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Brazilian Sketches by T. B. Ray

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The end came swiftly one night. He had an attack apparently of
indigestion which carried him speedily away. The symptoms seemed
to indicate that he had been poisoned. All that night he spent in
prayer and in singing hymns. He died leaving his benediction upon
his family and upon those Brazilians who would give their hearts
and their services to Jesus Christ.

He was buried upon his own farm. As his family did not erect a
cross over his grave, one of his neighbors who had persecuted
Captain Egydio violently many times thought he would correct him
in his grave, and so he set up a large cross over him. One night
soon after, this cross was cut down. The violent neighbor
instituted a suit for the violation of the law in tearing down a
symbol of the Roman Catholic church. He also came with great pomp,
accompanied by soldiers, and set up another cross. The law suit
finally wore itself out and both parties were glad to drop it,
each party sharing an equal amount of the costs.

The persecution has been so bitter that the church which Captain
Egydio organized in his own house was removed to Pe da Serra,
three miles away, and from there it was driven by persecution to
Rio Preto, where today it flourishes with a membership of about
fifty people and is in a hopeful condition. The widow and her
children have been compelled to move into the city of Bahia. A
recent letter informs me of the conversion of the two youngest

The witness of Captain Egydio has not been lost. It is marvelous
how much he accomplished in his short career. He was converted
October, 1894, baptized February 4, 1895, and died March 30th,
1898, at fifty years of age. In these few years he sowed the
country down with the gospel truth. We visited Vargem Grande,
Santo Antonio, Areia and Genipapo churches, all of which had grown
very largely out of the influence of this one man, and had we been
permitted to go further, we might have visited several other
churches for whose beginning the life of this valiant servant of
God was in a great measure responsible. "He, being dead, yet



One of the most fascinating phases of mission study is the tracing
of the lines along which the gospel spreads. This is true because
it brings us into touch with the native Christian who is one of
the greatest agencies for the spread of the gospel. As it was in
the first century, so it is now--"they that were scattered abroad
went everywhere preaching the gospel." The history of those
Apostolic times repeats itself in every mission land. He who
personally observes the work in Brazil or any other mission field
will have a keener appreciation and understanding of the Acts of
the Apostles written by Luke. The native Christians must either
witness for their Lord or else betray Him. There is no middle
ground. A large percentage of the churches in Brazil grew out of
the fact that a believer moved into a community and began to tell
the story of the love of Jesus to his neighbors. He may have
entered this community by choice or may have been driven into it
by persecution. However, that may be, the truth is that many a
poor, despised, often persecuted believer, has started a movement
in a community which gathered to itself a large company of
believers, and formed the nucleus of another one of those most
wonderful institutions in all the world--a church of Jesus Christ.

When I had entered the First Baptist Church in Sao Paulo, Brazil,
and stood for a moment looking about me, I heard someone exclaim,
"Oh, there he is! There he is!" and presently I found myself
locked in the affectionate embrace of an apparently very happy old
woman. She was about seventy years of age. She was the janitress
of the church. She had looked forward to our coming with joyful
pleasure, and gave to us as hearty a welcome as did anyone in
Brazil. Her name was Felicidade, which being translated means

Several years ago she had come from Pernambuco, in which city and
State she had labored with great success for many years in behalf
of the gospel.

When a girl of ten or twelve years of age she heard her father
talk about a book he had seen in the court-house upon which the
Judge had laid his hand as he administered the oath. She had the
greatest desire to see this book. She was married in her
thirteenth year and her husband died when she was eighteen. After
his death she went from the country to the city of Pernambuco,
where she met some members of the Congregational Church and was
led by them to attend the services. She saw the Bible and heard a
sermon preached from the text, "Blessed are they that hunger and
thirst," and soon afterward she gave obedience to Jesus.

From that time forth her whole conversation was upon the gospel
and upon the subject of bringing other people to Christ. One time
when Mrs. Entzminger was away from the city of Pernambuco she left
her children in charge of Felicidade. While Felicidade was passing
along the street with the children one day she was met by Mrs.
Maria Motta and her daughter, who stopped to admire the beautiful
children. Felicidade told who the children were and urged her new
acquaintances to attend the church services. They accepted her
invitation and soon became interested in the gospel, and before
long were converted to faith in Jesus Christ.

Then their persecution began. They lost all their friends and
endured many other hardships. They came from one of the best
families in the city, and therefore felt the persecution more
bitterly than might have some others. The girl, Augusta, secured
work in the English store. Her mother took in fine ironing, and
thus the two made their support. Afterward Augusta married Augusto
Santiago, who at the present time is the pastor of our thriving
church in the city of Nazareth. She has been to him one of the
greatest blessings in that she has done much to help him in his
effort to prepare himself better for his work. When we visited
Nazareth we were entertained in the delightful home of Augusto
Santiago and found it to be charming in every respect.

When Felicidade lived in Pernambuco it was her custom to sell
fruit for six months to make money enough to live upon for the
remainder of the year. She would then go into the interior with
tracts and Bibles, sell them and in every way try to lead people
to Christ. One year she made it her aim to lead not less than
twelve to her Lord, and she was able to accomplish her purpose.
Her education is limited, but she knows any number of Scripture
verses, which she is able to quote with remarkable aptness.

Upon one of her visits into the interior she was found at Nazareth
by Innocencio Barbosa, a farmer who resided in the district of
Ilheitas. He lived about thirty miles from Nazareth. He took
Felicidade home with him in order that she might teach the gospel
to his family. Meanwhile, his friend, Hermenigildo, who lived in a
distant neighborhood, bought a Bible in Limoeiro and told his
friend Innocencio of what he had done. Innocencio told him of the
presence of Felicidade and suggested that his friend might take
her home with him that she might explain the gospel to his family
also. Felicidade accordingly went into this other home and soon
the entire family, including a son-in-law and some relatives, were
led to Jesus, and a church of about fifty members was organized in
Hermenigildo's house.

Thus the faithful witnessing of this humble, consecrated woman was
so honored of the Holy Spirit that scores were led into the light
of the gospel of Jesus. Out of her efforts grew churches which the
violence of the oppressor could not destroy, because the work she
did became immortal when it passed over into the hands of the Lord
of Hosts, against whose church not even the gates of Hell can



Some of the severest persecutions the saints have ever endured in
Pernambuco broke upon this new congregation in the Ilheitas
district. The houses of the believers were broken into and
everything destroyed, some of the buildings were burned. The
believers asked for police protection, but the police sent to
protect them being under the domination of the priest, who was the
political boss of that district, persecuted the believers even
more than their neighbors had done. They drove the believers
about, beating them with their swords, forcing them to drink
whisky and in many ingenious ways heaped indignities upon them.
After the success of the great persecution in Bom Jardim, of which
we will speak later, the priest organized a large force of men to
destroy everything belonging to the Protestants in the Ilheitas
district and to drive them away. They burned all of the church
furniture, as well as the household furniture belonging to
Hermenigildo, who was forced to flee for his life. They cut the
cord to the hammock in which was lying his young baby. The fall
broke the neck of the child. The mother was driven unclothed
between two lines of soldiers and severely beaten. The other
believers were so harrassed that most of them were compelled to
leave the neighborhood. Hermenigildo stayed away five months, when
a change in police chiefs in Pernambuco made it possible for him
to return. The church was reorganized the following year. A new
building was constructed on Hermenigildo's farm and today, with a
membership of 103, it is in a most prosperous condition.

