no Commissioned
Officer. He was admitted ashore and delivered the Letter, and was told an
Answer would be sent the next day. This evening, between 8 and 9 o'Clock,
came on an Excessive hard storm of Wind and Rain, the Longboat coming on
board the same time with 4 Pipes of Rum in her. The rope they got hold of
broke, and she went a Drift. The Yawl was immediately sent after her; but
the Longboat filling with Water, they brought her to a Grapnel and left
her, and the Yawl with the People got on board about 3 in the morning.
Early this Morning I sent to the Vice Roy to acquaint him with the loss
of our Boat, to desire leave and the Assistance of a Shore Boat to look
after her, and at the same time to demand the Pinnace and her Crew. After
some time the whole was granted, and we was so fortunate as to find the
Longboat the same Day, and likewise the 4 Pipes of Rum; but every other
thing that was in her was lost.

Monday, 21st. This Morning I received his Excellency's Answer to my last
Memorial and Letter. In his Letter he owns there was some indecency in
Detaining the Boat, but lays the Blame to my Officer, who only Executed
the orders I gave him with Spirit. In one part of his Memorial he says
that from the Built of the Ship and other Circumstances he Doubts that
she is the King's. This I thought proper to Answer in Writing by telling
his Excellency that I was ready to produce my Commission. Rain the most
part of this Day.

Tuesday, 22nd. Moderate breezes, with frequent Showers of Rain. Employed
getting on board Water, Provisions, etc. Caulking the Ship and repairing
the Sails.

Wednesday, 23rd. Fine pleasant weather. Employed as before and setting up
the Rigging. This day I received from the Vice-Roy an Answer to my last
Memorial, wherein he still keeps up his Doubts that she is not a King's
Ship, and accuseth my people of Smuggling, a thing I am very Certain they
were not guilty of, and for which his Excellency could produce no proof,
notwithstanding many Artful means were made use of to tempt such of our
People as were admitted ashore to Trade by the Very Officers that were
under His Excellency's own Roof. I thought it incumbent on me to Answer
this Memorial, in which I desir'd His Excellency to take into Custody any
one of my People that should be found trading even if it amounted to no
more than one of the Sailors selling his Cloaths from off his Back for a
Bottle of Rum--for what His Excellency called smuggling I was very
certain amounted to no more, and even this was only Suspicions of my own.

Thursday, 24th. This day a Spanish Packet (a Small Brig) from Buenos
Ayres put in here in her way to Spain. This Vessel belonged to his
Catholic Majesty, and notwithstanding the Vice-Roy had all along
pretended that the orders he had respecting Foreign Vessels were General,
yet this Vessel meet with very Different Treatment from us. No Guard was
put over her, and her Officers and Crew went wherever they pleased.* (*
The build and general appearance of the Endeavour not being that of a
man-of-war, the Portuguese authorities entertained suspicions regarding
her true character, which is not altogether surprising, considering the
times; but we can well understand Cook's indignation.)

Friday, 25th, Saturday, 26th. Employed getting on board Water as fast as
the Coopers could set up and repair the Casks, setting up the rigging and
Caulking the Ship's sides.

Sunday, 27th. Bent the Sails and Cleaned the Ship Fore and Aft.

Monday, 28th. Fine pleasant weather. The Caulkers having finished the
sides, paid them with Tar. This day I unexpectedly received an Answer
from my last Memorial, wherein were only a few weak Arguments to support
His Excellency's Suspicions that the Ship did not belong to the King, and
that my People Smugled. This Memorial I answered.

Tuesday, 29th. Employed Lashing the Casks that were on the upper Deck and
between Decks and making ready for Sea.

Wednesday, 30th. Punished Robert Anderson, Seaman, and William Judge,
Marine, with 12 Lashes Each, the former for leaving his Duty ashore and
attempting to desert from the Ship, and the latter for using abusive
language to the Officer of the Watch, and John Reading, Boatswain's Mate,
with 12 lashes for not doing his Duty in punishing the above two Men.
Sent a Shore to the Vice-Roy for a Pilot to Carry us to Sea, who sent one
on board together with a Large Boat, which I did not want, but it is the
Custom in this Port for the Pilots to have such a Boat to attend upon the
Ship they Pilot out, and for which you must pay 10 shillings per day,
besides the Pilot's fees, which is Seven pounds four Shillings Sterling.

[December 1768.]

Thursday, 1st December. Wind at South-East, which hinder'd us from
Sailing as we intended. Received on board a large Quantity of fresh Beef,
Greens and Yams for the Ship's Company.

Friday, 2nd. This morning sent a Packet for the Secretary of the
Admiralty on board the Spanish Pacquet, containing copies of all the
Memorials and Letters that have passed between the Vice-Roy and me, and
likewise another Packet containing Duplicates thereof I left with the
Vice-Roy to be by him forwarded to Lisbon. At 9 Weighed and came to Sail
and turned down the Bay. Peter Flower, Seaman, fell overboard, and before
any Assistance could be given him was drowned; in his room we got a
Portugue.

