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Bergson and His Philosophy by J. Alexander Gunn

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dualism. His God is not exempt from Change, He is not to be conceived as
existing apart from and independent of the world. Indeed, for him, God
would seem to be merely a focus imaginarius of Life and Spirit, a
"hypostatization" of la duree. He cannot be regarded as the loving
Father of the human race whom He has begotten or created in order that
intelligent beings "may glorify Him and enjoy Him for ever." Bergson
does not offer us a God, personal, loving, and redemptive, as the
Christian religious consciousness demands or imagines. He does not, and
can not, affirm Christian Theism, for he considers that the facts do not
warrant the positing of a self-conscious and personal Individual in the
only sense in which we, from our experience, can understand these words.
God is pure, creative activity, a flowing rather than a fountain head; a
continuity of emanation, not a centre from which things emanate. For
Bergson, God is anthropomorphic--as He must necessarily be for us all--
but Bergson's is anthropomorphism of a subtle kind. His God is the duree
of our own conscious life, raised to a higher power. Dieu se fait in the
evolutionary process. He is absolutely unfinished, not complete or
perfect. He is incessant life, action, freedom, and creativeness, and in
so far as we ourselves manifest these (seen, above all, in the creative
joy of the inventor, poet, artist, and mother) each of us has the
"divine" at work within. For Bergson, God is a Being immanent in the
universe, but He is ignorant of the direction in which Evolution is
progressing. This is not the God of the ordinary religious
consciousness, nor is it a conception of God which satisfies the limited
notion which our own imagination both creates and craves to find real.
God, it would seem, must be greater than His works, and He must know
what He is doing. It has been objected that a force, even if a divine
force (one can hardly call it "God" in the ordinary meaning of that
vague word) which urges on Matter without knowing in what direction or
to what end, is no God at all, for it is merely personified chance. This
is due to what Hegel calls "the error of viewing God as free."
[Footnote: Logic, Wallace's translation, first edition, p. 213.]

In reply to certain criticisms of his book L'Evolution creatrice made by
Father de Tonquedec, Bergson wrote in 1912: "I speak of God as the
source whence issue successively, by an effort of his freedom, the
currents or impulses each of which will make a world; he therefore
remains distinct from them, and it is not of him that we can say that
'most often it turns aside' or is 'at the mercy of the materiality that
it has been bound to adopt.' Finally, the reasoning whereby I establish
the impossibility of 'nothing' is in no way directed against the
existence of a transcendent cause of the world; I have, on the contrary,
explained that this reasoning has in view the Spinozist conception of
Being. It issues in what is merely a demonstration that 'something' has
always existed. As to the nature of this 'something' it is true that
nothing in the way of a positive conclusion is conveyed. But neither is
it stated in any fashion that what has always existed is the world
itself, and the rest of the book explicitly affirms the contrary."
[Footnote: Tonquedec: Dieu dans l'Evolution creatrice (Beauchesne), and
Annales de philosophie chretienne, 1912.] "Now the considerations set
forth in my Essai sur les donnees immediates result in bringing to light
the fact of freedom, those of Matiere et Memoire point directly, I hope,
to the reality of Spirit, those of L'Evolution creatrice exhibit
creation as a fact. From all this emerges clearly the idea of a God,
creator and free, the generator of both Matter and Life, whose work of
creation is continued on the side of Life by the evolution of species
and the building up of human personalities. From all this emerges a
refutation of monism and of pantheism." [Footnote: Tonquedec: Dieu dans
l'Evolution creatrice (Beauchesne), and also Etudes des Peres de Jesus,
Vol. CXXX, 1912.] To this it was replied that, for Catholic theology,
God is not merely the source from which the river springs, God does not
develop Himself to a world but He causes it to appear by a kind of
creation quite different from that of Bergson. Bergson's God is not the
God of pantheism, because, for him, the Deity is immanent in nature, not
identifiable with it. A true account of the Absolute would, for him,
take the form of history. Human history has a vital meaning for him. God
is not omnipotent; He is a fighter who takes sides. He is not a "potter-
God" with a clay world. The world involves a limiting of God, and
theology has always found this its most difficult problem, for the evils
or defects against which the Creator is waging war are evils and defects
in a world of His own creating. Speaking in 1914, at the Edinburgh
Philosophical Society, Bergson remarked that God might be looked upon as
"a Creator of creators." Such a view, more explicitly worked out, might
bring him into line with the religious attempt to reconcile the divine
action with our own work and freedom. Our wills are ours, but in some
mystic way religion believes they may become His also, and that we may
be "fellow-labourers together with God." The religious view of the
perfection of the Divine, its omniscience and omnipotence, has always
been hard to reconcile with free will. Christian theology, when based on
the perfection of the Divine nature, has always tended to be
determinist. Indeed, free will has been advocated rather as an
explanation of the presence of evil (our waywardness as in opposition to
the will of God) than as the privilege and necessary endowment of a
spiritual being, and so the really orthodox religious mind has been
forced to seek salvation in self-surrender and has found consolation in
reliance on the "grace" or "active good will" of God. Thus many
theologians in an attempt to reconcile this with human freedom speak
mystically, nevertheless confidently, of "the interaction of Grace and
Free-Will."

The acceptance of Creative Evolution involves the acceptance of a God
who expresses Himself in creative action called forth by changing
situations. It cannot regard Evolution as merely the unrolling in time
of the eternally complete, as in the view of monistic idealism. We find
in Bergson, however, two hints which suggest that some vague idealistic
conception has been present to his mind. For instance, in speaking of
Time in relation to God, we find him suggesting that "the whole of
history might be contained in a very short time for a consciousness at a
higher degree of tension than our own, which should watch the
development of humanity while contracting it, so to speak, into the
great phases of its evolution." [Footnote: Matter and Memory, p. 275
(Fr. p. 231).] This remark seems an echo of the words of the old Hebrew
poet:

"For a thousand years in Thy sight
Are but as yesterday when it is past,
And as a watch in the night."

Again, in L'Evolution creatrice we find him suggesting that in maternity
and love may lie the secret of the universe.

The important point however, in considering Bergson in relation to
Religion and Theology, is his marked objection to teleology. It is this
which has led many to style his philosophy pessimistic. Religion does
not live readily in a pessimistic atmosphere. Then religion regards Life
and the Universe as valuable, not because they yield to some single
impulsion, but because, at every step, they manifest a meaning and
significance interpreted by our conceptions of value. Bergson's view
only favours religion as ordinarily comprehended, in so far as it breaks
away from a materialistic mechanism, and asserts freedom and gives
Spirit some superiority over Matter. At first sight, the term "creative"
seemed very promising, but can we stop where Bergson has left us? Why
should he banish teleology? His super-consciousness is so indeterminate
that it is not allowed to hamper itself with any purpose more definite
than that of self-augmentation. The course and goal of Evolution are to
it unknown and unknowable. Creation, freedom, and will are great things,
as Mr. Balfour remarks, but we cannot lastingly admire them unless we
know their drift. It is too haphazard a universe which Bergson displays.
Joy does not seem to fit in with what is so aimless. It would be better
to invoke God with a purpose than a supra-consciousness with none.
[Footnote: Creative Evolution and Philosophic Doubt, Hibbert Journal,
Oct., 1911, pp. 1-23.]

In response to an international inquiry, conducted by Frederic Charpin,
for the Mercure de France, formulated in the question, Assistons-nous a
une dissolution ou a une evolution de l'idee religieuse et du sentiment
religieux? Bergson wrote: "I feel quite unable to foretell what the
external manifestation of the religious sense may be in time to come. I
can only say that it does not seem to me likely to be disintegrated.
Only that which is made up of parts can be disintegrated. Now, I am
willing to admit that the religious sense has been gradually enriched
and complicated by very diverse elements; none the less it is in essence
a simple thing, sui generis; and resembles no other emotion of the soul.
It may, perhaps be urged that a simple element, although it cannot be
decomposed, may yet disappear, and that the religious sense will
inevitably vanish when it has no object to which it can attach itself.
But this would be to forget that the object of the religious sense is,
in part at least, prior to that sense itself; that this object is felt
even more than it is thought and that the idea is, in this case, the
effect of the feeling quite as much as its cause. The progressive
deepening of the idea may therefore make the religious sense clearer and
ever clearer; it cannot modify that which is essential in it, still less
effect its disappearance." [Footnote: Charpin: La Question religieuse,
1908, Paris.]

We find Bergson reported as believing that the individual cannot be
guided solely by considerations of a purely moral character. Morality,
even social ethics, is not enough in view of the longing for religious
experience, the yearning for at least a feeling of definite relationship
between the individual human personality and the great spiritual source
of life. This is a feeling which he believes will grow. [Footnote: New
York Times, Feb. 22, 1914.]

Bergson's philosophy has aroused a new interest in many theological
questions. The dogmas of theology, philosophy holds itself free to
criticize; they are for it problems. The teleological arguments of the
older theologians have had to be left behind. "We are fearfully and
wonderfully made," no doubt, but not perfectly, and the arguments in
favour of an intelligent contriver (cf. The Bridgewater Treatises) which
showed the greatest plausibility, were made meaningless by Darwin's
work. Further, Evoluton knows no break. We cannot believe in the
doctrines of the "fall" or in "original sin," for Evolution means a
progress from lower to higher forms. Thus we see that many of the older
forms of theological statement call for revision. Bergson has done much
to stimulate a keener and fresher theological spirit which will express
God in a less static and less isolated form, so that we shall not have
the question asked, either by children or older folks, "What does God
do?"

It should be noted before closing this section that the religious
consciousness is tempted to take Bergson's views on Soul and Body to
imply more than they really do. The belief in Immortality which Western
religion upholds is not a mere swooning into the being of God, but a
perfect realization of our own personalities. It is only this that is an
immortality worthy of the name. To regard souls as Bergson does, as
merely "rivulets" into which the great stream of Life has divided, does
not do sufficient justice to human individuality. A "Nirvana," after
death, is not immortality in the sense of personal survival and in the
sense demanded by the religious consciousness.

The influence of Bergson's thought upon religion and theology may be put
finally as follows: We must reject the notion of a God for whom all is
already made, to whom all is given, and uphold the conception of a God
who acts freely in an open universe. The acceptance of Bergson's
philosophy involves the recognition of a God who is the enduring
creative impulse of all Life, more akin perhaps to a Mother-Deity than a
Father-Deity. This divine vital impetus manifests itself in continual
new creation. We are each part of this great Divine Life, and are both
the products and the instruments of its activity. We may thus come to
view the Divine Life as self-given to humanity, emptying itself into
mankind as a veritable incarnation, not, however, restricted to one time
and place, but manifest throughout the whole progress of humanity. Our
conception will be that of a Deity, not external and far-off, but one
whose own future is bound up in humanity, rejoicing in its joy, but
suffering, by a kind of perpetual crucifixion, through man's errors and
his failures to be loyal to the higher things of the spirit. Thus we
shall see that, in a sense, men's noble actions promote God's fuller
being. A Norwegian novelist has recently emphasized this point by his
story of the man who went out and sowed corn in his late enemy's field
THAT GOD MIGHT EXIST! [Footnote: The Great Hunger, by Johan Bojer.] But
it is important to remember that in so far as we allow ourselves to
become victims of habit, living only a materialistic and static type of
existence, we retard the divine operations. On the other hand, in so far
as our spirit finds joy in creative activity and in the furtherance of
spiritual values, to this extent we may be regarded as fellow-labourers
together with God. We cannot, by intellectual searching find out God,
yet we may realize and express quite consistently with Bergson's
philosophy the truth that "in Him we live, and move, and have our
being."

CHAPTER XII

REFLECTIONS

Bergson not systematic--His style--Difficult to classify--Empirical and
spiritual--Value of his ideas on Change, the nature of Mind, of Freedom-
-Difficulties in his evolutionary theory--Ethical lack--Need for
supplement-Emphasis on Will, Creativeness, Human Progress and
Possibilities.

In concluding this study of Bergson's philosophy, it remains to sum up
and to review its general merits and deficiencies. We must remember, in
fairness to Bergson, that he does not profess to offer us A SYSTEM of
philosophy. In fact, if he were to do so, he would involve himself in a
grave inconsistency, for his thought is not of the systematic type. He
is opposed to the work of those individual thinkers who have offered
"systems" to the world, rounded and professedly complete constructions,
labelled, one might almost say, "the last word in Philosophy." Bergson
does not claim that his thought is final. His ideal, of which he speaks
in his lectures on La Perception du Changement--that excellent summary
of his thought--is a progressive philosophy to which each thinker shall
contribute. If we feel disappointed that Bergson has not gone further or
done more by attempting a solution of some of the fundamental problems
of our human experience, upon which he has not touched, then we must
recollect his own view of the philosophy he is seeking to expound. All
thinking minds must contribute their quota. A philosophy such as he
wishes to promote by establishing a method by his own works will not be
made in a day. "Unlike the philosophical systems properly so called,
each of which was the individual work of a man of genius, and sprang up
as a whole to be taken or left, it will only be built up by the
collective and progressive effort of many thinkers, of many observers
also, completing, correcting, and improving one another." [Footnote:
Introduction to Creative Evolution, p. xiv. (Fr. p. vii).] Both science
and the older kind of metaphysics have kept aloof from the vital
problems of our lives. In one of his curious but brilliant metaphors
Bergson likens Life to a river over which the scientists have
constructed an elaborate bridge, while the laborious metaphysicians have
toiled to build a tunnel underneath. Neither group of workers has
attempted to plunge into the flowing tide itself. In the most brilliant
of his short papers: L'Intuition philosophique, he makes an energetic
appeal that philosophy should approach more closely to practical life.
His thought aims at setting forth, not any system of knowledge, but
rather a method of philosophizing; in a phrase, this method amounts to
the assertion that Life is more than Logic, or, as Byron put it, "The
tree of Knowledge is not the tree of Life."

It is because Bergson has much to say that is novel and opposed to older
conceptions that a certain lack of proportion occasionally mars his
thought; for he--naturally enough--frequently lays little emphasis on
important points which he considers are sufficiently familiar, in order
to give prominent place and emphasis to some more novel point. Herein
lies, it would now appear, the explanation of the seeming disharmony
between Intuition and Intellect which was gravely distressing to many in
his earlier writing on the subject. Later works, however, make a point
of restoring this harmony, but, as William James has remarked: "We are
so subject to the philosophical tradition which treats logos, or
discursive thought generally, as the sole avenue to truth, that to fall
back on raw, unverbalized life, as more of a revealer, and to think of
concepts as the merely practical things which Bergson calls them, comes
very hard. It is putting off our proud maturity of mind and becoming
again as foolish little children in the eyes of reason. But, difficult
as such a revolution is, there is no other way, I believe, to the
possession of reality." [Footnote: Lecture on Bergson and his anti-
intellectualism, in A Pluralistic Universe. It may be remarked here
that, although James hailed Bergson as an ally, Bergson cannot be
classed as a pragmatist. His great assertion is that just because
intellect is pragmatic it does not help us to get a vision of reality.
Cf. the interesting work on William James and Henri Bergson, by W. H.
Kallen.]

Bergson's style of writing merits high praise. He is no "dry"
philosopher; he is highly imaginative and picturesque; many of his
passages might be styled, like those of Macaulay, "purple," for at times
he rises to a high pitch of feeling and oratory. Yet this has been urged
against him by some critics. The ironic remark has been repeated, in
regard to Bergson, which was originally made of William James, by Dr.
Schiller, that his work was "so lacking in the familiar philosophic
catch-words, that it may be doubted whether any professor has quite
understood it." There is in his works a beauty of style and a
comparative absence of technical terms which have contributed much to
his popularity. The criticism directed against his poetic style, accuses
him of hypnotizing us by his fine language, of employing metaphors where
we expect facts, and of substituting illustrations for proof. Sir Ray
Lankester says: "He has exceeded the limits of fantastic speculation
which it is customary to tolerate on the stage of metaphysics, and has
carried his methods into the arena of sober science." [Footnote: In the
preface to Elliot's volume, Modern Science and the Illusions of Bergson,
p. xvii.] Another critic remarks that "as far as Creative Evolution is
concerned, his writing is neither philosophy nor science." [Footnote:
McCabe: Principles of Evolution, p. 254.] Certainly his language is
charming; it called forth from William James the remark that it
resembled fine silk underwear, clinging to the shape of the body, so
well did it fit his thought. But it does not seem a fair criticism to
allege that he substitutes metaphor for proof, for we find, on
examination of his numerous and striking metaphors, that they are
employed in order to give relief from continuous abstract statements. He
does not submit analogies as proof, but in illustration of his points.
For example, when he likens the elan vital to a stream, he does not
suggest that because the stream manifests certain characteristics,
therefore the life force does so too. Certainly that would be a highly
illegitimate proceeding. But he simply puts forward this to help us to
grasp by our imaginative faculty what he is striving to make clear. Some
critics are apt to forget the tense striving which must be involved in
any highly philosophical mind dealing with deep problems, to achieve
expression, to obtain a suitable vehicle for the thought--what wrestling
of soul may be involved in attempting to make intuitions communicable.
Metaphor is undoubtedly a help and those of Bergson are always striking
and unconventional. Had Kant, in his Critique of Pure Reason, given more
illustrations, many of his readers would have been more enlightened.

Bergson's thought, although in many respects it is strikingly original
and novel, is, nevertheless, the continuation, if not the culmination,
of a movement in French philosophy which we can trace back through
Boutroux, Guyau, Lachelier and Ravaisson to Maine de Biran, who died in
1824. Qui sait, wrote this last thinker, [Footnote: In his Pensees, p.
213.] tout ce que peut la reflection concentree et s'il n'y a pas un
nouveau monde interieur qui pourra etre decouvert un jour par quelque
Colomb metaphysicien.

Many of the ideas contained in Bergson's work find parallels in the
philosophy of Schopenhauer, as given in his work The World as Will and
Idea (Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung), particularly his Voluntarism
and his Intuitionism. The German thinker regarded all great scientific
discoveries as an immediate intuition, a flash of insight, not simply
the result of a process of abstract reasoning. Schelling also maintained
a doctrine of intuition as supra-rational.

Ravaisson, [Footnote: Ravaisson (1813-1900) wrote De l'habitude, 1832;
La metaphysique d'Aristote, 1837; and his Rapport sur la philosophie en
France au xix siecle, 1867. See Bergson's Memoir, 1904.] to whom Bergson
is indebted for much inspiration, attended the lectures of Schelling at
Munich in 1835. This French thinker, Ravaisson, has had an important
influence on the general development of thought in France during the
latter half of the last century, and much of his work foreshadows
Bergson's thought. He upheld a spiritual activity, manifesting itself
most clearly in love and art, while he allowed to matter, to mathematics
and logic only an imperfect reality. He extolled synthetic views of
reality rather than analytic ones. We are prevented, he said, from
realizing our true selves because of our slavery to habit. To the
ultimate reality, or God, we can attain because of our kinship with that
reality, and by an effort of loving sympathy enter into union with it by
an intuition which lies beyond and above the power of intellectual
searching. As Maine de Biran foretold the coming of a metaphysical
Columbus, so Ravaisson, in his famous Rapport sur la philosophic en
France au xix siecle, published in 1867, prophesied as follows: "Many
signs permit us to foresee in the near future a philosophical epoch of
which the general character will be the predominance of what may be
called spiritualistic realism or positivism, having as generating
principle the consciousness which the mind has of itself of an existence
recognized as being the source and support of every other existence,
being none other than its action."

Lachelier, a disciple of Ravaisson, brought out--as has been already
remarked [Footnote: Page 3.]--the significance of the operations of
vital forces and of liberty. Guyau, whose brief life ended in 1888 and
whose posthumous work La Genese de I'Idee de Temps was reviewed by
Bergson two years after the publication of his own Time and Free Will,
laid great stress on the intensification and expansion of life.
Boutroux, in his work, has insisted upon the fact of contingency.

These forecasts of Bergson's thought made by men to whom he owes much
and for whom he personally has the greatest admiration are interesting,
but we are not yet able to look upon his work through the medium of
historical perspective. We can however see it as the culmination of
various tendencies in modern French philosophy; first, the effort to
bring philosophy into the open air of human nature, into immediate
contact with life and with problems vital to humanity; secondly, the
upholding of contingency in all things, thus ensuring human freedom;
thirdly, a disparagement of purely intellectual constructions as true
interpretations of human life and all existence, coupled with an
insistence on an insight that transcends logical formulation.

As a thinker, Bergson is very difficult to classify. "All classification
of philosophies is effected, as a rule, either by their methods or by
their results, 'empirical' and 'a priori' is a classification by
methods; 'realist' and 'idealist' is a classification by results. An
attempt to classify Bergson's philosophy, in either of these ways, is
hardly likely to be successful, since it cuts across all the recognized
divisions." [Footnote: Mr. Bertrand Russell's remark at the opening of
his Lecture on The Philosophy of Bergson, before The Heretics, Trinity
College, Cambridge, March 11, 1912.] We find that Bergson cannot be put
in any of the old classes or schools, or identified with any of the
innumerable isms. He brings together, without being eclectic, action and
reflection, free will and determinism, motion and rest, intellect and
intuition, subjectivity and externality, idealism and realism, in a most
unconventional way. His whole philosophy is destructive of a large
amount of the "vested interests" of philosophy. "We are watching the
rise of a new agnosticism," remarked Dr. Bosanquet. A similar remark
came from one of Bergson's own countrymen, Alfred Fouillee, who, in his
work Le Mouvement idealist et la reaction contre la science positive,
expressed the opinion that Bergson's philosophy could but issue in le
scepticisme et le nihilisme (p. 206). Bergson runs counter to so many
established views that his thought has raised very wide and animated
discussions. The list of English and American articles in the
Bibliography appended to the present work shows this at a glance. In his
preface to the volume on Gabriel Tarde, his predecessor in the chair of
Modern Philosophy at the College de France, written in 1909, we find
Bergson remarking: On mesure la portee d'une doctrine philosophique a la
variete des idees ou elle s'epanouit et a la symplicite du principe ou
elle se ramasse. This remark may serve us as a criterion in surveying
his own work. The preceding exposition of his thought is a sufficient
indication of the wealth of ideas expressed. Bergson is most suggestive.
Moreover, no philosopher has been so steeped in the knowledge of both
Mind and Matter, no thinker has been at once so "empirical" and so
"spiritual." His thought ranges from subtle psychological analyses and
minute biological facts to the work of artists and poets, all-embracing
in its attempt to portray Life and make manifest to us the reality of
Time and of Change. His insistence on Change is directed to showing that
it is the supreme reality, and on Time to demonstrating that it is the
stuff of which things are made. He is right in attacking the false
conception of Time, and putting before us la duree as more real; right,
too, in attacking the notion of empty eternity. But although Change and
Development may be the fundamental feature of reality, Bergson does not
convincingly show that it is literally THE Reality, nor do we think that
this can be shown. He does not admit that there is any THING that
changes or endures; he is the modern Heraclitus; all teaching which
savours of the Parmenidean "one" he opposes. Yet it would seem that
these two old conceptions may be capable of a reconciliation and that if
all reality is change, there is a complementary principle that Change
implies something permanent.

Then, again, we feel Bergson is right in exposing the errors which the
"idea of the line," the trespassing of space, causes; but he comes very
near to denying, in his statements regarding duree pure, any knowledge
of the past as past; he overlooks the decisive difference between the
"no more" and the "not yet" feeling of the child's consciousness, which
is the germ of our clear knowledge of the past as past, and distinct
from the future.

To take another of his "pure" distinctions, we cannot see any necessity
for his formulation of what he terms "Pure Perception." Not only does it
obscure the relation of Sensation to Perception, but it seems to be
quite unknown and unknowable and unnecessary as an hypothesis. As to his
"Pure" Memory, there is more to be said. It stands on a different plane
and seems to be the statement of a very profound truth which sheds light
on many difficult problems attaching to personality and consciousness,
for it is the conservation of memories which is the central point in
individuality. His distinction between the habit of repeating and the
"pure" memory is a very good and very necessary one. In his study of the
relation of Soul and Body, we find some of his most meritorious work--
his insistence on the uniqueness of Mind and the futility of attempts to
reduce it to material terms. His treatment of this question is parallel
to that of William James in the first part of his Ingersoll Lecture at
Harvard in 1898, when he called attention to "permissive" or
"transmissive" function of the brain. Bergson's criticisms of
Parallelism are very valuable.

No less so are his refutations of both physical and psychological
Determinism. Men were growing impatient of a science claiming so much
and yet admittedly unable to explain the really vital factors of
existence, of which the free action of men is one of the most important.
The value placed on human freedom, on the creative power of human beings
to mould the future, links Bergson again with James, and it is this
humanism which is the supremely valuable factor in the philosophies of
both thinkers. This has been pointed out in the consideration of the
ethical and political implications of Bergson's Philosophy.
Nevertheless, although his insistence on Freedom and Creative Evolution
implies that we are to realize that by our choices and our free acts we
may make or mar the issue, and that through us and by us that issue may
be turned to good, the good of ourselves and of our fellows, there is an
ethical lack in Bergson's philosophy which is disappointing. Then, as
has been remarked in the chapter on Religion, there is the lack of
teleology in his conception of the Universe; his denial of ANY purpose
hardly seems to be in harmony with his use of the phrase "the meaning of
life."

Much in Bergson would point to the need for the addition of a philosophy
of Values. This, however, he does not give us. He shirks the deeper
problems of the moral and spiritual life of man. He undervalues, indeed
ignores, the influence of transcendent ideas or ideals on the life-
history of mankind. The study of these might have led him to admit a
teleology of some kind; for "in the thinking consciousness the order of
growth is largely determined by choice; and choice is guided by
valuation. We are, in general, only partially aware of the ends that we
pursue. But we are more and more seeking to attain what is good, true
and beautiful, and the order of human life becomes more and more guided
by the consciousness of these ends." [Footnote: Professor Mackenzie:
Elements of Constructive Philosophy, p. 111.] Bergson, however, will not
ultimately be able to evade the work of attempting some reconciliation
of moral ideas and ideals with their crude and animal origins and
environment, to which they are so opposed and to which they are actually
offering a very strong opposition. That he himself has seen this is
proved by the attention he is now giving to the problems of social
Ethics.

There are four problems which confront every evolutionary theory. These
concern the origin of: Matter, Life, Consciousness, and Conscience.
Bergson finds it very difficult to account for the origin of Matter, and
it is not clear from what he says why the original consciousness should
have made Matter and then be obliged to fight against it in order to be
free. Then, in speaking of the law of Thermodynamics, he says: "Any
material system which should store energy by arresting its degradation
to some lower level, and produce effects by its sudden liberation, would
exhibit something in the nature of Life." This, however, is not very
precise, for this would hold true of thunder-clouds and of many
machines. In regard to Instinct, it has been pointed out by several
experts that Instinct is not so infallible as Bergson makes out. Of the
mistakes of Instinct he says little. Dr. McDougall in his great work
Body and Mind says, when speaking of Bergson's doctrine of Evolution:
"Its recognition of the continuity of all Life is the great merit of
Professor Bergson's theory of Creative Evolution; its failure to give
any intelligible account of individuality is its greatest defect. I
venture to think," he continues, "that the most urgent problem
confronting the philosophic biologist is the construction of a theory of
life which will harmonize the facts of individuality with the appearance
of the continuity of all life, with the theory of progressive evolution,
and with the facts of heredity and biparental reproduction." [Footnote:
McDougall, Body and Mind, Footnote to p. 377.]

In the light of such criticism it is important to note that Bergson is
now giving attention to the problem of personality which he made the
subject of his Gifford Lectures. It is a highly important problem for
humanity, and concentration on it seems the demand of the times upon
those who feel the urgent need of reflection and who have the ability to
philosophize. Can philosophy offer any adequate explanation of human
personality, its place and purpose in the cosmos? Why should individual
systems of energy, little worlds within the world, appear inside the
unity of the whole, depending on their environment, physical and mental,
for much, but yet capable of freedom and unforeseen actions, and of
creative and progressive development? Further, why should ideals
concentrate themselves as it were round such unique centres of
indeterminateness as these are? On these problems of our origin and
destiny, in short, on an investigation of human personality, thinkers
must concentrate. Humanity will not be satisfied with systems which
leave no room for the human soul. Human personality and its experience
must have ample place and recognition in any philosophy put forward in
these days.

Bergson's work is a magnificent attempt to show us how, in the words of
George Meredith: "Men have come out of brutishness." His theory of
evolution is separated from Naturalism by his insistence on human
freedom and on the supra-consciousness which is the origin of things; on
the other hand, he is separated from the Idealists by his insistence
upon the reality of la duree. He contrasts profoundly with Absolute
Idealism. While in Hegel, Mind is the only truth of Nature, in Bergson,
Life is the only truth of Matter, or we may express it--whereas for
Hegel the truth of Reality is its ideality, for Bergson the truth of
Reality is its vitality.

The need for philosophical thought, as Bergson himself points out,
[Footnote: See the closing remarks in his little work on French
philosophy, La Philosophie.] is world-wide. Philosophy aims at bringing
all discussion, even that of business affairs, on to the plane of ideas
and principles. By looking at things from a truly "general" standpoint
we are frequently helped to approach them in a really "generous" frame
of mind, for there is an intimate connexion between the large mind and
the large heart.

Bergson has rendered valuable service in calling attention to the need
for man to examine carefully his own inner nature, and the deepest worth
and significance of his own experiences. For the practical purposes of
life, man is obliged to deal with objects in space, and to learn their
relations to one another. But this does not exhaust the possibilities of
his nature. He has himself the reality of his own self-consciousness,
his own spiritual existence to consider. Consequently, he can never rest
satisfied with any purely naturalistic interpretation of himself. The
step of realizing the importance of mental constructions to interpret
the impressions of the external world, and the applying them to
practical needs, was a great advance. Much greater progress, however, is
there in man's realization of qualities within himself which transcend
the ordinary dead level of experience, the recognition of the spiritual
value of his own nature, of himself as a personality, capable even amid
the fluctuations of the world about him, and the illusions of sense
impressions, of obtaining a foretaste of eternity by a life that has the
infinite and the eternal as its inheritance; "He hath set eternity in
the heart of man." Man craves other values in life than the purely
scientific. "There are more things in heaven and earth than are dreamt
of" in the philosophies of the materialist or the naturalist. Bergson
assures us that the future belongs to a philosophy which will take into
account THE WHOLE of what is given. Transcending Body and Intellect is
the life of the Spirit, with needs beyond either bodily satisfaction or
intellectual needs craving its development, satisfaction and fuller
realization. The man who seeks merely bodily satisfaction lives the life
of the animal; even the man who poses as an intellectual finds himself
entangled ultimately in relativity, missing the uniqueness of all
things--his own life included. An intuitive philosophy introduces us to
the spiritual life and makes us conscious, individually and
collectively, of our capacities for development. Humanity may say: "It
doth not yet appear what we shall be," for man has yet "something to
cast off and something to become."

APPENDIX

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Note on Bibliographies.

PART ONE.

Bergson's own writings chronologically arranged.

PART TWO.

Section 1. Books directly on Bergson:
(a) French.
(b) English and American.
(c) Others.

Section 2. Books indirectly on Bergson:
(a) French.
(b) English and American.

Section 3. Articles: English and American.
(a) Signed, under author.
(b) Unsigned, under date.

Section 4. English Translations of Bergson.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A NOTE ON BIBLIOGRAPHIES

The books and articles which have appeared,
dealing with Bergson's thought, are truly
legion. Three bibliographies have already
been compiled, one in each of the countries: England,
America and Germany, which are of value and merit
attention.

In 1910, Mr. F. L. Pogson, M.A., prefixed to Time
and Free Will (the English translation of the Essai sur
les donnees immediates de la conscience) a comprehensive
bibliography, giving a list of Bergson's own
published works, and numerous articles contributed
to various periodicals, and in addition, lists of articles
in English, American, French, German and other
foreign reviews upon Bergson's philosophy. This
bibliography was partly reprinted in France two years
later as an appendix to the little work on Bergson by
M. Joseph Desaymard, La Pensee de Henri Bergson
(Paris, Mercure de France, pp. 82, 1912).

Then in 1913, when Bergson paid his visit to America,
Mr. W. Dawson Johnston, the Librarian of the
Columbia University, New York, presented him with
a copy of a little work of fifty-six pages entitled A
Contribution to a Bibliography of Henri Bergson. This
exhaustive work was prepared under the direction of
Miss Isadore G. Mudge, the Reference Librarian, and
includes all books published and all periodical literature
of value by or on Bergson, complete up to 1913.
"The bibliography includes" (to quote the Preface)
"90 books and articles by Professor Bergson (including
translations of his works), and 417 books and articles
about him. These 417 items represent 11 different
languages divided as follows: French, 170; English,
159; German, 40; Italian, 19; Polish, 5; Dutch, 3;
Spanish, 3; Roumanian, 2; Swedish, 2; Russian, 2;
Hungarian, 1." For this work Professor John Dewey
wrote an introduction. It was published by the
Columbia University Press in 1913, and is the best
evidence of the world-wide popularity of Bergson and
the international interest aroused by his writings.

A more recent compilation, however, which contains
later books and articles, is a German one,
which appeared during the war. It is the work of
Walter Meckauer and forms a valuable part of his book
Der Intuitionismus und seine Elemente bei Henri Bergson,
published in Leipsig in 1917 (Verlag Felix Meiner).

The bibliography which follows gives more up-to-
date lists of works than those mentioned, bringing the
list of Bergson's writings up to 1919, and it includes
books and articles on Bergson which have appeared
in the current year (1920). All the important books in
French, English, or German on Bergson are given.
As the present work is designed mainly to meet the
needs of English readers, lists of foreign articles are
not given, but in order to show the wide interest
aroused by Bergson's thought in the English speaking
world, and for purposes of reference, a comprehensive
list of articles which have appeared in English and
American periodicals is appended. Finally, a list of
the English Translations of Bergson's works is given
in full under their publishers' names.

PART ONE

BERGSON'S OWN WRITINGS CHRONOLOGICALLY
ARRANGED

1878 SOLUTION OF A MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM.
This, his first published work, appeared when he was
nineteen years of age in Annales de Mathematiques.
(Brisse et Gerono.) It is of interest, as it shows us an
early ability in the study of this science.

1882 LA SPECIALITE.
Discours au Lycee d'Angers--a publication of sixteen
pages; address given at the prize-giving in August
of that year. Angers: Imprimerie Lacheze et Dolbeau.

1884 EXTRAITS DE LUCRECE avec un commentaire, des
notes et une étude sur la poésie, la philosophie, la
physique, le texte et la langue de Lucrèce.
Published Delagrave, Paris, 1884. By 1914 ten editions
had appeared. This work is of interest in showing
his ability in classical scholarship. Pp. xlvii l59.

1885 LA POLITESSE.
Another address. This one was given at Clermont-
Ferrand, and was published on August 5, 1885, in the
local paper Moniteur du Puy de Dome. It is of interest
because in it is to be found his original view of "Grace"
which he developed later in the Essai sur les donnees
immidiates de la conscience (1889).

1886 LA SIMULATION INCONSCIENTE DANS L'ETAT D'HYPNOTISME.
His first contribution to the Revue philosophique (Vol.
XXII, pp. 525-31). It is interesting to note that correspondence
following the appearance of this article led
to the inclusion in Myers' Human Personality and its
Survival of Bodily Death of a case cited by Bergson
(see Vol. I, p. 447), 1901.

1889 QUID ARISTOTELES DE LOCO SENSERIT.
A Latin thesis, presented along with the following French
thesis, for the degree of Docteur-es-Lettres. Published
Alcan, Paris, pp. 82.

1889 ESSAI SUR LES DONNEES IMMEDIATES DE LA CONSCIENCE.
French thesis, presented along with the above Latin
thesis, for the degree of Docteur-es-Lettres. Published
by Alcan, Paris, same year, in La Bibliotheque de philosophie
contemporaine (pp viii-185) Eighteen editions
called for by 1920.

English Translation: Time and Free Will, by F. L. Pogson,
M.A. Published in 1910 by Swan & Sonnenschein
(now George Allen & Unwin) in Library of Philosophy.

1891 LA GENESE DE L'IDEE DE TEMPS.
A review, published in the Revue philosophique (Vol. for
1891, pp 185-190), of the book by Jean Mane Guyau,
La Genese de l'Idee de Temps, with an introduction by
Alfred Fouillee which appeared posthumously in 1890,
two years after Guyau's death.

1895 LE BON SENS ET LES ETUDES CLASSIQUES.
Discours au concours general des lycees et colleges, 1895--
another prize-giving address. Published in Revue
scientifique, 4th Ser., No. 15, pp. 705-713, June, 1901,
and by Delalain, Paris, 1895.

1896 MATIERE ET MEMOIRE.
Essai sur la relation du corps avec l'esprit.
Bergson's second notable work Published by Alcan,
Paris, in Bibliotheque de philosophie contemporaine,
pp iii-280. Thirteen editions by 1919.
English Translation: Matter and Memory, by Nancy
Margaret Paul and W. S. Palmer. Published 1911,
Swan & Sonnenschein (now George Allen & Unwin), in
the Library of Philosophy.

1897 PRINCIPES DE METAPHYSIQUE ET DE PSYCHOLOGIE
D'APRES MONSIEUR PAUL JANET.
A critical review in Revue philosophique (Vol. XLIV,
Nov., 1897, pp. 525-551).

1900 LE RIRE.
Essai sur la signification du comique.
First published as two articles in Revue de Paris, 1900
(Vol. I, pp. 512-545 and pp. 759-791). Book form,
Paris (Alcan), 1901, Bibliotheque de philosophie contemporaine,
pp. vii-205. By 1919, seventeen editions.
English Translation: Laughter--An Essay on the Meaning
of the Comic, by Brereton and Rothwell. Published
1911, Macmillan.
This essay is based on a lecture given by Bergson while
at Clermont-Ferrand, on Feb 18, 1884, a report of which
appeared in the local paper Moniteur du Puy de Dome,
Feb. 21, 1884.

1900 NOTES SUR LES ORIGINES PSYCHOLOGIES DE
NOTRE CROYANCE A LA LOI DE CAUSALITE.
Short paper of fifteen pages, read at the First International
Congress of Philosophy, held in Paris, August 1 to 5,
1900 Published in Bibhotheque du Congres International
de Philosophie, being special numbers of the
Revue de metaphysique et de morale. Paris (Armand
Colin). Discussion reported in the Revue, Sept, 1900,
Vol VIII, pp 655-660.

1901 LE REVE.
Conférence a l'Institut psychologique international.
March 26, 1901 Published, Pans, Bulletin de l'Institut,
May, 1901; Revue scientifique, June 8, 1901, and
abridged, Revue de philosophie, 1901. As Book, Alcan,
1901.
Reprinted in the volume of collected papers L'Energie
spiriuelle, 1919, pp 91-116.
English Translation: Dreams, by Dr Edwin E Slosson.
Published first as articles in the Independent of Oct 23
and 30, 1913 Book form 1914 Fisher Unwin.
Reissued in 1920 in Mind-Energy, English Translation of
L'Energie spirituelle.

1901 LE PARALLELISME PSYCHO-PHYSIQUE ET LA METAPHYSIQUE
POSITIVE.
Bergson's first contribution to the Bulletin de la Societe
française de philosophie, June, 1901. The important
lecture in which he defended the propositions set forth
on pages 53-54 of this present work.

1901 L'INCONSCIENT DANS LA VIE MENTALE.
Article in the Bulletin de la Société française de philosophie.

1901 LE VOCABULAIRE TECHNIQUE ET CRITIQUE DE
LA PHILOSOPHIE.
Article in the Bulletin de la Société française de philosophie.

1902 L'EFFORT INTELLECTUEL.
Article in the Revue philosophique, Jan, 1902, Vol XLIII,
pp 1-27. This article supplements parts of the larger
work Matière et Mémoire.
Reprinted in 1919 in the volume of collected essays,
L'Energie spintuelle, pp 163-202 English Translation
in 1920 in volume Mind-Energy (Macmillan).

1902 L'INTELLECT ET LA VOLONTE
Discours au Lycée Voltaire, July, 1902 Published
Imprimerie Quelquejeu

1902 LE VOCABULAIRE PHILOSOPHIQUE.
Collaboration Bulletin de la Societé française de philosophie,
July, 1902.

1903 RAPPORT SUR LA FONDATION "CARNOT" (1902).
Published in Jan, 1903, in Seances et travaux de l'Academie
des sciences morales et pohtiques. Also Memoires de
l'Academie des sciences morales et politiques, 1904.

1903 INTRODUCTION A LA METAPHYSIQUE.
Article in Revue de métaphysique et de morale. Paris,
Jan, 1903.
English Translation: An Introduction to Metaphysics, by
T. E. Hulme Published in 1913, Macmillan.
Valuable as an independent statement of his doctrine of
Intuition. Not to be regarded as a mere epitome of the
larger works, although it makes a good preface to them.
To be included in forthcoming volume of collected essays
and lectures.

1903 LA PLACE ET LE CARACTERE DE LA PHILOSOPHIE
DANS L'ENSEIGNEMENT SECONDAIRE.
Article in the Bulletin de la Societé française de philosophie,
Feb., 1903, p. 44. An address delivered before the
Societé in Dec., 1902.

1903 LA NOTION DE LA LIBERTE MORALE.
Article in the Bulletin de la Societé française de philosophie,
April, 1903, p. 101.

1903 RAPPORT SUR LE PRIX "HALPHEN."
Seances de l'Academie des sciences morales et politiques,
July, 1903. Also Memoir es de l'Academie des sciences
morales et politiques, 1904.

1903 LA PHILOSOPHIE SOCIALE DE COURNOT.
Article in the Bulletin de la Societé française de philosophie,
Aug, 1903, p. 229.

1904 RAPPORT SUR UN OUVRAGE DE RUSKIN "LA
BIBLE D'AMIENS."
Traduction francaise de M. Proust, Seances de l'Acadimie
des sciences morales et politiques, 1904.

1904 NOTICE SUR LA VIE ET SUR LES OEUVRES DE
FELIX RAVAISSON-MOLLIEN, Lue dans les seances
du 20 et 27 fevrier, 1904, de l'Academie des sciences
morales et politiques.

Published in Seances et travaux de l'Academie des sciences
morales et politiques, Paris, 1904, and in Memoires de
l'Academie des sciences morales et politiques, in 1907.

1904 LE PARALOGISME PSYCHO-PHYSIOLOGIQUE.
Lecture given at the Second International Congress of
Philosophy held at Geneva from Sept. 4 to 8, 1904.
Published in Revue de metaphysique et de morale,
numero exceptionel (Nov, 1904).
Reprinted in 1919 in the volume of collected essays
L'Energie spirituelle, pp. 203-223, under new title
Le Cerveau et la pensee: une illusion philosophique.
English Translation, 1920 in volume: Mind-Energy.

1904 LES COURBES RESPIRATOIRES PENDANT L'HYPNOSE
Article contributed to the Bulletin de l'Institut general
psychologique.

1904 PREFACE de la Psychologie Rationelle, d'Emile Lubac.
Published at Paris, Alcan. Four pages on Intuition.

1904 RAPPORT SUR UN OUVRAGE DE M. MORTET
"Notes sur le texte des 'Institutiones' de Cassiodore."
Seances de l'Academie des sciences morales et politiques.

1904 VISION DE LUEURS DANS L'OBSCURITE PAR LES
SENSITIFS.
Bulletin de l'Institut general psychologique, Jan., 1904.

1904 LES RADIATIONS "N."
Bulletin de l'Institut general psychologiques, Jan., 1904.

1905 ESPRIT ET MATIERE.
Article in the Bulletin de la Societe francaise de philosophie.

1905 THEORIE DE LA PERCEPTION.
Article in the Bulletin de la Societe francaise de philosophie,
March, 1905, pp. 94-95. An address given in Dec.,
1904.

1905 REPONSE A MONSIEUR RAGEOT.
Article in Revue philosophique, Vol LX, p 229. Criticism
by Monsieur Rageot appears on p. 84. See Ward on
this point. Realm of Ends, p. 307.

1905 RAPPORT SUR UN OUVRAGE DE M. OSSIP LOURIE
(now Professeur a l'Universite nouvelle de Bruxelles).
Le Bonheur et l'intelligence, published by Alcan in 1904.
Seances de l'Academie des sciences morales et politiques.

1905 RELATION A WILLIAM JAMES ET A JAMES WARD.
A Letter on la duree in the Revue philosophique, Aug.,
1905. Vol. LX, pp. 229-230

1906 RAPPORT SUR LE CONCOURS POUR LE PRIX
"BORDIN" (1905).
Ayant pour sujet "Maine de Biran." Seances de l'Academie
des sciences morales et politiques, 1906: also Memoires
de l'Academie des sciences morales et politiques, 1907.

1906 RAPPORT SUR UN OUVRAGE DE M. BARDOUX.
Essai d'une psychology de l'Angleterre contemporaine
(premiere partie).
Seances de l'Academie des sciences morales et politiques.

1906 RAPPORT SUR UN OUVRAGE DE M LUQUET,
entitule:--
Idees generales de psychologie.
Seances de l'Academie des sciences morales et politiques.

1906 RAPPORT SUR UN OUVRAGE DE M. GAULTIER,
entitule:--
Le Sens de l'art, avec une preface de M. Emile Boutroux.
Séances de l'Academie des sciences morales et politiques.

1907 L'EVOLUTION CREATRICE.
Published by Alcan, Paris, in La Bibliothèque de philosophie
contemporaine, 1907 (pp viii 4O3). By 1918 the work
was in its twenty-first edition.
English Translation: Creative Evolution, by Arthur
Mitchell, Ph.D. Published in 1911, Macmillan.
This is Bergson's third large work, and his most important,
being one of the most profound and original contributions
to the philosophieal consideration of the theory
of Evolution.
"Un livre comme L'Evolution créatrice n'est pas seulement
une oeuvre mais une date celle d'une direction
nouvelle imprimée a la pensée." Pierre Imbart de la
Tour--in Le Pangermanisme et la philosophie de l'histoire.

1907 ARTICLE SUR "L'EVOLUTION CREATRICE."
Revue du Mois, Sept., 1907, pp. 351-354. Bergson's reply
to a critic, M. Le Dantec.

1907 VOCABULAIRE PHILOSOPHIQUE.
Collaboration. Bulletin de la Societé française de philosophie,
Aug., 1907.

1907 RAPPORT SUR LE CONCOURS POUR LE PRIX
"LE DISSEZ DE PENANRUN."
Seances de l'Academie des sciences morales et politiques,
1907. PP. 91-102. Also in Memoires de l'Academie des
sciences morales et politiques, 1909.

1907 RAPPORT SUR UN OUVRAGE DE M. BARDOUX.
Psychologie de l'Angleterre contemporaine (Deuxieme
partie).
Seances de l'Academie des sciences morales et politiques.

1908 REPONSE A UNE ENQUETE INTERNATIONALE
SUR LA QUESTION RELIGIEUSE.
Arranged by the Mercure de France, and published in Paris
in the book La Question Religieuse, by Frederic Charpin.
Bergson's answer is less than a page.

1908 L'INFLUENCE DE SA PHILOSOPHIE SUR LES
ELEVES DES LYCEES.
Article in the Bulletin de la Societe francaise de philosophie,
Jan., 1908 Address delivered before the Societé in
the previous Nov.

1908 LETTRE SUR L'INFLUENCE DE SA PHILOSOPHIE
SUR LES ELEVES DES LYCEES
Appended to Binet's L'Evolution de l'ensignement philosophique,
in L'Année psychologique, 1908, pp. 230-231.

1908 LE SOUVENIR DU PRESENT ET LA FAUSSE RECONAISSANCE.
Article in the Revue philosophique, Dec, 1908, pp 561-
593.
Reprited in 1919 in the volume of collected essays
L'Energie spirituelle, pp 117-161 English Translation
in volume: Mind-Energy. Macmillan, 1920.

1908 L'EVOLUTION DE L'INTELLIGENCE GEOMETRIQUE.
Article in the Revue de metaphysique et de morale, Jan,
1908, pp. 28-33. Another reply to a critic, Monsieur
Borel.

1908 VOCABULAIRE PHILOSOPHIQUE.
Collaboration. Bulletin de la Societe francaise de philosophie,
Aug, 1908. On the words "immediat" and
"inconnaissable"

1908 RAPPORT SUR UN OUVRAGE DE M. MERLANT,
ayant pour sujet "Senancour"
Seances de l'Academie des sciences morales et politiques.

1908 RAPPORT SUR UN OUVRAGE DE M. BAZAILLAS,
entitule:--
Musique et inconscience.
Seances de l'Academie des sciences morales et politiques.

1908 RAPPORT SUR UN OUVRAGE DE M. BOIRAC,
entitule:--
La psychologie inconnue.
Seances de l'Academie des sciences morales et politiques.

1908 RAPPORT SUR UN OUVRAGE DE M. NAYRAC.
La Fontaine.
Seances de l'Academie des sciences morales et politiques.

1909 PREFACE A "GABRIEL TARDE"
A volume of the collection Les Grands Philosophes, published
by Louis Michaud, Paris.
This book was written by Tarde's sons. It is interesting
to note that Tarde was Bergson's predecessor in the
Chair of Modern Philosophy at the College de France.
The Preface (pp. 5 and 6) treats of Causality
A volume of this same series devoted to Bergson himself
appeared in 1910, by Rene Gillouin.

1909 RAPPORT SUR UN OUVRAGE DE M. MEYERSON,
entitule:--
Identiti et realite.
Seances de l'Academie des sciences morales et politiques.

1909 RAPPORT SUR UN OUVRAGE DE M. HENRI
DELACROIX.
Etudes d'histoire et de psychologie du mysticisme.
Seances de l'Academie des sciences morales et politiques.

1909 L'ORGANISATION DES CONGRES DE PHILOSOPHIE.
Article in the Bulletin de la Societe francaise de philosophie,
Jan., 1909.

1909 VOCABULAIRE PHILOSOPHIQUE.
Collaboration Bulletin de la Societe francaise de philosophie,
Aug., 1909.

1910 RAPPORT SUR UN OUVRAGE DE M. WENDELL.
La France d'aujourd hui.
Seances de l'Academie des sciences morales et politques.

1910 RAPPORT SUR LE CONCOURS POUR LES PRIX
"CHARLES L'EVEQUE."
Seances de l'Academie des sciences morales et politiques.

1910 JAMES ET BERGSON.
Remarques a propos d'un article de Mr. W. B. Pitkin,
intitule James and Bergson, or, Who is against Intellect?
Mr. Pitkin's article appeared in the Journal of Philosophy,
Psychology, and Scientific Methods on April 28, 1910.
Bergson's reply appeared in the same journal on July
7th of the same year.

1910 NEW INTRODUCTION WRITTEN IN ENGLISH FOR
THE ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF MATIERE
ET MEMOIRE.
This new introduction was subsequently translated
into French and prefaced to the next French edition of
Matiere et Memoire which appeared. This was the
seventh edition. The English translation by Nancy
Margaret Paul and W. Scott Palmer was published in
1911 (see note under date 1896).
The new introduction called attention mainly to the
change in orthodox opinion regarding aphasia which
had come about since the original publication of the
work in French in 1896--a change of view which only
served to make Bergson's opinions appear less novel and
more probable.

1910 RAPPORT SUR UN OUVRAGE DE M. DAURIAC.
Le musicien-poete Wagner: etude de psychologie musicale.
Seances de l'Academie des sciences morales et politiques.

1910 RAPPORT SUR UN OUVRAGE DE M. JOUSSAIN.
entitule:--
Le Fondement psychologique de la morale.
Seances de l'Academie des sciences morales et politiques.

1910 L'INCONSCIENT DANS LA VIE MENTALE
Remarques a propos d'une these soutenue par M.
Dwelshauvers (Now Belgian Professor.) An address
delivered to the Societe in the previous November.
Published in the Bulletin de la Societe francaise de
philosophie, Feb., 1910. Here Bergson has another encounter
with a critic. As far back as 1901 Bergson contributed to
this same periodical an article bearing this title. M.
Georges Dwelshauvers criticized Bergson's views in his articles--

"Raison et Intuition," étude sur la philosophie de M. Bergson,
in La Belgique artistique et litteraire, Nov.-Dec., 1905,
and April, 1906.

"Bergson et la methode intuitive," in the Revue des Mois,
Sept., 1907.

"De l'intuition dans l'acte de l'esprit," in the Revue de
métaphysique et de morale, Jan., 1908.

1911 L'INTUITION PHILOSOPHIQUE.
Paper read at the Fourth International Congress of Philosophy,
held at Bologna, April 5 to 11, 1911. Published in Nov. in
Revue de métaphysique et de morale (Numero exceptionel),
pp. 809-827. To reappear in forthcoming second volume of
collected papers.

1911 LA PERCEPTION DU CHANGEMENT.
Deux conférences faites a l'Université d'Oxford, les 26 et
27 Mai, 1911.
Published in original French by the Clarendon Press,
Oxford, in 1911. (Out of print now.) To reappear in
forthcoming second volume of collected essays and lectures.

1911 LIFE AND CONSCIOUSNESS.
The Huxley Lecture delivered at University of Birmingham,
May 29, 1911. Published in The Hibbert Journal
for Oct., 1911, Vol X, pp. 24-44, and also in the volume
Huxley Memorial Lectures in 1914.
In a revised and somewhat developed form this appeared
in 1919 in the volume of collected essays and lectures
L'Energie spirituelle, pp. 1-29 (Mind-Energy, 1920).

1911 VERITE ET REALITE
Introduction of sixteen pages written for the French
Translation of William James' Pragmatism. Translated
by Le Brun. Published Flammarion, Paris.

1911 LES REALITES QUE LA SCIENCE N'ATTEINT PAS.
Article in Foi et Vie (French Protestant Review).

1911 LA NATURE DE L'AME.
Four lectures delivered at the University of London, Oct.,
1911. Up to the time of writing, these lectures have
not been published Reports are to be found, however,
in The Times, Oct 21, 23, 28 and 30, 1911 (For definite
information regarding these lectures, I am indebted
to Mr. Reginald Rye, Librarian of the University of
London, to the University of London Press, and to
Professor Bergson himself.)

1912 L'AME ET LE CORPS.
Conférence faite pour la Societé Foi et Vie. Published
in Le Matérialisme actuel, Paris, 1913, Flammarion.
During the year 1912, the Paris Review Foi et Vie arranged
a series of lectures on Materialism. These were given
in Paris, alternating with a series on Pascal, likewise
arranged by Foi et Vie, under the direction of in Paul
Doumergue, chief editor This was the sixth year in
which such courses of lectures had been arranged by
this Review. The most of these lectures were subsequently
published in the Review itself, but the 1912
lectures on Materialism were issued separately in a
volume entitled Le Materialisme actuel, published in
the Bibliotheque de philosophie scientifique, with a preface
by in Paul Doumergue. Two illustrious names headed
the list of lecturers--those of Henri Bergson and the
late Henri Poincare. Bergson's lecture bears the title
L'Ame et le Corps, pp. 7-48. (I am told by Prof.
Bergson that it is a Summary of the four unpublished
London lectures.)
This was reprinted in 1919 in L'Energie spirituelle, pp.
31-63 (Mind-Energy, 1920).

1912 PREFACE written for the French Translation of Eucken's
Der Sinn und der Wert des Lebens
Le sens et la valeur de la vie--translated by M. A.
Hullet and A. Leicht. Published, Paris, Alcan.

1912 LETTER ON HIS PHILOSOPHY IN RELATION TO THEOLOGY.
Written to Father de Tonquedec, S J, in the Jesuit periodical
Les Etudes of Feb 20, 1912,Vol CXXX, pp 514-515.
Father de Tonquedec had criticized Bergson's philosophy
from the point of view of Roman Catholic Theology.
The following are amongst his criticisms:
La Notion de la veritt dans la philosophie nouvelle, Paris,
1908.
Comment interpreter l'ordre du monde a-propos du dernier
ouvrage de in Bergson, Paris, Beauchesne, 1908.
Bergson est-il moniste? Article in Les Annales de
philosophie chretienne, March, 1912.
Dieu dans l'Evolution créatrice, Beauchesne, 1912, which
gives two letters from Bergson

1913 FANTOMES DE VIVANTS ET RECHERCHE PSYCHIQUE
Presidential address to the British Society for Psychical
Research. Delivered at the Aeolian Hall, London,
May 28, 1913. Published report in the Times, May 29,
1913; and of the New York Times, Sept 27,1914,
Proceedings of the Society, Vol 1914-15, pp 157-175.
This address was reprinted in 1919 in L'Energie
spirituelle, pp 65-89. English Translation: Mind-
Energy, 1920.

1914 LETTER TO "LE FIGARO."
Letter on his Philosophy generally, March 7, 1914.

1914 THE PROBLEM OF PERSONALITY.
The Gifford Lectures at Edinburgh University One
course of eleven lectures, given in the Spring. The
Autumn course was abandoned owing to the War.
These lectures have not yet been published. (For information
regarding them I am indebted to Mr. F. C.
Nicholbon, Librarian of the University of Edinburgh,
and to Prof. Bergson himself.)

1914 LA FORCE QUI S'USE ET CELLE QUI NE S'USE PAS.
Article written for the famous organ of the poilus. Bulletin
des Armees de la Republique francaise, Nov. 4, 1914.

1914 HOMMAGE AU ROI ALBERT ET AU PEUPLE BELGE.
Contribution to King Albert's Book, issued by the
Daily Telegraph.

1915 LA SIGNIFICATION DE LA GUERRE
Collection of War speeches and writings in the series
Pages actuelles, 1914-15. Published by Bloud et Gay,
Paris, 1915. Small volume of 47 pages Contains:
1. Discours prononce a l'Academie des Sciences morales
et politiques le 12 dec, 1914, pp 7-29. This was a
Presidential address La Signification de la Guerre.
2. Allocution prononcee a l'Academie le 16 Jan, 1915,
a l'occasion de l'installation de M. Alexandre Ribot
au fauteuil de la presidence (in succession to Bergson).
Reported only in part, pp 33-35.
3. La force qui s'use et celle qui ne s'use pas, pp 39-42.
Reprinted from the pages of the Bulletin des Armees
de la, Republique francaise, Nov. 4, 1914.
4. Hommage au Roi Albert et au Peuple Belge, pp 45-46.
Reprinted from King Albert's Book, War publication of
Daily Telegraph.
Items Nos 1 and 3 have been translated into English
as The Meaning of the War, with preface by Dr. H.
Wildon Carr. Published 1915, Fisher Unwin. No. 1
appeared in The Hibbert Journal in English, as "Life
and Matter at War," April, 1915, pp. 465-475; and in the
American paper The Living Age on July 31, 1915, pp. 259-264

1915 AUTOUR DE LA GUERRE
A discourse on the Evolution of German Imperialism,
delivered before the Academie des Sciences morales et
politiques. Published in La Revue, Feb.-March, 1915,
pp. 369-377.

1915 LA PHILOSOPHIE.
Ouvrage publié sous les auspices du ministre de
l'Instruction publique. A delightful little work of 27 pages.
Reprinted from La Sciencé française, Tome I.
Published in the series of that name by Larousse, Pans,
and costing fifty centimes. It is a review of French
Philosophy, and contains a bibliography, and portraits
of the philosophers, Descartes, Malebranche, Pascal,
and Renouvier.

1916 LETTRE A PROF. HOFFDING.
Published in the original French in the French edition
of the Danish Professor's Lectures on Bergson; La
Philosophie de Bergson expose et critique par H.
Hoffding, Professeur a l'Université de Copenhague.
Traduit d'après l'édition danoise avec un avant-
propos par Jacques de Coussange et suivi d'une lettre
de M. Bergson à l'auteur. Alcan, Paris. The letter, pp.
l57-165.

1917 PREFACE A "LA MISSION FRANCAISE EN
AMERIQUE 24 AVRIL-13 MAI, 1917."
Compiled by M. R. Viviani, published, Flammarion,
Paris, 1917, pp 264. Bergson's Preface is seven pages.

1918 DISCOURS DE RECEPTION.
Bergson's address on being received by the Academy.
On M. Ollivier. Published by Perrin, Paris. Seance de
l'Academie francaise, Jan. 24, 1918, pp. 44. (The work
also contains the reply to Bergson by the Director of
the Academy, M. Rene Doumic, pp. 45-75.)

1919 L'ENERGIE SPIRITUELLE (Essais et Conferences).
Felix Alcan's Bibliotheque de philosophie contemporaire,
pp. 227.
This is a volume of collected essays and lectures of which
three editions appeared in 1919. It deals with the
concept of mental force, with problems of the interaction
of mind and body, and with Bergson's view of "tension"
and "detension" in relation to matter and mind.
With a brief foreword, explaining that this is the first of a
couple of volumes of collected essays, there are seven
papers:
1. "La Conscience et la Vie," pp. 1-29. A revised and
developed version of "Life and Consciousness," the
Huxley Lecture of 1911.
2. "L'Ame et le Corps," pp. 31-63. Reprinted from
Le Materialisme actuel. Lecture given in 1912.
3. "Fantomes de Vivants et Recherche Psychique,"
pp. 65-89. Presidential address of 1913.
4. "Le Reve," pp. 91-116. The lecture of 1901.
5. "Le Souvenir du present et la fausse reconnaissance,"
pp. 117-161. Reprint from Revue philosophique of
article of 1908.
6. "L'Effort intellectuel," pp. 163-202. Reprint from
Revue philosophique of article of 1902.
7. "Le Cerveau et la Pensee: une illusion philosophique,"
pp. 203-223. The Lecture given at the International
Congress at Geneva, formerly printed in the Revue de
metaphysique et de morale as "Le Paralogisme psycho-
physiologique."
English Translation: MIND-ENERGY, by Dr. Wildon Carr.
Macmillan, 1920.

The forthcoming second volume of collected essays on The
Method of Intuitional Philosophy will contain inter alia:
Introduction on "Method."
Reprint of "L'Intuition philosophique." Introduction a la
metaphysique, "La Perception du Changement."

Three articles, bearing the titles "Memoire et reconaissance,"
"Perception et matiere" and "L'Idee de neant," which appeared
respectively in Revue philosophique (1896), Revue de metaphysique
et de morale (1896) and Revue philosophique (1906) have been
omitted from their places in the above list because they were
subsequently incorporated into the larger works Matiere et
Memoire and L'Evolution creatrice.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

PART TWO

BOOKS AND ARTICLES ON BERGSON

Section I. Books directly on Bergson

(a) French Publications.

BENDA, Julien.
Le Bergsonisme ou une Philosophie de la Mobilité. Paris, Mercure
de France. 1912.

Une Philosophie pathétique. Cahiers de la Quinzaine. Paris,
1913, Ser. 15, Cah 2.

Sur le succes du Bergsonisme. 1914. Incorporates Une
Philosophie pathétique.

BERTHELOT, R.
Un Romantisme Utilitaire. Paris, 1911. Vol. 2, Le Pragramatisme
chez Bergson.

Le pragmatisme de Bergson. Paris, Alcan, 1913.

COIGNET, Clarisse.
De Kant a Bergson. Reconciliation de la religion et de la science
dans un spiritualisme nouveau. Paris, 1911 (Alcan).
Concluding 60 pages deal with Bergson.

DESAYMARD, Joseph.
La Pensee d'Henri Bergson. In series Les Hommes et les Idees.
Paris, 1912. Mercure de France. Pp. 82. With portrait
and bibliography (reprint of Mr. Pogson's list).

DWELSHAUVERS, Georges.
Raison et intuition. Etudes sur la philosophie de Bergson, 1906.

FARGES.
Theorie fondamentale de l'Acte et de la Puissance avec la critique
de la philosophie nouvelle de MM. Bergson et Le Roy. Paris,
1909. (Etudes philosophiques, No. 1.)

La philosophie de M. Bergson. Expose et critique. Paris, 1912.

FOUILLEE, Alfred.
La Pensee et les nouvelles ecoles anti-intellectuelles. Paris, 1910.

GAGNEBIN, S.
La philosophie de l'intuition. 1912. Saint Blaise, 'Foyer
Solidariste. Pp. 240. Mainly on Le Roy, Bergson's disciple, but a
third of the book deals with the master.

GILLOUIN, Rene.
Bergson: Choix de textes, etudes sur l'OEuvre, notices biographiques
et bibliographiques. Paris, 1910, Michaud. Series Les
Grands Philosophes. Illustrated. Pp. 220.

Essay of 30 pages on Bergson's philosophy. Extracts from
Bergson's works. Pp. 39-220.

La Philosophie de M. Bergson. Paris, 1911, Grasset. Pp. 187.

GRANDJEAN, F.
Une revolution dans la philosophie, La Doctrine de Bergson.
Atar, Geneva, 2nd ed., 1916.

LE ROY, Edouard.
Une Philosophie nouvelle: Henri Bergson. Paris, 1912.
English Translation: A New Philosophy: Henri Bergson, by
Vincent Benson. 1913. Williams and Norgate. Pp. 235.
The author of this work is Bergson's famous pupil, who now
lectures in his place at the College de France.

MARITAIN, J.
La philosophie bergsonienne. Paris, Riviere, 1914. Pp. 477.

MEUNIER, D.
Lecon de Bergson. 1914.

PEGUY, Charles.
Note Sur M. Bergson et la philosophie bergsonienne. Paris.
(Bourgeois). Cahiers de la Quinzaine. Pp. 101.

PENIDO, Dr. M. T. L.
La methode intuitive de Bergson. Essai critique. Atar, Geneva,
and Alcan, Paris, 1918, pp. 220.

SEGOND, J.
L'Intuition bergsonienne. Alcan, Paris, 1912 and 1913. Pp. 157.

(b) English and American Publications

BALSILLIE, David.
An Examination of Professor Bergson's Philosophy. 1912. Williams
and Norgate. Pp. 228.

CARR, Dr. H. Wildon.
Henri Bergson: The Philosophy of Change, 1912. Jack,
"The People's Books." Pp. 91. Good brief sketch. 1919.
Jack and Nelson. Second revised edition. Pp. 126.

The Philosophy of Change: A study of the Fundamental Principle
of the Philosophy of Bergson. 1914. Macmillan. Pp. 216.

Time and History in Contemporary Philosophy, with special
reference to Bergson and Croce. Proceedings of British
Academy, 1918. Pp. 20. Separately, Oxford University Press.

CUNNINGHAM, Gustave W., Dr.
Study in the Philosophy of Bergson. 1916. Longman. New
York. Pp. 212.

DODSON, G. R., Dr.
Bergson and the Modern Spirit. An Essay in Constructive
Thought. 1914. Lindsey Press. Pp. 295.

ELLIOT, Hugh S. R.
Modern Science and the Illusions of Professor Bergson. 1912.
Preface by Sir Ray Lankester. Longman, New York, and
1913, Longman, London. Pp. 257. Very hostile to Bergson,
indeed contemptuously or bitterly so.

GERRARD, Father Thomas.
Bergson: an Exposition and Criticism from the point of view of
Saint Thomas Aquinas. 1913. Sands & Co. Pp. 208.

HERMANN, Mrs. E.
Bergson and Eucken. Their significance for Christian Thought.
1912. James Clark & Co. Pp. 224.

HOFFDING, Prof Harald.
Six Lectures on Bergson. Delivered 1913. Published in the
volume Modern Philosophers, Macmillan, 1915. Pp. 227-302.
Translated by Alfred C. Mason.

HOUGH, Dr. Lynn H.
The Quest of Wonder. Studies in Bergson and Theology.

JOHNSTON, W. (with MISS I. MUDGE).
A Contribution to a Bibliography of Henri Bergson. 1913.
Columbia University Press, New York. Pp. 56. For this
pamphlet, Professor John Dewey has written an introduction.

KALLEN, H. M.
William James and Henri Bergson: A Study of Contrasting
Theories of Life. 1914. Chicago University Press. Pp. 248.

KITCHIN, Darcy B.
Bergson for Beginners: A Summary of his Philosophy. 1913.
Geo. Allen and Unwin. Pp. 309.

LE ROY, Edouard.
A New Philosophy: Henri Bergson. 1913. Williams and Norgate.
English Translation by V. Benson of Une Nouvelle
philosophie. Pp. 235.

LIBBY, M. F.
The Continuity of Bergson's Thought. 1912. University of
Colorado Studies, Vol. 9, No. 4. Pp. 147-202.

LINDSAY, A. D.
The Philosophy of Bergson. 1911. Dent. Pp. 247.

LOVEJOY.
Bergson and Romantic Evolutionism. 1914. University of
California Press, Berkeley. Pp. 61.

MILLER, Lucius Hopkins.
Bergson and Religion. 1916. Holt & Co., New York. (Out of
print.)

MITCHELL, Dr. Arthur.
Studies in Bergson's Philosophy. 1914. Kansas University
Humanistic Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2. Pp. 115.

PECKHAM, G. W.
The Logic of Bergson's Philosophy. (Time and Free Will
compared with Matter and Memory.) 1917. Archives of Philosophy,
Columbia University Press, New York, No. 8. Pp. 68.

RUHE AND PAUL.
Henri Bergson: An Account of his Life and Philosophy. 1914.
Macmillan. Pp. 245 (With portrait.)

RUSSELL, Hon. Bertrand.
The Philosophy of Bergson. 1914. London, Macmillan for Bowes,
Cambridge. Pp. 36. Lecture to The Heretics, Cambridge,
March 11, 1912. Contains reply by Dr. Wildon Carr, and
rejoinder by Mr. Russell.

SAIT, Bernard Una.
The Ethical Implications of Bergson's Philosophy. 1914. Columbia
University Contributions to Philosophy and Psychology. New
York Science Press. Pp. 183.

SEWELL, Frank, Dr.
Is the Universe Self-Centred or God-Centred? 1913. Examination
of the systems of Eucken and Bergson.
Presidential Address to Swedenborg Scientific Association,
Philadelphia, USA. Published by the Association. Pp. 13.

SHASTRI, Prabhu Datta.
The Conception of Freedom in Hegel, Bergson, and Indian
Philosophy. 1914. Address before the Calcutta Philosophical
Society, March 14, 1913. Published Albion Press, Calcutta.
Pp. 26.

SOLOMON, Joseph.
Bergson. 1911. Constable, in Series Philosophies Ancient and
Modern. Pp. 128.

STEWART, Dr. J. M'Kellar.
A Critical Exposition of Bergson's Philosophy. 1911. Macmillan
Pp. 295.

WILM, Emil C.
Henri Bergson: A Study in Radical Evolution. (1914.) Sturgis

HOOGVILD, J.E.H.J.
De Niewe Wysbegeerte: Een studie over H. Bergson. 1911.

JACOBSON, Malte.
Henri Bergson's Intuitionsfilosofi.

LEVI, A.
La filosofia della contingenza. Firenze, Seeber, 1905. In
L'indeterminismo nella filosofita francese contemporanea.

LARSSON, Prof. Hans.
Intuitionsprobleme.

OLGIATI, F.
La Filosofia di Enrico Bergson, 1914.

PAPINI, Giovanni.
Stroncature. Firenze, 1918. Libreria della voce. Section on
Bergson and Croce (in French), written in 1914. Pp. 51-56.

RUHE, Algot.
Henri Bergson: Tankesattet. 1914. Swedish volume (similar to
his English work in conjunction with Miss Paul). Stockholm.

Section II. Books dealing Indirectly with Bergson

(a) French Publications

CHAUMEIX, A.
Pragmatisme et Modernisme. Paris, Alcan, 1909

DWELSHAUVERS, Georges.
La Synthèse mentale. Alcan, Paris, 1908.

FOUILLEE, Alfred.
Le Mouvement idéaliste et la Réaction centre la Science positive,
1896. Paris, Alcan.

IMBART DE LA TOUR, Pierre.
Le Pangermanisme et la Philosophie de L'Histoire. Letter to
Bergson, published in book form, 1916. Reprinted from Pour
la verite, 1914-15. Perrin. Pp. 75. This letter was occasioned
by Bergson's writings on the War.

LANESSAN, J. de.
Transformation et Créationisme. 1914. Paris, Alcan.

PIAT, Clodius.
Insuffisance des Philosophies de L'Intuition. 1908. Paris,
Plon-Nourrit. Pp. 319.

SOREL, Georges.
Reflexions sur la Violence. This has been translated into English
by T.E. Hulme, and published by Geo. Allen and Unwin,
Reflections on Violence.
Les Illusions du Progres.
Le Mouvement socialists. Collected volumes of the periodical.

WILBOIS.
Devoir et Durée. 1912. Paris, Alcan. Pp. 408.

(b) English and American Publications

ALIOTTA.
The Idealistic Reaction against Science 1914. Macmillan.
English translation from Italian by W. Agnes McCaskill.

BENNETT, W.
The Ethical Aspects of Evolution Regarded as the Parallel Growth
of Opposite Tendencies. 1908. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

BJORKMAN, Edwin.
Voices of Tomorrow. Critical studies of the New Spirit in
Literature. London, Grant Richards. See Section The New
Mysticism, Part 3, Its Philosopher, Henri Bergson, pp. 205-223.

BOSANQUET, B.
The Principle of Individuality and Value. 1912. Macmillan.
The Gifford Lectures for 1911. The Value and Destiny of
the Individual. Gifford Lectures, 1912.

BURNS, Delisle.
Political Ideals. Clarendon Press, Oxford Discusses in
concluding pages the rational element in politics.

CALDWELL, Dr. Wm.
Pragmatism and Idealism 1913. Macmillan, New York, and
A. and C. Black, London. Chap. (9) is entitled "Pragmatism
and Idealism in the Philosophy of Bergson," pp. 234-261.

CARR, H. Wildon.
The Problem of Truth. Jack. "People's Books."

DREVER, Dr James.
Instinct in Man. 1917. Cambridge University Press.

FREUD.
Wit and its Relation to the Unconscious. Fisher Unwin.
Remarks on Bergson's Le Rire, pp. 301 and 360.

GRUBB.
The Religion of Experience. Chapter IV. Bergson and Intuition.

HARLEY, J. H.
Syndicalism. "People's Books."

HARPER, Dr. J. Wilson.
Christian Ethics and Social Progress. 1912. Contains chapter
on Bergson.

HOCKING.
Meaning of God in Human Experience. Yale University Press. 1912.

HUGEL, Baron Frednch von.
Eternal Life: its Implications and Applications. T. and T.
Clark. 1912. Deals with Bergson's view of duree and of
Liberty, pp. 288-302.

HUNT, Harriet E.
The Psychology of Auto-Education. Based on the interpretation
of Intellect, given by Bergson in his Creative Evolution
Illustrated in the work of Maria Montessori. 1912. Bardeen,
Syracuse, New York.

INGE, Very Rev Dr W.R.
The Philosophy of Plotmus. Gifford Lectures, published 1919.
These lectures on the great Neo-platonist to whom Bergson
owes not a little, contain important discussions of Bergson's
views on Time, Consciousness and Change.

JACKS, L.P.
Alchemy of Thought. Holt & Co, New York. 1911.

JAMES, William
A Pluralistic Universe (Hibbert Lectures) 1909. Lectures 5
and 6, pp 181-273.

JEVONS, Dr F.B.
Personality. Methuen, 1913. Especially Chap. 3 on Bergson,
pp 78-124.

JOHNSON, F.H.
God in Evolution. A Pragmatic Study of Theology.. Longman. 1911.

JOHNSTONE, Dr James
The Philosophy of Biology. 1914. Cambridge University Press.

JONES, Prof. Tudor.
The Spiritual Ascent of Man. 1916. University of London Press,
Chapter (4) Intellect and Intuition.

LAIRD, John
Problems of the Self. Shaw Lectures at Edinburgh for 1914.
1917. Macmillan.

LODGE, Sir Oliver.
Modern Problems. Methuen, 1912. Balfour and Bergson, pp.
189-210 (Chap. 18). Reprint of Article in Hibbert Journal
(1912).

MACKENZIE, Prof.
Elements of Constructive Philosophy. 1918. Geo Allen & Unwin.

MARSHALL
Consciousness. On Revival and Memory. P. 436.

MELLOR, Dr Stanley A.
Religion as Affected by Modern Science and Philosophy. 1914.
Lindsey Press. Devotes a section to the consideration of
Bergson and Religion, pp 147-166.

McCABE, Joseph.
Principles of Evolution. Collins--Nation's Library. Very
hostile to Bergson, pp 247-253.

McDOUGALL, William.
Body and Mind 1911. Methuen & Co.

MORGAN, C. Lloyd.
Instinct and Experience. Methuen. 1912.

PERRY, R.B.
Present Philosophical Tendencies. 1912. Longmans. U.S.A.

PRINGLE-PATTISON, A.S.
The Idea of God. Gifford Lectures, 1912-13. Lecture (19) on
Bergson, pp. 366-385.

RUSSELL, Bertrand
Our Knowledge of the External World. 1914. Open Court Publishing
Co. Chapter (8) on Cause and Free Will, criticizes Bergson,
pp. 229-242.
The Principles of Social Reconstruction. Geo. Allen & Co. 1917.
Shows Impulse to be greater than conscious purpose in
our social life.
Mysticism and Logic. 1918. Longman.
Roads to Freedom. On Socialism, Anarchism and Syndicalism.
Geo. Allen & Co. 1918.

SANTAYANA, Prof. George.
Winds of Doctrine.. Scribner, U.S.A.

SAROLEA, Prof. Charles.
The French Renascence. 1916. Allen and Unwin. Chapter on
Bergson, pp. 271-284, with portrait.

SCOTT. J.W.
Syndicalism and Philosophical Realism. 1919. A.& C. Black.
For Bergson, pp. 70-160.

SLOSSON, Dr. E.
Major Prophets of To-day. 1914. Little, Boston, U.S.A.
Pp. 44-103. (Portrait.)

SMITH, Norman Kemp, D. Phil.
Commentary to Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. 1918. Macmillan.

SORLEY, Dr. W.R.
Moral Values and the Idea of God. Cambridge University
Press, 1918. Gifford Lectures, 1914-15. Discusses Intuition
and Vital Impulse.

STEBBING, L. Susan, M.A.
Pragmatism and French Voluntarism with Special Reference to
the Notion of Truth in the Development of Philosophy from Maine
de Biran to Bergson. M.A. (London.) Thesis, 1912. Cambridge
University Press, 1914. Girton College Studies, No 6.

UNDERHILL, Evelyn.
Mysticism. A Study in the Nature and development of man's
spiritual consciousness. Dutton, U.S.A. 1912.

WALLAS, Graham.
The Great Society. Error on p. 236, where he has 1912 for 1911,
as date of Bergson's Lectures at London University.

WARD, Prof. James.
The Realm of Ends. (Pluralism and Theism.) Cambridge
University Press. Cf. pp. 306-7.

WARDELL, R.J.
Contemporary Philosophy. Contains careless blunders. The
date of the publication of L'Evolution creatrice in Paris is
given as 1901 instead of 1907. This is on page 74. Then on
page 95, Lectures given at London University are referred
to as having been given at Oxford. The whole section of 28
pages, devoted to Bergson, tends to be somewhat misleading.

WEBB, C.C.J.
God and Personality. Gifford Lectures, 1918-19. Geo. Allen
and Unwin.

WOODBRIDGE, F.J.E.
The Purpose of History. Reflections on Bergson, Dewey and
Santayana. 1916. Columbia University Press.

Section III. English and American Articles

(a) Signed Articles

ABBOTT.
"Philosophy of Progress." Outlook, Feb, 1913.

AKELY.
"Bergson and Science." Philosophical Review, May, 1915.

ALEXANDER, H.B.
"Socratic Bergson." Mid-West Quarterly, Oct., 1913.

ALEXANDER, S.
"Matière et Mémoire." Mind, Oct, 1897.

ARMSTRONG.
"Bergson, Berkeley and Intuition." Philosophical Review, 1914.

BABBITT.
"Bergson and Rousseau." Nation, Nov., 1912.

BALDWIN.
"Intuition." American Year Book, 1911.

BALFOUR.
"Creative Evolution and Philosophic Doubt." Hibbert Journal,
Oct, 1911; and Living Age, Dec. 2, 1911.

BALSILLIE.
"Bergson on Time and Free Will." Mind, 1911.

BARR.
"The Dualism of Bergson." Philosophical Review, 1914.

BEYER.
"Creative Evolution and the Woman's Question." Educational
Review, Jan, 1914.

BJORKMAN.
"The Philosopher of Actuality." Forum, Sept, 1911.
"Is there Anything New?" Forum.
"Bergson: Philosopher or Prophet?" Review of Reviews,
Aug, 1911.

BLACKLOCK.
"Bergson's Creative Evolution." Westminster Review, Mar., 1912.

BODE
"L'Evolution creatrice." Philosophical Review, 1908.
"Creative Evolution." American Journal of Psychology, April, 1912.

BOSANQUET.
Prediction of Human Conduct." International Journal of
Ethics, Oct, 1910.

BOYD.
"L'Evolution créatrice." Review of Theology and Philosophy, Oct, 1907.

BROWN.
"Philosophy of Bergson." Church Quarterly Revtew, April, 1912.

BURNS.
"Criticism of Bergson's Philosophy." North American Review, March, 1913.

BURROUGHS.
"The Prophet of the Soul." Atlantic Monthly, Jan., 1914.

BUSH.
"Bergson's Lectures." Columbia University Quarterly, 1913.

CALKINS.
"Bergson: Personalist." Philosophieal Review, 1912-13. No. (6).

CARR
"Philosophy of Bergson" Hibbert Journal, July, 1910.
"Creative Evolution" Proc. Aristotelian Soc, Vol. 9 and 10.
"Bergson's Theory of Instinct" Proc. Aristotelian Soc, Vol 10.
"Bergson's Theory of Knowledge." Proc. Aristotelian Soc, Vol 9
"Psycho-physical Parallelism as a working hypothesis in Psychology."
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"The Philosophy of Bergson." Mind, Oct, 1911.
"Science and Bergson" Mind, Oct, 1912.
"On Mr Russell's Reasons for supposing that Bergson's Philosophy
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"The Concept of Mind-Energy." Mind, Jan., 1920.

CARUS.
"The Anti-intellectual movement of to-day." Monist, July, 1912.

COCKERELL.
"The New Voice in Philosophy." Dial, Oct., 1911.

COOKE.
"Ethics and New Intuitionists." Mind, 1913.

CORRANCE.
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CORY.
"Bergson's Intellect and Matter." Philosophical Review, May, 1914.
"Answer to Mr. Bertrand Russell's Philosophy of Bergson."
Monist, Jan, 1914.

COSTELLOE (Mrs. ADRIAN STEPHEN).
"What Bergson means by Inter-penetration" Proc. Aristotelian
Soc, Vol. 1913-14.
"Complexity and Synthesis: Data and Methods of Russell and
Bergson. Proc. Aristotelian Soc., 1914-15.

COX.
"Bergson's Message to Feminism." Forum, May, 1913.

CUNNINGHAM.
"Bergson's Conception of Duration." Philosophical Review, 1914-15.
"Bergson's Conception of Finality." Philosophical Review, 1914-15.

DIMNET.
"Meaning of Bergson's Success." Saturday Review, 1914.

DOLSON.
"Philosophy of Bergson." I. Philosophical Review, Nov., 1910.
"Philosophy of Bergson." II. Philosophical Review, Jan., 1911.

DOUGLAS.
"Christ and Bergson." North American Review, April, 1913.

DUBRAY.
"Philosophy of Bergson." Bulletin of Catholic University of
Washington, April, 1914.

DURBAN.
"Philosophy of Bergson. Homiletic Review, Jan., 1912.

EWALD.
"Philosophy in Germany in 1911." Trans. from German by

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