In the little city of Nazareth the fury of persecution has been
felt. Not a great while after the church had been organized by Dr.
Entzminger the farmers in the community and the priest combined to
drive the Protestants out of town. Dr. Entzminger heard of their
purpose and went up to Nazareth, accompanied by a number of
soldiers whom the Government had put at his disposal. A great
throng was collected at the station to do violence to the
missionary on his arrival, but when they saw the soldiers they
took to their heels, and many came that night to the service to
show that they were not in the mob. A year or two later another
mob broke into the church, poured oil over the furniture and
burned practically everything. The police saved the building. Once
after this, when Missionary Ginsburg was to hold an open-air
meeting in this same town, a soldier was hired to take his life.
The officers of the law left town in order that the deed might be
done without hindrance. The soldier drank whisky in order to brace
himself for the deed, and fortunately imbibed too much and became
so intoxicated that he fell asleep. When he awoke the meeting had
been held and he had missed his chance. These facts were confessed
by the soldier to Dr. Entzminger after the soldier had been
converted a year later.

At the railway station at Nazareth we met Primo da Fonseca, who
had, for the sake of the gospel, lost all in a great persecution
at Bom Jardim, which is not a great distance from Nazareth. He was
a reader of evangelical literature and preached the gospel all
over that country, though he had not been baptized. A native
missionary went into that region, began preaching and soon
afterward gathered a congregation and organized a church in
Fonseca's home. The political boss of the community planned with
the Catholics to take 800 men into Bom Jardim on the night of
April 15th, 1900, for the purpose of killing all the Protestants
who were in prayer at Fonseca's house. The mob divided into two
parties. One party was to approach the house from the front and
the other from the opposite side. A gun was to be fired as a
signal for the attack. The first party approached the house, which
was near the theater. Now in the theater at that time was gathered
a great throng of people. When the news came to them of the
approach of the mob the women thought it was a part of the band of
bandits led by Antonio Silvino, who is perhaps the most famous
outlaw of Brazil. All were greatly frightened. The Mayor went out
to see if he could not do something to persuade the mob to leave
the town. After some parleying they said that inasmuch as the
Mayor asks, we will turn back. Someone at that time fired a shot
and shouted, "Viva Santa Anna" in honor of the patron saint of
that city. This signal brought up the supporting party at once,
who mistook their comrades for the believers and fired into them.
In the melee twenty people were killed and about fifty wounded. All
night they were carrying the dead away to burial in order that
they might cover up the deed as far as possible. The Municipal
Judge made out a case that the Protestants had fired on the
Catholics. He pronounced nineteen as being implicated. Several
escaped, six were finally brought to trial. Dr. Entzminger in
Pernambuco sent lawyers and gave such assistance as he could.
After about two years, Missionary Ginsburg having come also to
help in the meantime, the men on trial were set free. Fonseca lost
all he had in this law suit, he being one of those arrested. He
was in jail four months. He has been deserted by his family. When
the disturbance occurred he was Marshal of his town. Today he
lives in Nazareth, poor, deserted, faithful. But what cares he for
this suffering, poverty and desertion as he contemplates the fact
that he has set a torch of eternal light in his community. The
church which he finally established will bear faithful witness in
spite of hardships long after all persecution has ceased, and he,
himself, has gone home to God.

It was our good fortune to visit the little town of Cabo (which
means Cape), two hours' ride from Pernambuco, where we have a
small church, organized about two years ago. We were entertained
in the home of a mechanic who superintends the bridge construction
along the railroad which passes through the town. He takes his
Bible with him when he goes to work, and wherever he is he
preaches the gospel. He told us of two station agents along the
line who had recently accepted Christ through his personal

We had a delightful service that night in the church, a great
throng of people being present, six of whom made public profession
of their faith in Jesus. After we had returned from the church we
sat in the little dining room in the rear part of this man's house
until a late hour. Some of those who had suffered for the cause of
the gospel came in to see us, and as we sat there in the dim light
of the flickering candle, they told us of some of their sufferings
for the gospel's sake. The scene reminded me of what must have
taken place often in many a dark room in the early centuries when
the Christians gathered together for the sake of comforting each
other in their trials.

Amongst those who were present in this little room was brother
Honofre, through whose efforts the church at Cabo had been
founded. Several years ago he began to read a Bible which had been
presented to him by a man who was not interested in it. He became
converted along with his household. There was a Catholic family
living opposite to him which he determined to reach with the
gospel. After awhile this family accepted Christ and the two
families began to hold worship in their homes. Soon they rented a
hall, with the aid of a few others, and sent to Pernambuco for a
missionary to come and organize them into a church. This man has
endured cruel hardships. He had to abandon his business as a
street merchant because the people boycotted him. He rented a
house, built an oven and began to bake bread. Not long after that
he was put out of this house. Again and yet again he had the same
experience until recently he has rented a house from the same man
who provided for our church building. He can now make a living.

The church has had experience similar to that of its founder. It
was put out of three rented buildings at the instance of the
Vicar, who either forced the owners to eject or he, himself,
bought the property. Finally a man who is not a believer, but
whose mother is, bought the present building and sold it to me
church. He is permitting the church to pay for the building in
installments of small sums. At last the church has a place upon
which it can rest the sole of its feet and in two years has grown
from ten to fifty members. On the occasion of our visit six more
made public confession of Christ before a large audience and were
received for baptism.

Out on the cape is a fine lighthouse which we had admired as we
came up the coast on the ship. May it be a symbol of the
lighthouse which this church may become to the storm tossed in
that section of Brazil.

Of course, persecution is a painful thing for those who are called
upon to endure it, but wherever I found those who had passed
through afflictions they counted it all joy to suffer for the
cause of Christ, and whenever I attempted to comfort them because
of their hardships, I came away more comforted than they, for the
reason that their joyous willingness to suffer for His sake
strengthened my own faith and assured me of the ultimate triumph
of the gospel through the labors of such heroic people.
Persecution, while it may temporarily suspend work in a certain
place, always defeats its own purpose, and instead of preventing
the spread of the gospel, is one of the most helpful agencies in
the growth of the truth.

A most encouraging illustration of this fact occurred in
Pernambuco in 1904. There had been a bitter persecution at Cortez,
a village not far from Pernambuco. The chief instigator of the
trouble was the parish priest. The believers were driven out of
the town and their lives threatened. The missionary went and was
also driven out, but returned under the protection of some
soldiers and conducted gospel services through a whole week in
order to give courage to the believers and to demonstrate that the
Protestants could not be driven out. A news account of this
persecution was published in a daily paper in Pernambuco. A boy
cut this article out and gave it to his teacher, a priest in the
Silesian College. The teacher read the article and wrote a letter
to Missionary Cannada and asked him to come to the college at
midnight to explain the gospel. Two letters were passed before the
missionary finally went at midnight to hold a conference. The
priest came out and discussed the gospel with the missionary and
then returned to the college, taking with him a copy of the New
Testament. After a month the missionary went again at midnight to
the college and the priest came away with him once for all. The
priest went to the home of the missionary and for two months
studied the Bible, after which time he was converted. He at once
began to preach the gospel to his friends as he would meet them on
the streets. He also made a public declaration of his conversion
in print. The President of the college from which he had gone
obtained an interview with him and offered him every inducement to
return. His parents disinherited him and many other trials came to
him, but through all, he stood firm. He has just graduated from
the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, taking the Th. D.
degree and has been appointed to teach in the Baptist College and
Theological Seminary in Rio. His name is Piani. About a year after
Piani's conversion he induced another priest to leave the same
college. This man spent a month in the missionary's house studying
the Bible, but was enticed back by the priests and hurried away to
New York in order that he might escape the influence of Piani.
Three months after reaching New York he was converted and joined
the Fifth Avenue Baptist Church and is today a pastor of a Baptist
church in Massachusetts.