Saturday, 3rd. First part, moderate breezes at South-East; remainder,
fresh Gales at South with Rain. At 1 p.m. Anchored in 18 fathoms Water in
the Great Road (see Plan).

Sunday, 4th. Fore and Middle parts fresh Gales at South-South-East with
heavy rain; Latter, Variable Light Airs and fair weather. Hoisted in the
Long-boat and secured her.

Monday, 5th. First part, little wind and Cloudy; Middle, Thunder,
Lightning and Rain; latter, little wind at South-West and fair. At 4 a.m.
Weighed and tow'd down the Bay (being Calm) with an intent to go to Sea,
but having 2 Shott fired at us from Santa Cruze Fort was obliged to come
to an Anchor and to send a Boat to the Fort to know the Reason of their
firing, who it seems had no orders to let us pass, without which no Ship
can go to Sea. This surprized me not a little, as I had but this very
morning received a very Polite Letter from the Vice-Roy (in answer to one
I had wrote some days ago), wherein he wishes me a good voyage. I
immediately dispatched a petty Officer to the Vice-Roy to know the reason
why we was not permitted to pass the Fort; the Boat very soon return'd
with an order to the Captain of the Fort to let us pass, which Order had
been wrote some Days Ago, but either by Design or neglect had not been
sent. At 11 weighed in order to put to Sea, but before we could heave up
the Anchor, it got hold of a Rock, where it held fast in spite of all our
endeavours to Clear it until the Sea Breeze set in.

Tuesday, 6th. The Sea breeze continued all this day. At 2 p.m. the Ship
tended to the Wind, which cleared the Anchor. Hove it up and run higher
up the Bay and Anchored in 15 fathoms, a little below the Isle or Church
of Bon Voyage; found the cable very much rubbed several fathoms from the
Anchor.

Wednesday, 7th. First and latter part a Genteel breeze at South-East and
East; the Middle, Calm. At 5 a.m. weighed and tow'd out of the Bay; at 8
Discharged the Pilot and his Boat. A breeze of Wind Springing up Easterly
made Sail out to Sea, and sent a boat to one of the Islands laying before
the Bay to cut Brooms, a thing we was not permitted to do while we lay in
the Harbour; the Guard Boat which had constantly attended all the time we
lay in the Bay and Harbour did not leave us until the Pilot was
discharged. At noon the Sugar Loaf at the west Entrance of the Bay bore
North by West 1/2 West, distance, 8 or 9 miles.

[Description of Rio Janeiro.]

A DESCRIPTION OF THE BAY OR RIVER OF RIO DE JANEIRO.

The few days' delay we met with in getting out of Rio de Janeiro gave me
an opportunity of Drawing a Plan or Sketch of great part of the Bay, but
the Strict watch that was kept over us during our whole stay hinder'd me
from taking so accurate a Survey as I wisht to have done, and all the
Observations I could make was taken from on board the Ship. This Plan
hath no pretensions to accuracy, yet it will give a very good idea of the
place, differing not much from the truth in what is Essential.

The Bay of Rio de Janeiro, by some called a River--which its Name
Signifies--but this I think is improper, it being nothing more than a
Deep inlet of the Sea, into which no considerable fresh water River
Emptys itself that I could hear of. Be this as it will, it is Capacious
and Capable of Containing a vast Number of Shipping where they may ride
in perfect Security. The Entrance is Situated West by North 18 Leagues
from Cape Frio, and may be known by a remarkable Hill in the Form of a
Sugar Loaf, at the West Entrance of the Bay; but as all the Coast is
exceeding high, terminating at the top in Peaked Hills, it is much better
known by the Islands laying before it, one of which (called Rodonda) is
high and round in form of a Hay Stack, and lies South by West 2 1/2
leagues from the Sugar Loaf or Entrance of the Bay. A little without the
East Entrance of the Bay, and near the shore, lay 2 Islands near each
other: 3 leagues from the Eastward and 4 miles from the Shore are 2 low
Rocky Islands, which are the first you meet with in coming from the
Eastward or from Cape Frio.

To sail into Rio de Janeiro there is not the least Danger until you are
the length of the Fort of Santa Cruze, which stands on the point that
forms the East Entrance of the Bay or River; on the West Entrance is Fort
Lorio, built upon a Rock which lies close to the Main Land, the distance
from one Fort to the other is 3/4 of a mile East and West, but the
Channel for Shipping is not quite so broad by reason of Sunken Rocks
laying off each of the Forts; these rocks may not be properly placed in
the plan, being only laid down from the information of the Pilot. The
Narrowness of the Channell here causeth the Tides both Flood and Ebb to
run pretty strong, insomuch that you cannot Stem it without a fresh
breeze of Wind, nor is it safe Anchoring because the bottom is foul and
Rocky. By keeping in the Middle of the Channell you will not only avoid
being forced to come to an Anchor, but all other Dangers. Being got
within the entrance your Course up the Bay is North by West 1/2 West and
North-North-West something more than one League; this brings you the
length of the great Road, and North-West and West-North-West one league
more carrys you the length of the Ilha dos Cobras, which lies before the
City. Keep the North side of this Island close on board and Anchor above
it in 5 fathoms of water, where you see most Convenient before the
Monastery of Benedictines, which stands upon a hill at the North-West End
of the City. Small Ships and Vessels generally lay between the Town and
the Ilha dos Cobras, but in order to get there they must come round the
North side of the Island.

