Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Books, poems, drama…

Camp-Fire and Cotton-Field by Thomas W. Knox

Part 1 out of 8

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 0.9 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

Produced by Suzanne Shell, Michel Boto and PG Distributed Proofreaders

CAMP-FIRE AND COTTON-FIELD:
SOUTHERN ADVENTURE
IN
TIME OF WAR.

LIFE WITH THE UNION ARMIES,
AND
RESIDENCE ON A LOUISIANA PLANTATION.

BY
THOMAS W. KNOX,
HERALD CORRESPONDENT.

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS.

1865.

TO
THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE PRESS,
WHO FOLLOWED THE
FORTUNES OF THE NATIONAL ARMIES,
AND RECORDED
THE DEEDS OF VALOR THAT SECURED THE PERPETUITY OF THE REPUBLIC,
THIS VOLUME
IS SYMPATHETICALLY INSCRIBED.

[Illustration: THE REBEL RAM ARKANSAS RUNNING THROUGH OUR FLEET.]

TO THE READER.

A preface usually takes the form of an apology. The author of this
volume has none to offer.

The book owes its appearance to its discovery of a publisher. It has
been prepared from materials gathered during the Campaigns herein
recorded, and from the writer's personal recollections.

Whatever of merit or demerit it possesses remains for the reader to
ascertain. His judgment will be unprejudiced if he finds no word of
promise on the prefatory page.

NEW YORK, _September 15th, 1865_.

ILLUSTRATIONS.

THE RAM _Arkansas_ RUNNING THROUGH OUR FLEET ABOVE VICKSBURG
HAULING DOWN A REBEL FLAG AT HICKMAN, KENTUCKY
THE OPENING GUN AT BOONEVILLE
THE DEATH OF GENERAL LYON
GENERAL SIGEL'S TRANSPORTATION IN MISSOURI
SHELLING THE HILL AT PEA RIDGE
GENERAL NELSON'S DIVISION CROSSING THE TENNESSEE
RUNNING THE BATTERIES AT ISLAND NUMBER TEN
THE REBEL CHARGE AT CORINTH, MISSISSIPPI
ASSAULTING THE HILL AT CHICKASAW BAYOU
STRATEGY AGAINST GUERRILLAS
THE STEAMER _Von Phul_ RUNNING THE BATTERIES

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

ANTE BELLUM.

At the Rocky Mountains.--Sentiment of the People.--Firing the
Southern Heart.--A Midwinter Journey across the Plains.--An Editor's
Opinion.--Election in Missouri.--The North springing to
Arms.--An amusing Arrest.--Off for the Field.--Final
Instructions.--Niagara.--Curiosities of Banking.--Arrival at the Seat
of War.

CHAPTER II.

MISSOURI IN THE EARLY DAYS.

Apathy of the Border States.--The Missouri State Convention.--Sterling
Price a Union Man.--Plan to take the State out of the Union.--Capture
of Camp Jackson.--Energy of General Lyon.--Union Men organized.--An
Unfortunate Collision.--The Price-Harney Truce.--The Panic among the
Secessionists.--Their Hegira from St. Louis.--A Visit to the
State Capital.--Under the Rebel Flag.--Searching for Contraband
Articles.--An Introduction to Rebel Dignitaries.--Governor
Jackson.--Sterling Price.--Jeff. Thompson.--Activity at
Cairo.--Kentucky Neutrality.--The Rebels occupy Columbus.

CHAPTER III.

THE BEGINNING OF HOSTILITIES.

General Harney Relieved.--Price's Proclamation.--End of the
Truce.--Conference between the Union and Rebel Leaders.--The First Act
of Hostility.--Destruction of Railway Bridges.--Promptness of
General Lyon.--Capture of the State Capital.--Moving on the Enemy's
Works.--The Night before Battle.--A Correspondent's Sensation.

CHAPTER IV.

THE FIRST BATTLE IN MISSOURI.

Moving up the River.--A Landing Effected.--The Battle.--Precipitous
Retreat of the Rebels.--Spoiling a Captured Camp.--Rebel Flags
Emblazoned with the State Arms.--A Journalist's Outfit.--A Chaplain of
the Church Militant.--A Mistake that might have been Unfortunate.--The
People of Booneville.--Visiting an Official.--Banking-House
Loyalty.--Preparations for a Campaign.

CHAPTER V.

TO SPRINGFIELD AND BEYOND.

Conduct of the St. Louis Secessionists.--Collisions between Soldiers
and Citizens.--Indignation of the Guests of a Hotel.--From St.
Louis to Rolla.--Opinions of a "Regular."--Railway-life in
Missouri.--Unprofitable Freight.--A Story of Orthography.--Mountains
and Mountain Streams.--Fastidiousness Checked.--Frontier
Courtesy.--Concentration of Troops at Springfield.--A Perplexing
Situation.--The March to Dug Spring.--Sufferings from Heat and Thirst.

CHAPTER VI.

THE BATTLE OF WILSON CREEK.

The Return from Dug Spring.--The Rebels follow in
Pursuit.--Preparations to Attack them.--The Plan of Battle.--Moving
to the Attack--A Bivouac--The Opening Shot.--"Is that
Official?"--Sensations of a Spectator in Battle.--Extension of
Distance and Time.--Characteristics of Projectiles.--Taking Notes
under Fire.--Strength and Losses of the Opposing Armies.--A Noble
Record.--The Wounded on the Field.--"One More Shot."--Granger in his
Element.--General Lyon's Death.

CHAPTER VII.

THE RETREAT FROM SPRINGFIELD.

A Council of War.--The Journalists' Council.--Preparations for
Retreat.--Preceding the Advance-Guard.--Alarm and Anxiety of the
People.--Magnificent Distances.--A Novel Odometer.--The Unreliable
Countryman.--Neutrality.--A Night at Lebanon.--A Disagreeable
Lodging-place.--Active Secessionists.--The Man who Sought and
Found his Rights.--Approaching Civilization.--Rebel Couriers on the
Route.--Arrival at Rolla.

CHAPTER VIII.

GENERAL FREMONT'S PURSUIT OF PRICE.

Quarrel between Price and McCulloch.--The Rebels Advance upon
Lexington.--A Novel Defense for Sharp-shooters.--Attempt to Re-enforce
the Garrison.--An Enterprising Journalist.--The Surrender.--Fremont's
Advance.--Causes of Delay.--How the Journalists Killed Time.--Late
News.--A Contractor "Sold."--Sigel in Front.--A Motley
Collection.--A Wearied Officer.--The Woman who had never seen a Black
Republican.--Love and Conversion.

CHAPTER IX.

THE SECOND CAMPAIGN TO SPRINGFIELD.

Detention at Warsaw.--A Bridge over the Osage.--The
Body-Guard.--Manner of its Organization.--The Advance
to Springfield.--Charge of the Body-Guard.--A Corporal's
Ruse.--Occupation of Springfield.--The Situation.--Wilson Creek
Revisited.--Traces of the Battle.--Rumored Movements of the
Enemy.--Removal of General Fremont.--Danger of Attack.--A Night of
Excitement.--The Return to St. Louis.--Curiosities of the Scouting
Service.--An Arrest by Mistake.

CHAPTER X.

TWO MONTHS OF IDLENESS.

A Promise Fulfilled.--Capture of a Rebel Camp and Train.--Rebel
Sympathizers in St. Louis.--General Halleck and his Policy.--Refugees
from Rebeldom.--Story of the Sufferings of a Union Family.--Chivalry
in the Nineteenth Century.--The Army of the Southwest in
Motion.--Gun-Boats and Transports.--Capture of Fort Henry.--The Effect
in St. Louis.--Our Flag Advancing.

CHAPTER XI

ANOTHER CAMPAIGN IN MISSOURI.

From St. Louis to Rolla.--A Limited Outfit.--Missouri Roads in
Winter.--"Two Solitary Horsemen."--Restricted Accommodations in a
Slaveholder's House.--An Energetic Quartermaster.--General Sheridan
before he became Famous.--"Bagging Price."--A Defect in the
Bag.--Examining the Correspondence of a Rebel General.--What the
Rebels left at their Departure.

CHAPTER XII.

THE FLIGHT AND THE PURSUIT.

From Springfield to Pea Ridge.--Mark Tapley in Missouri.--"The
Arkansas Traveler."--Encountering the Rebel Army.--A Wonderful
Spring.--The Cantonment at Cross Hollows.--Game Chickens.--Magruder
_vs_. Breckinridge.--Rebel Generals in a Controversy.--Its Result.--An
Expedition to Huntsville.--Curiosities of Rebel Currency.--Important
Information.--A Long and Weary March.--Disposition of Forces before
the Battle.--Changing Front.--What the Rebels lost by Ignorance.

CHAPTER XIII.

THE BATTLE OF PEA RIDGE.

The Rebels make their Attack.--Albert Pike and his Indians.--Scalping
Wounded Men.--Death of General McCulloch.--The Fighting at Elkhorn
Tavern.--Close of a Gloomy Day.--An Unpleasant Night.--Vocal Sounds
from a Mule's Throat.--Sleeping under Disadvantages.--A Favorable
Morning.--The Opposing Lines of Battle.--A Severe Cannonade.--The
Forest on Fire.--Wounded Men in the Flames.--The Rebels in
Retreat.--Movements of our Army.--A Journey to St. Louis.

CHAPTER XIV.

UP THE TENNESSEE AND AT PITTSBURG LANDING.

At St. Louis.--Progress of our Arms in the Great Valley.--Cairo.--Its
Peculiarities and Attractions.--Its Commercial, Geographical, and
Sanitary Advantages.--Up the Tennessee.--Movements Preliminary to
the Great Battle.--The Rebels and their Plans.--Postponement of
the Attack.--Disadvantages of our Position.--The Beginning of the
Battle.--Results of the First Day.--Re-enforcements.--Disputes between
Officers of our two Armies.--Beauregard's Watering-place.

CHAPTER XV.

SHILOH AND THE SIEGE OF CORINTH.

The Error of the Rebels.--Story of a Surgeon.--Experience of a
Rebel Regiment.--Injury to the Rebel Army.--The Effect in our own
Lines.--Daring of a Color-Bearer.--A Brave Soldier.--A Drummer-Boy's
Experience.--Gallantry of an Artillery Surgeon.--A Regiment Commanded
by a Lieutenant.--Friend Meeting Friend and Brother Meeting Brother
in the Opposing Lines.--The Scene of the Battle.--Fearful Traces
of Musketry-Fire.--The Wounded.--The Labor of the Sanitary
Commission.--Humanity a Yankee Trick.--Besieging Corinth.--A
Cold-Water Battery.--Halleck and the Journalists.--Occupation of
Corinth.

CHAPTER XVI.

CAPTURE OF FORT PILLOW AND BATTLE OF MEMPHIS.