In no place where our people have endured persecution, even though
it may have been severe enough to cost the lives of some, has the
work been abandoned, but in every place the weak, struggling
congregation which faced obliteration at the fury of its enemy,
has in the end increased, and today enjoys the blessing of growth
in numbers and in the sympathy of the people. Persecution is a
good agency in the spread of the gospel.



The Bible is a mighty factor in the spread of the gospel in
Brazil. In 1889 there came down to Bahia a man named Queiroz from
two hundred and fifty miles in the interior. He came seeking
baptism at the hands of Dr. Z. C. Taylor. It appears that some six
or eight years previous to that time an agent of a Bible society
had entered this man's community, preached the gospel and left
behind him some copies of the Scriptures. One of these Bibles was
found afterwards by Queiroz, who studied it and was impressed with
its truth. He began to bring the message of the Word to the
attention of his large circle of friends and kindred. Having
preached in several places, he was finally asked by the district
judge to come to his house where he was given opportunity to meet
a number of friends. The friends of Queiroz, however, began to ask
him whether it was right for him to be preaching thus before he
had been baptized, whereupon he resolved to go to Bahia to seek
baptism. He made the journey and was baptized. A week after he had
returned he wrote to Dr. Taylor, saying he had preached at Deer
Forks and had baptized eight. During the next two weeks similar
letters were sent, which gave the number he had baptized. The
church at Bahia was apprized of conditions, and it decided to send
Queiroz an invitation to come and receive ordination. He came with
great humility and joy and was ordained, but before the ordination
had taken place he had already baptized fifty-five people. The
church, at Bahia, after the ordination of Queiroz, legalized the

Five years after the baptism of this man Dr. Taylor was finally
able to make the journey to Conquista, where he found the church
well organized, with a house of worship built at its own expense
and with the pastor's home erected near by. The missionary says,
"I now understand why God never permitted me to visit Conquista
during these five years. I believe it was for the purpose of
showing me that the native Christians can and will take care of
themselves and the gospel if we will only confide in them. I
wonder how many churches in the United States have built their own
house and pastorium and sustained themselves from the start? Not a
cent from the Board has been spent on the church and the
evangelization done by Brother Queiroz."

Another example of the power of the Bible in spreading the gospel
is found in the way the gospel came to Guandu, State of Rio, and
the country round about. One night in Campos in 1894, after the
missionary had finished his sermon, a young woman approached him
and said, "My father has been teaching us out of that same book
you used. Would you not like to go out in the country to visit
him?" The missionary replied that he would, and then the girl
explained how the Bible came to this community.

One evening a colporteur approached her father's door and asked
for entertainment, saying he had been refused by several families
along the way. To the host's inquiry as to why he had been refused
entertainment for the night the colporteur said: "They declined
because I am a Protestant." The man replied. "Come in and
welcome." After the dinner Mr. Vidal (for that was the farmer's
name) asked what this Protestantism meant. The colporteur
explained and preached the gospel to the best of his ability.

When the time came to retire the colporteur said, "It is my custom
to read the Scriptures and to pray before I retire. If you have no
objection I would like to do so tonight." Mr. Vidal answered, "I
shall be glad for you to do so." The colporteur read and there in
the dining hall before the curious onlookers knelt and poured out
his heart to his Heavenly Father. He called down the blessing and
the favor of God upon the family. The tears poured down his cheeks
as he lifted his soul in this prayer. After he finished praying
Mr. Vidal said, "I have never heard prayer like that. Teach me how
to do it. I have heard Latin prayers repeated, but they did not
grip me like that." The colporteur replied by explaining that
prayer must be from the heart. He then took out a Bible and said,
"I want to make you a present of this book. You have been kind to
me. Read it, for it has in it the Word of Life." He went away the
following morning. We do not know who he was--only the record on
high will discover his person to us.

The book left behind became a great light for Mr. Vidal. He read
it and was so impressed with its teachings that he taught the Word
to his family and neighbors. His house became a house of prayer
and teaching. When Missionary Ginsburg went out there, preached
the Word and explained about Christ, he asked those who wished to
follow the Lord to stand. Practically the whole company stood.
They had been prepared, by Mr. Vidal The missionary went back a
few times and soon a church of about forty members was organized
and was called the Church of Guandu.

The Word spread up the country first amongst Mr. Vidal's relatives
and friends. At Santa Barbara the station master, Carlos Mendonca,
was converted, who is now pastor of our church at Cantagallo. He
first moved to Rio Bonito and founded a church there, the truth
spread, in other directions also and so the light which the
unknown colporteur left with this farmer has shed its rays of
blessings upon a whole county. Twenty-one years ago, a Bible which
belonged to a Catholic priest, or rather a part of a Catholic
Bible, fell into the hands of the old man, Joaquim Borges. Through
the reading of this Bible, he abandoned idolatry and other
practices of Rome and put his trust solely in the Lord Jesus for
his salvation. For sixteen years he resisted all attempts of
priests and others to turn him back to Rome, always giving a clear
and firm testimony to the truth of the gospel. During all this
time he never met with another believer. Hearing of him, E. A.
Jackson wrote him to meet him in Pilao Arcado. He came 120 miles
and waited twelve days for the arrival of the missionary. As
Jackson had through passage to Santa Rita, he asked the captain to
hold the steamer while he baptized Mr. Borges. Before
administering baptism Jackson preached to the great crowd on the
river bank and on the decks of the steamer. It was a solemn and
beautiful sight to behold this man, seventy-seven years of age,
following his Lord in baptism at his first meeting with a minister
of the gospel and before a multitude which had never witnessed
such a scene. Dripping from the river, Jackson welcomed him into
the ranks of God's children. The missionary embarked on the
steamer and Mr. Borges went back to work among his neighbors. Up
till the present time not even a native minister has visited him,
for the lack of workers and funds to send them. Eye hath not seen,
nor ear heard, nor hath it entered into the heart to conceive the
glorious things God has prepared for the man who will go to work
for Him among the neglected people of the interior of Brazil.

In the State of Sao Paulo is a boy, Ramiro by name, now about
thirteen years of age, the only son of parents who do not know a
letter of the alphabet. Indeed, he is the only one in a large
connection that has been taught to read.

The family lives about twenty miles from their market town, Mogy
das Cruzes, to which they go to sell the meager fruits of their
labors on the little farm. In this town they have some
acquaintances, among whom is a believer whose faith had come
through reading the Bible. This believer one day came into
possession of a Bible which he didn't need, and so he gave it to
Ramiro, who was then about nine or ten years of age and was
beginning to learn to read. The little fellow trudged home, twenty
miles away, carrying his priceless present, and showed it joyously
to his parents. This was the first book that ever entered their
humble home, excepting, of course, Ramiro's little school book.
Curious to know what the book contained, the father put Ramiro to
deciphering some of its pages. Guided, no doubt, by the Holy
Spirit, he fell upon the New Testament and laboriously read on and
on for months and months The neighbors--all ignorant alike--would
come and listen to Ramiro spell out sentence after sentence, he
becoming more expert as the days went by. He would read, they
would listen and discuss, the Holy Spirit, in the meantime, fixing
the sacred truth in their hearts. This persistent reading of the
Word went on for two or three years to a time when the Lord opened
to Dr. J. J. Taylor, of Sao Paulo, a door of opportunity in Mogy
das Cruzes. He found twelve people ready to follow on in the
Lord's ordinance.

Since that time even more abundant fruit has been gathered. Dr.
Taylor at first baptized three of Ramiro's cousins who hail from
the same village twenty miles away and recently he baptized the
uncle, aunt, some more cousins and Ramiro himself. Ramiro taught
the words of many hymns to his family and neighbors. Through him
and his book his aged grandparents, ninety years old and
bedridden, rejoice in the Savior.