I shall now give the best description I can of the Different Forts that
are Erected for the Defence of the Bay. The first you meet with coming in
from Sea is a Battery of 22 Guns, seated in the Bottom of a sandy Bay,
which is on the South side of the Sugar Loaf, and can be designed for no
other use than to hinder an Enemy from landing in that valley, from
whence I suppose they may March up to the Town or round by the West side
of the Sugar Loaf to attack the Forts that are on that side of the
Entrance into the Bay, the first of which is Seated under the foot of the
Sugar Loaf on a low Isthmus which joyns the Peninsula or point of the Bay
with the Land of the Sugar Loaf. It appears to be a square of Stone Work
without a Ditch, with Bastions and furnished with Cannon. A little within
this fort are 2 battrys of 5 or 6 Guns each. They are designed to play
upon Shipping, but neither these battrys or the Fort are out of reach of
a Ship's Cannon. Hard by these batterys stands Fort Logie. It is an
irregular hexagon, built of Stone upon a Small Rock standing at the west
Entrance of the Bay, and is surrounded on all Sides by the Sea. It is
mounted with 14 or 15 guns, which are placed so as to play upon Shipping
going in and out of the Harbour. There is only one way to go into it,
which is by Steps Leading up to a Sally Port on the North-West side.
Opposite this is the Fort of Santa Cruze, built upon a low rocky point
that forms the East Entrance of the Bay. It hath the Appearance of a
Regular Fortification of Stone Work built upon the Slope of the Rock, on
which account there are in some places 2 Tier of Guns. It hath no Ditch
but on the Land side, where it is cut out of the Rock; in every other
part the Sea washes up to its Walls. It seems everywhere to be well
Mounted with Cannon Except on the land side, where none are wanting,
because they could be of no use, the land being so very high above it.
Yet, after all, neither this Fort nor those on the opposite shore do not
appear to be of any great Strength, even against Shipping, for which they
are wholly design'd, being the key of the Bay. They lay low, and Ships
may come so near as to have them entirely within the reach of their Guns;
but it would require 5 or 6 Sail of the line to insure Success. Between 2
and 3 Miles within the Entrance of the Bay, on the West Side, is the Isle
Borghleone, upon the east point of which is Erected a Battry of Stone,
and Mounted with 17 pieces of Cannon. Besides this, on the highest part
of the Island, is a Battry of 6 Guns mounted on an Open Platform. These
battrys are designed to play upon Shipping in the Bay, and seems not ill
designed for that purpose; yet they would be Obliged to Submit to the
Attack of Shipping or that of a Land force, there being nothing to hinder
the latter from Landing on the Island behind the Battrys. Opposite to
this Island, on the low point on the east side of the Bay, is the Battry
of St. Dominica of 7 Guns. A little without this Battry, on the East side
of the Bay, is a small but high Island, close to the Shore, on the Top of
which is the Church of Bonn Voyage, about half-way down the Cliff. Below
the Church is a Battry of 3 Guns. Neither the one nor the other of these
battry's are of much Consequence. They serve, indeed, to force Shipping
coming into the Bay between 2 Fires, and hinder them from Anchoring on
that side until they are silenced. The next fortification is that on the
Ilha dos Cobras, the east point and North side of which consists of a
Rampart Bastion and a Parrapet faced with Stones and mounted with Cannon,
but no Ditch, which is not much wanting, as the works are built on the
Edge of the rising Ground. The other side next the Town hath no other
inclosure but a plain wall without any Guns. It is said that the works on
this Island are in bad repair, on account of being so Extensive that they
would take more men to Defend them than they could spare, and, placing no
Dependancy on their Strength, let them go to decay. The ground on which
the Monastry of Benedictines Stands Commands the Works on the Island.
Over the South end of the City stands the Castle of St. Sebastian; it is
Seated upon a Hill, and Commands the whole Town; and this is all I know
of it, only that it is not counted a place of any great Strength. For the
Defence of these Forts and the Town the King of Portugal Maintains 7
Regiments of Regular Troops. Those I saw were well cloathed and in good
Condition; but this, as I was told, was not the Case with the whole.
Besides these Troops are 3 Regiments of Militia, 2 of Horse and one of
foot. These consist of the principal inhabitants of the place, who serve
without pay, Muster and Exercise in turns nine Months in the year, on
which account they rank with the Regular Troops.