The Siege of Fort Pillow.--General Pope.--His Reputation for
Veracity.--Capture of the "Ten Thousand."--Naval Battle above Fort
Pillow.--The _John H. Dickey_.--Occupation of the Fort.--General
Forrest.--Strength of the Fortifications.--Their Location.--Randolph,
Tennessee.--Memphis and her Last Ditch.--Opening of the Naval
Combat.--Gallant Action of Colonel Ellet.--Fate of the Rebel
Fleet.--The People Viewing the Battle.--Their Conduct.

CHAPTER XVII.

IN MEMPHIS AND UNDER THE FLAG.

Jeff. Thompson and his Predictions.--A Cry of Indignation.--Memphis
Humiliated.--The Journalists in the Battle.--The Surrender.--A Fine
Point of Law and Honor.--Going on Shore.--An Enraged Secessionist.--A
Dangerous Enterprise.--Memphis and her Antecedents.--Her Loyalty.--An
Amusing Incident.--How the Natives learned of the Capture of Fort
Donelson.--The Last Ditch.--A Farmer-Abolitionist.--Disloyalty among
the Women.--"Blessings in Disguise."--An American Mark Tapley.

CHAPTER XVIII.

SUPERVISING A REBEL JOURNAL.

The Press of Memphis.--Flight of _The Appeal_.--A False
Prediction.--_The Argus_ becomes Loyal.--Order from General
Wallace.--Installed in Office.--Lecturing the Rebels.--"Trade follows
the Flag."--Abuses of Traffic.--Supplying the Rebels.--A Perilous
Adventure.--Passing the Rebel Lines.--Eluding Watchful Eyes.

CHAPTER XIX.

THE FIRST SIEGE OF VICKSBURG.

From Memphis to Vicksburg.--Running the Batteries.--Our Inability
to take Vicksburg by Assault.--Digging a Canal.--A Conversation with
Resident Secessionists.--Their Arguments _pro_ and _con_, and the
Answers they Received.--A Curiosity of Legislation.--An Expedition up
the Yazoo.--Destruction of the Rebel Fleet.--The _Arkansas_ Running
the Gauntlet.--A Spirited Encounter.--A Gallant Attempt.--Raising the
Siege.--Fate of the _Arkansas_.

CHAPTER XX.

THE MARCH THROUGH ARKANSAS.--THE SIEGE OF CINCINNATI.

General Curtis's Army reaching Helena.--Its Wanderings.--The
Arkansas Navy.--Troops and their Supplies "miss
Connection."--Rebel Reports.--Memphis in Midsummer.--"A Journey due
North."--Chicago.--Bragg's Advance into Kentucky.--Kirby Smith in
Front of Cincinnati.--The City under Martial Law.--The Squirrel
Hunters.--War Correspondents in Comfortable Quarters.--Improvising an
Army.--Raising the Siege.--Bragg's Retreat.

CHAPTER XXI.

THE BATTLE OF CORINTH.

New Plans of the Rebels.--Their Design to Capture Corinth.--Advancing
to the Attack.--Strong Defenses.--A Magnificent Charge.--Valor _vs_.
Breast-Works.--The Repulse.--Retreat and Pursuit.--The National Arms
Triumphant.

CHAPTER XXII.

THE CAMPAIGN FROM CORINTH.

Changes of Commanders.--Preparations for the Aggressive.--Marching
from Corinth.--Talking with the People.--"You-uns and
We-uns."--Conservatism of a "Regular."--Loyalty and
Disloyalty.--Condition of the Rebel Army.--Foraging.--German Theology
for American Soldiers.--A Modest Landlord.--A Boy without a Name.--The
Freedmen's Bureau.--Employing Negroes.--Holly Springs and its
People.--An Argument for Secession.

CHAPTER XXIII.

GRANT'S OCCUPATION OF MISSISSIPPI.

The Slavery Question.--A Generous Offer.--A Journalist's
Modesty.--Hopes of the Mississippians at the Beginning of the
War.--Visiting an Editress.--Literature under Difficulties.--Jacob
Thompson and his Correspondence.--Plans for the Capture of
Vicksburg.--Movements of General Sherman.--The Raid upon Holly
Springs.--Forewarned, but not Forearmed.--A Gallant Fight.

CHAPTER XXIV.

THE BATTLE OF CHICKASAW BAYOU.

Leaving Memphis.--Down the Great River.--Landing in the
Yazoo.--Description of the Ground.--A Night in Bivouac.--Plan
of Attack.--Moving toward the Hills.--Assaulting the Bluff.--Our
Repulse.--New Plans.--Withdrawal from the Yazoo.

CHAPTER XXV.

BEFORE VICKSBURG.

Capture of Arkansas Post.--The Army returns to Milliken's
Bend.--General Sherman and the Journalists.--Arrest of the
Author.--His Trial before a Military Court.--Letter from President
Lincoln.--Capture of Three Journalists.

CHAPTER XXVI.

KANSAS IN WAR-TIME.

A Visit to Kansas.--Recollections of Border Feuds.--Peculiarities
of Kansas Soldiers.--Foraging as a Fine Art.--Kansas and
Missouri.--Settling Old Scores.--Depopulating the Border
Counties.--Two Examples of Grand Strategy.--Capture of the
"Little-More-Grape" Battery.--A Woman in Sorrow.--Frontier
Justice.--Trial before a "Lynch" Court.--General Blunt's
Order.--Execution of Horse-Thieves.--Auction Sale of Confiscated
Property.--Banished to Dixie.

CHAPTER XXVII.

GETTYSBURG.

A Hasty Departure.--At Harrisburg.--_En route_ for the Army of
the Potomac.--The Battle-Field at Gettysburg.--Appearance of
the Cemetery.--Importance of the Position.--The Configuration
of Ground.--Traces of Battle.--Round Hill.--General Meade's
Head-Quarters.--Appearance of the Dead.--Through the Forests along the
Line.--Retreat and Pursuit of Lee.

CHAPTER XXVIII.

IN THE NORTHWEST.

From Chicago to Minnesota.--Curiosities of Low-Water Navigation.--St.
Paul and its Sufferings in Earlier Days.--The Indian War.--A Brief
History of our Troubles in that Region.--General Pope's Expeditions to
Chastise the Red Man.--Honesty in the Indian Department.--The End of
the Warfare.--The Pacific Railway.--A Bold Undertaking.--Penetrating
British Territory.--The Hudson Bay Company.--Peculiarities of a
Trapper's Life.

CHAPTER XXIX.

INAUGURATION OF A GREAT ENTERPRISE.

Plans for Arming the Negroes along the Mississippi.--Opposition to the
Movement.--Plantations Deserted by their Owners.--Gathering Abandoned
Cotton.--Rules and Regulations.--Speculation.--Widows and Orphans
in Demand.--Arrival of Adjutant-General Thomas.--Designs of the
Government.

CHAPTER XXX.

COTTON-PLANTING IN 1863.

Leasing the Plantations.--Interference of the
Rebels.--Raids.--Treatment of Prisoners.--The Attack upon Milliken's
Bend.--A Novel Breast-Work.--Murder of our Officers.--Profits of
Cotton-Planting.--Dishonesty of Lessees.--Negroes Planting on their
own Account.

CHAPTER XXXI.

AMONG THE OFFICIALS.

Reasons for Trying an Experiment.--Activity among Lessees.--Opinions
of the Residents.--Rebel Hopes in 1863.--Removal of Negroes to West
Louisiana.--Visiting Natchez.--The City and its Business.--"The
Rejected Addresses".

CHAPTER XXXII.

A JOURNEY OUTSIDE THE LINES.

Passing the Pickets.--Cold Weather in the South.--Effect of Climate
upon the Constitution.--Surrounded and Captured.--Prevarication
and Explanation.--Among the Natives.--The Game for the
Confederacy.--Courtesy of the Planters.--Condition of the
Plantations.--The Return.

CHAPTER XXXIII.

ON THE PLANTATION.

Military Protection.--Promises.--Another Widow.--Securing
a Plantation.--Its Locality and Appearance.--Gardening in
Louisiana.--How Cotton is Picked.--"The Tell-Tale."--A Southerner's
Opinion of the Negro Character.--Causes and Consequences.

CHAPTER XXXIV.

RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE OLD AND NEW SYSTEMS.

The Plantation Record.--Its Uses.--Interesting Memoranda.--Dogs,
Jail, and Stocks.--Instructions to the Overseer.--His Duties and
Responsibilities.--The Order of General Banks.--Management of
Plantations in the Department of the Gulf.--The two Documents.
Contrasted.--One of the Effects of "an Abolition War".

CHAPTER XXXV.

OUR FREE-LABOR ENTERPRISE IN PROGRESS.

The Negroes at Work.--Difficulties in the Way.--A Public Meeting.--A
Speech.--A Negro's Idea of Freedom.--A Difficult Question to
Determine.--Influence of Northern and Southern Men Contrasted.--An
Increase of Numbers.--"Ginning" Cotton.--In the Lint-Room.--Mills and
Machinery of a Plantation.--A Profitable Enterprise.

CHAPTER XXXVI.

WAR AND AGRICULTURE.

Official Favors.--Division of Labor.--Moral Suasion.--Corn-gathering
in the South.--An Alarm.--A Frightened Irishman.--The Rebels
Approaching.--An Attack on Waterproof.--Falstaff Redivivus.--His Feats
of Arms.--Departure for New Orleans.

CHAPTER XXXVII.

IN THE COTTON MARKET.

New Orleans and its Peculiarities.--Its Loss by the Rebellion.--Cotton
Factors in New Orleans.--Old Things passed away.--The Northern
Barbarians a Race of Shopkeepers.--Pulsations of the Cotton Market.--A
Quarrel with a Lady.--Contending for a Principle.--Inharmony of the
"Regulations."--An Account of Sales.

CHAPTER XXXVIII.

SOME FEATURES OF PLANTATION LIFE.

Mysteries of Mule-trading.--"What's in a Name?"--Process of Stocking
a Plantation.--An Enterprising White Man.--Stratagem of a
Yankee.--Distributing Goods to the Negroes.--The Tastes of the
African.--Ethiopian Eloquence.--A Colored Overseer.--Guerrillas
Approaching.--Whisky _vs_. Guerrillas.--A Hint to Military Men.

CHAPTER XXXIX.

VISITED BY GUERRILLAS.

News of the Raid.--Returning to the Plantation.--Examples of Negro
Cunning.--A Sudden Departure and a Fortunate Escape.--A Second
Visit.--"Going Through," in Guerrilla Parlance.--How it is
Accomplished.--Courtesy to Guests.--A Holiday Costume.--Lessees
Abandoning their Plantations.--Official Promises.

CHAPTER XL.

PECULIARITIES OF PLANTATION LABOR.