How great must be the might of the Word of God which can convert
to salvation strong men through the faltering lips of a child And
yet, after all, is not this the combination which alone is
powerful in spreading the gospel--a simple, child-like heart,
through which the Word may speak forth? "A little child shall lead
them," because it can be artless enough to give simple utterance
to the Word of God. Oh, for more in all lands who will give
unaffected voice to the Word of God! That message has power in it
if it can get sincere expression.

We need to realize more than we do the transcendent importance of
giving wide circulation to the Bible in foreign lands. The
illustrations given here of the wonderful success of the Book
should help us to reach a better appreciation of the value of the
Word of God in mission endeavor. Certainly, there is marvelous
power in it. Its enemies fear its might; therefore, they fight
desperately to prevent the circulation of it. Would that we could
have as keen a realization of the vitality of this Book as do its
enemies. Surely then, we would do far more for the sowing of the
Scriptures beside all waters.



In 1894, Francisco da Silva, soon after his conversion in Bahia,
went to Victoria in the State of Espirito Santo to live. He went
into the interior with some surveyors, and in addition to the work
he was called upon to do, he found time to tell the story of
Jesus. Eight people were converted and he wrote Dr. Z. C. Taylor
to come and baptize them.

Dr. Taylor was not able to go immediately, and one of the men
secured his baptism in a very unique way. He asked Francisco to
baptize him Francisco replied that he could not because he was not
ordained. The man returned home and examined his Bible and came
back a few days later and demanded again that Francisco baptize
him. Francisco replied that in order to baptize, one must be
ordained. "No," said the man, "I have looked in the Bible and I do
not find it necessary for one to be ordained in order to baptize."
So catching hold of Francisco, he pulled him along to a river near
by, Francisco through it all holding back the best he could and
arguing with the man that he could not baptize him. But the man
constrained him and forced him into the river. Francisco seeing
his zeal, performed the ceremony. Some question afterward was
raised about the validity of this baptism, and the man was
baptized regularly by the same Francisco, who had in the meantime
received ordination.

When he had finished with one party of surveyors another wanted to
employ him, and they went to the first party to find out about
him. The men said: "He has fine qualifications for the position,
but there is one objection to him--he is a Protestant." "Ah, said
the second party, "can't we with a little money get that out of
him?" "No," replied the first, "it seems to be grown into him." He
was taken by the second party, the chief of which and all his
family soon became devoted Christians.

The desire to tell the story of Jesus burned in Francisco's heart
so warmly that he gave up his lucrative employment with the
surveying party, bought a mule and other necessities for his
journey and started out to proclaim the unsearchable riches of
Christ to the people of that State. He was remarkably successful
and soon gathered about him a little band of believers, who,
because of their faithfulness to Christ, were called upon to
suffer severe persecution. They were compelled to flee into the
distant mountains where Missionary Jackson afterward found them,
organized them into a church and baptized seventy-five converts.
Later they were able to return to their homes, due to the fact
that a more lenient administration was inaugurated in Victoria.
Very soon afterward our faithful missionary, L. M. Reno, was sent
to this State, and the work from this good beginning has had
remarkable prosperity. The pioneer missionary, da Silva, after
having gained the title of Apostle to the State of Espirito Santo,
was called in 1910 to his reward.

From what we have been saying, you have no doubt made many
inferences about the kind of Christians these Brazilians make. If
you had seen them face to face, you would have been, as I was,
impressed with their appearance. They were the best-looking people
I saw. Their countenances were clearer and there was a hopeful,
resourceful look upon them that was not noticeable upon the non-
believers. Sin and fear always break the spirit of men, and though
there may be a brave look assumed, yet there always hangs a cloud
over the countenance of the sin-stained and fear-driven man, be he
a religionist or atheist. This change in appearance is produced by
a change in their way of living. When they are converted they
cease drinking, gambling, Sabbath-breaking, and often the men give
up smoking and the women cease taking snuff. The fact is they
sometimes are extreme upon this subject. I heard of one church
that made the giving up of tobacco and another the laying aside of
jewelry the test of fellowship. These people coming out from under
the domination of a religion of fear into the light and liberty of
the gospel are changed from glory to glory, having upon them the
light of God's countenance.

They are liberal givers. There is a much larger proportion of
tithers among them than among the Christians in the States. Here,
too, they often go to extremes. More than one church in Brazil
makes tithing obligatory upon its members. Last year the Brazilian
Baptists gave as much per capita for foreign missions as did the
Baptists in our Southern States. They have set their aim this year
higher than the Southern Baptists have. They sustain foreign
mission work in Chili and Portugal. They engage in this foreign
mission endeavor because the leaders think that the foreign
mission principle is vital to the life and development of the
churches. This giving to foreign missions is not to the neglect of
their home enterprises. They have Home and State Mission Boards
which they support liberally. They have am Education Board to
which they gave forty cents per capita last year and all of this
giving out of such grinding poverty!

Here and there are people of larger means who are munificent in
their gifts. It was the generous offer of $5,000 by Captain Egydio
that made possible the founding of the Collegio Americano Egydio,
which school was established by the Taylors in Bahia. He paid $650
the first installment upon the furniture, but his sudden taking
off prevented the college from realizing the whole amount
promised, because the family lost so heavily by persecution after
the father had been taken away. Col Benj. Nogueira Paranagua, a
rich cattleman, built a church, school and library building at
Corrente in the State of Piauhy at his own expense and afterward
paid the salary of a teacher for the school. When the church in
San Fidelis, which was established in the face of trying
persecution, was considering how it could possibly build a meeting
house, a coffee farmer, who was not yet a member, rose and said:
"I am old and useless, but I want to do something for Jesus and
His church. I, therefore, offer to erect the church building and
the church may pay me six per cent. annually until I die, and then
the building will belong to the church as a legacy which I intend
to leave." As the work on the house progressed he signified his
desire to be the first one to be baptized in the baptistry. This
was granted gladly and his thought of charging six per cent on the
building until his death disappeared in the watery grave and he
made the church a present outright of the beautiful chapel. Not
only this chapel has been built by an individual, but others have
been built in the same way. Usually, however, the churches are
built out of the sacrificial offerings of the people. So well has
this church building movement progressed that now about one-third
of the 142 Baptist Churches organized in Brazil worship in their
own buildings, and with a few exceptions, these buildings have
been erected by the gifts of the people and not by the gifts of
the Foreign Mission Board. The Presbyterians show a better
proportion of buildings than this and the Methodists quite as

The subject of self-support is a live one. There has been good
progress made in this matter, but, of course, it will require many
years to teach the churches their full duty in this regard. Many
churches have reached the point where they take care of all local
expenses. Some of the missionaries go so far as to advocate not
organizing any more churches until the congregations can be self-
supporting. The South Brazilian Mission, in its recent meeting,
adopted the rule that no church should be organized hereafter
until it could pay at last 60 per cent of its own expenses--these
expenses to include the care of the house, the salary of the
native pastor, etc.

I have already cited instances of personal work. I wish to say
more particularly that the great success which has attended the
work in Brazil must be in a large measure attributed to the fact
that those who have been led to Christ have been zealous in
witnessing personally to others of the grace which had been
bestowed upon them.