The City of Rio de Janeiro is in the Latitude of 22 degrees 50 minutes
South and Longitude 42 degrees 15 minutes West from Greenwich.* (* Modern
determination, 22 degrees 54 minutes South, 43 degrees 10 minutes West.)
According to Observations made at Sea it is Seated on a plain close to
the Shore on the West side of the Bay, at the foot of Several high
Mountains. It is neither ill designed nor ill built. The Houses are
mostly stone, generally one and two Storys high, with Balconys to most of
them. The Streets are of a Convenient breadth, and Cross each other at
right Angles, and the whole City may be about 3 miles in Compass. It is
Govern'd by a Governor appointed by the King. The present Governor is Don
Anto Mendoyaz Fastada, who is no Friend to the English. It likewise is
the Residence of the Vice-Roy and Captain General of the States of
Brazil, who is as absolute as any Monarch on Earth, and the people to all
appearance as much Slaves. This City and Adjacent parts about the Bay are
said to contain 100,000 Souls; but not above a twentieth part are Whites.
The rest are blacks, many of whom are free, and seem to live in tolerable
Circumstances.

The city of Rio de Janeiro is supplied with Water from 2 Different parts
of the Adjacent Mountains. That which comes from the Southward is
Convey'd a Cross a Deep Valley by an Acquiduct, which Consists of a great
Number of Arches placed in 2 Rows, one upon the other; from thence in
pipes to a fountain which stands in the Middle of the Square before the
Vice-Roy's Palace. At another part of the City is a Reservoir, to which
the water is conveyed much in the same manner. From these 2 places, but
mostly from the former, the inhabitants fetch all they want, where there
is always a Centinel to keep order: and it is likewise here that the
Ships Water. They land their Casks upon a Smooth sandy beach about 100
yards from the Fountain, and upon application to the Vice-Roy you have a
Centinel to look after them and to clear the way for to come to the
fountain to fill water. Upon the whole, Rio de Janeiro is not a bad place
for Ships to put in at that want refreshments, not only because the
Harbour is safe and Commodious, but that Provision and all manner of
Refreshments may be had in tolerable plenty. Bread and Flour are,
however, Scarce and Dear, being brought hither from Europe, and are never
the better for that Passage. In lieu of these are to be had Yams and
Casada. All sorts of Grain--though it may be the produce of this
Country--is Dear. Fresh Beef (tho' bad) is to be had in plenty at about 2
1/4 pence per pound, and Jurked Beef about the same price. This is cured
with Salt, and dryd in the shade, the bones being taken out, and the Meat
cut into large but very thin slices. It eats very well, and if kept in a
dry place will remain good a long time at Sea. Rum, Sugar, and Molasses
are all good and Cheap. Tobacco is Cheap, but not good. Mutton they have
very little. Hogs and all sorts of Poultry are to be got, tho' in no
great plenty, and of Course rather dear. Garden Stuff and Fruit in
plenty, but none that will keep long at Sea except Pumpkins.

They have a Yard for building Shipping and a small Hulk for heaving down
by, there being no other method to come at a Ship's bottom, as the Tides
doth not rise above 6 or 7 feet. At the New and full Moon it is high
Water at that time about 8 o'clock, when the Land and Sea breezes are
regular, but when they are not the Course of Tides are alter'd. The Sea
breeze begins to blow about 10 or 12 o'clock, and continues until sunset,
when it dies away and is succeeded by the land breeze, which continues
most part of the night. From a little after sunrise until the Sea breeze
sets in it is generally Calm, and is then the Hotest and most
Disagreeable part of the whole day.

CHAPTER 2. RIO JANEIRO TO TAHITI.

REMARKABLE OCCURRENCES FROM RIO DE JANEIRO TOWARDS TERRA DEL FUEGO.

[December 1768. Rio to Strait Le Maire.]

THURSDAY, December 8th. Fore and Middle parts Moderate breezes and
Cloudy; remainder, little wind and Clear weather. At 3 p.m. the Boat
returned from the Island; hoisted her in and made Sail at 6. The Sugar
Loaf at the west Entrance of Rio de Janeiro bore North 1/2 East, distance
7 leagues; it lies from the City of Rio de Janeiro, from which I take my
Departure, South-West 4 miles. Wind East-North-East, North-East, North by
East; course South 7 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 85 miles; latitude
24 degrees 17 minutes South, longitude 42 degrees 29 minutes West.

Friday, 9th. Genteel light breezes and Clear weather. At 3 a.m. the Fore
top-gallant Mast broke short by the Cap; the Carpenter employed making
another. Wind North, North-East, South-South-West; course South 22
degrees East; distance 32 miles; latitude 24 degrees 46 minutes South,
longitude 42 degrees 16 minutes West.

Saturday, 10th. Moderate breezes with some flying showers of Rain the
first part. Wind southerly; course, South-East 1/2 East; distance 75
miles; latitude 25 degrees 34 minutes South, longitude 41 degrees 12
minutes West.

Sunday, 11th. Little wind and Clear weather the Most part of this day.
Serv'd Slops* (* Slops are materials for making clothes.) to the People.
Wind southerly; course South 20 degrees East; distance 9 miles; latitude
25 degrees 43 minutes South, longitude 41 degrees 8 minutes West.