Resuming Operation.--Difficulties in the Way.--A New Method of Healing
the Sick.--A Thief Discovered by his Ignorance of Arithmetic.--How
Cotton is Planted.--The Uses of Cotton-Seed.--A Novel
Sleeping-Room.--Constructing a Tunnel.--Vigilance of a Negro Sentinel.

CHAPTER XLI.

THE NEGROES AT A MILITARY POST.

The Soldiers at Waterproof.--The Black Man in Blue.--Mutiny and
Desertion.--Their Cause and Cure.--Tendering a Resignation.--No Desire
for a Barber.--Seeking Protection.--Falsehood and Truth.--Proneness to
Exaggeration.--Amusing Estimates.

CHAPTER XLII.

THE END OF THE EXPERIMENT.

The Nature of our "Protection."--Trade Following the Flag.--A
Fortunate Journey.--Our Last Visit.--Inhumanity of the
Guerrillas.--Driving Negroes into Captivity.--Killing an
Overseer.--Our Final Departure.--Plantations Elsewhere.

CHAPTER XLIII.

THE MISSISSIPPI AND ITS PECULIARITIES.

Length of the Great River, and the Area it Drains.--How Itasca Lake
obtained its Name.--The Bends of the Mississippi.--Curious Effect upon
Titles to Real Estate.--A Story of Napoleon.--A Steamboat Thirty-five
Years under Water.--The Current and its Variations.--Navigating Cotton
and Corn Fields.--Reminiscences of the Islands.

CHAPTER XLIV.

STEAMBOATING ON THE MISSISSIPPI IN PEACE AND WAR.

Attempts to Obstruct the Great River.--Chains, Booms, and
Batteries.--A Novelty in Piloting.--Travel in the Days Before the
Rebellion.--Trials of Speed.--The Great Race.--Travel During the
War.--Running a Rebel Battery on the Lower Mississippi.--Incidents of
the Occasion.--Comments on the Situation.

CHAPTER XLV.

THE ARMY CORRESPONDENT.

The Beginning and the End.--The Lake Erie Piracy.--A Rochester
Story.--The First War Correspondent.--Napoleon's Policy.--Waterloo
and the Rothschilds.--Journalistic Enterprise in the Mexican War.--The
Crimea and the East Indian Rebellion.--Experiences at the Beginning
of Hostilities.--The Tender Mercies of the Insurgents.--In the
Field.--Adventures in Missouri and Kentucky.--Correspondents
in Captivity.--How Battle-Accounts were Written.--Professional
Complaints.

CHAPTER XLVI.

THE PRESENT CONDITION OF THE SOUTH.

Scarcity of the Population.--Fertility of the Country.--Northern Men
already in the South.--Kansas Emigrants Crossing Missouri.--Change of
the Situation.--Present Disadvantages of Emigration.--Feeling of
the People.--Property-Holders in Richmond.--The Sentiment in North
Carolina.--South Carolina Chivalry.--The Effect of War.--Prospect of
the Success of Free Labor.--Trade in the South.

CHAPTER XLVII.

HOW DISADVANTAGES MAY BE OVERCOME.

Conciliating the People of the South.--Railway Travel and its
Improvement.--Rebuilding Steamboats.--Replacing Working
Stock.--The Condition of the Plantations.--Suggestions about Hasty
Departures.--Obtaining Information.--The Attractions of Missouri.

CHAPTER XLVIII.

THE RESOURCES OF THE SOUTHERN STATES.

How the People have Lived.--An Agricultural Community.--Mineral
and other Wealth of Virginia.--Slave-Breeding in Former
Times.--The Auriferous Region of North Carolina.--Agricultural
Advantages.--Varieties of Soil in South Carolina.--Sea-Island
Cotton.--Georgia and her Railways.--Probable Decline of the Rice
Culture.--The Everglade State.--The Lower Mississippi Valley.--The Red
River.--Arkansas and its Advantages.--A Hint for Tragedians.--Mining
in Tennessee.--The Blue-Grass Region of Kentucky.--Texas and its
Attractions.--Difference between Southern and Western Emigration.--The
End. CAMP-FIRE AND COTTON-FIELD.

CHAPTER I.

ANTE BELLUM.

At the Rocky Mountains.--Sentiment of the People.--Firing the
Southern Heart.--A Midwinter Journey across the Plains.--An Editor's
Opinion.--Election in Missouri.--The North springing to
Arms.--An amusing Arrest.--Off for the Field.--Final
Instructions.--Niagara.--Curiosities of Banking.--Arrival at the Seat
of War.

I passed the summer and autumn of 1860 in the Rocky Mountain Gold
Region. At that time the population of the young Territory was
composed of emigrants from Northern and Southern States, those from
the colder regions being in the majority. When the Presidential
election took place, there was much angry discussion of the great
questions of the day, and there were threats of violence on the part
of the friends of the "institution." The residents of the Gold Region
were unable to cast their votes for the men of their choice, but their
anxiety to know the result was very great.

When it was announced that the Republican candidate had triumphed,
there were speedy signs of discontent. Some of the more impulsive
Southerners departed at once for their native States, predicting a
separation of Dixie from the North before the end of the year. Some
went to New Mexico, and others to Texas, while many remained to press
their favorite theories upon their neighbors. The friends of the Union
were slow to believe that any serious difficulty would take place.
Long after the secession of South Carolina they were confident our
differences could be healed without an appeal to arms.

My visit to the Rocky Mountains was a professional one. During my stay
in that region I supplied several Eastern journals with letters from
Colorado and New Mexico. One after another, the editors of these
journals informed me that letters from the Territories had lost their
interest, owing to the troubles growing out of the election. Wishing
to take part in the drama about to be enacted, I essayed a midwinter
journey across the plains, and, early in February, stood in the
editorial room of _The Herald_.

I announced my readiness to proceed to any point between the Poles,
wherever _The Herald_ desired a correspondent. The editor-in-chief was
busy over a long letter from some point in the South, but his response
was promptly given. Half reading, half pausing over the letter, he
briefly said:--

"A long and bloody war is upon us, in which the whole country will be
engaged. We shall desire you to take the field; probably in the West.
It may be several weeks before we need you, but the war cannot be long
delayed."

At that time few persons in the North looked upon the situation with
any fears of trouble. There were some who thought a hostile collision
was among the possibilities, but these persons were generally in the
minority. Many believed the secession movement was only the hasty work
of political leaders, that would be soon undone when the people of the
South came to their senses.

That the South would deliberately plunge the country into civil war
was difficult to comprehend, even after the first steps had been
taken. The majority of the Northern people were hoping and believing,
day by day, that something might transpire to quell the excitement and
adjust the difficulties threatening to disturb the country.

Before leaving the Rocky Mountains I did not believe that war was
certain to ensue, though I considered it quite probable. As I passed
through Missouri, the only slave State that lay in my route, I found
every thing comparatively quiet. In St. Joseph, on the day of my
arrival, the election for delegates to the State Convention was being
held. There was no disorder, more than is usual on election days in
small cities. Little knots of people were engaged in discussion, but
the discussions partook of no extraordinary bitterness. The vote of
the city was decidedly in favor of keeping the State in the Union.

Between the 7th of December and the 12th of April, the Northern blood
warmed slowly. The first gun at Sumter quickened its pulsations. When
the President issued his call for seventy-five thousand men for three
months, to put down insurrection, the North woke to action. Everywhere
the response was prompt, earnest, patriotic. In the Northern
cities the recruiting offices were densely thronged. New York and
Massachusetts were first to send their favorite regiments to the
front, but they were not long in the advance. Had the call been for
four times seventy-five thousand, and for a service of three years,
there is little doubt the people would have responded without
hesitation.

For a short time after my arrival at the East, I remained in a small
town in Southern New Hampshire. A few days after the first call was
issued, a friend invited me to a seat in his carriage for a ride to
Portsmouth, the sea-port of the State. On reaching the city we found
the war spirit fully aroused. Two companies of infantry were drilling
in the public square, and the citizens were in a state of great
excitement. In the course of the afternoon my friend and myself were
arrested, by a committee of respectable citizens, who suspected us of
being Southern emissaries. It was with great difficulty we convinced
them they had made a slight mistake. We referred them to the only
acquaintances we had in the city. They refused to consider the truth
established in the mouths of two witnesses, and were not induced to
give us our liberty until all convenient proof of our identity had
been adduced.

To be arrested within twenty miles of home, on suspicion of being
delegated from Charleston or Montgomery, was one of my most amusing
experiences of the war. The gentleman who accompanied me was a very
earnest believer in coercion. His business in Portsmouth on that
occasion was to offer his services in a regiment then being formed.
A few months later he received a commission in the army, but did not
obtain it through any of our temporary acquaintances at Portsmouth.

Our captors were the solid men of the city, any one of whom could
have sat for the portrait of Mr. Turveydrop without the slightest
alteration. On taking us into custody, they stated the grounds on
which they arrested us. Our dark complexions and long beards had
aroused suspicions concerning the places of our nativity. Suspicion
was reduced to a certainty when one of them heard me mention my
presence in Missouri on the day of choosing candidates for the
Convention. Our purpose was divined when I asked if there was any
activity at the Navy Yard. We were Rebel emissaries, who designed to
lay their Navy Yard in ashes!

On our release and departure we were followed to our homes, that the
correctness of our representations might be ascertained. This little
occurrence, in the center of New England, where the people claim to
be thoroughly quiet and law-abiding, indicated that the war spirit in
that part of the North was more than momentary.

The West was not behind the Eastern States in the determination
to subdue the Rebellion. Volunteers were gathering at Cairo, and
threatening to occupy points further down the Mississippi. At
St. Louis the struggle was active between the Unionists and the
Secessionists.

A collision was a mere question of time, and of short time at the
best.

As I visited _The Herald_ office for final instructions, I found that
the managing editor had determined upon a vigorous campaign. Every
point of interest was to be covered, so that the operations of our
armies would be fully recorded from day to day. The war correspondents
had gone to their posts, or were just taking their departure. One
correspondent was already on the way to Cairo. I was instructed to
watch the military movements in Missouri, and hastened to St. Louis as
fast as steam could bear me.

Detained twelve hours at Niagara, by reason of missing a railway
train, I found that the opening war gave promise of affecting that
locality. The hotel-keepers were gloomy at the prospect of losing
their Southern patronage, and half feared they would be obliged to
close their establishments. There were but few visitors, and even
these were not of the class which scatters its money profusely. The
village around the Falls displayed positive signs of dullness, and
the inhabitants had personal as well as patriotic interest in wishing
there was no war. The Great Cataract was unchanged in its beauty
and grandeur. The flood from the Lakes was not diminished, and the
precipice over which the water plunged was none the less steep. The
opening war had no effect upon this wonder of the New World.