One of the greatest laymen in Brazil is our Brother Thomaz L. da
Costa. He is the Superintendent of a very considerable business
firm in Bahia. He is a deacon in the First Baptist Church, one of
the moving spirits upon the Brazilian Foreign Mission Board and
practically superintends the work of the State Mission Board of

Years ago he was converted in Rio through the agency of his
washerwoman. This faithful woman is a member of the First Baptist
Churoh. She decided she would attempt to lead Thomaz to Christ. So
on Saturday when she would bring his laundry she would invite him
to come to her house on the following day for dinner. I might say
by way of parenthesis, that there is not a steam laundry in
Brazil. All of the laundry work is done by hand. Sometimes there
is quite a considerable firm which employs many laundresses.
Thomaz, after declining the good woman's invitation many times,
finally one day decided he would accpt. it.

On Sunday he appeared at her house for dinner. After the dinner
was over she suggested that they, in company with several of her
children, should take a stroll through some of the parks. They
passed through the great park in the center of the city, and after
a while they found themselves in front of a building in which they
heard singing. The good woman suggested that they go upstairs into
the hall from which proceeded the sounds of the music. They went
in, Thomaz not knowing what sort of place it was. Dr. Bagby, the
first missionary of our board to Brazil, was conducting a service
and soon began a sermon which impressed Thomaz very greatly. The
sermon drew such a picture of his life that he accused the woman
of having told Dr. Bagby about him. She had not done so, she
declared, and this fact impressed Thomaz even more.

Next Saturday, when she brought his laundry, she invited him to
take dinner with her again on Sunday, but he was too shrewd for
her and declined, saying that he understood her purpose. The
message which he had heard in the sermon, however, stayed with
him. On the following Saturday the good woman again invited him to
take dinner with her on Sunday. He declined. When the third
Saturday came, before she had time to extend her usual invitation,
he said: "I am coming to dinner with you tomorrow." He went
according to promise, and after the meal had been finished, they
did not take a round-about course, but went directly to the
church, and there the man listened to the gospel again and gave
himself to Christ. He has not missed a service since unless
providentially hindered. I asked him if he was sorry of the step
he had taken and he replied: "No, indeed. It is as Paul says, 'A
salvation not to be repented of.'"

There can be but one inevitable result to such faithful witnessing
as this. One of the most hopeful signs in connection with the
work in Brazil is the fact that a large percentage of the members
of the churches endeavor to lead others to Christ in a personal
way. A large percentage of them will conduct public services
wherever the opportunity can be found. In the First Baptist Church
in Rio there are more than twenty men who will go out and conduct
public services. They are not skilled preachers. They may have
very limited education, but they can take the Book, read it,
explain its message through the light of their own individual
experiences, and by this means of witnessing to the power of the
saving grace of God in their own lives, they are able to lead many
to Jesus. Is not this after all the kind of preaching our Lord has
sent us into the world to do?

The severest persecution which these Brazilian Christians are
called upon to endure is not that which comes to them when they
are stoned, or when their property may be destroyed or when their
business may be taken away from them through boycotts or when they
may be turned into the streets through the bitter hatred of hard-
hearted priests, but the most trying persecution is that which
comes from the insinuating remark, the sneer of the supercilious
and the doubt of the envious. The taunt of hypocrisy is often
thrown into the teeth of native Christians. Their motives are
frequently impugned. I was profoundly impressed with the answer
they usually give to such persecutions. They reply by saying: "See
how we live. Note the difference between our careers now and our
careers before we became Christians." And this challenge of the
life is the one which will finally answer the ridicule and doubt
of all who assail them.



In thinking of the missionary, most of us dwell upon the heroic
self-denial he practices and the bravery with which he faces the
gravest dangers. Certainly, the missionary in Brazil is due a good
share of such appreciation. He has been called upon to endure
shameful indignities, painful personal dangers and the enervating
perils of a hostile climate. Our own missionaries have been
beaten, stoned, thrown into streams, arrested and haled before
courts, shot at and in many instances saved only by the most
signal dispensations of Providence. Dr. Bagby, our first
missionary, in spite of stoning and arrest when he was baptizing
converts in Bahia, kept fearlessly on in his endeavor to lead the
people to Christ. Dr. Z. C. Taylor traveled through the interior
of Bahia State in perils of robbers, in perils of fanatics, in
perils of infuriated priests and in perils of bloodthirsty
persecutors without fear or shrinking. In the spring of 1910
Solomon Ginsburg was set upon by a mob at Itabopoana, which opened
fire with such perilous directness that one bullet flattened upon
the wall a few inches above his head.

This same missionary in 1894 endured bitter persecutions when he
attempted to open the work at San Fidelis in the interior of the
State of Rio de Janeiro. A mob of a thousand people threw stones,
grass, corn and a great miscellany of other objects at him and his
little band of worshipers. The howling of the mob prevented him
from preaching. The best that could be done was to sing songs.
Finally, a stone having struck a girl in the congregation, he
carried her out through the infuriated mob to a drug store across
the street, where she was resuscitated, and he returned to his
service of song.

Next morning he was called to the police headquarters and the
officer forbade him to preach. He asked what the missionary was
doing there, to which he replied, "To preach the gospel." The
missionary was then prohibited from preaching in the province. He
replied that he was sorry he could not obey, for he had superior
orders. He could not accept orders from the police, nor the
Governor, nor even from the President of the Republic. The officer
asked who this superior authority was. The missionary replied it
was God. God had told him to go preach the gospel in all the world
to every creature; some of God's creatures were in San Fidelis and
he was there to preach according to the command of his Lord. The
police officer, after plying him with insulting epithets, kept him
a prisoner of the State as a disturber of the peace. On the
following day he was sent to the State prison at Nictheroy, where
he was confined for ten days. Friends, through the solicitation of
Mrs. Ginsburg, brought pressure to bear upon the Government and
the missionary was released. He was requested then as a personal
favor not to return until after the naval revolt, which was then
in progress, should be suppressed and a degree of quiet could be
restored to the State. Being thus requested, he remained away from
San Fidelis awhile.

When the revolt was suppressed he returned to San Fidelis and
persecution arose again. He appealed to the chief officer of the
State and fifty soldiers were sent to his relief. In choosing
these fifty soldiers the officer asked for believers to volunteer.
Twenty-five responded. He asked then for sympathizers and twenty-
five more volunteered. These were put under the command of the
missionary, who instructed them not to appear armed at the church.
They came unarmed, but when the mob began to thrown stones again
and refused to respect the soldiers, they pounced upon the evil
doers and there was a rough and tumble fight. Several were bruised
considerably and a number of limbs were broken, but after this
conflict the persecution ceased.

We relate these incidents for the purpose of making it clear that
our missionaries have been called upon to suffer greatly for the
cause of Christ. Every missionary who has been in Brazil any
length of time has felt the weight of personal, physical
persecution, and all in the gravest dangers have conducted
themselves as became the heroic character with which they are so
splendidly endowed. And this suffering, we are sorry to say, is
not yet over. For many years to come the desperate and despotic
hand of Rome, which could in the name of religion invent the
horrible inquisition and organize the bloodthirsty order of
Jesuits, has not changed its attitude completely and will resist
desperately to the last the inevitable progress of Protestantism
in Brazil.

Let me hasten, however, to say that it is very easy to get the
wrong impression of what the heroism of the missionary consists.
It is easy for us to think it consists in his willingness to face
personal danger. If such an idea should obtain amongst us
permanently and alas, it has persisted altogether too long; it
will rob the story of missions of its true interest and hazard
appreciation of the enterprise upon the ability of the historian
to find thrilling tales of adventure to gratify the appetite of
the sensation-loving public.