Monday, 12th. First part, light Airs; remainder, Genteel breezes and
Clear weather. Found the variation of the Compass by the Evening
Amplitude and an Azimuth in the Morning to be 8 degrees 30 minutes East,
and the Observed Latitude at Noon to be short of that given by the Log 10
Miles. Exercised the People at Great Guns and Small Arms. Wind variable;
course South-South-West; distance 34 miles; latitude 26 degrees 14
minutes South, longitude 41 degrees 23 minutes West.

Tuesday, 13th. First part Gentle breezes and Clear, remainder a Steady
Gale. The weather a little hazey. Variation 8 degrees 23 minutes East.
Wind North-East and North-North-East; course South 19 degrees 40 minutes
West; distance 113 miles; latitude 28 degrees 0 minutes South, longitude
42 degrees 6 minutes West.

Wednesday, 14th. First and latter parts, fresh breezes and Cloudy;
middle, little wind, with Thunder, Lightning and Rain. The Caulkers
employed Caulking the Ship's Decks. Wind, North-West, West, South by
West; course South 16 degrees East; distance 87 miles; latitude 29
degrees 24 minutes South, longitude 41 degrees 55 minutes West.

Thursday, 15th. The first part a fresh Gale and dark Cloudy weather;
Remainder, little wind and clear; a large swell from South-West. Wind
South-West by South, South, East-South-East; course South 14 degrees 15
minutes East; distance 45 miles; latitude 30 degrees 8 minutes South,
longitude 41 degrees 39 minutes West.

Friday, 16th. Genteel breezes and Clear weather. Variation 9 degrees 36
minutes East. Wind East-North-East, North-West, North-East; course South
32 degrees West: distance 86 miles; latitude 31 degrees 21 minutes South,
longitude 42 degrees 32 minutes West.

Saturday, 17th. Hazey with frequent Showers of Rain all the Fore and
Middle part; latter, Clear weather with a Gentle breeze of wind. Wind,
variable from North-West, South-West, to South-South-East; course South
14 degrees West; distance 56 miles; latitude 32 degrees 15 minutes South,
longitude 42 degrees 48 minutes West.

Sunday, 18th. First part, light winds; remainder, fresh breezes and Clear
weather. Variation 11 degrees 3 minutes East. Wind, South-East to
North-East; course South 51 West; distance 43 miles; latitude 32 degrees
42 minutes South, longitude 43 degrees 27 minutes West.

Monday, 19th. A steady fresh breeze and fair weather. At half-past 5 p.m.
Longitude in per Observation of the sun and moon 43 degrees 38 minutes
West from Greenwich. Variation 11 degrees 3 minutes East. The Observed
Latitude exceeds that given by the Log 7 Miles. Wind northerly; course
South-West; distance 116 miles; latitude 34 degrees 4 minutes South,
longitude 45 degrees 6 minutes West.

Tuesday, 20th. A fresh breeze of Wind and hazey. Variation 13 degrees 44
minutes East. Observed Latitude exceeds that given by the Log 11 miles.
Wind north; course South-West 1/4 South; distance 160 miles; latitude 36
degrees 2 minutes South, longitude 47 degrees 14 minutes West.

Wednesday, 21st. Wind and weather Variable. Saw several black sheer
Waters. Sounded twice this 24 Hours but found no ground with 90 fathoms.
The Observed Latitude again ahead of the Log 16 miles. Wind variable;
course South 42 degrees 45 minutes West; distance 90 miles; latitude 37
degrees 8 minutes South, longitude 48 degrees 30 minutes West.

Thursday, 22nd. Little wind the most part of this day. Variation 15
degrees 30 minutes East. Bent a New Suit of Sails. Wind southerly; course
West; distance 40 miles; latitude 37 degrees 8 minutes South, longitude
49 degrees 1 minute West.

Friday, 23rd. Light Airs and Clear weather. Saw some Turtle upon the
Water but could not catch any. Sounded no ground with 200 fathoms.
Variation 15 degrees 40 minutes East. Wind southerly; course North 48
degrees West; distance 33 miles; latitude 36 degrees 46 minutes South,
longitude 49 degrees 32 minutes West.

Saturday, 24th. First part Calm; remainder a Genteel breeze and fine
Clear weather. This night had 2 Sets of Observations of the Moon and the
Star Aldebaran, which gave the Longitude
49 degrees 54 minutes 15 seconds West; the first sett gave 49 degrees 55
minutes 15 seconds, and the Second 49 degrees 53 minutes 15 seconds. Wind
calm, north-easterly; course South 50 degrees West; distance 39 miles;
latitude 37 degrees 11 minutes South, longitude 50 degrees 32 minutes
West.

Sunday, 25th. Fresh breezes and fine Clear weather. Wind North-East by
North to North; course South 50 degrees West; distance 116 miles;
latitude 38 degrees 37 minutes South, longitude 52 degrees 5 minutes
West.