In Chicago, business was prostrated on account of the outbreak of
hostilities. Most of the banks in Illinois had been holding State
bonds as securities for the redemption of their circulation. As these
bonds were nearly all of Southern origin, the beginning of the war
had materially affected their value. The banks found their securities
rapidly becoming insecure, and hence there was a depreciation in the
currency. This was not uniform, but varied from five to sixty per
cent., according to the value of the bonds the respective banks were
holding. Each morning and evening bulletins were issued stating the
value of the notes of the various banking-houses. Such a currency was
very inconvenient to handle, as the payment of any considerable sum
required a calculation to establish the worth of each note.

Many rumors were in circulation concerning the insecurity of a
Northern visitor in St. Louis, but none of the stories were very
alarming. Of one thing all were certain--the star of the Union was
in the ascendant. On arriving in St. Louis I found the city far from
quiet, though there was nothing to lead a stranger to consider his
personal safety in danger. I had ample material for entering at
once upon my professional duties, in chronicling the disordered and
threatening state of affairs.

On the day of my arrival, I met a gentleman I had known in the Rocky
Mountains, six months before. I knew his courage was beyond question,
having seen him in several disturbances incident to the Gold Regions;
but I was not aware which side of the great cause he had espoused.
After our first greetings, I ventured to ask how he stood.

"I am a Union man," was his emphatic response.

"What kind of a Union man are you?"

"I am this kind of a Union man," and he threw open his coat, and
showed me a huge revolver, strapped to his waist.

There were many loyal men in St. Louis, whose sympathies were evinced
in a similar manner. Revolvers were at a premium.

Some of the Secessionists ordered a quantity of revolvers from New
York, to be forwarded by express. To prevent interference by the Union
authorities, they caused the case to be directed to "Colonel Francis
P. Blair, Jr., care of ----." They thought Colonel Blair's name
would secure the property from seizure. The person in whose care the
revolvers were sent was a noted Secessionist, who dealt extensively in
fire-arms.

Colonel Blair learned of the shipment, and met the box at the station.
Fifty revolvers of the finest quality, bought and paid for by the
Secessionists, were distributed among the friends of Colonel Blair,
and were highly prized by the recipients.

CHAPTER II.

MISSOURI IN THE EARLY DAYS.

Apathy of the Border States.--The Missouri State Convention.--Sterling
Price a Union Man.--Plan to take the State out of the Union.--Capture
of Camp Jackson.--Energy of General Lyon.--Union Men organized.--An
Unfortunate Collision.--The Price-Harney Truce.--The Panic among the
Secessionists.--Their Hegira from St. Louis.--A Visit to the
State Capital.--Under the Rebel Flag.--Searching for Contraband
Articles.--An Introduction to Rebel Dignitaries.--Governor
Jackson.--Sterling Price.--Jeff. Thompson.--Activity at
Cairo.--Kentucky Neutrality.--The Rebels occupy Columbus.

The Border States were not prompt to follow the example of the States
on the Gulf and South Atlantic coast. Missouri and Kentucky were
loyal, if the voice of the majority is to be considered the voice of
the population. Many of the wealthier inhabitants were, at the
outset, as they have always been, in favor of the establishment of
an independent Southern Government. Few of them desired an appeal to
arms, as they well knew the Border States would form the front of the
Confederacy, and thus become the battle-field of the Rebellion. The
greater part of the population of those States was radically opposed
to the secession movement, but became powerless under the noisy,
political leaders who assumed the control. Many of these men, who were
Unionists in the beginning, were drawn into the Rebel ranks on
the plea that it would be treason to refuse to do what their State
Government had decided upon.

The delegates to the Missouri State Convention were elected in
February, 1861, and assembled at St. Louis in the following April.
Sterling Price, afterward a Rebel general, was president of this
Convention, and spoke in favor of keeping the State in the Union. The
Convention thought it injudicious for Missouri to secede, at least at
that time, and therefore she was not taken out. This discomfited the
prime movers of the secession schemes, as they had counted upon the
Convention doing the desired work. In the language of one of their
own number, "they had called a Convention to take the State out of the
Union, and she must be taken out at all hazards." Therefore a new line
of policy was adopted.

The Governor of Missouri was one of the most active and unscrupulous
Secessionists. After the failure of the Convention to unite Missouri
with the Confederacy, Governor Jackson overhauled the militia laws,
and, under their sanction, issued a call for a muster of militia near
St. Louis. This militia assembled at Lindell Grove, in the suburbs
of St. Louis, and a military camp was established, under the name of
"Camp Jackson." Though ostensibly an innocent affair, this camp was
intended to be the nucleus of the army to hoist the Rebel flag in the
State. The officers in command were known Secessionists, and every
thing about the place was indicative of its character.

The Governor of Louisiana sent, from the arsenal at Baton Rouge, a
quantity of guns and munitions of war, to be used by the insurgent
forces in Missouri. These reached St. Louis without hinderance, and
were promptly conveyed to the embryonic Rebel camp. Captain Lyon, in
command of the St. Louis Arsenal, was informed that he must confine
his men to the limits of the United States property, under penalty of
the arrest of all who stepped outside. Governor Jackson several times
visited the grounds overlooking the arsenal, and selected spots
for planting his guns. Every thing was in preparation for active
hostility.

The Union people were by no means idle. Captain Lyon had foreseen the
danger menacing the public property in the arsenal, and besought the
Government for permission to remove it. Twenty thousand stand of arms
were, in a single night, loaded upon a steamer and sent to Alton,
Illinois. They were conveyed thence by rail to the Illinois State
Arsenal at Springfield. Authority was obtained for the formation of
volunteer regiments, and they were rapidly mustered into the service.

While Camp Jackson was being formed, the Union men of St. Louis were
arming and drilling with such secrecy that the Secessionists were
not generally aware of their movements. Before the close of the day
Captain Lyon received permission for mustering volunteers; he placed
more than six hundred men into the service. Regiments were organized
under the name of "Home Guards," and by the 9th of May there were six
thousand armed Union men in St. Louis, who were sworn to uphold the
national honor.

Colonel Francis P. Blair, Jr., commanded the First Regiment of
Missouri Volunteers, and stood faithfully by Captain Lyon in all
those early and dangerous days. The larger portion of the forces then
available in St. Louis was made up of the German element, which was
always thoroughly loyal. This fact caused the Missouri Secessionists
to feel great indignation toward the Germans. They always declared
they would have seized St. Louis and held possession of the larger
portion of the State, had it not been for the earnest loyalty of "the
Dutch."

In the interior of Missouri the Secessionists were generally in the
ascendant. It was the misfortune of the time that the Unionists were
usually passive, while their enemies were active. In certain counties
where the Unionists were four times the number of the Secessionists,
it was often the case that the latter were the ruling party. The
Union people were quiet and law-abiding; the Secessionists active
and unscrupulous. "Peaceably if we can, forcibly if we must," was the
motto of the enemies of the Republic.

In some localities the Union men asserted themselves, but they did not
generally do so until after the first blows were struck at St. Louis.
When they did come out in earnest, the loyal element in Missouri
became fully apparent.

To assure the friends of the Union, and save Missouri from the
domination of the insurgents, it was necessary for Captain Lyon to
assume the offensive. This was done on the 10th of May, resulting in
the famous capture of "Camp Jackson."

On the night of the 9th, loyal parties in St. Louis supplied a
sufficient number of horses to move the light artillery necessary to
accomplish the desired object. On the morning of the 10th, Captain
Lyon's command moved from various points, so as to surround the Rebel
camp at three o'clock in the afternoon. At that hour General
Frost, the Rebel commander, was surprised at the appearance of an
overpowering force on the hills surrounding his position. A demand for
surrender gave half an hour for deliberation. At the end of that time
General Frost concluded to capitulate. The prisoners, less than a
thousand in number, were marched to the arsenal and safely secured.

This achievement destroyed Camp Jackson, and established the United
States authority in full force over St. Louis. An unfortunate
collision occurred between the soldiers and the crowd outside.
Provoked by insults terminating in an assault with fire-arms, a
portion of the German troops fired upon the multitude. Upward
of thirty persons were killed or wounded in the affair. With the
exception of this unhappy collision, the capture was bloodless.

General Harney arrived at St. Louis soon after this event, and assumed
command in Missouri. The agreement known as "the Price-Harney truce"
was immediately made. Under an assurance from Governor Jackson that
the State troops should be disbanded, General Harney promised that no
hostilities should be undertaken, and attempted to cause the dispersal
of the Union volunteers. The status of the latter had been so fixed
that General Harney was not empowered to disarm them, and he so
informed, the State authorities. His message announcing this read
nearly as follows:--

"I have ascertained that I have no control over the Home Guards.
"W. S. HARNEY, _Brig.-Gen_."

This message was received at the Police Head-Quarters in St. Louis, on
the morning of Sunday, May 15th. It was misunderstood by the parties
who read it. They inferred, from the tenor of the dispatch, that
General Harney was unable to restrain the Union volunteers.

The most frightful stories had been circulated concerning the
blood-thirsty character of these soldiers, particularly the German
portion. Visions of murder, pillage, house-burning, and all the
accompanying outrages committed by an unrestrained army, flitted
through the minds of the Secessionists. The story spread, and gained
intensity with each repetition. "The Dutch are rising; we shall all
be slain in cold blood!" was the cry, echoed from house to house. Not
less than five thousand people fled from the city on that day, and as
many more within the succeeding twenty-four hours. Carriages,
wagons, drays, every thing that could transport persons or valuables,
commanded exorbitant prices. Steamboats were chartered as ferries to
the Illinois shore or to go to points of safety, either up or down the
river. Many persons abandoned their houses, taking with them only a
few articles of value or necessity, while others carried away nothing,
in their haste to escape.

In a few days the excitement subsided and nearly all the refugees
returned, but there are some who have never been in St. Louis since
their remarkable hegira. In their determination to obtain their
"rights," they entered the Rebel army and followed its checkered
fortunes. Less than half of these persons are now alive.

For a time after the appearance of General Harney's proclamation,
there were no hostile demonstrations on either side. Governor Jackson
had promised to disband the small force of militia at Jefferson City,
but he failed to do so. The Rebel flag was flying in Jefferson
City, from a staff in front of the Governor's mansion, and over the
head-quarters of the Missouri State Guard. Missouri, through her State
officers, was in favor of an armed neutrality, which really meant
nothing less than armed secession.

The Secessionists were quietly but earnestly at work to effect their
object. They did not heed their promise to remain inactive. The Union
authorities observed theirs to the letter. The Camp Jackson prisoners
were paroled and restored to liberty. A portion of them observed the
parole, but many did not. General Frost remained on his farm and
took no part in the Rebellion until relieved from his parole, several
months later. It is proper to add, that he was of very little account
to the Rebels when he finally entered the field.