The most trying thing to the missionary is not the imminence of
personal danger, but the ever-present chilling, benumbing
indifference of the people to the gospel. Even though here and
there we find large numbers of people who are ready to accept the
gospel, let us not deceive ourselves into the belief that all
Brazil is eagerly seeking to enter the Kingdom of God. The
Macedonian call to Paul did not come from a whole nation which was
ready to accept his teaching, but from one man in a nation. Most
all Macedonian calls are like that. The few, comparatively
speaking, rise to utter such calls and these few are the keys of
opportunity which may be used to unlock whole Empires. The great
body of the people in Brazil (and this is especially true of the
educated classes) are as indifferent to the gospel as people are
most anywhere else. It is the weight of this stolid indifference
which tries the endurance of the missionary. It fills the very
atmosphere he breathes and hangs a dark cloud over his horizon,
which only his faith in God and the winning of occasional converts
graciously tinge with a silver lining. It is indifference, slowly
yielding indifference that tests the temper of the missionary
character. There are times when a bit of physical persecution would
afford a positive relief to the fatigue of his exacting career.

The days of the pioneer missionary, with their personal dangers,
have in a measure passed. The yeans of the persecutor in the face
of an increasingly more enlightened civilization are numbered. The
probability of personal perils is growing steadily less. The
missionary must now fight for a hearing before a public which is
too often willing to let him alone. In many places it does not
care enough for his message to persecute him for bringing it. It
is ready to patronize him with an assumed air of liberality and
resist the message which burns in his heart and upon his lips.
They are willing for him to speak, but not willing to listen to
what he has to say. He must fight for a hearing with this
patronizing indifference. It is this that tries his spirit. It is
this that bleeds his heart of its strength. It is this that calls
out the heroic in him as never does the dart of the savage, the
weapon of the fanatic or the fury of the mob. To hold on true to
his purpose in the face of such soul-harrowing indifference is the
crowning act of heroism upon the part of our missionaries. No one
of them has ever drawn back and given up his work for fear of
death at the hands of his persecutors, but it must be said for the
sake of the truth that some have succumbed before the rigors of
blasting indifference. The saints at home ought to support
valiantly with their prayers our missionaries who at the front are
engaged in a battle even unto death with indifferent souls
unwilling to accept their message.

There is another count in this subject of indifference to which we
at home should give more prayerful consideration. It is the
failure of the churches at home to send out an adequate number of
missionaries to reinforce the workers at the front and make it
possible for them to take advantage of the opportunities that have
come to them already. What could take the spirit out of a man more
quickly than the feeling that those who had sent him out do not
care enough about him to give him support and reinforcements for
his work? It is a shame upon us that we at home add another burden
to our missionaries by failing to loyally support them. What must
be a man's thoughts after he has toiled and sacrificed on a field
for years and has unceasingly begged for a mere tithe of the
helpers he really needs and which we fail to send?

When that brave garrison of English soldiers were shut up in Lady
Smith, South Africa, during the Boer War their courage to hold out
against overwhelming odds and on insufficient rations through many
weeks was kept up by the assurance that the patriotic English
nation was doing its utmost to send relief, though the relief was
long delayed. If the thought that their home people were not
trying to send succor to them had ever taken possession of their
minds, they would have surrendered forthwith. Their line of
communication was cut, but they knew help was coming, and so they
held out with grim determination until relief came.

How is it with our missionaries in Brazil? Their lines of
communication are intact. They know their people at home are able
to supply them with the help they need and yet the help does not
come. What must be the conclusion forced upon, them and what must
be the effect upon them? Either the churches, though able, will
not give the means to send out missionaries, or the men for
reinforcement will not volunteer. It may be that both causes are
at work. What is the matter when a pulpit committee of a
prominent church can have sixty names suggested to it of men who
might become its pastor, and a good percentage (save the mark) of
these direct applications, when our small missionary force in
Brazil is pleading for only ten men to be sent out to relieve them
in their strain? Whatever explanation we may have to offer for
these things, the fact remains that our indifference to the call
of our men at the front adds an additional weight to their already
too heavy load, and yet, in spite of it all, they are standing
with unflinching heroism at their posts.

Something must be done to relieve this situation. Counting all
denominations, there are in Brazil fewer missionaries today in
proportion to the population than there are either in India or
China. Why this disparity of workers in Brazil? Is it because the
work is not successful there? The facts show that, taking into
consideration the number of workers, it is one of the most
fruitful of all mission fields. Is it because there is less need
of the gospel? I believe I have shown that these people are bereft
of the gospel, and because of their sin and idolatry are as needy
as are to be found anywhere. No, there is no excuse to be offered.
Our workers at the front need help. We are trying their brave
spirits by withholding the relief they have a right to expect, and
yet we repeat they are holding on with a courage that stamps them
as heroes of the finest type. God help us to see our obligation to
send out recruits in sufficiently large numbers to relieve these
brave soldiers and transform them from a besieged garrison into an
aggressive army of conquerors.

Let us bear in mind that what is said about indifference both on
the foreign field and among the churches at home is spoken of the
people in the large. Thank God, the light is breaking in many
places at home and abroad. Many individuals and churches are today
seeing the larger vision and are assuming their larger
responsibility in the support of the foreign mission cause. Many
are saying: "We will faithfully strengthen the hands of our
brothers who toil so courageously at the front." In Brazil (and in
other mission fields, too,) there is in many places a marvelous
breaking away from the old attitude of indifference. The little
handful of missionaries we have on the field are straining every
nerve to meet the opportunities that are pressing upon them. They
are not discouraged. They are as busy as life trying to meet the
increasing demands. They are looking to the future with the
largest hope. They are a band of the most incurable optimists you
ever saw.



This very breaking away in some places is piling up additional
burdens and the pitifully inadequate force is called upon to meet
demands that twice their number could hardly satisfy. If we had
the same distribution of Baptist ministers in our Southern country
that we have in Brazil there would be only four ministers in
Texas, two in Virginia, three in Georgia and other States in like
proportion. Think of E. A. Nelson, the only representative of our
board in the Amazon region, trying to spread himself over four
States which comprise a territory five times as large as Texas.
Passing down the coast, five days journey, we would find D. L.
Hamilton and H. H. Muirhead, who have faced dangers as fearlessly
as have any brave spirits who have enriched the annals of
missionary history with courageous service. They, along with Miss
Voorheis, are our sole representatives in the State of Pernambuco
and in the adjoining State of Alagoas. C. F. Stapp, Solomon
Ginsburg and E. A. Jackson are attempting to carry forward the
work in the vast States of Piauhy, Goyaz, a part of Minas Geraes,
and Bahia, which last named State has in it one city as large as
New Orleans. E. A. Jackson is located far in the interior of the
State, three weeks' journey from Bahia; all of the energies of
Stapp are consumed in caring for the school; Ginsburg is forced to
give his attention to the nurturing of the thirty-five churches
and of evangelizing as far as his strength will go. In the State
beyond them, going down the coast, stands L. M. Reno, in the State
of Espirito Santo. In the populous State of Rio, in which is
located the capital city with its 1,000,000 inhabitants, we have
Entzminger, Shepard, Langston, Maddox, Cannada, Christie, Taylor
and Crosland. Entzminger, in addition to conducting the publishing
house, must also conduct the mission operations in Nictheroy, a
city of 40,000; Shepard, Taylor and Langston have placed upon
their shoulders the tremendous responsibility of conducting the
college and seminary; Cannada must give his energies to the
Flumenense School for Boys, leaving only Maddox, Christie and
Crosland at liberty to do the wider evangelistic work and care for
the many churches which the success of their labors have thrust
upon them. Crosland has been transferred recently to Bello
Horizonte, in the great State of Minas Geraes. Farther South, in
Sao Paulo, the richest and most progressive State in the country,
are Bagby, Deter and Edwards, Misses Carroll, Thomas and Grove.
Bagby and wife and the young ladies just mentioned devote their
time to the school, leaving only two to man a field which, because
of its splendid railroad facilities, has in it scores of inviting
locations for successful work. In Paranagua in the next State to
the South, have been located recently R. E. Pettigrew and wife.
Far down to the South in Rio Grande do Sul, a State as large as
Tennessee and Kentucky combined, stands a single sentinel in the
person of A. L. Dunstan. What a battle line for twenty men to
maintain! It is more than 4,000 miles in length. If you should
place these men in line across our Southern territory, locating
the first one in Baltimore, you would travel 100 miles before you
reach the second, 100 miles before you reach the third, 100 miles
to the fourth, and in going toward the Southwest, you would reach
the twentieth man in El Paso, Tex. Whereas, if you were to draw up
the Baptist ministers enrolled in the Southern Baptist Convention
territory along the same line and pass down it to make the count,
by the time you had reached El Paso you would have passed 8,000
men, for they would have been placed just one-fourth of a mile

Why do we need 400 ministers in this country to one in Brazil? Is
it possible that we will grudgingly cling to our 8,000 ministers
and decline to give even eight to reinforce our little handful in
Brazil? Such a division of forces can neither be fair nor

In drawing this picture I have practically stated the situation
for the other denominations. The Presbyterians occupy the same
general territory as do the Baptists with an equal number of
missionaries. The Methodists have somewhat more compactly
stationed about the same number of missionaries as each of the
other two, while the Episcopalians, the Congregationalists and the
Evangelical Mission of South America combined add a number about
equal to each of the three larger denominations. A total of less
than 100 ordained missionaries scattered over a territory larger
than the United States of North America, which allows about four
missionaries to each Brazilian State. Add to this number the wives
of the missionaries, the thirty-seven unmarried women and the 125
native workers and the entire missionary body, foreign and native,
barely totals 300. How utterly inadequate is such a force in the
presence of such vast needs! Because this situation has in it a
call so apparent and so inexpressibly urgent it is impossible to
portray it in words.

The ripeness of the State of Piauhy for evangelization will
illustrate the urgency of the opportunity all over Brazil. As far
back as 1893 Dr. Nogueira Paranagua, who was at that time National
Senator from his State, urged Dr. Z. C. Taylor to send a man into
Piauhy and promised to help pay the expenses. Two years later Col.
Benj. Nogueira, the brother of the Senator, gave a similar
invitation, making a promise that he would sustain a missionary.
It was not until 1901 that E. A. Jackson was able to reach Col.
Benjamin's home. He preached the gospel in this good man's house
and also in Corrente, the town near by. Persecution, bitter and
determined, arose. There were three attempts to take Jackson's
life in one day. Once Col. Benjamin stepped in between the
assassin and the missionary and thus saved the missionary's life.
Some months later, upon the return of the missionary, Col.
Benjamin, who had been for so many years a friend to the gospel,
gave himself to it and was baptized. In January, 1904, the new
house of worship at Corrente was dedicated. It was built by Col.
Benjamin at his own expense. He also built a school building and
library, and afterward when the missionary was able to secure a
teacher, this generous man paid all the charges.

When we reached Brazil last summer I received a message from Judge
Julio Nogueira Paranagua, a nephew of Col. Benjamin, who is one of
the Circuit Judges in the State of Piauhy and who after a short
while is to be retired upon his pension, according to the
Brazilian law. As soon as this takes place he expects to give
himself entirely to the work of evangelizing his own people. The
message ran: "The State of Piauhy is open to the gospel. There is
a fight on between the priests and the better classes. The better
educated people, disgusted with Romanism and priesthood, are
drifting into materialism and atheism, but if a competent man
could be situated at Therezina, the capital, the whole State could
easily be won to the gospel."

His uncle, who is President of our Brazilian Convention, as we
have already stated, whose family embraces in its immediate
connection over a thousand people, in a letter written me after I
left Rio, reinforces this appeal. He says:

"I come to call your attention to the State of Piauhy, the field
in Brazil at present which seems to me to be the best prepared for
evangelization. Many things have contributed to bring this about.
The Masons, on the one hand, have done the most they possibly
could against Romanism; on the other hand, the propaganda sincere
and fervent of a small church founded in the southern part of the
State, which happily is receiving the greatest blessing from
Almighty God, is greatly contributing to the reception of the
gospel throughout the State. My brother, Col. Benj. Nogueira, the
founder of that church, has passed away, but he has left sons who
are spiritual and who continue to work. With the work developed
there it will spread beneficently. In the adjoining townships
there exist many believers, and a church will be founded soon in
Paranagua, a town situated on the beautiful lake by the same name.
In the cities of Jerumenha and Floriano there are already small
churches, which united to the others in assiduous labors, will
powerfully contribute to the evangelization of the State, which is
one of the most promising of Northern Brazil. My friend, Senator
Gervazio de Britto Passo, strongly desires that a minister of the
gospel come to the section where he is most influential. This
Senator greatly sympathizes with our cause and is convinced that
his numerous and influential friends as soon as enlightened by a
pastor as to what the religion of the Baptists is, will unite with
them, becoming evangelical. The best moment to move in that State
is the present one, when so many causes concur for our evangelical
development. The population of Piauhy, which is over 500,000, will
increase considerably as well as its economic wealth.

"I hope that you will not leave this field without pastors, where
the gospel is being received as the greatest benefit to which the
people can aspire for their civilization."

It was my good fortune to meet the present Senator from the State
of Piauhy aboard the ship as he went up the coast, and he, while
not a Protestant, urged upon me the importance of our heeding the
call of this Nogueira family and personally assured me that he
would do his utmost to see that such a missionary would have the
widest opportunity to preach the gospel to the people. This must
be a Macedonian call, which we hope to soon be able to heed.



There was a time in the life of the Anglo-Saxon race When it
became necessary for at least a portion of it to go out into a new
country in order that it might achieve the larger destiny it was
to fulfill in the world. God was behind that exodus as truly as he
was behind the transplanting of Abraham into a new environment.
Here in our country, unfettered by despotic traditions and
precedents, the Anglo-Saxon achieved religious and political
liberty with a rapidity and thoroughness that could not have been
possible in the old Continent of Europe.

Likewise also did God separate the Latin race from continental
oppression that it might grow a better manhood in the freer
atmosphere of the Western World. It is true that the Latin
movement was not prompted by the same motive that impelled the
Anglo-Saxon. Instead of the love of liberty, he was led out by the
lure of gold. Nevertheless, we must believe the final result will
be the same or else disbelieve in the ultimate triumph of the
guidance of God. We should not despair of the success of this
providential movement.

In South America is to be witnessed the last stand of the Latin
race. There God has given him one last chance to achieve a
religious character which will honor his Lord. It is the duty of
his Northern brother to sympathize with him and to believe in his
ability to build up a character worthy of himself and God. If we
cannot bring ourselves to such a belief it is useless for us to
expect to be helpful, and it is unfaithful in us to expend money
upon a people when we are confident it will be wasted.

We must not forget that these people are the descendants of the
Caesars, of Seneca, Napoleon--the race that ruled the world for
fifteen centuries. They surely have not lost all of their
virility. It must be a case of wasted strength. We believe that
this race has in it the possibility of rejuvenation. Lavaleye, the
great Belgian political economist, very probably spoke the truth
when he said that the Latin race is equal to the Anglo-Saxon, the
only difference being the gospel which the Protestants preach and

We shall be helpful in our effort to give him the proper sympathy
if we remember the handicaps under which he has labored. He was
satisfied with his old fossilized religion, which had taught him
to believe that despotism is a virtue. He did not, therefore, come
to America for liberty. The early settlers were the veriest
adventurers of whom the gold lust made paragons of cruelty and
crime. They brought with them the intriguing priest who would
corrupt the Kingdom of Heaven in order to maintain his power.
There was no intentional break with their old life. The light that
guided them to America was the yellow light of gold and not the
white light of righteousness. The first result was that there
developed in the untrammeled West the most unreasoning despotism,
the most unblushing robbery and the most shamelessly corrupt
priestcraft. So this whole transplanted mass of the worst
intolerance, most insatiable greed and the most corrupt priesthood
that Europe has ever produced, had to be taught from the beginning
on the new soil, the elements of the higher manhood they so
desperately needed. They had learned no first lesson in Europe,
and therefore their first lesson in America was to unlearn the
very things that constituted their central life and thought in

What progress has this providential teaching of the Latins in the
New World made? So swiftly did they learn the lessons of liberty
that hardly had the conflict which won complete freedom for the
United States closed before the inevitable struggle for the same
priceless heritage was in full swing in all Latin-America. And be
it said to their everlasting credit that this sacred cause, in
spite of revolutions and reactions, which at times hazarded the
whole scheme, has made steady advance, all critics to the
contrary, nothwithstanding. Political liberty is potentially at
least achieved in South America. It is written in the
Constitutions of the Republics and in the purposes of the people.
While many battles will be fought to establish it in detail, yet
the principle is so well established that it will never be
uprooted, provided we give the moral and educational aid we should
render at this critical hour.

We have come upon a time when we must give to our South American
brothers unstinted support. They have attained political freedom,
but they have not yet gained religious freedom. Nothing can be
more anomolous than a State with political freedom fostering a
State religion that is desperately and unscrupulously intolerant.
No genuine Republic can support a State religion. The two will not
live together. One or the other must go, as the history of France
will abundantly substantiate. One result is inevitable--the people
will eventually repudiate the despotic religion and drift into
atheism and infidelity. Indeed, such a thing is happening in South
America today. The better educated classes are being set
hopelessly adrift religiously and the more ignorant, the common
people, are following idolatry. Neither have the gospel preached
to them. The Bible is withheld. Such a state of affairs is a loud
call to us.

If these people are left without a vital, character building
religion they will, because of their volatile natures, degenerate
into the grossest perversions of morality. In such an event the
Monroe Doctrine itself would become a menace. Unless we give these
people the gospel it will be far better to annul the Monroe
Doctrine and permit the stronger nations of Europe to enter for
the sake of good government and morality. We must either carry to
our Latin brothers the regenerating, uplifting, energizing gospel
of Jesus, or step out of the way and let England and Germany
interpose their strong arms to prevent one of the most colossal
catastrophies of all time in the moral collapse of the 70,000,000
Latin-Americans. Surely, this must be the time when we, if we ever
intend to do so, must reinforce our Latin brothers. They have done
well, they have made progress, but they have gone about as far as
they can in the struggle upon the moral resources at their
command. Their very progress in education and civilization is
widening the breach between them and their former religious
teachers. A new life must come in, even the power of the gospel.
This alone can save Latin-America from inglorious failure.

We should not deceive ourselves into believing this prevailing
religion has lost its power, even though it is losing its
religious hold upon the better classes. It still retains its
social influence over these same educated classes, who despise its
priests. This social power is a bulwark of strength that we shall
experience great difficulty in breaking. Then, too, we may be sure
these Latin lands will have reinforcement from the Spanish
priesthood, which fact assures a most astute clerical leadership.
The Spanish priest is today the most resourceful, alert and
capable priest on the earth. I believe he is to be the last strong
defender of the Roman Catholic organization. It is no accident
that Merry de Val, the Pope's prime minister, is a Spaniard. His
appointment to that office is a just recognition of the most
virile priesthood in the Roman realm. I was profoundly impressed
with the Spanish priest. He looks you in the eye. He is on the
street, "hail fellow well met" with the people. It is evident that
he is conscious of power and possesses the gift of leadership
which he is eager to use. Latin-America will feel the force of his
capable leadership.

The situation in Brazil is complicated furthermore by the turn
affairs have taken in Portugal. There were riots in Rio and public
demonstrations against the local priests and against the exiled
Portuguese priests that would probably enter Brazil after the
establishment of the Portuguese Republic. But it appears that
these Portuguese clerics are to be admitted. This increases the
gravity of the situation. We shall be forced to take account of
these men. They are a part of the religious problem of South
America. Whether we wish to antagonize them or not, we shall be
cognizant of their power. They will not let us alone. They will
not give up South America to Protestantism without a bitter

Now I do not say all of these things of the Catholic phase of the
religious problem in Latin-America for the purpose of recommending
that we should gird ourselves for a polemical mission to these
countries. We should look the situation squarely in the face that
we may be able to estimate properly every force with which we
shall have to do. I think that if the sole purpose in conducting
these missions is to fight the Catholics, then we can find work to
engage us more worthily. Let us evermore keep before us the fact
that the Latin races have a real need of the gospel and the gospel
is not being preached to them by the priests. If this is true, our
duty is clear and our call is imperative. We must go and preach a
positive, soul-saving gospel, avoiding conflict as far as possible
and by satisfying the heart-hunger of the people with the Bread of
Life, win them to Christ and a new life in Him.

I want to enter a plea for these, our brothers to the South of us.
God has separated them from their old soul-dwarfing environment in
Europe, and set them in this Western World that they might learn
of Him. Whether they realize it or not, they are making the last
fight for salvation and character their race is ever to engage in.
They have a need of the gospel as distressing as that of the
grossest heathen. Their religion itself is leading them further
and further from their saving Lord. Their teachers, who should
show them the light of life, are a beclouding hindrance. The
little band of missionaries we have sent are hopelessly inadequate
to the task and plead for reinforcements with a pathos that almost
breaks our hearts. Oh, do not some of us, as we have followed the
portrayal of the needs of South America, like Isaiah of old, hear
the Lord saying, "Whom shall I send and who will go for us?" God
grant that some of us may respond as he did, "Lord, here am I.
Send me."

The same deep longing for salvation that is in our hearts is in
the Latin heart. One day in the interior of Brazil I stood with a
missionary speaking with a man who had ridden to the railroad
station to talk with us a few moments while the train was
stopping. As we conversed a boy twelve years of age drew near to
hear us. He was pitifully disfigured with leprosy. So moved was
the missionary by the sight that he turned and said: "Why do you
not go somewhere and be treated." There flashed instantly in the
boy's eye a hope that had long since died, and he quickly
inquired, "Where can I go?" The missionary could not tell him, and
I watched the last ray of hope flicker for a second and then die
out forever! Ever since that day I have been hearing that pathetic
question, "Where can I go?" I seem to hear all Latin-Americans ask
it out of depths of sin. And we know to whom they must go for
healing and salvation. Shall we tell them? "Lord to whom shall we
go--thou hast the words of eternal life." To whom shall Latin-
America go? Only Christ has for them the word of life which
blessed truth they will never know unless we carry it to them.




1. Foreign, 44.
(1) Men, 21.
(2) Women, 23.

2. Native, 117.

1. Churches, 142.
2. Membership, 9,939.
3. Church Buildings, 44.
4. Outstations, 497.
5. Sunday Schools, 138.
6. Sunday School Scholars, 4,438.

1. Primary Schools, 9.
2. Bagby School for Girls in Sao Paulo.
3. Fluminense School for Boys in Nova Friburgo.
4. School for Boys and Girls in Bahia.
5. School for Boys and Girls in Pernambuco.
6. Rio Baptist College and Seminary in Rio.
7. Total number of students, 869.
8. Theological Departments in connection
with Rio and Penrambuco schools.

1. Work begun in 1882.
2. Publishing House in Rio.

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