Monday, 26th. A Fresh breeze of Wind and Cloudy weather; passed by some
Rock Weed. At noon the Observed latitude 26 Miles to the Southward of the
Log, which I believe is chiefly owing to her being Generally steer'd to
the Southward of her Course. Yesterday being Christmas Day the people
were none of the Soberest. Wind North; course South-West; distance 158
miles; latitude 40 degrees 19 minutes South, longitude 54 degrees 30
minutes West.

Tuesday, 27th. Fresh breezes and Hazey with Squalls which Obliged us
during the Night to take in the small Sails and 2 reefs in the Topsails
which were let out in the Morning. Wind northerly; course South 50
degrees West; distance 123 miles; latitude 41 degrees 38 minutes South,
longitude 56 degrees 15 minutes West.

Wednesday, 28th. First part Strong Gales and Cloudy, which Obliged us to
get down Top-Gallant Yards. At 8 p.m. it blew a Storm of Wind with Rain
which brought us under our Mainsail with her Head to the Westward.
Sounded 50 fathoms, fine brown Sand; at midnight had 40 fathoms, the same
bottom. At 4 a.m. had 46 fathoms Coral Rock. The weather being more
Moderate, made Sail under the Courses and Set the Topsails with 2 Reefs
in. Wind South-East to South; latitude 40 degrees 49 minutes South,
longitude 58 degrees 29 minutes West.

Thursday, 29th. First part moderate breezes and Cloudy; remainder fresh
breezes and Clear. P.M. loosed all the Reefs out, and got Topgallant
Yards a Cross. Variation per Azimuth 16 degrees 12 minutes, per Amplitude
16 degrees 32 minutes; Mean of the Two 16 degrees 22 minutes East.
Between 9 and 10 a.m. took 7 sets of Observations between the sun and
moon to find the Longitude of the Ship. Each set Consists of three
Observations; the Mean of the whole gave 59 degrees 18 minutes 34 seconds
West of Greenwich. The result of each set was as follows: viz., 1st set,
59 degrees 8 minutes; Second, 59 degrees 21 minutes; Third, 59 degrees 34
minutes; Fourth, 59 degrees 17 minutes; Fifth, 59 degrees 11 minutes 45
seconds; Sixth, 59 degrees 19 minutes 30 seconds; and the Seventh, 59
degrees 20 minutes 45 seconds. The greatest differance between any
two--viz., the first and third--is but 26 minutes, and the mean of these
two differ from the mean of the whole only 2 minutes 26 seconds. This
shews to what degree of accuracy these observations can be made even by
Different Persons, for four of these were made and computed by Mr. Green
and the rest by myself. The Longitude given by the Ship, reckoning from
the last Observation 5 Days ago, differs only 8 Miles from the
Observation, which shews that we have not been in any Currents. Soundings
from 40 to 47. Wind North-Easterly; course South 46 degrees 30 minutes
West; distance 81 miles; latitude 41 degrees 45 minutes South, longitude
59 degrees 37 minutes West.

Friday, 30th. Little wind, and sometimes Calm; the first part Clear
weather, remainder Foggy and Hazey. Soundings from 44 to 49 fathoms; Grey
sandy Bottom. Caught both this Morning and last Night a great Number of
insects. Some were upon the Wing, but the greater part were upon the
water, and many of these alive and of such sort as cannot fly far; and
yet at this Time we could not be less than 30 Leagues from Land. Wind
variable; course South 30 degrees West; distance 54 miles; latitude 42
degrees 32 minutes South, longitude 60 degrees 15 minutes West.

Saturday, 31st. Cloudy weather, with some Lightning and a few showers of
rain. Variation 18 degrees 36 minutes East. Soundings from 46 to 50
fathoms; fine dark sand. Wind South-Easterly; course South 18 degrees
West; distance 43 miles; latitude 43 degrees 14 minutes South, longitude
60 degrees 26 minutes West.

[January 1769.]

Sunday, January 1st, 1769. First and Latter part, fresh breezes and Clear
weather; in the Middle, light Airs and Calm. At Noon, longitude in per 4
Sets of Observations between the sun and moon 61 degrees 8 minutes 28
seconds west. The Difference between the least and Greatest of these sets
was 8 minutes, and the mean of 2 differs from the Mean of the whole but
32 seconds. The Longitude by account carried on from the last
Observations exactly agree with these Observations. Saw a great number of
small Whales about the Ship. Wind South to West-South-West; course South
36 degrees West; distance 39 miles; latitude 43 degrees 35 minutes South;
longitude 61 degrees 8 minutes 28 seconds West.

Monday, January 2nd. The first part of this day a Genteel gale and Clear
weather; middle, Squally, with Lightning and rain, and some showers of
Large Hail Stones; towards Noon a Steady fresh breeze and Clear weather.
At noon longitude in by 3 sets of Observations between the sun and moon
61 degrees 7 minutes 45 seconds, which is 43 seconds to the Eastward of
yesterday's Observations. The Ship by the Log has made 4 minutes East.
Wind Westerly; course South 2 degrees East; distance 92 miles; latitude
45 degrees 17 minutes South, longitude 61 degrees 7 minutes 45 seconds
West.