While watching the progress of affairs in St. Louis, I determined upon
a visit to Jefferson City. Though the Rebel flag was flying over the
State Capitol, and the nucleus of the Missouri State Guard (Rebel) had
its camp in the suburbs, the communication by railroad had not been
interrupted. Taking the morning train from St. Louis, on the 27th
of May, I found myself, at three o'clock of the afternoon, under the
secession banner. The searching of the train for articles contraband
of war was then a new feature.

In the early days only the outside of a package was examined. If the
"marks" indicated nothing suspicious, the goods were allowed to pass.
Under this regulation, a large number of boxes marked "soap" were
shipped on a steamboat for Lexington. So much soap going into Missouri
was decidedly suspicious, as the people of the interior do not make
extensive use of the article. An examination disclosed canisters of
powder instead of bars of soap. The discovery was followed by the
promulgation of an order requiring a rigid examination of all
packages that might be of doubtful character. This order, with various
modifications, was kept in force for a long time.

In starting from St. Louis, I left a company of Union volunteers at
the railway station. At Jefferson City I found the depot filled with
the Rebel soldiers, or "neutrals," as Governor Jackson persisted in
calling them. The particular duty they were performing I was unable
to ascertain, but they bore unmistakable signs of being something more
than a "neutral" body of men. Their camp was just in rear of the city.
The Rebel flag, which floated above the camp, was recognized as the
emblem of their neutrality.

The proprietor of the hotel where I stopped held the reputation of
an earnest friend of the Union, ready to Suffer any thing rather than
sink his principles. He introduced me to several citizens, most
of them, like himself, thoroughly loyal. We discussed freely the
condition of affairs in Missouri.

It was evident the State authorities intended war, as soon as the
necessary preparations could be made. They were not quite ready to
strike their first blow, but when they should be prepared, they would
not hesitate a moment. Governor Jackson was exerting himself to the
utmost to accumulate arms and military stores at various points in
the State, where they would be of most value. In defiance of the
truce between Generals Price and Harney, companies were being formed
throughout the State, and were drilling for service in the field. Time
was of great importance to the Rebels, and this they had secured by
means of the truce.

During my stay at Jefferson City, I met the three, men most prominent
in bringing war upon Missouri. These were Governor Jackson, General
Sterling Price, and Jeff. Thompson. Governor Jackson was elected in
the previous December, before it was thought any serious trouble would
grow out of Mr. Lincoln's election. He was not looked upon as a man
of great ability, but no one doubted his desire to promote the best
interests of the State. Those who knew him said his strength lay more
in a public than in a private direction. He had few, if any, personal
friends, and was considered dangerous when his passions were roused.
Some said he was cold and treacherous, giving all around him a feeling
of aversion. Even among the Secessionists, and those who should have
been his ardent supporters, he was never mentioned with enthusiasm.

Within two weeks from the day I saw him, Governor Jackson, by his own
act, was a fugitive from the State capital. He never returned. After
wandering in Arkansas and Louisiana, during the early part of the war,
he died at Little Rock, in 1863, in a condition of extreme poverty.

Of General Price, I heard many praises, even from those who opposed
his course. He was said to be a man of warm friendship, of fair
abilities, and quite popular among the masses of the inhabitants. He
possessed much personal pride, and his ambition for public honor was
very great. At the outset he deprecated secession, and prophesied a
devastating war as the result. He was inclined to be loyal, but his
ambition was greater than his patriotism. The offer of a high position
in the Rebel service touched his weakest point, and carried him with
the insurgents.

In the Rebel service he never obtained much distinction. His principal
successes were in saving his army after defeat. He displayed a
capacity for annoying the Union armies without doing great damage.
Though his oft-repeated promise of victory was never fulfilled, it
served to keep many Missourians in the Rebel ranks. He was constantly
expected to capture St. Louis. Some of the Rebel residents fully
believed he would do so, and kept their wine-cellars ready for the
event. Until the official announcement of the surrender of all forces
west of the Mississippi, they did not abandon hope. General Price had
given his promise, and, as they argued, was sure to keep it.

Of Jeff. Thompson little can be said. Previous to that time he had
been known as the mayor of St. Joseph, and a politician of some little
importance in Northwest Missouri. He was famous for much gasconading,
and a fondness for whisky and other material things. I could never
learn that he commanded much respect. During the war the Rebels
never trusted him with any command of importance. He made a very fair
guerrilla, and, in 1861, gave our forces at Cairo and Bird's Point
considerable annoyance. History is not likely to give him a very
prominent place in the roll of distinguished military heroes.

At this time Cairo was the most southerly point on the Mississippi in
possession of the National forces. We could have occupied Columbus
or Hickman, Kentucky, had not the sacredness of the soil prevented.
Kentucky was neutral, and declared that neither party must set foot
within her limits. Her declaration of neutrality was much like that
issued by the Governor of Missouri. The United States forces were
under great restrictions, while the Rebels could do pretty much
as they pleased. General Prentiss sent a small expedition down the
Mississippi, some sixty miles below Cairo. The Kentuckians were
greatly enraged because our forces landed at Hickman and tore down a
Rebel flag which the citizens had hoisted. It was an invasion of their
soil, for which they demanded apology. A few weeks later the Rebels
occupied both Hickman and Columbus, without any objection on the part
of the neutrals.

Columbus was made very strong by the Rebel engineers, and supplied
with many heavy guns for its protection. At the same time, General
Prentiss pushed forward the defenses of Cairo, in readiness for any
attack by the Rebel gun-boats. For more than half a year Columbus
was the northern limit of the Rebel domination of the Great River. On
assuming command there, General Polk announced that Columbus was the
throat of the Mississippi, and must be held at all hazards. The Rebels
repeatedly urged the capture of Cairo, but it was never attempted.

[Illustration: HAULING DOWN A REBEL FLAG AT HICKMAN, KY]

CHAPTER III.

THE BEGINNING OF HOSTILITIES.

General Harney Relieved.--Price's Proclamation.--End of the
Truce.--Conference between the Union and Rebel Leaders.--The First Act
of Hostility.--Destruction of Railway Bridges.--Promptness of
General Lyon.--Capture of the State Capital.--Moving on the Enemy's
Works.--The Night before Battle.--A Correspondent's Sensation.

On the first of June an order was received from Washington, relieving
General Harney from command in Missouri. Captain Lyon had been
promoted to the rank of a brigadier-general of volunteers, and was
assigned to duty in General Harney's stead. On the 5th of June,
General Price issued a proclamation, calling for the State Guard to be
in readiness to defend Missouri against all enemies. The appearance
of this proclamation was not altogether unexpected. It was far more
satisfactory to the friends of the Union than to the Secessionists, as
it showed the hostile position of Governor Jackson and his abettors,
and gave an opportunity for proceeding actively against them. It
demonstrated very clearly that the Secessionists were determined to
make their actions correspond to their words.

It was ascertained that, a few days before the publication of Price's
proclamation, Governor Jackson was in consultation with an agent of
the Rebel Government, who promised twenty-five thousand men, and arms
and ammunition for fifty thousand more, if the State were fairly and
unequivocally out of the Union. He had also conferred with an agent
from the Indian Nation, with a view to putting several thousand
Indians into the field on the side of the Rebels. General Lyon wanted
an "overt act" on the part of the Rebels, before commencing actual
hostilities. Price's proclamation was the thing desired.

The troops in and around St. Louis were drilled as thoroughly as
possible. Every day added to their effectiveness. Recruiting was
pushed, trade with the interior was suspended, and boats passing down
the river were made subject to stoppage and search at the arsenal.
Every thing was assuming a warlike appearance. The Government was
very tardy in supplying General Lyon's wants. In many cases it did not
authorize him to do what was needed. Much of the money for outfitting
the troops for the field was voluntarily contributed in the Eastern
cities, or by patriotic men in St. Louis. In several things,
General Lyon acted upon his own responsibility, under the advice and
co-operation of Colonel Blair.

On the 9th of June, Governor Jackson and General Price asked General
Lyon to give them a safeguard to visit St. Louis. They wished to
confer with General Lyon and Colonel Blair, upon the best means of
bringing peace to the State and making an end of hostilities. The
safeguard was granted, and, on the 11th of June, Jackson and Price
reached St. Louis, and signified their readiness for the proposed
conference. The meeting took place at the Planters' House, Governor
Jackson declining to trust himself inside the walls of the arsenal,
where General Lyon had invited him to be his guest. The interview
began with many professions of goodwill on the part of Governor
Jackson, and the assurance of his earnest desire for peace. He
promised to disband the State troops, if General Lyon would first
remove all United States troops from the limits of Missouri, and
agree not to bring them back under any consideration. Of course, this
proposition could not be entertained. A conversation then took place
between General Lyon and General Price, but all to no purpose. Price
and Jackson would do nothing, unless the United States troops were
first sent out of Missouri. Lyon and Blair would not consent to any
thing of the kind, and so the conference ended.

Jackson and Price left St. Louis on a special train for Jefferson
City, on the afternoon of the 11th. On the way up the road, they set
fire to the bridges over the Gasconade and Osage Rivers, the former
thirty-five miles from Jefferson City, and ninety from St. Louis,
and the latter within nine miles of Jefferson City. If the conduct of
these men had been neutral up to that time, this act made an end of
their neutrality.

General Lyon left the conference fully satisfied there was no longer
any reason for hesitation. The course he should pursue was plain
before him.

Early in the forenoon of the 12th, he learned of the destruction
of the bridges over the Gasconade and Osage Rivers. He immediately
ordered a force to proceed up the road, and protect as much of it as
possible from further damage. Within four hours of the reception of
the order to move, the troops were on their way. On the next day,
three steamers, with about two thousand men, left St. Louis for
Jefferson City. General Lyon knew the importance of time, and was
determined to give Governor Jackson very little opportunity for
preparation.

My first experience of a military campaign was on the expedition up
the Missouri. I had seen something of Indian troubles on the Plains,
in which white men were concerned, but I had never witnessed civilized
warfare where white men fought against white men. A residence of
several weeks in St. Louis had somewhat familiarized me with the
appearance of troops at the arsenal and at the various camps in the
city, but the preparations to take the field were full of novelty.

I was on the boat which carried the First Missouri Infantry, and which
General Lyon had selected for his head-quarters. The young officers
were full of enthusiasm, and eagerly anticipating their first
encounter with the Rebel battalions. Colonel Blair was less
demonstrative than the officers of his regiment, but was evidently
much elated at the prospect of doing something aggressive. General
Lyon was in the cabin, quiet, reserved, and thoughtful. With Colonel
Blair he conversed long and freely. Few others approached him. Outside
the cabin the soldiers were ardently discussing the coming campaign,
and wishing an early opportunity for winning glory in battle.

To one who travels for the first time by steamboat from St. Louis in a
northerly direction, a curious picture is presented. The water in
the Mississippi above the mouth of the Missouri is quite clear and
transparent. That from the Missouri is of a dirty yellow color,
derived from the large quantity of earthy matter which it holds in
solution. For several miles below the junction of the streams, the
two currents remain separated, the line between them being plainly
perceptible. The pilots usually endeavor to keep on the dividing line,
so that one can look from the opposite sides of a boat and imagine
himself sailing upon two rivers of different character at the same
moment.

Sometimes this distinctive line continues for fifteen or twenty miles,
but usually less than ten. A soldier wittily remarked, that the water
from the Upper Mississippi derived its transparency from the free
States, from whence it came, while the Missouri, emerging from a slave
State, was, consequently, of a repulsive hue. As Missouri is now a
free State, the soldier's remark is not applicable.

Steaming up the Missouri toward the State capital, we found the
sentiment along the banks of the river strongly in favor of the Union.
Home Guard organizations had been hastily formed, and were doing their
best for the protection of the railway. Most of the villages along
the Lower Missouri contained a strong German element, which needs no
question of its loyalty. The railway bridges were thoroughly guarded,
and each town had a small garrison to suppress any rising of the
Secessionists. The conduct of the people in these villages was quite
different from the course of those residing above Jefferson City.
Where the inhabitants possessed no slaves, there was outspoken
loyalty. In the most populous slave districts it was the reverse.
Slaveholders declared that their interest lay in secession. There were
a few exceptions, but they were very far in a minority.

Our triumphal entry into Jefferson City was not marked by any
noteworthy event. The Capitol was deserted. The Governor and most of
the State officials had departed the previous day, in the direction of
Booneville. We marched through the principal streets, and found many
of the people delighted at our coming. We occupied the State House,
and, of course, unfurled our flag from its cupola. A steamboat, seized
at the landing, was pressed into our service for use further up the
stream. An encounter with the Rebels was eagerly desired.

We left a full regiment, a large force in those days, to retain
possession of the place, and then pushed on in pursuit. The Rebels
had disabled the railway, taking off nearly all the rolling stock and
destroying a large bridge four miles west of the city. As the point
where they had fled lay upon the river, we pursued them by water. At
noon, on the 16th, General Lyon left Jefferson City for Booneville.
Within twenty-four hours he fought his first battle in Missouri.

It is slow work to proceed with a steamboat where one's way must be
felt. Though we had only fifty miles to move, we advanced less than
thirty before nightfall. Touching at a landing on the left bank of the
river, fifteen miles below Booneville, a scout from the enemy's camp
came easily into our hands. From being a scout of the enemy he became
our scout, as he revealed in his fright all we wished to know. The
enemy, confident of an easy victory, was waiting our approach, and
expressed the most lively intention of destroying us all in the
twinkling of an eye.

Experience had not then demonstrated that there is little difference
in the bravery of Americans, when well officered. Each side cherished
the delusion that it had a monopoly of courage and endurance. One
Southern man was thought equal to five Northern men in a fair contest,
and if the former were given the advantage of a defensive position,
any odds of numbers would be taken. There was nearly, though not
quite, as much boasting on the part of our own press and people.
The first severe battles made an end of the greater part of this
gasconading.

It is said the most trying moment on shipboard is when the deck,
previous to an engagement, is sprinkled with saw-dust to receive the
blood yet unshed. No man can know whose blood will be first to moisten
that dust, or whose life will be passed away before the action is
over. So on the eve of that first battle in Missouri, as I reclined
in the cabin of our flag-boat, and saw the surgeons busy with their
preparations for the coming day; as I saw them bring to light all the
dreadful implements of their trade, and arrange them in readiness
for sudden use--a coldness crept over me, and I fully realized we
had earnest work before us. Since that time I have witnessed many a
battle, many a scene of preparation and of bloody work with knife and
saw and bandage, but I have never experienced a chill like that I felt
on that early day of the Rebellion.

The war has made us familiar with horrors. That which once touched us
to the heart is now passed over with scarce a moment's thought. Our
nerves have been hardened, our sensibilities blunted, our hearts
steeled against suffering, in the terrible school through which we
have passed.

[Illustration: THE OPENING GUN AT BOONEVILLE]

CHAPTER IV.

THE FIRST BATTLE IN MISSOURI

Moving up the River.--A Landing Effected.--The Battle.--Precipitous
Retreat of the Rebels.--Spoiling a Captured Camp.--Rebel Flags
Emblazoned with the State Arms.--A Journalist's Outfit.--A Chaplain of
the Church Militant.--A Mistake that might have been Unfortunate.--The
People of Booneville.--Visiting an Official.--Banking-House
Loyalty.--Preparations for a Campaign.

Daybreak on the 17th found us slowly moving up the river toward
Booneville. General Lyon sat forward of the steamer's cabin, closely
scanning both banks of the stream. Four miles below the town his glass
sought out two pieces of artillery, partially concealed in a clump of
trees, and trained upon the channel by which we were to pass. At once
our engines were reversed, and the boats moved back to a landing about
eight miles below Booneville. A little before seven o'clock we were
on shore, and our column of fifteen hundred men began its advance upon
the Rebel camp.

It was the story that has found its repetition in many a battle since
that time. The enemy's pickets were driven in. The enemy, in line of
battle, was discovered on a long ridge, and our own line was formed
on a ridge parallel to it. Then we opened fire with our artillery (one
battery was all we possessed), and received no response, save by a
desultory discharge of small-arms. Next our infantry added its tenor
notes to the bass of the field-guns; the Rebel forces melted steadily
away, and the field was in our possession, twenty minutes after the
opening shot had been fired.

Once in retreat, the Rebels did not halt until out of harm's reach.
Their camp lay in the line of retreat, but they made no stop in
passing it. Following in the rear of our column, I entered the camp,
and found many signs of a hasty departure. I found the fires burning,
and dozens of coffee-pots and frying-pans filled with the materials
for breakfast. Here was a pan full of meat fried to a crisp, from the
neglect of the cook to remove it before his sudden exodus. A few feet
distant lay a ham, with a knife sticking in a half-severed slice. A
rude camp-table was spread with plates and their accessories, and a
portion of the articles of food were carefully arranged. The seats for
the breakfast party were in position, two of them being overturned.
I could not help fancying the haste with which that table had been
abandoned, only a few moments before. The tents were standing, and in
some the blankets were lying on the ground, as if they had been
very suddenly vacated. In one tent was a side-saddle, a neat pair of
gaiters, and a hoop-skirt. The proper connection of those articles
with the battle-field I was unable to ascertain.

In that camp was a fine lot of provisions, arms, equipments, and
ammunition. Saddles were numerous, but there were no horses. It was
evident that, the hasty evacuation left no time for the simple process
of saddling.

Early in the day I had come into possession of a horse with a very
poor outfit. Once in camp, I was not slow to avail myself of the
privilege of supply. I went into battle on foot, carrying only a
knapsack containing a note-book and two pieces of bread. When the
fight was over, I was the possessor of a horse and all the equipments
for a campaign. I had an overcoat, a roll of fine blankets, and a pair
of saddle-bags. The latter were well filled from the trunk of some
one I had not the pleasure of knowing, but who was evidently "just
my size." Mr. Barnes, of the Missouri _Democrat_, was my companion
on that occasion. He was equally careful to provide himself from the
enemy's stores, but wasted, time in becoming sentimental over two
love-letters and a photograph of a young woman.

The flags captured in this affair were excellent illustrations of the
policy of the leading Secessionists. There was one Rebel flag with
the arms of the State of Missouri filling the field. There was a State
flag, with only fifteen stars surrounding the coat of arms. There was
a. Rebel flag, with the State arms in the center, and there was one
Rebel flag of the regular pattern. The rallying-cry at that time was
in behalf of the State, and the people were told they must act for
Missouri, without regard to any thing else. In no part of the country
was the "State Rights" theory more freely used. All the changes were
rung upon the sovereignty of States, the right of Missouri to exclude
United States soldiers from her soil, the illegality of the formation
of Union regiments, and the tyranny of the General Government.

The flags under which Missouri soldiers were gathered clearly blended
the interests of the State with secession.

Our troops entered Booneville amid demonstrations of delight from one
portion of the inhabitants, and the frowns and muttered indignation
of the other. The Rebels had fled, a part of them by land, and the
balance on a steamboat, toward Lexington. Quiet possession obtained,
there was time to examine into the details of the fight. We had lost
twelve men, the enemy probably twice as many. The action, three years
later, would have been considered only a roadside skirmish, but it
was then an affair of importance. Every man with General Lyon felt far
more elation over the result than has since been felt over battles
of much greater moment. We had won a signal victory; the enemy had
suffered an equally signal defeat.

During the battle, a chaplain, provided with four men to look after
the wounded, came suddenly upon a group of twenty-four Rebels. An
imperative demand for their surrender was promptly complied with, and
the chaplain, with his force of four, brought twenty-four prisoners
into town. He was so delighted at his success that he subsequently
took a commission in the line. In time he was honored with the stars
of a brigadier-general.

General Lyon was my personal friend, but he very nearly did me great
injustice. Seeing myself and a fellow-journalist on a distant part
of the field, he mistook us for scouts of the enemy, and ordered
his sharp-shooters to pick us off. His chief-of-staff looked in our
direction, and fortunately recognized us in time to countermand the
order. I was afterward on the point of being shot at by an infantry
captain, through a similar mistake. A civilian's dress on the
battle-field (a gray coat formed a part of mine) subjects the wearer
to many dangers from his friends, as most war correspondents can
testify.

While approaching the town, I stopped to slake my thirst at a well. A
group of our soldiers joined me while I was drinking. I had drank
very freely from the bucket, and transferred it to a soldier, when
the resident of a neighboring house appeared, and informed us that
the well had been poisoned by the Rebels, and the water was certain to
produce death. The soldiers desisted, and looked at me with much pity.
For a moment, I confess, the situation did not appear cheerful, but
I concluded the injury, if any, was already done, and I must make the
best of it. The soldiers watched me as I mounted my horse, evidently
expecting me to fall within a hundred yards. When I met one of them
the following day, he opened his eyes in astonishment at seeing me
alive. From that day, I entertained a great contempt for poisoned
wells.

In Booneville the incidents were not of a startling character. I found
the strongest secession sympathy was entertained by the wealthier
inhabitants, while the poor were generally loyal. Some cases of
determined loyalty I found among the wealthy; but they were the
exception rather than the rule. Accompanied by a small squad of
soldiers, myself and companion visited the house of a gentleman
holding office under the United States Government. We obtained from
that house several Rebel cockades and small flags, which had been
fabricated by the ladies.

With the same squad we visited the principal bank of Booneville, and
persuaded the cashier to give us a Rebel flag which had been floating
for several days from a staff in front of the building. This flag was
ten yards in length, and the materials of which it was made were of
the finest quality. The interview between the cashier and ourselves
was an amusing one. He protested he knew nothing of the flag or its
origin, and at first declared it was not about the building. According
to his own representation, he was too good a Union man to harbor
any thing of the sort. Just as he was in the midst of a very earnest
profession of loyalty the flag was discovered.