Tuesday, 3rd. Fresh gales and clear weather; under Single Reef Topsails.
P.M. Saw some Whales and Porpoises and small red Crawfish, some of which
we Caught. At Noon saw several Birds of a light Grey Colour, like
Pidgeons, but smaller; these are of the Mother Carey's kind. Longitude
per Observation 61 degrees 29 minutes 45 seconds, which is 22 minutes to
the westward of Yesterday, but the ship hath made 41 minutes,
Consequently there is an Error of 19 minutes, which is not to be supposed
to be in the Log in one Day's run; but, be it which way it will, it is
not great. Wind West, Southerly; course South 11 degrees; distance 122
miles; latitude 47 degrees 17 minutes South, longitude 61 degrees 29
minutes 45 seconds West.

Wednesday, 4th. First part, genteel breeze and Clear; latter, fresh
gales, with heavy squalls of wind and rain, which brought us under our
courses and main topsails close reefed. Soon after noon saw the
appearance of Land to the Eastward, and being in the Latitude of Peypes
Island, as it is lay'd down in some Charts, imagined it might be it.* (*
Pepys' Island, placed on charts, from a report by Captain Cowley in 1683,
about 230 miles north of Falkland Islands, and long imagined to exist. It
was eventually recognised, after the discovery of Cowley's manuscript
Journal, that Cowley had sighted the Falklands.) Bore down to be Certain,
and at 1/2 past 2 p.m. discovered our Mistake, and hauld the Wind again.
At 6 sounded, and had 72 fathoms black sand and mud. Variation 19 degrees
45 minutes East. Wind West-North-West to South-West by South; course
South 30 degrees East; distance 76 miles; latitude 48 degrees 28 minutes
South, longitude 60 degrees 51 minutes West.

[Nearing Terra del Fuego.]

Thursday, 5th. Fore part, fresh Gales and Clear; Middle, light Airs;
remainder, fresh Gales and a little hazey. P.M. found the Variation to be
20 degrees 4 minutes East; Soundings 75 and 73 fathoms. A great Number of
Water Fowl about the Ship. Wind South-West, North-East, North-North-East;
course South 28 degrees West; distance 92 miles; latitude 49 degrees 49
minutes South, longitude 61 degrees 67 minutes West.

Friday, 6th. Fresh gales, the Air very Sharp and Cold; frequent showers
of rain and Squalls. Soundings 75 fathoms. Saw some Penguins. Gave to
each of the People a Fearnought Jacket and a pair of Trowsers, after
which I never heard one Man Complain of Cold, not but that the weather
was cold enough. Wind West, Southerly; course South 8 degrees 45 minutes
West; distance 92 miles; latitude 51 degrees 20 minutes South, longitude
62 degrees 19 minutes West.

Saturday, 7th. First part, Strong Gales, with excessive hard Squals, with
rain. At 9 p.m. wore and brought too, her head to the Westward under the
Mainsail, and Reef'd the Foresail for the first time. The Storm continued
with a little intermission until a little towards Noon, when it abated,
so we could set the Topsails close Reefed. Saw many Penguins and some
Seals. Wind southerly: course South 62 degrees East; distance 14 miles;
latitude 51 degrees 26 minutes South, longitude 61 degrees 59 minutes
West.

Sunday, 8th. Wind and weather both Variable, but for the most part little
wind. P.M. loosed the Reef out of the Foresail and 2 Reefs out of Each
Topsail. A.M. got Top gallant Yards across and loosed all the Reefs out.
Soundings from 80 to 75 fathoms. Wind South, South-West, West,
North-West; course North 72 degrees West; distance 33 miles; latitude 51
degrees 16 minutes South; longitude 62 degrees 50 minutes West.

Monday, 9th. First and Latter parts, a moderate breeze and Clear weather;
Middle, squally with rain. P.M. found the Variation by several azimuths
to be 22 degrees 24 minutes East. Saw a great Number of Penguins and
Seals.

Tuesday, 10th. Moderate breezes and fine clear weather. At 2 p.m. Sounded
86 fathoms; black sand and Small stones. Variation 21 degrees 57 minutes
East. At 1/2 past 10 Tackt having Stood south 12 Leagues. After standing
to the Westward 14 Miles, sounded, and had 80 fathoms black grey sand; 3
Leagues farther 76, coarse black sand; Tack'd, and at noon had 70 fathoms
black gravel and Small Stones of different Colours. Saw several flights
of black Sheerwaters. Wind West-South-West, South-West; course South 18
degrees West; distance 38 miles; latitude 52 degrees 54 minutes South,
longitude 63 degrees 10 minutes West.

Wednesday, 11th. A Steady Genteel breeze and clear weather. P.M. after
standing 13 Leagues South-South-West Sounded 64 fathoms Gravel and small
Stones; Standing South-West by South 11 leagues farther, had 46 fathoms,
the same sort of bottom. At 8 a.m. saw the land of Terra del Fuego,
extending from the west to the South-East by South, distance off shore
between 3 and 4 Leagues; sounded and had 35 fathoms small, soft, Slate
Stones. Variation 23 degrees 30 minutes East. In ranging along shore to
the South-East at the distance of 2 or 3 leagues, had 27 and 26 fathoms
muddy bottom. Saw some of the natives, who made a Smook in several
places, which must have been done as a Signal to us as they did not
continue it after we passed. By our Longitude we ought not to have been
so far to the Westward as Statenland, as it is laid down in the Charts;
but it appeared from Subsequent Observations that the Ship had got near a
Degree of Longitude to the Westward of the Log, which is 35 Miles in
these Latitudes. Probably this in part may be owing to a Small Current
setting to the Westward, occasioned by the Westerly Current which comes
round Cape Horn and through Strait La Maire, and the indraught of the
Streights of Magellan. Wind westerly; course South 30 degrees West;
distance, 100 miles; latitude 54 degrees 20 minutes South, longitude 64
degrees 35 minutes West per log.

Thursday, 12th. First part, moderate breezes and Cloudy; remainder
sometimes a fresh breeze, sometimes Calm, Hazey weather with rain. At 5
the wind coming to the Northward obliged us to Tack and Stood
North-Westward, being then about 5 Miles from the Shore, and had 23
fathoms, sandy Bottom. At Midnight Tackt and Stood to the Eastward. At
Noon the Land over the Entrance of Straits La Maire, East-North-East,
distance, 7 leagues; Soundings from 28 to 38 fathoms. Wind North,
North-North-East, variable, West-South-West; latitude 54 degrees 34
minutes South per observation.

Friday, 13th. The greatest part of this day little wind and Cloudy. At 8
p.m., Cape St. Diego, at the west entrance of Straits La Maire, East,
distance about 5 leagues. Keept under an easey Sail until daylight, at
which time we were abreast of Cape St. Diego, and then put into the
Straits, but the Tide soon turned against us and obliged us to haul under
the Cape again and wait until 9 a.m. when it shifted in our favour. Put
into the Straits again with a Moderate breeze at South-West, which soon
grew Boisterous with very heavy Squalls, with rain and hail, and obliged
us to Close reef our Topsails. Wind North-East by East, West-South-West,
South-West; latitude 54 degrees 39 minutes South; at noon, Cape St. Diego
North 2 leagues.

[In Strait of Le Maire.]

Saturday, 14th. First part Strong Gales, and very heavy squalls with Hail
and Rain; remainder more moderate but unsettled, sometimes a fresh breeze
and Squally, and sometimes little wind. Kept plying in the Straits until
1/2 past 4 p.m., at which time the Tide had made strong against us, and
the wind not abating, bore away, intending to have hauled under Cape St.
Diego, but was prevented by the force of the Tide, which carried us past
that Cape with surprising rapidity, at the same time caused a very great
sea. At 6, the weather being Clear, took 9, or 3 sets of, Observations of
the sun and moon in order to find the Longitude of the place, and as they
perhaps are the first Observations of this kind that were ever made so
near to the Extremity of South America, I have inserted them below just
as they were taken, that everybody may judge for themselves.

COLUMN 1: NAME OF SET.
COLUMN 2: TIME BY THE WATCH IN HOURS, MINUTES AND SECONDS.
COLUMN 3: APPARENT TIME COMPUTED FROM IN HOURS, MINUTES AND SECONDS.
COLUMN 4: OBSERVED DISTANCE. SUN AND MOON'S NEAREST LIMB IN DEGREES,
MINUTES AND SECONDS.
COLUMN 5: OBSERVED ALTITUDE. SUN'S LOWER LIMB IN DEGREES, MINUTES AND
SECONDS.
COLUMN 6: OBSERVED ALTITUDE. MOON'S UPPER LIMB IN DEGREES, MINUTES AND
SECONDS.
COLUMN 7: CORRECT ALTITUDE. SUN'S CENTER IN DEGREES, MINUTES AND SECONDS.
COLUMN 8: CORRECT ALTITUDE. MOON'S CENTER IN DEGREES, MINUTES AND
SECONDS.
COLUMN 9: THE LONGITUDE RESULTING FROM BOTH SETS OF OBSERVATIONS IN
DEGREES, MINUTES AND SECONDS.

-- : 8 27 15 : -- : 71 26 0 : 15 36 0 : 24 13 0 : -- : -- : --.
-- : 8 30 30 : -- : 71 28 0 : 15 11 0 : 24 8 0 : -- : -- : --.
-- : 8 32 15 : -- : 71 29 0 : 14 56 0 : 23 57 0 : -- : -- : --.
------------------------------------------------
-- : 25 30 00 : -- : - 83 0 : 45 43 0 : 72 18 0 : -- : -- : --.
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