"Somebody must have put that there to ruin me," was his exclamation.
"Gentlemen, I hope you won't harm me; and, if you want me to do so, I
will take the oath of allegiance this minute."

Soon after the occupation of Booneville, General Lyon sent a small
expedition to Syracuse, twenty-five miles in the interior. This force
returned in a few days, and then preparations were begun for a march
to Springfield. Colonel Blair left Booneville for St. Louis and
Washington, while General Lyon attended to the preliminaries for his
contemplated movement. The First Iowa Infantry joined him, and formed
a part of his expeditionary force. The Rebels gathered at Lexington,
and thence moved southward to reach the Arkansas line, to form a
junction with the then famous Ben McCulloch.

The prospect was good that Central Missouri would soon be clear of
Rebels. Our general success in the State depended upon occupying
and holding the Southwest. General Lyon was to move thither from
Booneville. General Sweeney had already gone there by way of Rolla,
while another force, under Major Sturgis, was moving from Leavenworth
in a southeasterly direction. All were to unite at Springfield and
form an army of occupation.

Preparations went on slowly, as the transportation was to be gathered
from the surrounding country. Foreseeing that the expedition would
be slow to reach Springfield, I returned to St. Louis. There I made
preparations to join the army, when its march should be completed, by
a more expeditious route than the one General Lyon would follow.

At Booneville, General Lyon established a temporary blockade of the
Missouri River, by stopping all boats moving in either direction. In
most cases a single shot across the bow of a boat sufficed to bring it
to land. One day the _White Cloud_, on her way from Kansas City to St.
Louis, refused to halt until three shots had been fired, the last one
grazing the top of the pilot-house. When brought before General Lyon,
the captain of the _White Cloud_ apologized for neglecting to obey the
first signal, and said his neglect was due to his utter ignorance of
military usage.

The apology was deemed sufficient. The captain was dismissed, with a
gentle admonition not to make a similar mistake in future.

At that time the public was slow to understand the power and extent of
military law and military rule. When martial law was declared in St.
Louis, in August, 1861, a citizen waited upon the provost-marshal, in
order to ascertain the precise state of affairs.

After some desultory conversation, he threw out the question:--

"What does martial law do?"

"Well," said Major McKinstry, the provost-marshal, "I can explain
the whole thing in a second. Martial law does pretty much as it d--n
pleases."

Before the year was ended the inhabitants of St. Louis learned that
the major's assertion was not far from the truth.

CHAPTER V.

TO SPRINGFIELD AND BEYOND.

Conduct of the St. Louis Secessionists.--Collisions between Soldiers
and Citizens.--Indignation of the Guests of a Hotel.--From St.
Louis to Rolla.--Opinions of a "Regular."--Railway-life in
Missouri.--Unprofitable Freight.--A Story of Orthography.--Mountains
and Mountain Streams.--Fastidiousness Checked.--Frontier
Courtesy.--Concentration of Troops at Springfield.--A Perplexing
Situation.--The March to Dug Spring.--Sufferings from Heat and Thirst.

The success of the Union arms at Booneville did not silence the
Secessionists in St. Louis. They continued to hold meetings, and
arrange plans for assisting their friends in the field. At many
places, one could hear expressions of indignation at the restrictions
which the proper authorities sought to put upon the secession
movement. Union flags were torn from the front of private
buildings--generally in the night or early morning. Twice, when
Union troops were marching along the streets, they were fired upon by
citizens. A collision of this kind had occurred at the corner of Fifth
and Walnut streets, on the day after the capture of Camp Jackson. The
soldiers returned the fire, and killed several persons; but this did
not deter the Secessionists from repeating the experiment. In the
affairs that took place after the battle of Booneville, the result was
the same. Unfortunately, in each collision, a portion of those killed
were innocent on-lookers. After a few occurrences of this kind,
soldiers were allowed to march through the streets without
molestation.

About the first of July, there were rumors that an insurrection would
be attempted on the National holiday. Ample provision was made to give
the insurgents a warm reception. Consequently, they made no trouble.
The printer of the bills of fare at a prominent hotel noticed the
Fourth of July by ornamenting his work with a National flag, in
colors. This roused the indignation of a half-dozen guests, whose
sympathies lay with the Rebellion. They threatened to leave, but
were so far in arrears that they could not settle their accounts.
The hotel-keeper endeavored to soothe them by promising to give his
printing, for the future, to another house. Several loyal guests were
roused at this offer, and threatened to secede at once if it were
carried out. The affair resulted in nothing but words.

On the morning of the 11th of July I left St. Louis, to join General
Lyon in the Southwest. It was a day's ride by rail to Rolla, the
terminus of the Southwest Branch of the Pacific road. I well recollect
the strange and motley group that filled the cars on that journey.
There were a few officers and soldiers _en route_ to join their
comrades in the field. Nearly all of them were fresh from civil life.
They wore their uniforms uneasily, as a farmer's boy wears his Sunday
suit. Those who carried sabers experienced much inconvenience when
walking, on account of the propensity of those weapons to get between
their legs. In citizen's dress, at my side, sat an officer of the old
army, who looked upon these newly-made warriors with much contempt,
mingled with an admiration of their earnestness. After an outburst
of mild invective, he pronounced a well-merited tribute to their
patriotism.

"After all," said he, "they are as good as the material the Rebels
have for their army. In some respects, they are better. The Northern
blood is cold; the Southern is full of life and passion. In the first
onset, our enemies will prove more impetuous than we, and will often
overpower us. In the beginning of the struggle, they will prove our
superiors, and may be able to boast of the first victories. But their
physical energy will soon be exhausted, while ours will steadily
increase. Patience, coolness, and determination will be sure to bring
us the triumph in the end. These raw recruits, that are at present
worthless before trained soldiers, distrusting themselves as we
distrust them, will yet become veterans, worthy to rank with the best
soldiers of the Old World."

The civilian passengers on a railway in Missouri are essentially
different from the same class in the East. There are very few women,
and the most of these are not as carefully dressed as their Oriental
sisters. Their features lack the fineness that one observes in New
York and New England. The "hog and hominy," the general diet of the
Southwest, is plainly perceptible in the physique of the women. The
male travelers, who are not indigenous to the soil, are more roughly
clothed and more careless in manner than the same order of passengers
between New York and Boston. Of those who enter and leave at
way-stations, the men are clad in that yellow, homespun material known
as "butternut." The casual observer inclines to the opinion that
there are no good bathing-places where these men reside. They are
inquisitive, ignorant, unkempt, but generally civil. The women are
the reverse of attractive, and are usually uncivil and ignorant.
The majority are addicted to smoking, and generally make use of a
cob-pipe. Unless objection is made by some passenger, the conductors
ordinarily allow the women to indulge in this pastime.

The region traversed by the railway is sparsely settled, the ground
being generally unfavorable to agriculture. For some time after
this portion of the road was opened, the natives refused to give it
patronage, many of them declaring that the old mode of travel, by
horseback, was the best of all. During the first week after opening
the Southwest Branch, the company ran a daily freight train each way.
All the freight offered in that time was a bear and a keg of honey.
Both were placed in the same car. The bear ate the honey, and the
company was compelled to pay for the damage.

I have heard a story concerning the origin of the name of Rolla, which
is interesting, though I cannot vouch for its truth. In selecting a
name for the county seat of Phelps County, a North Carolinian residing
there, suggested that it should do honor to the capital of his native
State. The person who reduced the request to writing, used the best
orthography that occurred to him, so that what should have been
"Raleigh," became "Rolla." The request thus written was sent to the
Legislature, and the name of the town became fixed. The inhabitants
generally pronounce it as if the intended spelling had been adopted.

The journey from Rolla to Springfield was accomplished by stage,
and required two days of travel. For fifty miles the road led over
mountains, to the banks of the Gasconade, one of the prettiest rivers
I have ever seen. The mountain streams of Southwest Missouri, having
their springs in the limestone rock, possess a peculiarity unknown
in the Eastern States. In a depth of two feet or less, the water
is apparently as clear as that of the purest mountain brook in New
England. But when the depth reaches, or exceeds, three feet, the water
assumes a deep-blue tinge, like that of the sky in a clear day.
Viewed from an elevation, the picture is one that cannot be speedily
forgotten. The blue water makes a marked contrast with surrounding
objects, as the streams wind through the forests and fields on their
banks. Though meandering through mountains, these rivers have few
sharp falls or roaring rapids. Their current is usually gentle, broken
here and there into a ripple over a slightly descending shallow, but
observing uniformity in all its windings.

My first night from Rolla was passed on the banks of the Gasconade.
Another day's ride, extended far into the second night, found me at
Springfield. When I reached my room at the hotel, and examined
the bed, I found but one sheet where we usually look for two.
Expostulations were of no avail. The porter curtly informed me,
"People here use only one sheet. Down in St. Louis you folks want two
sheets, but in this part of the country we ain't so nice."

I appreciated my fastidiousness when I afterward saw, at a Tennessee
hotel, the following notice:--

"Gentlemen who wish towels in their rooms must deposit fifty cents at
the office, as security for their return."

Travel in the Border and Southern States will acquaint a Northerner
with strange customs. To find an entire household occupying a single
large room is not an unfrequent occurrence. The rules of politeness
require that, when bedtime has arrived, the men shall go out of doors
to contemplate the stars, while the ladies disrobe and retire. The men
then return and proceed to bed. Sometimes the ladies amuse themselves
by studying the fire while the men find their way to their couches,
where they gallantly turn their faces to the wall, and permit the
ladies to don their _robes de nuit_.

Notwithstanding the scarcity of accommodations, the traveler seeking
a meal or resting-place will rarely meet a refusal. In New York or New
England, one can journey many a mile and find a cold denial at every
door. In the West and Southwest "the latch-string hangs out," and
the stranger is always welcome. Especially is this the case among the
poorer classes.

Springfield is the largest town in Southwest Missouri, and has a fine
situation. Before the war it was a place of considerable importance,
as it controlled the trade of a large region around it. East of it the
country is quite broken, but on the south and west there are stretches
of rolling prairie, bounded by rough wood-land. Considered in a
military light, Springfield was the key to that portion of the State.
A large number of public roads center at that point. Their direction
is such that the possession of the town by either army would control
any near position of an adversary of equal or inferior strength.
General Lyon was prompt in seeing its value, and determined to make an
early movement for its occupation. When he started from St. Louis
for Booneville, he ordered General Sweeney to march from Rolla to
Springfield as speedily as possible.

General Sweeney moved with three regiments of infantry and a battery
of artillery, and reached Springfield in five days from the time
of starting; the distance being a hundred and twenty miles. He then
divided his forces, sending Colonel Sigel to Carthage, nearly fifty
miles further toward the west, in the hope of cutting off the Rebel
retreat in that direction. Major Sturgis was moving from Leavenworth
toward Springfield, and expected to arrive there in advance of General
Lyon.

Major Sturgis was delayed in crossing a river, so that the Rebels
arrived at Carthage before Colonel Sigel had been reinforced. The
latter, with about eleven hundred men, encountered the Rebel column,
twice as large as his own. The battle raged for several hours, neither
side losing very heavily. It resulted in Sigel's retreat to avoid
being surrounded by the enemy. Wonderful stories were told at that
time of the terrific slaughter in the Rebel ranks, but these stories
could never be traced to a reliable source. It is proper to say that
the Rebels made equally large estimates of our own loss.

On General Lyon's arrival all the troops were concentrated in the
vicinity of Springfield. It was known that the Rebels were encamped
near the Arkansas border, awaiting the re-enforcements which had been
promised from the older States of the Confederacy. General Fremont had
been assigned to the command of the Western Department, and was daily
expected at St. Louis to assume the direction of affairs. Our scouts
were kept constantly employed in bringing us news from the Rebel camp,
and it is quite probable the Rebels were equally well informed of
our own condition. We were able to learn that their number was on the
increase, and that they would soon be largely re-enforced. After three
weeks of occupation our strength promised to be diminished. Half of
General Lyon's command consisted of "three-months men," whose period
of enlistment was drawing to a close. A portion of these men went
to St. Louis, some volunteered to remain as long as the emergency
required their presence, and others were kept against their
will. Meantime, General Lyon made the most urgent requests for
re-enforcements, and declared he would be compelled to abandon the
Southwest if not speedily strengthened. General Fremont promised to
send troops to his assistance. After he made the promise, Cairo was
threatened by General Pillow, and the re-enforcing column turned in
that direction. General Lyon was left to take care of himself.

By the latter part of July, our situation had become critical. Price's
army had been re-enforced by a column of Arkansas and Louisiana
troops, under General McCulloch. This gave the Rebels upward of twelve
thousand men, while we could muster less than six thousand. General
Price assumed the offensive, moving slowly toward Springfield, as if
sure of his ability to overpower the National forces. General Lyon
determined to fall upon the enemy before he could reach Springfield,
and moved on the 1st of August with that object in view.

On the second day of our march a strong scouting party of Rebels was
encountered, and a sharp skirmish ensued, in which they were repulsed.
This encounter is known in the Southwest as "the fight at Dug Spring."
The next day another skirmish occurred, and, on the third morning,
twenty-five miles from Springfield, General Lyon called a council
of war. "Councils of war do not fight" has grown into a proverb. The
council on this occasion decided that we should return to Springfield
without attacking the enemy. The decision was immediately carried out.

The beginning of August, in Southwest Missouri, is in the midst of the
warm season. The day of the march to Dug Spring was one I shall never
forget. In Kansas, before the war, I once had a walk of several miles
under a burning sun, in a region where not a drop of water could be
found. When I finally reached it, the only water to be found was in
a small, stagnant pool, covered with a green scum nearly an inch in
thickness. Warm, brackish, and fever-laden as that water was, I had
never before tasted any thing half so sweet. Again, while crossing the
Great Plains in 1860, I underwent a severe and prolonged thirst, only
quenching it with the bitter alkali-water of the desert. On neither of
these occasions were my sufferings half as great as in the advance to
Dug Spring.

A long ride in that hot atmosphere gave me a thirst of the most
terrible character. Making a detour to the left of the road in a vain
search for water, I fell behind the column as it marched slowly along.
As I moved again to the front, I passed scores of men who had fallen
from utter exhaustion. Many were delirious, and begged piteously for
water in ever so small a quantity. Several died from excessive heat,
and others were for a long time unfit for duty. Reaching the spring
which gave its name to the locality, I was fortunate in finding only
the advance of the command. With considerable effort I succeeded
in obtaining a pint cupful of water, and thus allayed my immediate
thirst.

According to the custom in that region, the spring was covered with a
frame building, about eight feet square. There are very few cellars
in that part of the country, and the spring-house, as it is called,
is used for preserving milk and other articles that require a low
temperature. As the main portion of the column came up, the crowd
around the spring-house became so dense that those once inside could
not get out. The building was lifted and thrown away from the spring,
but this only served to increase the confusion. Officers found it
impossible to maintain discipline. When the men caught sight of the
crowd at the spring, the lines were instantly broken. At the spring,
officers and men were mingled without regard to rank, all struggling
for the same object. A few of the former, who had been fortunate in
commencing the day with full canteens, attempted to bring order out
of chaos, but found the effort useless. No command was heeded. The
officers of the two regiments of "regulars" had justly boasted of the
superior discipline of their men. On this occasion the superiority was
not apparent. Volunteers and regulars were equally subject to thirst,
and made equal endeavor to quench it.

Twenty yards below the spring was a shallow pool, where cattle and
hogs were allowed to run. Directly above it was a trough containing
a few gallons of warm water, which had evidently been there several
days. This was speedily taken by the men. Then the hot, scum-covered
pool was resorted to. In a very few minutes the trampling of the
soldiers' feet had stirred this pool till its substance was more like
earth than water. Even from this the men would fill their cups and
canteens, and drink with the utmost eagerness. I saw a private
soldier emerge from the crowd with a canteen full of this worse than
ditch-water. An officer tendered a five-dollar gold piece for the
contents of the canteen, and found his offer indignantly refused. To
such a frenzy were men driven by thirst that they tore up handfuls
of moist earth, and swallowed the few drops of water that could be
pressed out.

In subsequent campaigns I witnessed many scenes of hunger and thirst,
but none to equal those of that day at Dug Spring.

CHAPTER VI.

THE BATTLE OF WILSON CREEK.

The Return from Dug Spring.--The Rebels follow in
Pursuit.--Preparations to Attack them.--The Plan of Battle.--Moving
to the Attack--A Bivouac.--The Opening Shot.--"Is that
Official?"--Sensations of a Spectator in Battle.--Extension of
Distance and Time.--Characteristics of Projectiles.--Taking Notes
under Fire.--Strength and Losses of the Opposing Armies.--A Noble
Record.--The Wounded on the Field.--"One More Shot."--Granger in his
Element.--General Lyon's Death.

The return of General Lyon from Dug Spring emboldened the enemy to
move nearer to Springfield. On the 7th of August the Rebels reached
Wilson Creek, ten miles from Springfield, and formed their camp
on both sides of that stream. General Ben. McCulloch was their
commander-in-chief. On the night of the 8th, General Lyon proposed to
move from Springfield for the purpose of attacking their position.
The design was not carried out, on account of the impossibility of
securing proper disposition of our forces in season to reach the
enemy's camp at daylight.

During the 8th and the forenoon of the 9th, preparations were made for
resisting an attack in Springfield, in case the enemy should come upon
us. In the afternoon of the 9th, General Lyon decided to assault the
Rebel camp at daylight of the following morning. A council of war
had determined that a defeat would be less injurious than a retreat
without a battle, provided the defeat were not too serious. "To
abandon the Southwest without a struggle," said General Lyon, "would
be a sad blow to our cause, and would greatly encourage the Rebels. We
will fight, and hope for the best."

In arranging a plan of battle, Colonel Sigel suggested that the forces
should be divided, so that a simultaneous attack would be made upon
either extremity of the enemy's camp. The two columns were to move
from Springfield at sunset, bivouac within four miles of the proposed
battle-field, and begin their march early enough to fall upon the
enemy's camp a little past daylight. We left Springfield about sunset
on the 9th, General Lyon taking about three thousand men, while
Colonel Sigel took less than two thousand. Exceptions have frequently
been made to this mode of attack. Had it been successful, I presume no
one would have found it faulty. It is an easy matter to criticise the
plans of others, after their result is known.

The columns moved by different roads to obtain the desired positions.
The march was as silent as possible. The only sounds were the rumbling
of wheels and the occasional clank of arms. No one was heavily
encumbered, as we expected to return to Springfield before the
following night. Midnight found us in a hay-field, four miles from the
Rebel camp. There we rested till morning.

On the previous night I had been almost without sleep, and therefore
took speedy advantage of the halt. Two journeys over the Plains,
a little trip into New Mexico, and some excursions among the Rocky
Mountains, had taught me certain rules of campaign life. I rarely
moved without my blankets and rubber "poncho," and with a haversack
more or less well filled. On this occasion I was prepared for sleeping
in the open air.

One bivouac is much like another. When one is weary, a blanket on the
ground is just as comfortable as a bed of down under a slated roof. If
accustomed to lie under lace curtains, a tree or a bush will make an
excellent substitute. "Tired nature's sweet restorer" comes quickly to
an exhausted frame. Realities of the past, expectations of the future,
hopes, sorrows, wishes, regrets--all are banished as we sink into
sweet repose.

At dawn we were in motion. At daylight the smoke hanging over the
enemy's camp was fully before us. Sunrise was near at hand when
the hostile position was brought to our view. It lay, as we had
anticipated, stretched along the banks of Wilson Creek.

Until our advance drove in the pickets, a thousand yards from their
camp, the Rebels had no intimation of our approach. Many of them were
reluctant to believe we were advancing to attack them, and thought the
firing upon the pickets was the work of a scouting party. The opening
of our artillery soon undeceived them, a shell being dropped in the
middle of their camp.

A Rebel officer afterward told me about our first shell. When the
pickets gave the alarm of our approach, the Rebel commander ordered
his forces to "turn out." An Arkansas colonel was in bed when the
order reached him, and lazily asked, "Is that official?" Before the
bearer of the order could answer, our shell tore through the colonel's
tent, and exploded a few yards beyond it. The officer waited for no
explanation, but ejaculated, "That's official, anyhow," as he sprang
out of his blankets, and arrayed himself in fighting costume.

Before the Rebels could respond to our morning salutation, we heard
the booming of Sigel's cannon on the left. Colonel Sigel reached the
spot assigned him some minutes before we were able to open fire from
our position. It had been stipulated that he should wait for the sound
of our guns before making his attack. His officers said they waited
nearly fifteen minutes for our opening shot. They could look into the
Rebel camp in the valley of the stream, a few hundred yards distant.
The cooks were beginning their preparations for breakfast, and gave
our men a fine opportunity to learn the process of making Confederate
corn-bread and coffee. Some of the Rebels saw our men, and supposed
they were their own forces, who had taken up a new position. Several
walked into our lines, and found themselves prisoners of war.

Previous to that day I had witnessed several skirmishes, but this was
my first battle of importance. Distances seemed much greater than they
really were. I stood by the side of Captain Totten's battery as it
opened the conflict.

"How far are you firing?" I asked.

"About eight hundred yards; not over that," was the captain's

Book of the day: