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Beowulf by James A. Harrison and Robert Sharp, eds.

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scȳran, w. v., _to arrange, decide_: inf. þæt hit sceaðen-mǣl scȳran
mōste (_that the sword must decide it_), 1940. O.N. skora, _to score,
decide_.

scȳne, adj., _sheen, well-formed, beautiful_: nom. sg. mægð scȳne, 3017.

sē, se, pron. dem. and article, _the_: m. nom., 79, 84, 86, 87, 90, 92,
102, etc.; fem, sēo, 66, 146, etc.; neut. þæt;--relative: sē (_who_), 1611,
2866; sē þe (_he who_), 2293; sēo þe (_she who_), 1446; sē þe (for sēo þe),
1345, 1888, 2686; cf. 1261, 1498; (Grendel's mother, as a wild, demonic
creature, is conceived now as man, now as woman: woman, as having borne a
son; man, as the incarnation of savage cunning and power); se for sēo,
2422; dat. sg. þām (for þām þe), 2780.

secce. See sacu.

secg, st. m., _man, warrior, hero, spokesman_ (secgan?): nom. sg., 208,
872, 2228, 2407, etc.; (Bēowulf), 249, 948, 1312, 1570, 1760, etc.;
(Wulfgār), 402; (Hunferð), 981; (Wīglāf), 2864; acc. sg. sinnigne secg
(Grendel's mother, cf. se), 1380; dat. sg. secge, 2020; nom. pl. secgas,
213, 2531, 3129; dat. pl. secgum, 490; gen. pl. secga, 634, 843, 997, 1673.

secg, st. f., _sword_ (sedge?): acc. sg. secge, 685.

secgan, w. v., _to say, speak_: 1) w. acc.: pres. sg. gode ic þanc secge,
1998; so, 2796; pres. part. swā se secg hwata secgende wæs lāðra spella
(partitive gen.), 3029; inf. secgan, 582, 876, 881, 1050; pret. sg. sægde
him þæs lēanes þanc, 1810; pret. sg. II. hwæt þū worn fela ... sægdest from
his sīðe, 532.--2) without acc inf. swā wē sōðlīce secgan hȳrdon, 273;
pret. sg. sægde, 2633, 2900--3) w. depend. clause: pres. sg. ic secge, 591;
pl. III. secgað, 411; inf. secgan, 51, 391, 943, 1347, 1701, 1819, 2865,
3027; gerund. tō secganne, 473, 1725; pret. sg. sægde, 90, 1176; pl.
sægdon, 377, 2188; sǣdan, 1946.

ā-secgan (edicere), _to say out, deliver_: inf. wille ic ā-secgan suna
Healfdenes ... mīn ǣrende, 344.

ge-secgan, _to say, relate_: imper. sg. II. ge-saga, 388; þæt ic his ǣrest
þē eft ge-sægde (_that I should, after, tell thee its origin_), 2158; pret.
part. gesægd, 141; gesǣd, 1697.

sefa, w. m., _heart, mind, soul, spirit_: nom. sg., 49, 490, 595, 2044,
2181, 2420, 2601, 2633; acc. sg. sefan, 278, 1727, 1843; dat. sg. sefan,
473, 1343, 1738.--Comp. mōd-sefa.

ge-segen, st. f., _legend, tale_: in comp. eald-ge-segen.

segl, st. n., _sail_: nom. sg., 1907.

segl-rād, st. f., _sail-road_, i.e. sea: dat. sg. on segl-rāde, 1430.

segn, st. n., _banner_, vexillum: nom. sg., 2768, 2959; acc. sg. segen, 47,
1022; segn, 2777; dat. sg. under segne, 1205.--Comp. hēafod-segn.

sel, st. n., _hall, palace_. See sæl.

seld, st. n., _dwelling, house_: in comp. medu-seld.

ge-selda, w. m., contubernalis, _companion_: acc. sg. geseldan, 1985.

seldan, adv., _seldom_: oft [nō] seldan, 2030.

seld-guma, w. m., _house-man, home-stayer(?); common man?, house-carl?_:
nom. sg., 249.

sele, st. m. and n., _building consisting of one apartment; apartment,
room_: nom. sg., 81, 411; acc. sg. sele, 827, 2353; dat. sg. tō sele, 323,
1641; in (on, tō) sele þām hēan, 714, 920, 1017, 1985; on sele (_in the den
of the dragon_), 3129.--Comp.: bēah-, bēor-, dryht-, eorð-, gest-, gold-,
grund-, gūð-, hēah-, hring-, hrōf-, nið-, win-sele.

sele-drēam, st. m., _hall-glee, joy in the hall_: acc. sg. þāra þe þis līf
ofgeaf, gesāwon sele-drēam (referring to the joy of heaven?), 2253.

sele-ful, st. n., _hall-goblet_: acc. sg., 620.

sele-gyst, st. m., _hall-guest, stranger in hall_ or _house_: acc. sg. þone
sele-gyst, 1546.

sele-rǣdend, pres. part., _hall-ruler, possessor of the hall_: nom. pl.,
51; acc. lēode mīne sele-rǣdende, 1347.

sele-rest, st. f., _bed in the hall_: acc. sg. sele-reste, 691.

sele-þegn, st. m., _retainer, hall-thane, chamberlain_: nom. sg., 1795.

sele-weard, st. m., _hall-ward, guardian of the hall_: acc. sg., 668.

self, sylf, pron., _self_: nom. sg. strong form, self, 1314, 1925 (?
selfa); þū self, 595; þū þē self, 954; self cyning (_the king himself, the
king too_), 921, 1011; sylf, 1965; in weak form, selfa, 1469; hē selfa, 29,
1734; þǣm þe him selfa dēah (_that can rely upon, trust to, himself_),
1840; seolfa, 3068; hē sylfa, 505; god sylfa, 3055; acc. sg. m. selfne,
1606; hine selfne (_himself_), 962; hyne selfne (_himself_, reflex.), 2876;
wið sylfne (_beside_), 1978; gen. sg. m. selfes, 701, 896; his selfes,
1148; on sīnne sylfes dōm (_at his own will_), 2148; sylfes, 2224, 2361,
2640, 2711, 2777, 3014; his sylfes, 2014, 2326; fem. hire selfre, 1116;
nom. pl. selfe, 419; Sūð-Dene sylfe, 1997.

ge-sella, w. m., _house-companion, comrade_: in comp. hand-gesella.

sellan, syllan, w. v.: 1) w. acc. of thing, dat. of pers., _to give,
deliver; permit, grant, present_: pres. sg. III. seleð him on ēðle eorðan
wynne, 1731; inf. syllan, 2161, 2730; pret. sg. sealde, 72, 673, 1272,
1694, 1752, 2025, 2156, 2183, 2491, 2995; nefne god sylfa sealde þām þe hē
wolde hord openian (_unless God himself gave to whom he would to open the
hoard_), 3056; pret. sg. II. sealdest, 1483.--2) _to give, give up_ (only
w. acc. of thing): ǣr hē feorh seleð (_he prefers to give up his life_),
1371; nallas on gylp seleð fǣtte bēagas (_giveth out gold-wrought rings_,
etc.), 1750; pret. sg. sinc-fato sealde, 623; pl. byrelas sealdon wīn of
wunder-fatum, 1162.

ge-sellan, w. acc. and dat. of pers., _to give, deliver; grant, present_:
inf. ge-sellan, 1030; pret. sg. ge-sealde, 616, 1053, 1867, 1902, 2143,
etc.

sel-līc, syl-līc (from seld-līc), adj., _strange, wondrous_: nom. sg. glōf
... syllīc, 2087; acc. sg. n. syllīc spell, 2110; acc. pl. sellīce
sǣ-dracan, 1427. Compar. acc. sg. syllīcran wiht (the dragon), 3039.

semninga, adv., _straightway, at once_ 645, 1641, 1768.

sendan, w. v. w. acc. of thing and dat. of pers., _to send_: pret. sg. þone
god sende folce tō frōfre (_whom God sent as a comfort to the people_), 13;
so, 471, 1843.

for-sendan, _to send away, drive off_ pret. part. hē wearð on fēonda
geweald ... snūde for-sended, 905.

on-sendan, _to send forth, away_, w. acc. of thing and dat. of pers.:
imper. sg. on-send, 452, 1484; pret. sg. on-sende, 382; pl. þē hine ...
forð on-sendon ǣnne ofer ȳðe (_who sent him forth alone over the sea_),
45; pret. part. bealo-cwealm hafað fela feorh-cynna feorr on-sended, 2267.

sendan (cf. Gl. Aldhelm, sanda = ferculorum, epularum, in Haupt IX. 444),
w. v., _to feast, banquet_: pres. sg. III. sendeð, 601.--Leo.

serce, syrce, w. f., _sark, shirt of mail_: nom. sg. syrce, 1112; nom. pl.
syrcan, 226; acc. pl. grǣge syrcan, 334.--Comp.: beadu-, heoro-serce;
here-, leoðo-, līc-syrce.

sess, st. m., _seat, place for sitting_: dat. sg. sesse, 2718; þā hē bī
sesse gēong (_by the seat_, i.e. before the dragon's lair), 2757.

setl, st. n., _seat, settle_: acc. sg., 2014; dat. sg. setle, 1233, 1783,
2020; gen. sg. setles, 1787; dat. pl. setlum, 1290.--Comp.: hēah-, hilde-,
meodu-setl.

settan, w. v., _to set_: pret. sg. setton sǣ-mēðe sīde scyldas ... wið þæs
recedes weall (_the sea-wearied ones set their broad shields against the
wall of the hall_), 325; so, 1243.

ā-settan, _to set, place, appoint_: pret. pl. hīe him ā-setton segen
[gyl]-denne hēah ofer hēafod, 47; pret. part. hæfde kyninga wuldor Grendle
tō-gēanes ... sele-weard ā-seted, 668.

be-settan, _to set with, surround_: pret. sg. (helm) besette swīn-līcum
(_set the helm with swine-bodies_), 1454.

ge-settan: 1) _to set, set down_: pret. part. swā wæs ...þurh rūn-stafas
rihte ge-mearcod, ge-seted and ge-sǣd (_thus was ... in rune-staves rightly
marked, set down and said_), 1697.--2) _to set, ordain, create_: pret. sg.
ge-sette ... sunnan and mōnan lēoman tō lēohte land-būendum, 94.--3) =
componere, _to lay aside, smooth over, appease_: pret. sg. þæt hē mid þȳ
wīfe wæl-fǣhða ... dǣl ... ge-sette, 2030.

sēcan, w. v., _to follow after_, hence: 1) _to seek, strive for_, w. acc.:
pret. sg. sinc-fæt sōhte _(sought the costly cup_), 2301; ne sōhte
searo-nīðas, 2739; so, 3068. Without acc.: þonne his myne sōhte (_than his
wish demanded_), 2573; hord-weard sōhte georne æfter grunde (_the
hoard-warden sought eagerly along the ground_), 2294.--2) _to look for,
come_ or _go some whither, attain something_, w. acc.: pres. sg. III. sē þe
... biorgas sēceð, 2273; subj. þēah þe hǣð-stapa holt-wudu sēce, 1370;
imper. sēc gif þū dyrre (_look for her_, i.e. Grendel's mother, _if thou
dare_), 1380; inf. sēcean, 200, 268, 646, 1598, 1870, 1990, 2514(?), 3103,
etc.; sēcan, 665, 1451; drihten sēcean (_seek, go to, the Lord_), 187;
sēcean wyn-lēas wīc (_Grendel was to seek a joyless place_, i.e. Hell),
822; so, sēcan dēofla gedræg, 757; sāwle sēcan (_seek the life, kill_),
802; so, sēcean sāwle hord, 2423; gerund. sæcce tō sēceanne, 2563; pret.
sg. I., III. sōhte, 139, 208, 376, 417, 2224; II. sōhtest, 458; pl. sōhton,
339.--3) _to seek, attack_: þē ūs sēceað tō Swēona lēode, 3002; pret. pl.
hine wræc-mæcgas ofer sǣ sōhtan, 2381.

ge-sēcan: 1) _to seek_, w. acc.: inf. gif hē gesēcean dear wīg ofer wǣpen,
685.--2) _to look for, come_ or _go to attain_, w. acc.: inf. ge-sēcean,
693; gerund, tō ge-sēcanne, 1923; pret. sg. ge-sōhte, 463, 520, 718, 1952;
pret. part. nom. pl. feor-cȳððe bēoð sēlran ge-sōhte þām þe hine selfa
dēah, 1840.--3) _to seek with hostile intent, to attack_: pres. sg.
ge-sēceð 2516; pret. sg. ge-sōhte, 2347; pl. ge-sōhton, 2927; ge-sōhtan,
2205.

ofer-sēcan, w. acc., _to surpass, outdo_ (in an attack): pres. sg. wæs sīo
hond tō strong, sē þe mēca gehwane ... swenge ofer-sōhte, þonne hē tō sæcce
bær wǣpen wundrum heard (_too strong was the hand, that surpassed every
sword in stroke, when he_ [Bēowulf] _bore the wondrous weapon to battle_,
i.e. the hand was too strong for any sword; its strength made it useless in
battle), 2687.

sēl, st. f. See sǣl.

sēl, sǣl, adj., _good, excellent, fit_, only in compar.: nom. sg. m. sēlra,
861, 2194; þǣm þǣr sēlra wæs (_to the one that was the better_, i.e.
Hygelāc), 2200; dēað bið sēlla þonne edwīt-līf, 2891; neut. sēlre, 1385;
acc. sg. m. sēlran þē (_a better than thee_), 1851; sēlran, 1198; neut. þæt
sēlre, 1760; dat. sg. m. sēlran sweord-frecan, 1469; nom. pl. fem. sēlran,
1840. Superl., strong form: nom. sg. neut. sēlest, 173, 1060; hūsa sēlest,
146, 285, 936; ofost is sēlest, 256; bolda sēlest, 2327; acc. sg. neut.
hrægla sēlest, 454; hūsa sēlest, 659; billa sēlest, 1145;--weak form: nom.
sg. m. reced sēlesta, 412; acc. sg. m. þone sēlestan, 1407, 2383; (þæs,
MS.), 1957; dat. sg. m. þǣm sēlestan, 1686; nom. pl. sēlestan, 416; acc.
pl. þā sēlestan, 3123.

sēl, compar. adv., _better, fitter, more excellent_, 1013, 2531; ne byð him
wihte þē sēl (_he shall be nought the better for it_), 2278; so, 2688.

sealma (Frisian selma, in bed-selma), w. m., _bed-chamber, sleeping-place_:
acc. sg. on sealman, 2461.

sealt, adj., _salty_: acc. sg. neut. ofer sealt wæter (_the sea_), 1990.

searo (G. sarwa, pl.), st. n.: 1) _armor, accoutrements, war-gear_: nom.
pl. sǣ-manna searo, 329; dat. pl. secg on searwum (_a man, warrior, in
panoply_), 249, 2701; in (on) searwum, 323, 1558; 2531, 2569; instr. pl.
searwum, 1814.--2) _insidiae, ambuscade, waylaying, deception, battle_: þā
ic of searwum cwōm, fāh from fēondum, 419.--3) _cunning, art, skill_:
instr. pl. sadol searwum fāh (_saddle cunningly ornamented_), 1039;
earmbēaga fela, searwum ge-sǣled (_many cunningly-linked armlets_),
2765.--Comp. fyrd-, gūð-, inwit-searo.

searo-bend, st. f., _band, bond, of curious workmanship_: instr. pl.
searo-bendum fæst, 2087.

searo-fāh, adj., _cunningly inlaid, ornamented, with gold_: nom. sg.
here-byrne hondum ge-brōden, sīd and searo-fāh, 1445.

searo-ge-þræc, st. n., _heap of treasure-objects_: acc. sg., 3103.

searo-gim, st. m., _cunningly set gem, rich jewel_: acc. pl. searo-gimmas,
2750; gen. pl. searo-gimma, 1158.

searo-grim, adj., _cunning and fierce_: nom. sg., 595.

searo-hæbbend, pres. part. as subst., _arms-bearing, warrior with his
trappings_: gen. pl. searo-hæbbendra, 237.

searo-net, st. n., _armor-net, shirt of mail, corselet_: nom. sg., 406.

searo-nīð, st. m.: 1) _cunning hostility, plot, wiles_: acc. pl.
searo-nīðas, 1201, 2739.--2) also, only _hostility, feud, contest_: acc.
pl. searo-nīðas, 3068; gen. pl. searo-nīða, 582.

searo-þanc, st. m., _ingenuity_: instr. pl. searo-þoncum, 776.

searo-wundor, st. n., _rare wonder_: acc. sg., 921.

seax, st. n., _shortsword, hip-knife; dagger_: instr. sg. seaxe,
1546.--Comp. wæl-seax.

seax-ben, st. f., _dagger-wound_: instr. pl. siex-bennum, 2905.

seofon, num., _seven_, 517; seofan, 2196; decl. acc. syfone, 3123.

seomian, w. v.: 1) intrans., _to be tied; lie at rest_: inf. siomian, 2768;
pret. sg. seomode, 302.--2) w. acc., _to put in bonds, entrap, catch_:
pret. sg. duguðe and geogoðe seomade (cf. 2086-2092, 161.

seonu, st. f., _sinew_: nom. pl. seonowe, 818.

sēoc, adj., _feeble, weak; fatally ill_: nom. sg. feorh-bennum sēoc (of
Bēowulf, _sick unto death_), 2741; siex-bennum sēoc (of the dead dragon),
2905; nom. pl. mōdes sēoce (_sick of soul_), 1604.--Comp.: ellen-, feorh-,
heaðo-sēoc.

sēoðan, st. v. w. acc., _to seethe, boil_; figuratively, _be excited over,
brood_: pret. sg. ic þæs mōd-ceare sorh-wylmum sēað (_I pined in
heart-grief for that_), 1994; so, 190.

seoloð, st. m.?, _bight, bay_ (cf. Dietrich in Haupt XI. 416): gen. pl.
sioleða bi-gong (_the realm of bights_ = the [surface of the] sea?), 2368.

sēon, sȳn, st. f., _aspect, sight_: in comp. wlite-, wundor-sēon, an-sȳn.

sēon, st. v., _to see_: a) w. acc.: inf. searo-wunder sēon, 921; so, 387,
1181, 1276, 3103; þǣr mæg nihta ge-hwǣm nīð-wundor sēon (_there may every
night be seen a repulsive marvel_), 1366; pret. sg. ne seah ic ...
heal-sittendra medudrēam māran, 2015.--b) w. acc. and predicate adj.: ne
seah ic elþēodige þus manige men mōdiglīcran, 336.--c) w. prep. or adv.:
pret. sg. seah on enta ge-weorc, 2718; seah on un-lēofe, 2864; pl. folc tō
sǣgon (_looked on_), 1423.

ge-sēon, _to see, behold_: a) w. acc.: pres. sg. III. sē þe bēah ge-syhð,
2042; inf. ge-sēon, 396, 571, 649, 962, 1079, etc.; pret. sg. geseah, 247,
927, 1558, 1614; pl. ge-sāwon, 1606, 2253.--b) w. acc. and predicate adj.,
pres. sg. III. ge-syhð ... on his suna būre win-sele wēstne (_sees in his
son's house the wine-hall empty_; or, _hall of friends_?), 2456.--c) w.
inf.: pret. sg. ge-seah ... beran ofer bolcan beorhte randas (_saw shining
shields borne over the gang-plank_), 229; pret. pl. mǣre māððum-sweord
monige ge-sāwon beforan beorn beran, 1024.--d) w. acc. and inf.: pret. sg.
ge-seah, 729, 1517, 1586, 1663, 2543, 2605, etc.; pl. ge-sāwon, 221, 1348,
1426; ge-sēgan, 3039; ge-sēgon, 3129.--e) w. depend, clause: inf. mæg þonne
... gesēon sunu Hrēðles, þæt ic (_may the son of H. see that I..._), 1486;
pret. pl. ge-sāwon, 1592.

geond-sēon, _to see, look through, over_, w. acc.: pret. sg. (ic) þæt eall
geond-seh, 3088.

ofer-sēon, _to see clearly, plainly_: pret. pl. ofer-sāwon, 419.

on-sēon, _to look on, at_, w. acc.: pret. pl. on-sāwon, 1651.

sēowian, w. v., _to sew, put together, link_: pret. part. searo-net sēowed
smiðes or-þancum (_the corselet woven by the smith's craft_), 406.

sib, st. f., _peace, friendship, relationship_: nom. sg., 1165, 1858; sibb,
2601; acc. sibbe, 950, 2432, 2923; instr. sg. sibbe (_in peace_?),
154.--Comp.: dryht-, friðo-sib.

sib-æðeling, st. m., _nobilis consanguineus, kindred prince_ or _nobleman_:
nom. pl. -æðelingas, 2709.

sibbe-gedryht, st. f., _body of allied_ or _related warriors_: acc. sg.
sibbe-gedriht (the Danes), 387; (the Gēatas), 730.

siððan, syððan: 1) adv.: a) _since, after, from now on, further_, 142, 149,
283, 567, 1903, 2052, 2065, 2176, 2703, 2807, 2921; seoððan, 1876.--b)
_then, thereupon, after_, 470, 686, 1454, 1557, 1690, 2208; seoððan, 1938;
ǣr nē siððan (_neither before nor after_), 719.

2) Conj.: a) w. ind. pres., _as soon as, when_, 413, 605, 1785, 2889,
2912.--b) w. ind. pret., _when, whilst_, 835, 851, 1205, 1207, 1421,
1590, 2357, 2961, 2971, 3128; seoððan, 1776;--_since_, 649, 657, 983,
1199, 1254, 1309, 2202;--_after_, either with pluperf.: siððan him
scyppend forscrifen hæfde (_after the Creator had proscribed him_), 106;
so, 1473; or with pret. = pluperf.: syððan niht becōm (_after night had
come on_), 115; so, 6, 132, 723, 887, 902, 1078, 1149, 1236, 1262, 1282,
1979, 2013, 2125; or pret. and pluperf. together, 2104-2105.

siex. See seax.

sige-dryhten, st. m., _lord of victory, victorious lord_: nom. sg.
sige-drihten, 391.

sige-ēadig, adj., _blest with victory, victorious_: acc. sg. neut.
sige-ēadig bil, 1558.

sige-folc, st. n., _victorious people, troop_: gen. pl. sige-folca, 645.

sige-hrēð, st. f., _confidence of victory_(?): acc. sg., 490. See Note.

sige-hrēðig, adj., _victorious_: nom. sg., 94, 1598, 2757.

sige-hwīl, st. f., _hour_ or _day of victory_: gen. sg. sige-hwīle, 2711.

sige-lēas, adj., _devoid of victory, defeated_: acc. sg. sige-lēasne sang,
788.

sige-rōf, adj., _victorious_: nom. sg., 620.

sige-þēod, st. f., _victorious warrior troop_: dat. sg. on sige-þēode,
2205.

sige-wǣpen, st. n., _victor-weapon, sword_: dat. pl. sige-wǣpnum, 805.

sigl, st. n.: 1) _sun_: nom. sg. sigel, 1967.--2) _sun-shaped ornament_:
acc. pl. siglu, 3165; sigle (bracteates of a necklace), 1201; gen. pl.
sigla, 1158.--Comp. māððum-sigl.

sigor, st. m., _victory_: gen. sg. sigores, 1022; gen. pl. sigora, 2876,
3056.--Comp.: hrēð-, wīg-sigor.

sigor-ēadig, adj., _victorious_: nom. sg. sigor-ēadig secg (of Bēowulf),
1312, 2353.

sin. See syn.

sinc, st. n., _treasure, jewel, property_: nom. sg., 2765; acc. sg. sinc,
81, 1205, 1486, 2384, 2432; instr. sg. since, 1039, 1451, 1616, 1883, 2218,
2747; gen. sg. sinces, 608, 1171, 1923, 2072; gen. pl. sinca, 2429.

sinc-fāh, adj., _treasure-decked_: acc. sg. neut. weak form, sinc-fāge sel,
167.

sinc-fæt, st. n., _costly vessel_: acc. sg., 2232, 2301;--_a costly
object_: acc. sg., 1201 (i.e. mene); acc. pl. sinc-fato, 623.

sinc-ge-strēon, st. n., _precious treasure, jewel of value _: instr. pl.
-gestrēonum, 1093; gen. pl. -gestrēona, 1227.

sinc-gifa, w. m., _jewel-giver, treasure-giver = prince, ruler_: acc. sg.
sinc-gyfan, 1013; dat. sg. sinc-gifan (of Bēowulf), 2312; (of Æschere),
1343.

sinc-māððum, st. m., _treasure_: nom. sg., 2194.

sinc-þego, f., _acceptance, taking, of jewels_: nom. sg., 2885.

sin-dolh, st. n., _perpetual_, i.e. incurable, _wound_: nom. sg. syn-dolh,
818.

sin-frēa, w. m., _wedded lord, husband_: nom. sg., 1935.

sin-gāl, adj., _continual, lasting_: acc. sg. fem, sin-gāle sæce, 154.

sin-gāles, adv. gen. sg., _continually, ever_, 1778; syngales, 1136.

singāla, adv. gen. pl., the same, 190.

singan, st. v., _to sound, ring, sing_: pret. sg. hring-īren scīr song in
searwum (_the ringed iron rang in the armor_), 323; horn stundum song
fūs-līc f[yrd]-lēoð (_at times the horn rang forth a ready battle-song_),
1424; scop hwīlum sang (_the singer sang at whiles_), 496.

ā-singan, _to sing out, sing to an end_: pret. part. lēoð wæs ā-sungen,
1160.

sin-here, st. m., (_army without end_?), _strong army, host_: instr. sg.
sin-herge, 2937.

sin-niht, st. f., _perpetual night, night after night_: acc. pl. sin-nihte
(_night after night_), 161.

sin-sceaða, w. m., _irreconcilable foe_: nom. sg. syn-scaða, 708; acc. sg.
syn-scaðan, 802.

sin-snǣd, st. f., (_continuous biting_) _bite after bite_: dat. pl.
syn-snǣdum swealh (_swallowed bite after bite, in great bites_), 744.

sittan, st. v.: 1) _to sit_: pres. sg. Wīglāf siteð ofer Bīowulfe, 2907;
imper. sg. site nū tō symle, 489; inf. þǣr swið-ferhðe sittan ēodon
(_whither the strong-minded went and sat_), 493; ēode ... tō hire frēan
sittan (_went to sit by her lord_), 642; pret. sg. on wicge sæt (_sat on
the horse_), 286; æt fōtum sæt (_sat at the feet_), 500, 1167; þǣr Hrōðgār
sæt (_where H. sat_), 356; so, 1191, 2895; hē gewērgad sæt ... frēan eaxlum
nēah, 2854; pret. pl. sǣton, 1165; gistas sētan (MS. sēcan) ... and on mere
staredon (_the strangers sat and stared on the sea_), 1603.--2) _to be in a
certain state_ or _condition_ (_quasi_ copula): pret. sg. mǣre þēoden ...
unblīðe sæt, 130.--Comp.: flet-, heal-sittend.

be-sittan, obsidere, _to surround, besiege_, w. acc.: besæt þā sin-herge
sweorda lāfe wundum wērge (_then besieged he with a host the leavings of
the sword, wound-weary_), 2937.

for-sittan, obstrui, _to pass away, fail_: pres. sg. ēagena bearhtm
for-siteð (_the light of the eyes passeth away_), 1768.

ge-sittan: 1) _to sit, sit together_: pret. sg. monig-oft ge-sæt rīce to
rūne (_very often sat the king deliberating with his council_ (see rīce),
171; wið earm ge-sæt (_supported himself upon his arm, sat on his arm_?),
750; fēða eal ge-sæt (_the whole troop sat down_), 1425; ge-sæt þā wið
sylfne (_sat there beside, near to, him_, i.e. Hygelāc), 1978;

ge-sæt þā on næsse, 2418; so, 2718; pret. part. (syððan) ... wē tō symble
ge-seten hæfdon, 2105.--2) w. acc., _to seat one's self upon_ or _in
something, to board_: pret. sg. þā ic ... sǣ-bāt ge-sæt, 634.

of-sittan, w. acc., _to sit over_ or _upon_: pret. sg. of-sæt þā þone
sele-gyst, 1546.

ofer-sittan, w. acc., _to dispense with, refrain from_ (cf. ofer, 2 [c]):
pres. sg. I. þæt ic wið þone gūð-flogan gylp ofer-sitte, 2529; inf. secge
ofer-sittan, 685.

on-sittan (O.H.G. int-sizzan, _to start from one's seat, to be startled_),
w. acc., _to fear_: inf. þā fǣhðe, atole ecg-þræce ēower lēode sīwðe
onsittan _to dread the hostility, the fierce contest, of your people_, 598.

ymb-sittan, _to sit around_, w. acc.: pret. pl. (þæt hīe) ... symbel
ymb-sǣton (_sat round the feast_), 564. See ymb-sittend.

sīd, adj.: 1) _wide, broad, spacious, large_: nom. sg. (here-byrne, glōf)
sīd, 1445, 2087; acc. sg. m. sīdne scyld, 437; on sīdne sǣ, 507; fem.
byrnan sīde (of a corselet extending over the legs), 1292; ofer sǣ sīde,
2395; neut. sīde rīce, 1734, 2200; instr. sg. sīdan herge, 2348; acc. pl.
sīde sǣ-næssas, 223; sīde scyldas, 325; gen. pl. sīdra sorga (_of great
sorrows_), 149.--2) in moral sense, _great, noble_: acc. sg. þurh sīdne
sefan, 1727.

side, adv., _far and wide, afar_, 1224.

sīd-fæðme, adj., _broad-bosomed_: acc. sg. sīd-fæðme scip, 1918.

sīd-fæðmed, _quasi_ pret. part., the same: nom. sg. sīd-fæðmed scip, 302.

sīd-rand, st. m., _broad shield_: nom. sg., 1290.

sīð (G. seþu-s), adj., _late_: superl. nom. sg. sīðast sige-hwīle (_the
last hour, day, of victory_), 2711; dat. sg. æt sīðestan (_in the end, at
last_), 3014.

sīð, adv. compar., _later_: ǣr and sīð (_sooner and later, early and
late_), 2501.

sīð (G. sinþ-s), st. m.: l) _road, way, journey, expedition_; esp., _road
to battle_: nom. sg., 501, 3059, 3090; næs þæt ēðe sīð (_that was no easy
road, task_), 2587; so, þæt wæs gēocor sīð, 766; acc. sg. sīð, 353, 512,
909, 1279, 1430, 1967; instr. dat. sīðe, 532, 1952, 1994; gen. sg. sīðes,
579, 1476, 1795, 1909. Also, _return_: nom. sg., 1972.--2) _undertaking,
enterprise_; esp., _battle-work_: nom. sg. nis þæt ēower sīð, 2533; ne bið
swylc earges sīð (_such is no coward's enterprise_), 2542; acc. sg. sīð,
873. In pl.= _adventures_: nom. sīðas, 1987; acc. sīðas, 878; gen. sīða,
318.--3) time (as iterative): nom. sg. næs þæt forma sīð (_that was not the
first time_), 717, 1464; so, 1528, 2626; acc. sg. oftor micle þonne on ǣnne
sīð, 1580; instr. sg. (forman, ōðre, þriddan) sīðe, 741, 1204, 2050, 2287,
2512, 2518, 2671, 2689, 3102.--Comp.: cear-, eft-, ellor-, gryre-, sǣ-,
wil-, wrǣc-sīð.

ge-sīð, st. m., _comrade, follower_: gen. sg. ge-sīðes, 1298; nom. pl.
ge-sīðas, 29; acc. pl. ge-sīðas, 2041, 2519; dat. pl. ge-sīðum, 1314, 1925,
2633; gen. pl. ge-sīða, 1935.--Comp.: eald-, wil-gesīð.

sīð-fæt, st. m., _way, journey_: acc. sg. þone sīð-fæt, 202; dat. sg.
sīð-fate, 2640.

sīð-fram, -from, adj., _ready for the journey_: nom. pl. sīð-frome, 1814.

sīðian, w. v., _to journey, march_: inf., 721, 809; pret. sg. sīðode, 2120.

for-sīðian, _iter fatale inire_ (Grein): pret. sg. hæfde þā for-sīðod sunu
Ecg-þēowes under gynne grund _(would have found his death_, etc.), 1551.

sīe, sȳ. See wesan.

sīgan, st. v., _to descend, sink, incline_: pret. pl. sigon æt-somne
(_descended together_), 307; sigon þā tō slǣpe _(they sank to sleep_),
1252.

ge-sīgan, _to sink, fall_: inf. ge-sīgan æt sæcce (_fall in battle_), 2660.

sīn, poss. pron., _his_: acc. sg. m. sīnne, 1961, 1985, 2284, 2790; dat.
sg. sīnum, 1508.

slǣp, st. m., _sleep_: nom. sg., 1743; dat. sg. tō slǣpe, 1252.

slǣpan, st. v., _to sleep_: pres. part. nom. sg. slǣpende, 2220; acc. sg.
hē gefēng ... slǣpendne rinc (_seized a sleeping warrior]_, 742; acc. pl.
slǣpende fræt folces Denigea fīftȳne men _(devoured, sleeping, fifteen of
the people of the Danes_), 1582.

slēac, adj., _slack, lazy_: nom. sg., 2188.

sleahan, slēan: 1) _to strike, strike at_: a) intrans.: pres. subj. sg. þæt
hē mē ongēan slēa (_that he should strike at me_), 682; pret. sg. yrringa
slōh (_struck angrily_), 1566; so, slōh hilde-bille, 2680. b) trans.: pret.
sg. þæt hē þone nīð-gæst nioðor hwēne slōh _(that he struck the dragon
somewhat lower_, etc.), 2700.--2) w. acc.: _to slay, kill_: pret. sg. þæs
þe hē Ābel slōg (_because he slew A._), 108; so, slōg, 421, 2180; slōh,
1582, 2356; pl. slōgon, 2051; pret. part. þā wæs Fin slægen, 1153.

ge-slēan, w. acc.: 1) _to fight a battle_: pret. sg. ge-slōh þīn fæder
fǣhðe mǣste, 459.--2) _to gain by fighting_: syððan hīe þā mǣrða ge-slōgon,
2997.

of-slēan, _to ofslay, kill_, w. acc.: pret. sg. of-slōh, 574, 1666, 3061.

slīðe (G. sleiþ-s), adj., _savage, fierce, dangerous_: acc. sg. þurh slīðne
nīð, 184; gen. pl. slīðra ge-slyhta, 2399.

slīðen, adj., _furious, savage, deadly_ nom. sg. sweord-bealo slīðen, 1148.

slītan, st. v., _to slit, tear to pieces_, w. acc.: pret. sg. slāt
(slǣpendne rinc), 742.

slyht, st. m., _blow_: in comp. and-slyht.

ge-slyht, st. n. (collective), _battle, conflict_: gen. pl. slīðra
ge-slyhta, 2399.

smið, st. m., _smith, armorer_: nom. sg. wǣpna smið, 1453; gen. sg. smiðes,
406.--Comp. wundor-smið.

be-smiðian, w. v., _to surround with iron-work, bands_, etc.: pret. part.
hē (the hall Heorot) þæs fæste wæs innan and ūtan īren-bendum searo-þoncum
besmiðod (i.e. the beams out of which the hall was built were held together
skilfully, within and without, by iron clamps), 776.

snell, adj., _fresh, vigorous, lively; of martial temper_: nom. sg. se
snella, 2972.

snellīc, adj., the same: nom. sg., 691.

snotor, snottor, adj., _clever, wise, intelligent_: nom. sg. snotor, 190,
827, 909, 1385; in weak form, (se) snottra, 1314, 1476, 1787; snotra, 2157,
3121; nom. pl. snotere, 202, 416; snottre, 1592.--Comp. fore-snotor.

snotor-līce, adv., _intelligently, wisely_: compar. snotor-līcor, 1483.

snūde, adv., _hastily, quickly, soon_, 905, 1870, 1972, 2326, 2569, 2753.

be-snyðian, w. v., _to rob, deprive of_: pret. sg. þætte Ongenþīo ealdre
be-snyðede Hæðcyn, 2925.

snyrian, w. v., _to hasten, hurry_: pret. pl. snyredon æt-somne (_hurried
forward together_), 402.

snyttru, f., _intelligence, wisdom_: acc. sg. snyttru, 1727; dat. pl. mid
mōdes snyttrum, 1707; þē wē ealle ǣr ne meahton snyttrum be-syrwan (_a deed
which all of us together could not accomplish before with all our wisdom_),
943. Adv., _wisely_, 873.

somne. See samne.

sorgian, w. v.: 1) _to be grieved, sorrow_: imper. sg. II. ne sorga!
1385.--2) _to care for, trouble one's self about_: inf. nō þū ymb mīnes ne
þearft līces feorme leng sorgian (_thou needst not care longer about my
life's [body's] sustenance_), 451.

sorh, st. f., _grief, pain, sorrow_: nom. sg., 1323; sorh is mē tō secganne
(_pains me to say_), 473; acc. sg. sorge, 119, 2464; dat. instr. sg. mid
þǣre sorge, 2469; sorge (_in sorrow, grieved_), 1150; gen. sg. worna fela
... sorge, 2005; dat. pl. sorgum, 2601; gen. pl. sorga, 149.--Comp.: hyge-,
inwit-, þegn-sorh.

sorh-cearig, adj., _curis sollicitus, heart-broken_: nom. sg., 2456.

sorh-ful, adj., _sorrowful, troublesome, difficult_: nom. sg., 2120; acc.
sg. sorh-fullne (sorh-fulne) sīð, 512, 1279, 1430.

sorh-lēas, adj., _free from sorrow_ or _grief_: nom. sg., 1673.

sorh-leoð, st. n., _dirge, song of sorrow_: acc. sg., 2461.

sorh-wylm, st. m., _wave of sorrow_ nom. pl. sorh-wylmas, 905.

sōcn, st. f., _persecution, hostile pursuit_ or _attack_ (see sēcan): dat,
(instr.) þǣre sōcne (by reason of Grendel's persecution), 1778.

sōð, st. n., _sooth, truth_:: acc. sg. sōð, 532, 701, 1050, 1701, 2865;
dat. sg. tō sōðe (_in truth_), 51, 591, 2326.

sōð, adj., _true, genuine_: nom. sg, þæt is sōð metod, 1612; acc. sg. n.
gyd āwræc sōð and sār-līc, 2110.

sōðe, adv., _truly, correctly, accurately_, 524; sōðe gebunden (of
alliterative verse: _accurately put together_), 872.

sōð-cyning, st. m., _true king_: nom. sg. sigora sōð-cyning (_God_), 3056.

sōð-fæst, adj., _soothfast, established in truth, orthodox_ (here used of
the Christian martyrs): gen. pl. sōð-fæstra dōm (_glory, realm, of the
saints_), 2821.

sōð-līce, adv., _in truth, truly, truthfully_, 141, 273, 2900.

sōfte, adv., _gently, softly_: compar. þȳ sēft (_the more easily_),
2750.--Comp. un-sōfte.

sōna, adv., _soon, immediately_, 121, 722, 744, 751, 1281, 1498, 1592,
1619, 1763, etc.

on-spannan, st. v., _to un-span, unloose_: pret. sg. his helm on-spēon
(_loosed his helm_), 2724.

spel, st. n., _narrative, speech_: acc. sg. spell, 2110; acc. pl. spel,
874; gen. pl. spella, 2899, 3030.--Comp. wēa-spel.

spēd, st. f.: 1) _luck, success_: in comp. here-, wīg-spēd.--2) _skill,
facility_: acc. sg. on spēd (_skilfully_), 874.

spīwan, st. v., _to spit, spew_, w. instr.: inf. glēdum spīwan (_spit
fire_), 2313

spor, st. n., _spur_: in comp. hand-spor.

spōwan, st. v., _to speed well, help, avail_: pret. sg. him wiht ne spēow
(_availed him naught_), 2855; hū him æt ǣte spēow (_how he sped in the
eating_), 3027.

sprǣc, st. f., _speech, language_: instr. sg. frēcnan sprǣce (_through
bold, challenging, discourse_), 1105.--Comp.: ǣfen-, gylp-sprǣc.

sprecan, st. v., _to speak_: inf. ic sceal forð sprecan gēn ymbe Grendel
_(I shall go on speaking about G._), 2070; w. acc. sē þe wyle sōð sprecan
(_he who will speak the truth_), 2865; imper. tō Gēatum sprec (sprǣc, MS.),
1172; pret. sg. III. spræc, 1169, 1699, 2511, 2725; word æfter spræc, 341;
nō ymbe þā fǣhðe spræc, 2619; II. hwæt þū worn fela ... ymb Brecan sprǣce
(_how much thou hast spoken of Breca!_), 531; pl. hwæt wit geō sprǣcon
(_what we two spoke of before_), 1477; gomele ymb gōdne on-geador sprǣcon,
þæt big ... _(the graybeards spoke together about the valiant one, that
they ..._), 1596; swā wit furðum sprǣcon (_as we two spoke, engaged,
before_), 1708; pret. part. þā wæs ... þrȳð-word sprecen, 644.

ge-sprecan, w. acc., _to speak_: pret. sg. ge-spræc, 676, 1399, 1467, 3095.

sprēot, st. m., _pole; spear, pike_: in comp. eofor-sprēot.

springan, st. v., _to jump, leap; flash_: pret. sg. hrā wīde sprong _(the
body bounded far_), 1589; swāt ǣdrum sprong forð under fexe (_the blood
burst out in streams from under his hair_), 2967; pl. wīde sprungon
hilde-lēoman (_flashed afar_), 2583. Also figuratively: blǣd wīde sprang
(_his repute spread afar_), 18.

ge-springan, _to spring forth_: pret. sg. swā þæt blōd ge-sprang (_as the
blood burst forth_), 1668. Figuratively, _to arise, originate_: pret. sg.
Sigemunde gesprong æfter dēað-dæge dōm un-lȳtel, 885.

on-springan, _to burst in two, spring asunder_: pret. pl. seonowe
onsprungon, burston bānlocan 818.

standan, st. v.: 1) absolutely or with prep., _to stand_: pres. III. pl.
ēored-geatwe þē gē þǣr on standað (_the warlike accoutrements wherein ye
there stand_), 2867; inf. ge-seah ... orcas stondan (_saw vessels
standing_), 2761; pret. sg. æt hȳðe stōd hringed-stefna (_in the harbor
stood the curved-prowed?, metal-covered?, ship_), 32; stōd on stapole
(_stood near the [middle] column_), 927; so, 1914, 2546; þæt him on aldre
stōd here-strǣl hearda (_that the sharp war-arrow stood in his vitals_),
1435; so, 2680; pl. gāras stōdon ... samod æt-gædere (_the spears stood
together_), 328; him big stōdan bunan and orcas (_by him stood cans and
pots_), 3048. Also of still water: pres. sg. III. nis þæt feor heonon ...
þæt se mere standeð, 1363.--2) with predicate adj., _to stand, continue in
a certain state_: subj. pres. þæt þes sele stande ... rinca ge-hwylcum īdel
and unnyt (_that this hall stands empty and useless for every warrior_),
411; inf. hord-wynne fand eald ūht-sceaða opene standan, 2272; pret. sg. oð
þæt īdel stōd hūsa sēlest, 145; so, 936; wæter under stōd drēorig and
ge-drēfed, 1418--3) _to belong_ or _attach to; issue_: pret. sg. Norð-Denum
stōd atelīc egesa (_great terror clung to, overcame, the North Danes_),
784; þāra ānum stōd sadol searwum fāh (_on one of the steeds lay an
ingeniously-inlaid saddle_), 1038; byrne-lēoma eldum on andan (_burning
light stood forth, a horror to men_), 2314; lēoht inne stōd (_a light stood
in it_, i.e. the sword), 1571; him of ēagum stōd ... lēoht unfǣger (_an
uncanny light issued from his eyes_), 727; so, þæt [fram] þām gyste
[gryre-] brōga stōd, 2229.

ā-standan, _to stand up, arise_: pret. sg. ā-stōd, 760, 1557, 2093.

æt-standan, _to stand at, near_, or _in_: pret. sg. þæt hit (i.e. þæt
swurd) on wealle æt-stōd, 892.

for-standan, _to stand against_ or _before_, hence: 1) _to hinder,
prevent_: pret. sg. (brēost-net) wið ord and wið ecge in-gang for-stōd
(_the shirt of mail prevented point or edge from entering_), 1550; subj.
nefne him wītig god wyrd for-stōde (_if the wise God had not warded off
such a fate from them_, i.e. the men threatened by Grendel), 1057.--2)
_defend_, w. dat. of person against whom: inf. þæt hē ... mihte
hēaðo-līðendum hord for-standan, bearn and brȳde (_that he might protect
his treasure, his children, and his spouse from the sea-farers_), 2956.

ge-standan, intrans., _to stand_: pret. sg. ge-stōd, 358, 404, 2567; pl.
nealles him on hēape hand-gesteallan ... ymbe gestōdon (_not at all did his
boon-companions stand serried around him_), 2597.

stapa, w. m., _stepper, strider_: in comp. hǣð-, mearc-stapa.

stapan, st. v., _to step, stride, go forward_: pret. sg. eorl furður stōp,
762; gum-fēða stop lind-hæbbendra (_the troop of shield-warriors strode
on_), 1402.

æt-stapan, _to stride up_ or _to_: pret. sg. forð nēar æt-stōp (_strode up
nearer_), 746.

ge-stapan, _to walk, stride_: pret. sg. hē to forð gestōp dyrnan cræfte,
dracan hēafde nēah (_he_, i.e. the man that robbed the dragon of the
vessel, _had through hidden craft come too near the dragon's head_), 2290.

stapol, st. m., (= βάσις), _trunk of a tree_; hence, _support, pillar,
column_: dat. sg. stōd on stapole (_stood by_ or _near the wooden middle
column of Heorot_), 927; instr. pl. þā stān-bogan stapulum fæste (_the
arches of stone upheld by pillars_), 2719. See Note.

starian, w. v., _to stare, look intently at_: pres. sg. I. þæt ic on þone
hafelan ... ēagum starige (_that I see the head with my eyes_), 1782; þāra
frætwa ... þē ic hēr on starie (_for the treasures ... that I here look
upon_), 2797; III. þonne hē on þæt sine starað, 1486; sg. for pl. þāra þe
on swylc starað, 997; pret. sg. þæt (sin-frēa) hire an dæges ēagum starede,
1936; pl. on mere staredon, 1604.

stān, st. m., 1) _stone_: in comp. eorclan-stān.--2) _rock_: acc. sg. under
(ofer) hārne stān, 888, 1416, 2554, 2745; dat. sg. stāne, 2289, 2558.

stān-beorh, st. m., _rocky elevation, stony mountain_: acc. sg. stān-beorh
stēapne, 2214.

stān-boga, w. m., _stone arch, arch hewn out of the rock_: dat. sg.
stān-bogan, 2546; nom. pl. stān-bogan, 2719.

stān-clif, st. n., _rocky cliff_: acc. pl. stān-cleofu, 2541.

stān-fāh, adj., _stone-laid, paved with stones of different colors_: nom.
sg. strǣt wæs stān-fāh (_the street was of different colored stones_), 320.

stān-hlið, st. n., _rocky slope_: acc. pl. stān-hliðo, 1410.

stæf, st. m.: 1) _staff_: in comp. rūn-staf.--2) _elementum_: in comp. ār-,
ende-, fācen-stæf.

stǣl, st. m., _place, stead_: dat. sg. þæt þū mē ā wǣre forð-gewitenum on
fæder stǣle (_that thou, if I died, wouldst represent a father's place to
me_), 1480.

stǣlan, w. v., _to place; allure_ or _instigate_: inf. þā ic on morgne
ge-frægn mǣg ōðerne billes ecgum on bonan stǣlan _(then I learned that on
the morrow one brother instigated the other to murder with the sword's
edge_; or, _one avenged the other on the murderer_?, cf. 2962 seqq.), 2486.

ge-stǣlan, _to place, impose, institute_: pret. part. gē feor hafað fǣhðe
ge-stǣled (_Grendel's mother has further begun hostilities against us_),
1341.

stede, st. m., _place, -stead_: in comp. bǣl-, burh-, folc-, hēah-, meðel-,
wang-, wīc-stede.

stefn, st. f., _voice_: nom. sg., 2553; instr. sg. nīwan (nīowan) stefne
(properly novā voce) = denuo, _anew, again_, 2595, 1790.

stefn, st. m., _prow of a ship_: acc. sg., 213; see bunden-, hringed-,
wunden-stefna.

on-stellan, w. v., _constituere, to cause, bring about_: pret. sg. sē þæs
or-leges ōr on-stealde, 2408.

steng, st. m., _pole, pike_: in comp wæl-steng.

ge-steppan, w. v., _to stride, go_: pret. sg. folce ge-stepte ofer sǣ sīde
sunu Ōhtheres (_O.'s son_, i.e. Ēadgils, _went with warriors over the broad
sea_), 2394.

stede (O.H.G. stāti, M.H.G. stǣte), adj., _firm, steady_: nom. sg. wæs
stēde nægla ge-hwylc stȳle ge-līcost (_each nail-place was firm as
steel_), 986.

stēpan, w. v. w. acc., _to exalt, honor_: pret. sg. þēah þe hine mihtig god
... eafeðum stēpte, 1718.

ge-steald, st. n., _possessions, property_: in comp. in-gesteald, 1156.

ge-stealla, w. m., (contubernalis), _companion, comrade_: in comp. eaxl-,
fyrd-, hand-, lind-, nȳd-ge-stealla.

stearc-heort, adj., (fortis animo), _stout-hearted, courageous_: nom. sg.
(of the dragon), 2289; (of Bēowulf), 2553.

stēap, adj., _steep, projecting, towering_: acc. sg. stēapne hrōf, 927;
stān-beorh stēapne, 2214; wið stēapne rond, 2567; acc. pl. m. beorgas
stēape, 222; neut. stēap stān-hliðo, 1410.--Comp. heaðo-stēap.

stille, adj., _still, quiet_: nom. sg. wīd-floga wundum stille, 2831.

stille, adv., _quietly_, 301.

stincan, st. v., _to smell; snuff_: pret. sg. stonc þā æfter stāne
(_snuffed along the stone_), 2289.

stīð, adj., _hard, stiff_: nom. sg. wunden-mǣl (swurd) ... stīð and
stȳlecg, 1534.

stīð-mōd, adj., _stout-hearted, unflinching_: nom. sg., 2567.

stīg, st. m., _way, path_: nom. sg., 320, 2214; acc. pl. stīge nearwe,
1410--Comp. medu-stīg.

stīgan, st. v., _to go, ascend_: pret. sg. þā hē tō holme [st]āg (_when he
plunged forward into the sea_), 2363; pl. beornas ... on stefn stigon, 212;
Wedera lēode on wang stigon, 225; subj. pret. ǣr hē on bed stige, 677.

ā-stīgan, _to ascend_: pres. sg. þonon ȳð-geblond up ā-stīgeð won tō
wolcnum, 1374; gūð-rinc ā-stāh (_the fierce hero ascended_, i.e. was laid
on the pyre? or, _the fierce smoke_ [rēc] _ascended?_), 1119; gamen eft
ā-stāh (_joy again went up, resounded_), 1161; wudu-rēc ā-stāh sweart of
swioðole, 3145; swēg up ā-stāg, 783.

ge-stīgan, _to ascend, go up_: pret. sg. þā ic on holm ge-stāh, 633.

storm, st. m., _storm_: nom. sg. strǣla storm (_storm of missiles_), 3118;
instr. sg. holm storme wēol (_the sea billowed stormily_), 1132.

stōl, st. m., _chair, throne, seat_: in comp. brego-, ēðel-, gif-,
gum-stōl.

stōw, st. f., _place, -stow_: nom. sg. nis þæt hēoru stōw (_a haunted
spot_), 1373; acc. sg. frēcne stōwe, 1379; grund-būendra gearwe stōwe _(the
place prepared for men_, i.e. death-bed; see gesacan and ge-nȳdan), 1007:
comp. wæl-stow.

strang, strong, adj., _strong; valiant; mighty_: nom. sg. wæs þæt ge-win tō
strang (_that sorrow was too great_), 133; þū eart mægenes strang (_strong
of body_), 1845; wæs sīo hond tō strong (_the hand was too powerful_),
2685; superl. wigena strengest (_strongest of warriors_), 1544; mægenes
strengest (_strongest in might_), 196; mægene strengest, 790.

strādan? (cf. strǣde = passus, gressus), _to tread_, (be)-_stride, stride
over_ (Grein): subj. pres. sē þone wong strāde, 3074. See Note.

strǣl, st. m., _arrow, missile_: instr. sg. biteran strǣle, 1747; gen. pl.
strǣla storm, 3118.

strǣt, st. f., _street, highway_: nom. sg., 320; acc. sg. strǣte, 1635;
fealwe strǣte, 917.--Comp.: lagu-, mere-strǣt.

strengel, st. m., (_endowed with strength_), _ruler, chief_: acc. sg.
wigena strengel, 3116.

strengo, st. f., _strength, power, violence_: acc. sg. mægenes strenge,
1271; dat. sg. strenge, 1534; strengo, 2541;--dat. pl. strengum =
_violently, powerfully_ [_loosed from the strings_?], 3118: in comp.
hilde-, mægen-, mere-strengo.

strēgan (O.S. strōwian), w. v., _to strew, spread_: pret. part, wæs þǣm
yldestan ... morðorbed strēd (_the death-bed was spread for the eldest
one_), 2437.

strēam, st. m., _stream, flood, sea_: acc. sg. strēam, 2546; nom. pl.
strēamas, 212; acc. pl. strēamas, 1262: comp. brim-, ēagor-, firgen-,
lagu-strēam.

ge-strēon (cf. strēon = robur, vis), st. n., _property, possessions_;
hence, _valuables, treasure, jewels_: nom. pl. Heaðo-beardna ge-strēon
(_the costly treasure of the Heathobeardas_, i.e. the accoutrements
belonging to the slain H.), 2038; acc. pl. æðelinga, eorla ge-strēon, 1921,
3168.--Comp.: ǣr-, eald-, eorl-, hēah-, hord-, long-, māðm-, sinc-,
þēod-ge-strēon.

strūdan, st. v., _to plunder, carry off_: subj. pres. næs þā on hlytme hwā
þæt hord strude, 3127.

ge-strȳnan, w. v. w. acc., _to acquire, gain_: inf. þæs þe (_because_) ic
mōste mīnum lēodum ... swylc ge-strȳnan, 2799.

stund, st. f., _time, space of time, while_: adv. dat. pl. stundum (_at
times_), 1424.

styrian, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to arrange, put in order, tell_: inf. secg eft
on-gan sīð Bēowulfes snyttrum styrian (_the poet then began to tell B.'s
feat skilfully_, i.e. put in poetic form), 873.--2) _to rouse, stir up_:
pres. sg. III. þonne wind styreð lāð ge-widru (_when the wind stirreth up
the loathly weather_), 1375.--3) _to move against, attack, disturb_: subj.
pres. þæt hē ... hring-sele hondum styrede (_that he should attack the
ring-hall with his hands_), 2841.

styrman, w. v., _to rage, cry out_: pret. sg. styrmde, 2553.

stȳle, st. n., _steel_: dat. sg. stȳle, 986.

stȳl-ecg, adj., _steel-edged_: nom. sg., 1534.

be-stȳman, w. v., _to inundate, wet, flood_: pret. part. (wǣron) eal
benc-þelu blōde be-stȳmed, 486.

suhtor-ge-fæderan (collective), w. m. pl., _uncle and nephew, father's
brother and brother's son_: nom. pl., 1165.

sum, pron.: 1) indef., _one, a, any, a certain_; neut. _something_: a)
without part. gen.: nom. sg. sum, 1252; hilde-rinc sum, 3125; neut. ne
sceal þǣr dyrne sum wesan (_naught there shall be hidden_), 271; acc. sg.
m. sumne, 1433; instr. sg. sume worde (_by a word, expressly_), 2157; nom.
pl. sume, 400, 1114; acc. pl. sume, 2941. b) with part. gen.: nom. sg.
gumena sum (_one of men, a man_), 1500, 2302; mere-hrægla sum, 1906; þæt
wæs wundra sum, 1608; acc. sg. gylp-worda sum, 676. c) with gen. of
cardinals or notions of multitude: nom. sg. fīftȳna sum (_one of fifteen,
with fourteen companions_), 207; so, eahta sum, 3124; fēara sum (_one of
few, with a few_), 1413; acc. sg. manigra sumne (_one of many, with many_),
2092; manna cynnes sumne (_one of the men_), i.e. one of the watchmen in
Heorot), 714; fēara sumne (_some few, one of few_; or, _one of the foes_?),
3062.--2) with part. gen. sum sometimes = _this, that, the
afore-mentioned_: nom. sg. ēower sum (_a certain one, that one, of you_,
i.e. Bēowulf), 248; gūð-beorna sum (_the afore-mentioned warrior_, i.e. who
had shown the way to Hrōðgār's palace), 314; eorla sum (_the said knight_,
i.e. Bēowulf), 1313; acc. sg. hord-ærna sum (_a certain hoard-hall_), 2280.

sund, st. m.: 1) _swimming_: acc. sg. ymb sund, 507; dat. sg. æt sunde (_in
swimming_), 517; on sunde (_a-swimming_), 1619; gen. sg. sundes, 1437.--2)
_sea, ocean, sound_: nom. sg., 223; acc. sg. sund, 213, 512, 539, 1427,
1445.

ge-sund, adj., _sound, healthy, unimpaired_: acc. sg. m. ge-sundne, 1629,
1999; nom. pl. ge-sunde, 2076; acc. pl. w. gen. fæder alwalda ... ēowic
ge-healde sīða ge-sunde (_the almighty Father keep you safe and sound on
your journey!_), 318.--Comp. an-sund.

sund-ge-bland, st. n., (_the commingled sea_), _sea-surge, sea-wave_: acc.
sg., 1451.

sund-nyt, st. f., _swimming-power_ or _employment, swimming_: acc. sg.
sund-nytte drēah (_swam through the sea_), 2361.

sundur, sundor, adv., _asunder, in twain_: sundur gedǣlan (_to separate,
sunder_), 2423.

sundor-nyt, st. f., _special service_ (service in a special case): acc. sg.
sundor-nytte, 668.

sund-wudu, st. m., (_sea-wood_), _ship_: nom. acc. sg. sund-wudu, 208,
1907.

sunne, w. f., _sun_: nom. sg., 607; gen. sg. sunnan, 94, 649.

sunu, st. m., _son_: nom. sg., 524, 591, 646, 981, 1090, 1486, etc.; acc.
sg. sunu, 268, 948, 1116, 1176, 1809, 2014, 2120; dat. sg. suna, 344, 1227,
2026, 2161, 2730; gen. sg. suna, 2456, 2613, (1279); nom. pl. suna, 2381.

sūð, adv., _south, southward_, 859.

sūðan, adv., _from the south_, 607; sigel sūðan fūs (_the sun inclined from
the south_), 1967.

swaðrian, w. v., _to sink to rest, grow calm_: brimu swaðredon (_the waves
became calm_), 570. See sweðrian.

swaðu, st. f., _trace, track, pathway_: acc. sg. swaðe, 2099.--Comp.:
swāt-, wald-swaðu.

swaðul, st. m.? n.?, _smoke, mist_ (Dietrich in Haupt V. 215): dat. sg. on
swaðule, 783. See sweoðol.

swancor, adj., _slender, trim_: acc. pl. þrīo wicg swancor, 2176.

swan-rād, st. f., _swan-road, sea_: acc. sg. ofer swan-rāde, 200.

and-swarian, w. v., _to answer_: pret. sg. him se yldesta and-swarode, 258;
so, 340.

swā: 1) demons, adv., _so, in such a manner, thus_: swā sceal man dōn,
1173, 1535; swā þā driht-guman drēamum lifdon, 99; þæt ge-æfndon swā (_that
we thus accomplished_), 538; þǣr hīe meahton (i.e. feorh ealgian), 798; so,
20, 144, 189, 559, 763, 1104, 1472, 1770, 2058, 2145, 2178, 2991; swā
manlīce _(so like a man_), 1047; swā fela (_so many_), 164, 592; swā
dēorlīce dǣd (_so valiant a deed_), 585; hine swā gōdne (_him so good_),
347; on swā geongum feore (_in so youthful age_), 1844; ge-dēð him swā
ge-wealdene worolde dǣlas þæt ... (_makes parts of the world so subject to
him that_...), 1733. In comparisons = _ever, the_ (adv.): mē þīn mōd-sefa
līcað leng swā wēl (_thy mind pleases me ever so well, the longer the
better_), 1855. As an asseverative = _so_: swā mē Higelāc sīe ... mōdes
blīðe (_so be Higelac gracious-minded to me!_), 435; swā þēah
(_nevertheless, however_), 973, 1930, 2879; swā þēh, 2968; hwæðre swā þēah
(_yet however_), 2443.--2): a) conj., _as, so as_: oð þæt his byre mihte
eorlscipe efnan swā his ǣrfæder (_until his son might do noble deeds, as
his old father did_), 2623; eft swā ǣr (_again as before_), 643;--with
indic.: swā hē selfa bæd (_as he himself requested_), 29; swā hē oft dyde
(_as he often did_), 444; gǣð ā Wyrd swā hīo sceal, 455; swā guman
gefrungon, 667; so, 273, 352, 401, 561, 1049, 1056, 1059, 1135, 1232, 1235,
1239, 1253, 1382, etc.;--with subj.: swā þīn sefa hwette _(as pleases thy
mind_, i.e. any way thou pleasest), 490. b) _as, as then, how_, 1143; swā
hīe ā wǣron ... nȳd-gesteallan (_as they were ever comrades in need_),
882; swā hit dīope ... be-nemdon þēodnas mǣre (_as, [how?] the mighty
princes had deeply cursed it_), 3070; swā hē manna wæs wīgend weorðfullost
(_as he of men the worthiest warrior was_), 3099. c) _just as, the moment
when_: swā þæt blōd gesprang, 1668. d) _so that_: swā hē ne mihte nō (_so
that he might not..._), 1509; so, 2185, 2007.--3) = qui, quae, quod, German
so: worhte wlite-beorhtne wang swā wæter bebūgeð (_wrought the beauteous
plain which_ (acc.) _water surrounds_), 93.--4) swā ... swā = _so ... as_,
595, 687-8, 3170; efne swā ... swā (_even so ... as_), 1093-4, 1224, 1284;
efne swā hwylc mægða swā (_such a woman as, whatsoever woman_), 944; efne
swā hwylcum manna swā (_even so to each man as_), 3058.

for-swāfan, st. v., _to carry away, sweep off_: pret. sg. ealle Wyrd
for-swēof mīne māgas tō metod-sceafte, 2815.

for-swāpan, st. v., _to sweep off, force_: pret. sg. hīe Wyrd forswēop on
Grendles gryre, 477.

swāt, st. m., (_sweat_), _wound-blood_: nom. sg., 2694, 2967; instr. sg.
swāte, 1287.--Comp. heaðo-, hilde-swāt.

swāt-fāh, adj., _blood-stained_: nom. sg., 1112.

swātig, adj., _gory_: nom. sg., 1570.

swāt-swaðu, st. f., _blood-trace_: nom. sg., 2947.

be-swǣlan, w. v., _to scorch_: pret. part. wæs se lēg-draca ... glēdum
beswǣled, 3042.

swǣs, adj., _intimate, special, dear_: acc. sg. swǣsne ēðel, 520; nom. pl.
swǣse ge-sīðas, 29; acc. pl. lēode swǣse, 1869; swǣse ge-sīðas, 2041; gen.
pl. swǣsra ge-sīða, 1935.

swǣs-līce, adv., _pleasantly, in a friendly manner_, 3090.

swebban, w. v., (_to put to sleep_), _to kill_: inf. ic hine sweorde
swebban nelle, 680; pres. sg. III. (absolutely) swefeð, 601.

ā-swebban, _to kill, slay_: pret. part. nom. pl. sweordum ā-swefede, 567.

sweðrian, w. v., _to lessen, diminish_: inf. þæt þæt fyr ongan sweðrian,
2703; pret. siððan Heremōdes hild sweðrode, 902.

swefan, st. v.: 1) _to sleep_: pres. sg. III. swefeð, 1742; inf. swefan,
119, 730, 1673; pret. sg. swæf, 1801; pl. swǣfon, 704; swǣfun, 1281.--2)
_to sleep the death-sleep, die_: pres. sg. III. swefeð, 1009, 2061, 2747;
pl. swefað, 2257, 2458.

swegel, st. n., _ether, clear sky_: dat. sg. under swegle, 1079, 1198; gen.
sg. under swegles begong, 861, 1774.

swegle, adj., _bright, etherlike, clear_: acc. pl. swegle searo-gimmas,
2750.

swegel-wered, _quasi_ pret. part., _ether-clad_: nom. sg. sunne
swegl-wered, 607.

swelgan, st. v., _to swallow_: pret. sg. w. instr. syn-snǣdum swealh
(_swallowed in great bites_), 744; object omitted, subj. pres. nymðe līges
fæðm swulge on swaðule, 783.

for-swelgan, w. acc., _to swallow, consume_: pret. sg. for-swealg, 1123,
2081.

swellan, st. v., _to swell_: inf. þā sīo wund on-gan ... swelan and
swellan, 2714.

sweltan, st. v., _to die, perish_: pret. sg. swealt, 1618, 2475; draca
morðre swealt (_died a violent death_), 893, 2783; wundor-dēaðe swealt,
3038; hioro-dryncum swealt, 2359.

swencan, w. v., _to swink, oppress, strike_: pret. sg. hine wundra þæs fela
swencte (MS. swecte) on sunde, 1511.

ge-swencan, _to oppress, strike, injure_: pret. sg. syððan hine Hæðcyn ...
flāne geswencte, 2439; pret. part. synnum ge-swenced, 976; hǣðstapa hundum
ge-swenced, 1369.--Comp. lyft-ge-swenced.

sweng, st. m., _blow, stroke_: dat. sg. swenge, 1521, 2967; swenge _(with
its stroke_), 2687; instr. pl. sweordes swengum, 2387.--Comp.: feorh-,
hete-, heaðo-, heoro-sweng.

swerian, st. v., _to swear_: pret. w. acc. I. nē mē swōr fela āða on unriht
(_swore no false oaths_), 2739; hē mē āðas swōr, 472.

for-swerian, w. instr., _to forswear, renounce (protect with magic
formulǣ?)_: pret. part. hē sige-wǣpnum for-sworen hæfde, 805.

swēg, st. m., _sound, noise, uproar_: nom. sg. swēg, 783; hearpan swēg, 89,
2459, 3024; sige-folca swēg, 645; sang and swēg, 1064; dat. sg. swēge,
1215.--Comp.: benc-, morgen-swēg.

swelan, w. v., _to burn_ (here of wounds): inf. swelan, 2714. See swǣlan.

sweart, adj., _swart, black, dark_: nom. sg. wudu-rēc sweart, 3146; dat.
pl. sweartum nihtum, 167.

sweoðol (cf. O.H.G. suedan, suethan = cremare; M.H.G. swadem = vapor; and
Dietrich in Haupt V., 215), st. m.? n.?, _vapor, smoke, smoking flame_:
dat. sg. ofer swioðole (MS. swic ðole), 3146. See swaðul.

sweofot, st. m., _sleep_: dat. sg. on sweofote, 1582, 2296.

sweoloð, st. m., _heat, fire, flame_: dat. sg. sweoloðe, 1116. Cf. O.H.G.
suilizo, suilizunga = ardor, cauma.

sweorcan, st. v., _to trouble, darken_. pres. sg. III. nē him inwit-sorh on
sefan sweorceð (_darkens his soul_), 1738.

for-sweorcan, _to grow dark_ or _dim_: pres. sg. III. ēagena bearhtm
for-siteð and for-sworceð, 1768.

ge-sweorcan (intrans.), _to darken_: pret. sg. niht-helm ge-swearc, 1790.

sweord, swurd, swyrd, st. n., _sword_: nom. sg. sweord, 1287, 1290, 1570,
1606, 1616, 1697; swurd, 891; acc. sg. sweord, 437, 673, 1559, 1664, 1809,
2253, 2500, etc.; swurd, 539, 1902; swyrd, 2611, 2988; instr. sg. sweorde,
561, 574, 680, 2493, 2881; gen. sg. sweordes, 1107, 2194, 2387; acc. pl.
sweord, 2639; nom. pl., 3049; instr. pl. sweordum, 567, 586, 885; gen. pl.
sweorda, 1041, 2937, 2962.--Comp.: gūð-, māððum-, wǣg-sweord.

sweord, st. f., _oath_: in comp. āð-sweord _(sword-oath_?), 2065.

sweord-bealo, st. n., _sword-bale, death by the sword_: nom. sg., 1148.

sweord-freca, w. m., _sword-warrior_: dat. sg. sweord-frecan, 1469.

sweord-gifu, st. f., _sword-gift, giving of swords_: nom. sg. swyrd-gifu,
2885.

sweotol, swutol, adj.: 1) _clear, bright_: nom. sg. swutol sang scopes,
90.--2) _plain, manifest_: nom. sg. syndolh sweotol, 818; tācen sweotol,
834; instr. sg. sweotolan tācne, 141.

swēof, swēop. See swāfan, swāpan.

swið, st. n.? (O.N. swiði), _burning pain_: in comp. þrȳð-swið(?).

swift, adj., _swift_: nom. sg. se swifta mearh, 2265.

swimman, swymman, st. v., _to swim_: inf. swymman, 1625.

ofer-swimman, w. acc., _to swim over_ or _through_: pret. sg. ofer-swam
sioleða bigong (_swam over the sea_), 2368.

swincan, st. v., _to struggle, labor, contend_: pret. pl. git on wæteres
ǣht seofon niht swuncon, 517.

ge-swing, st. n., _surge, eddy_: nom. sg. atol ȳða geswing, 849.

swingan, st. v., _to swing one's self, fly_: pres. sg. III. nē gōd hafoc
geond sæl swingeð, 2265.

swīcan, st. v.: 1) _to deceive, leave in the lurch, abandon_: pret. sg.
nǣfre hit (_the sword_) æt hilde ne swāc manna ǣngum, 1461.--2) _to
escape_: subj. pret. būtan his līc swice, 967.

ge-swīcan, _to deceive, leave in the lurch_: pret. sg. gūð-bill ge-swāc
nacod æt nīðe, 2585, 2682; w. dat. sēo ecg ge-swāc þēodne æt þearfe (_the
sword failed the prince in need_), 1525.

swīð, swȳð (Goth, swinþ-s), adj., _strong, mighty_: nom. sg. wæs þæt
ge-win tō swȳð, 191.--Comp. nom. sg. sīo swīðre hand (_the right hand_),
2099; _harsh_, 3086.

swīðe, adv., _strongly, very, much_, 598, 998, 1093, 1744, 1927; swȳðe,
2171, 2188. Compar. swīðor, _more, rather, more strongly_, 961, 1140, 1875,
2199--Comp. un-swīðe.

ofer-swīðian, w. v., _to overcome, vanquish_, w. acc. of person: pres. sg.
III. oferswȳðeð, 279, 1769.

swīð-ferhð, adj., (_fortis animo_), _strong-minded, bold, brave_: nom. sg.
swȳð-ferhð, 827; gen. sg. swīð-ferhðes, 909; nom. pl. swīð-ferhðe, 493;
dat. pl. swīð-ferhðum, 173.

swīð-hycgend, pres. part. (_strenue cogitans_), _bold-minded, brave in
spirit_: nom. sg. swīð-hycgende, 920; nom. pl. swīð-hycgende, 1017.

swið-mōd, adj., _strong-minded_: nom. sg., 1625.

on-swīfan, st. v. w. acc., _to swing, turn, at_ or _against, elevate_:
pret. sg. biorn (Bēowulf) bord-rand on-swāf wið þām gryre-gieste, 2560.

swīgian, w. v., _to be silent, keep silent_: pret. sg. lȳt swīgode nīwra
spella (_kept little of the new tidings silent_), 2898; pl. swīgedon ealle,
1700.

swīgor, adj., _silent, taciturn_: nom, sg. weak, þā wæs swīgra secg ... on
gylp-sprǣce gūð-ge-weorca, 981.

swīn, swȳn, st. n., _swine, boar_ (image on the helm): nom. sg. swȳn,
1112; acc. sg. swīn, 1287.

swīn-līc, st. n., _swine-image_ or _body_: instr. pl. swīn-līcum, 1454.

swōgan, st. v., _to whistle, roar_: pres. part. swōgende lēg, 3146.

swutol. See sweotol.

swylc, swilc (Goth, swa-leik-s), demons, adj. = _talis, such, such a_;
relative = _qualis, as, which_: nom. sg. swylc, 178, 1941, 2542, 2709;
swylc ... swylc=talis ... qualis, 1329; acc. sg. swylc, 2799; eall ...
swylc (_all ... which, as_), 72; ōðer swylc (_such another_, i.e. hand),
1584; on swylc (_on such things_), 997; dat. sg. gūð-fremmendra swylcum
(_to such a battle-worker_, i.e. Bēowulf), 299; gen. sg. swylces hwæt
(_some such_), 881; acc. pl. swylce, 2870; call swylce ... swylce, 3166;
swylce twēgen (_two such_), 1348; ealle þearfe swylce (_all needs that_),
1798; swylce hīe ... findan meahton sigla searo-gimma (_such as they might
find of jewels and cunning gems_), 1157; efne swylce mǣla swylce (_at just
such times as_), 1250; gen. pl. swylcra searo-nīða, 582; swylcra fela ...
ǣr-gestrēona, 2232.

swylce, adv., _as, as also, likewise, similarly_, 113, 293, 758, 831, 855,
908, 921, 1147, 1166, 1428, 1483, 2460, 2825; gē swylce (_and likewise_),
2259; swilce, 1153.

swylt, st. m., _death_: nom. sg., 1256, 1437.

swylt-dæg, st. m., _death-day_: dat. sg. ǣr swylt-dæge, 2799.

swynsian, w. v., _to sound_: pret. sg. hlyn swynsode, 612.

swyrd. See sweord.

swȳðl. See swīð.

swȳn. See swīn.

syððan (seðian, Gen. 1525), w. v., _to punish, avenge_, w. acc.: inf. þonne
hit sweordes ecg syððan scolde (_then the edge of the sword should avenge
it_), 1107.

syððan. See siððan.

syfan-wintre, adj., _seven-winters-old_: nom. sg., 2429.

syhð. See sēon.

syl (O.H.G. swella), st. f., _sill, bench-support_: dat. sg. fram sylle,
776.

sylfa. See selfa.

syllan. See sellan.

syllīc. See sellīc.

symbol, syml, st. n., _banquet, entertainment_: acc. sg. symbel, 620, 1011;
geaf mē sinc and symbel (_gave me treasure and feasting_, i.e. made me his
friend and table-companion), 2432; þæt hīe ... symbel ymbsǣton (_that they
might sit round their banquet_), 564; dat. sg. symle, 81, 489, 1009;
symble, 119, 2105; gen. pl. symbla, 1233.

symble, symle, adv., _continually, ever_: symble, 2451; symle, 2498; symle
wæs þȳ sǣmra (_he was ever the worse, the weaker_, i.e. the dragon), 2881.

symbel-wyn, st. f., _banqueting-pleasure, joy at feasting_: acc. sg.
symbel-wynne drēoh, 1783.

syn, st. f., _sin, crime_: nom. synn and sacu, 2473; dat. instr. pl.
synnum, 976, 1256, 3072.

syn. See sin.

syn-bysig, adj., (culpa laborans), _persecuted on account of guilt?_
(Rieger), _guilt-haunted?_: nom. sg. secg syn-[by]sig, 2228.

ge-syngian, w. v., _to sin, commit a crime_: pret. part. þæt wæs feohlēas
ge-feoht, fyrenum ge-syngad, 2442.

synnig, adj., _sin-laden, sinful_: acc. sg. m. sinnigne secg, 1380.--Comp.:
fela-, un-synnig.

ge-synto, f., _health_: dat. pl. on gesyntum, 1870.

syrce. See serce.

syrwan, w. v. w. acc., _to entrap, catch unawares_: pret. sg. duguðe and
geogoðe seomade and syrede, 161.

be-syrwan: 1) _to compass_ or _accomplish by finesse; effect_: inf. dǣd þē
wē ealle ǣr ne meahton snyttrum be-syrwan (_a deed that all of us could not
accomplish before with all our wisdom_), 943.--2) _to entrap by guile and
destroy_: inf. mynte se mānscaða manna cynnes sumne be-syrwan (_the fell
foe thought to entrap some one (all?_, see sum) _of the men_), 714.

sȳn, f., _seeing, sight, scene_: comp, an-sȳn.

ge-sȳne, adj., _visible, to be seen_: nom. sg. 1256, 1404, 2948, 3059,
3160.--Comp.: ēð-ge-sȳne, ȳð-ge-sēne.

T

taligean, w. v.: 1) _to count, reckon, number; esteem, think_: pres. sg. I.
nō ic mē ... hnāgran gūð-geweorca þonne Grendel hine (_count myself no
worse than G. in battle-works_), 678; wēn ic talige ...þæt (_I count on the
hope ... that_), 1846; telge, 2068; sg. III. þæt rǣd talað þæt (_counts it
gain that_), 2028.--2) _to tell, relate_: sōð ic talige (_I tell facts_),
532; swā þū self talast (_as thou thyself sayst_), 595.

tācen, st. n., _token, sign, evidence_: nom. sg. tācen sweotol, 834; dat.
instr. sg. sweotolan tācne, 141; tīres tō tācne, 1655.--Comp. luf-tācen.

tān, st. m., _twig_: in comp. āter-tān. [emended to āter-tēarum in
text--KTH]

ge-tǣcan, w. v., _to show, point out_: pret. sg. him þā hilde-dēor hof
mōdigra torht ge-tǣhte (_the warrior pointed out to them the bright
dwelling of the bold ones_, i.e. Danes), 313. Hence, _to indicate, assign_:
pret. sōna mē se mǣra mago Healfdenes ... wið his sylfes sunu setl getǣhte
(_assigned me a seat by his own son_), 2014.

tǣle, adj., _blameworthy_: in comp. un-tǣle.

ge-tǣse, adj., _quiet, still_: nom. sg. gif him wǣre ... niht ge-tǣse
(_whether he had a pleasant, quiet, night_), 1321.

tela, adv., _fittingly, well_, 949, 1219, 1226, 1821, 2209, 2738.

telge. See talian.

tellan, w. v., _to tell, consider, deem_: pret. sg. nē his līf-dagas lēoda
ǣnigum nytte tealde (_nor did he count his life useful to any man_), 795;
þæt ic mē ǣnigne under swegles begong ge-sacan ne tealde (_I believed not
that I had any foe under heaven_), 1774; cwæð hē þone gūð-wine gōdne tealde
(_said he counted the war-friend good_), 1811; hē ūsic gār-wīgend gōde
tealde (_deemed us good spear-warriors_), 2642; pl. swā (_so that_) hine
Gēata beam gōdne ne tealdon, 2185.--2) _to ascribe, count against, impose_:
pret. sg. (Þrȳðo) him wælbende weotode tealde hand-gewriðene, 1937.

ge-tenge, adj., _attached to, lying on_: w. dat. gold ... grunde ge-tenge,
2759.

tēar, st. m., _tear_: nom. pl. tēaras, 1873.

teoh, st. f., _troop, band_: dat. sg. earmre teohhe, 2939.

(ge?)-teohhian, w. v., _to fix, determine, assign_: pret. sg. ic for lǣssan
lēan teohhode ... hnāhran rince, 952; pres. part. wæs ōðer in ǣr geteohhod
(_assigned_)... mǣrum Gēate, 1301.

tēon, st. v., _to draw, lead_: inf. heht ... eahta mēaras ... on flet tēon
(_bade eight horses be led into the hall_), 1037; pret. sg. mē tō grunde
tēah fāh fēond-sceaða (_the many-hued fiend-foe drew me to the bottom_),
553; eft-sīðas tēah (_withdrew, returned_), 1333; sg. for pl. ǣg-hwylcum
...þāra þe mid Bēowulfe brim-lāde tēah (_to each of those that crossed the
sea with B._) 1052; pret. part. þā wæs ... heard ecg togen (_then was the
hard edge drawn_), 1289; wearð ... on næs togen (_was drawn to the
promontory_), 1440.

ā-tēon, _to wander, go_, intrans.: pret. sg. tō Heorute ā-tēah (_drew to
Heorot_), 767.

ge-tēon: 1) _to draw_: pret. sg. gomel swyrd ge-tēah, 2611; w. instr. and
acc. hyre seaxe ge-tēah, brad brūn-ecg, 1546.--2) _to grant, give, lend_:
imp. nō þū him wearne getēoh þīnra gegn-cwida glædnian (_refuse not to
gladden them with thy answer_), 366; pret. sg. and þā Bēowulfe bēga
gehwæðres eodor Ingwina onweald ge-tēah (_and the prince of the Ingwins
gave B. power over both_), 1045; so, hē him ēst getēah (_gave possession
of_), 2166.

of-tēon, _to deprive, withdraw_, w. gen. of thing and dat. pers.: pret. sg.
Scyld Scēfing ... monegum mǣgðum meodo-setla of-tēah, 5; w. acc. of thing,
hond ... feorh-sweng ne of-tēah, 2490; w. dat. hond (hord, MS.) swenge ne
of-tēah, 1521.

þurh-tēon, _to effect_: inf. gif hē torn-gemōt þurh-tēon mihte, 1141.

tēon (cf. tēoh, _materia_, O.H.G. ziuc), w. v. w. acc., _to make, work_:
pret. sg. tēode, 1453;--_to furnish out, deck_: pret. pl. nalas hī hine
lǣssan lācum tēodan (_provided him with no less gifts_), 43.

ge-tēon, _to provide, do, bring on_: pres. sg. unc sceal weorðan ... swā
unc Wyrd ge-tēoð, 2527; pret. sg. þē him ... sāre ge-tēode (_who had done
him this harm_), 2296.

ge-tēona, w. m., _injurer, harmer_: in comp. lāð-ge-tēona.

til, adj., _good, apt, fit_: nom. sg. m. Hālga til, 61; þegn ungemete till
(of Wīglāf), 2722; fem. wæs sēo þēod tilu, 1251; neut. ne wæs þæt ge-wrixle
til, 1305.

tilian, w. v. w. gen., _to gain, win_: inf. gif ic ... ōwihte mæg þīnre
mōd-lufan māran tilian (_if I ... gain_), 1824.

timbrian, w. v., _to build_: pret. part. acc. sg. sæl timbred (_the
well-built hall_), 307.

be-timbrian, (construere), _to finish building, complete_: pret. pl.
betimbredon on tȳn dagum beadu-rōfes bēcn, 3161.

tīd, st. f., _-tide, time_: acc. sg. twelf wintra tīd, 147; lange tīd,
1916; in þā tīde, 2228.--Comp.: ān-, morgen-tīd.

ge-tīðian (from tigðian), w. v., _to grant_: pret. part. impers. wæs ...
bēne (gen.) ge-tīðad fēasceaftum men, 2285.

tīr, st. m., _glory, repute in war_. gen. sg. tīres, 1655.

tīr-ēadig, adj., _glorious, famous_: dat. sg. tīr-ēadigum menn (of
Bēowulf), 2190.

tīr-fæst, adj., _famous, rich in glory_. nom. sg. (of Hrōðgār), 923.

tīr-lēas, adj., _without glory, infamous_: gen. sg. (of Grendel), 844.

toga, w. m., _leader_: in comp. folc-toga.

torht, adj., _bright, brilliant_: acc. sg. neut. hof ... torht,
313.--Comp.: wuldor-torht, heaðo-torht (_loud in battle_).

torn, st. n.: 1) _wrath, insult, distress_: acc. sg. torn, 147, 834; gen.
pl. torna, 2190.--2) _anger_: instr. sg. torne ge-bolgen, 2402.--Comp.
līge-torn.

torn, adj., _bitter, cruel_: nom. sg, hrēowa tornost, 2130.

torn-ge-mōt, st. n., (_wrathful meeting_), _angry engagement, battle_: acc.
sg., 1141.

tō, I. prep. w. dat. indicating direction or tending to, hence: 1) local =
whither after verbs of motion, _to, up to, at_: cōm tō recede (_to the
hall_), 721; ēode tō sele, 920; ēode tō hire frēan sittan, 642; gǣð eft ...
tō medo (_goeth again to mead_), 605; wand tō wolcnum (_wound to the
welkin_), 1120; sigon tō slǣpe (_sank to sleep_), 1252; 28, 158, 234, 438,
553, 926, 1010, 1014, 1155, 1159, 1233, etc.; līð-wǣge bær hǣlum tō handa
(_bore the ale-cup to the hands of the men? at hand?_), 1984; oð þæt niht
becōm ōðer tō yldum, 2118; him tō bearme cwōm māððum-fæt mǣre (_came to his
hands, into his possession_), 2405; sǣlde tō sande sīd-fæðme scip
(_fastened the broad-bosomed ship to the shore_), 1918; þat se harm-scaða
tō Heorute ā-tēah (_went forth to Heorot_), 767. After verb sittan: site nū
tō symble (_sit now to the meal_), 489; siððan ... wē tō symble geseten
hæfdon, 2105; tō ham (_home, at home_), 124, 374, 2993. With verbs of
speaking: maðelode tō his wine-drihtne (_spake to his friendly lord_), 360;
tō Gēatum sprec, 1172; so, heht þæt heaðo-weorc tō hagan bīodan (_bade the
battle-work be told at the hedge_), 2893.--2) with verbs of bringing and
taking (cf. under on, I., d): hraðe wæs tō būre Bēowulf fetod (_B. was
hastily brought from a room_), 1311; siððan Hāma æt-wæg tō þǣre byrhtan
byrig Brōsinga mene (_since H. carried the Brōsing-necklace off from the
bright city_), 1200; wēan āhsode. fǣhðo to Frȳsum (_suffered woe, feud as
to, from, the Frisians_), 1208.--3) =end of motion, hence: a) _to, for, as,
in_: þone god sende folce tō frōfre (_for, as, a help to the folk_), 14;
gesette ... sunnan and mōnan lēoman to lēohte (_as a light_), 95; ge-sæt
... tō rune (_sat in counsel_), 172; wearð hē Heaðo-lāfe tō hand-bonan,
460; bringe ... tō helpe (_bring to, for, help_), 1831; Jofore forgeaf
āngan dōhtor ... hyldo tō wedde (_as a pledge of his favor_), 2999; so,
508(?), 666, 907, 972, 1022, 1187, 1263, 1331, 1708, 1712, 2080, etc.;
secgan tō sōðe (_to say in sooth_), 51; so, 591, 2326. b) with verbs of
thinking, hoping, etc., _on, for, at, against_: hē tō gyrn-wræce swīðor
þōhte þonne tō sǣ-lāde (_thought more on vengeance than on the
sea-voyage_), 1139; sæcce ne wēneð tō Gār-Denum (_nor weeneth of conflict
with the Spear-Danes_), 602; þonne wēne ic tō þē wyrsan geþinges (_then I
expect for thee a worse result_), 525; nē ic to Swēoþēode sibbe oððe trēowe
wihte ne wēne (_nor expect at all of, from, the Swedes_ ...), 2923; wiste
þǣm āhlǣcan tō þǣm hēah-sele hilde ge-þinged (_battle prepared for the
monster in the high hall_), 648; wēl bið þǣm þe mot tō fæder fæðmum freoðo
wilnian (_well for him that can find peace in the Father's arms_), 188;
þāra þe hē ge-worhte tō West-Denum (_of those that he wrought against the
West-Danes_), 1579.--4) with the gerund, inf.: tō gefremmanne (_to do_),
174; tō ge-cȳðanne (_to make known_), 257; tō secganne (_to say_), 473; to
beflēonne (_to avoid, escape_), 1004; so, 1420, 1725, 1732, 1806, 1852,
1923, 1942, etc. With inf.: tō fēran, 316; tō friclan, 2557.--5) temporal:
gewāt him tō gescæp-hwīle (_went at(?) the hour of fate_; or, _to his fated
rest?_), 26; tō wīdan feore (_ever, in their lives_), 934; āwa tō aldre
(_for life, forever_), 956; so, tō aldre, 2006, 2499; tō life (_during
life, ever_), 2433.--6) with particles: wōd under wolcnum tō þæs þe ...
(_went under the welkin to the point where_ ...), 715; so, elne ge-ēodon tō
þæs þe, 1968; so, 2411; hē him þæs lēan for-geald ... tō þæs þe hē on reste
geseah Grendel licgan (_he paid him for that to the point that he saw G.
lying dead_), 1586; wæs þæt blōd tō þæs hāt (_the blood was hot to that
degree_), 1617; næs þā long tō þon þæt (_'twas not long till_), 2592, 2846;
wæs him se man tō þon lēof þæt (_the man was dear to him to that degree_),
1877; tō hwan siððan wearð hond-rǣs hæleða (_up to what point, how, the
hand-contest turned out_), 2072; tō middes (_in the midst_), 3142.

II. Adverbial modifier, _quasi_ preposition [better explained in many cases
as prep. postponed]: l) _to, towards, up to, at_: gēong sōna tō, 1786; so,
2649; fēhð ōðer tō, 1756; sǣ-lāc ... þē þū hēr tō lōcast (_upon which thou
here lookest_), 1655; folc tō sǣgon (_the folk looked on_), 1423; þæt hī
him tō mihton gegnum gangan (_might proceed thereto_), 313; sē þe him
bealwa tō bōte gelȳfde (_who believed in help out of evils from him_, i.e.
Bēowulf), 910; him tō anwaldan āre ge-lyfde (_trusted for himself to the
Almighty's help_), 1273; þē ūs sēceað tō Swēona lēode (_that the Swedes
will come against us_), 3002.--2) before adj. and adv., _too_: tō strang
(_too mighty_), 133; tō fæst, 137; tō swȳð, 191; so, 789, 970, 1337, 1743,
1749, etc.; tō fela micles (_far too much_), 695; hē tō forð ge-stōp (_he
had gone too far_), 2290.

tōð (G. tunþu-s), st. m., _tooth_: in comp. blōdig-tōð (adj.).

tredan, st. v. w. acc., _to tread_: inf. sǣ-wong tredan, 1965; el-land
tredan, 3020; pret. sg. wræc-lāstas træd, 1353; medo-wongas træd, 1644;
græs-moldan træd, 1882.

treddian, tryddian (see trod), w. v., _to stride, tread, go_: pret. sg.
treddode, 726; tryddode getrume micle (_strode about with a strong troop_),
923.

trem, st. n., _piece, part_: acc. sg. nē ... fōtes trem (_not a foot's
breadth_), 2526.

trēow, st. f., _fidelity, good faith_: acc. sg. trēowe, 1073; sibbe oððe
trēowe, 2923.

trēow, st. n., _tree_: in comp. galg-trēow.

trēowian. See truwian.

trēow-loga, w. m., _troth-breaker, pledge-breaker_: nom. pl. trēow-logan,
2848.

trodu, st. f., _track, step_: acc. sg. or pl. trode, 844.

ge-trum, st. n., _troop, band_: instr. sg. ge-trume micle, 923.

trum, adj., _strong, endowed with_: nom. sg. heorot hornum trum, 1370.

ge-truwan, w. v. w. acc., _to confirm, pledge solemnly_: pret. sg. þā hīe
getruwedon on twā healfe fæste frioðu-wǣre, 1096.

truwian, trēowan, w. v., _to trust in, rely on, believe in_: 1) w. dat.:
pret. sg. sīðe ne truwode lēofes mannes (_I trusted not in the dear man's
enterprise_), 1994; bearne ne truwode þæt hē ... (_she trusted not the
child that_ ...), 2371; gehwylc hiora his ferhðe trēowde þæt hē ... (_each
trusted his heart that_ ...), 1167.--2) w. gen.: pret. sg. Gēata lēod
georne truwode mōdgan mægnes, 670; wiðres ne truwode, 2954.

ge-truwian, _to rely on, trust in_, w. dat.: pret. sg. strenge ge-truwode,
mund-gripe mægenes, 1534;--w. gen. pret. sg. beorges ge-truwode, wīges and
wealles, 2323; strenge ge-truwode ānes mannes, 2541.

tryddian. See treddian.

trȳwe, adj., _true, faithful_: nom. sg. þā gȳt wæs ... ǣghwylc ōðrum
trȳwe, 1166.

ge-trȳwe, adj., _faithful_: nom. sg. hēr is ǣghwylc eorl ōðrum ge-trȳwe,
1229.

turf, st. f., _sod, soil, seat_: in comp. ēðel-turf.

tūx, st. m., _tooth, tusk_: in comp. hilde-tūx.

ge-twǣfan, w. v. w. acc. of person and gen. thing, _to separate, divide,
deprive of, hinder_: pres. sg. III. þæt þec ādl oððe ecg eafoðes ge-twǣfeð
(_robs of strength_), 1764; inf. god ēaðe mæg þone dol-scaðan dǣda
ge-twǣfan (_God may easily restrain the fierce foe from his deeds_), 479;
pret. sg. sumne Gēata lēod ... fēores getwǣfde (_cut him off from life_),
1434; nō þǣr wǣg-flotan wind ofer ȳðum sīðes ge-twǣfde (_the wind hindered
not the wave-floater in her course over the water_), 1909; pret. part. æt
rihte wæs gūð ge-twǣfed (_almost had the struggle been ended_), 1659.

ge-twǣman, w. v. acc. pers. and gen. thing, _to hinder, render incapable
of, restrain_: inf. ic hine ne mihte ... ganges getwǣman, 969.

twēgen, m. f. n. twā, num., _twain, two_: nom. m. twēgen, 1164; acc. m.
twēgen, 1348; dat. twǣm, 1192 gen. twēga, 2533; acc. f. twā, 1096, 1195.

twelf, num., _twelve_, gen. twelfa, 3172.

tweone (Frisian twine), num. = _bini, two_: dat. pl. be sǣm tweonum, 859,
1298; 1686.

twidig, adj., in comp. lang-twidig (_long-assured_), 1709.

tȳder, st. m., _race, descendant_: in comp. un-tȳder, 111.

tȳdre (Frisian teddre), adj., _weak, unwarlike, cowardly_: nom. pl.
tȳdre, 2848.

tȳn, num., _ten_: uninflect. dat. on tȳn dagum, 3161; inflect. nom.
tȳne, 2848.

tyrwian, w. v., _to tar_: pret. part. tyrwed in comp.: nīw-tyrwed.

on-tyhtan, w. v., _to urge on, incite, entice_: pret. sg. on-tyhte, 3087.

Þ

þafian, w. v. w. acc., _to submit to, endure_: inf. þæt se þēod-cyning
þafian sceolde Eofores ānne dōm, 2964.

þanc, st. m.: 1) _thought_: in comp. fore-, hete-, or-, searo-þanc;
inwit-þanc (adj.).--2) _thanks_ (w. gen. of thing): nom. sg., 929, 1779;
acc. sg. þanc, 1998, 2795.--3) _content, favor, pleasure_: dat. sg. þā þe
gif-sceattas Gēata fyredon þyder tō þance (_those that tribute for the
Geātas carried thither for favor_). 379.

ge-þanc, st. m., _thought_: instr. pl. þēostrum ge-þoncum, 2333.--Comp.
mōd-ge-þanc.

þanc-hycgende, pres. part., _thoughtful_, 2236.

þancian, w. v., _to thank_: pret. sg. gode þancode ... þæs þe hire se willa
ge-lamp (_thanked God that her wish was granted_), 626; so, 1398; pl.
þancedon, 627(?).

þanon, þonon, þonan, adv., _thence_: 1) local: þanon eft gewāt (_he went
thence back_), 123; þanon up ... stigon (_went up thence_), 224; so, þanon,
463, 692, 764, 845, 854, 1293; þanan, 1881; þonon, 520, 1374, 2409; þonan,
820, 2360, 2957.--2) personal: þanon untȳdras ealle on-wōcon (_from him_,
i.e. Cain, etc.), 111; so, þanan, 1266; þonon, 1961; unsōfte þonon feorh
oð-ferede (i.e. from Grendel's mother), 2141.

þā, adv.: l) _there, then_, 3, 26, 28, 34, 47, 53, etc. With þǣr: þā þǣr,
331. With nū: nū þā (_now then_), 658.--2) conjunction, _when, as, since_,
w. indic., 461, 539, 633, etc.;--_because, whilst, during, since_, 402,
465, 724, 2551, etc.

þæt, I. demons, pron. acc. neut. of se: demons, nom. þæt (_that_), 735,
766, etc.; instr. sg. þȳ, 1798, 2029; þæt ic þȳ wǣpne ge-bræd (_that I
brandished as(?) a weapon; that I brandished the weapon?_), 1665; þȳ
weorðra (_the more honored_), 1903; þȳ sēft (_the more easily_), 2750; þȳ
lǣs hym ȳðe þrym wudu wynsuman for-wrecan meahte (_lest the force of the
waves the winsome boat might carry away_), 1919; nō þȳ ǣr (_not sooner_),
755, 1503, 2082, 2374, 2467; nō þȳ leng (_no longer, none the longer_),
975. þȳ =adv., _therefore, hence_, 1274, 2068; þē ... þē = _on this
account; for this reason ... that, because_, 2639-2642; wiste þē geornor
(_knew but too well_), 822; hē ... wæs sundes þē sǣnra þē hine swylt fornam
(_he was the slower in swimming as [whom?] death carried him off_), 1437;
næs him wihte þē sēl (_it was none the better for him_), 2688; so, 2278.
Gen. sg. þæs = adv., _for this reason, therefore_, 7, 16, 114, 350, 589,
901, 1993, 2027, 2033, etc. þæs þe, especially after verbs of thanking, =
_because_, 108, 228, 627, 1780, 2798;--also = secundum quod: þæs þe hīe
gewislīcost ge-witan meahton, 1351;--_therefore, accordingly_, 1342, 3001;
tō þæs (_to that point; to that degree_), 715, 1586, 1617, 1968, 2411; þæs
georne (_so firmly_), 969; ac hē þæs fæste wæs ... besmiðod (_it was too
firmly set_), 774; nō þæs frōd leofað gumena bearna þæt þone grund wite
(_none liveth among men so wise that he should know its bottom_), 1368; hē
þæs (þǣm, MS.) mōdig wæs (_had the courage for it_), 1509.

II. conj. (relative), _that, so that_, 15, 62, 84, 221, 347, 358, 392, 571,
etc.; oð þæt (_up to that, until_); see oð.

þætte (from þæt þe, see þē), _that_, 151, 859, 1257, 2925, etc.; þæt þe
(_that_), 1847.

þǣr: 1) demons. adv., _there (where)_, 32, 36, 89, 400, 757, etc.;
morðor-bealo māga, þǣr hēo ǣr mǣste hēold worolde wynne (_the death-bale of
kinsmen where before she had most worldly joy_), 1080. With þā: þā þǣr,
331; þǣr on innan (_therein_), 71. Almost like Eng. expletive _there_, 271,
550, 978, etc.;--_then, at that time_, 440;--_thither_: þǣr swīð-ferhðe
sittan ēodon (_thither went the bold ones to sit_, i.e. to the bench), 493,
etc.--2) relative, _where_, 356, 420, 508, 513, 522, 694, 867, etc.; ēode
... þǣr se snottra bād (_went where the wise one tarried_), 1314; so,
1816;--_if_, 763, 798, 1836, 2731, etc.;--_whither_: gā þǣr hē wille, 1395.

þē, þe, I. relative particle, indecl., partly standing alone, partly
associated with se, sēo, þæt: Hunferð maðelode, þē æt fōtum sæt (_H., who
sat at his feet, spake_), 500; so, 138, etc.; wæs þæt gewin tō swȳð þē on
þā lēode be-cōm (_the misery that had come on the people was too great_),
192, etc.; ic wille ... þē þā and-sware ǣdre ge-cȳðan þē mē se gōda
ā-gifan þenceð (_I will straightway tell thee the answer that the good one
shall give_), 355; oð þone ānne dæg þē hē ... (_till that very day that he_
...), 2401; hēo þā fǣhðe wræc þē þū ... Grendel cwealdest (_the fight in
which thou slewest G._), 1335; mid þǣre sorge þē him sīo sār belamp (_with
the sorrow wherewith the pain had visited him_), 2469; pl. þonne þā dydon
þē ... (_than they did that_ ...), 45; so, 378, 1136; þā māðmas þē hē mē
sealde (_the treasures that he gave me_), 2491; so, ginfæstan gife þē him
god sealde (_the great gifts that God had given him_), 2183. After þāra þe
(_of those that_), the depend. verb often takes sg. instead of pl.
(Dietrich, Haupt XI., 444 seqq.): wundor-sīona fela secga ge-hwylcum þāra
þe on swylc starað (_to each of those that look on such_), 997; so, 844,
1462, 2384, 2736. Strengthened by se, sēo, þæt: sægde sē þe cūðe (_said he
that knew_), 90; wæs se grimma gæst Grendel hāten, sē þe mōras hēold (_the
grim stranger hight Grendel, he that held the moors_), 103; here-byrne ...
sēo þe bān-cofan beorgan cūðe (_the corselet that could protect the body_),
1446, etc.; þǣr ge-lȳfan sceal dryhtnes dōme sē þe hine dēað nimeð (_he
shall believe in God's judgment whom death carrieth off_), 441; so, 1437,
1292 (cf. Heliand I., 1308).

þæs þe. See þæt.

þēah þe. See þēah.

for þām þe. See for-þām.

þȳ, þē, _the, by that_, instr. of se: āhte ic holdra þȳ lǣs ... þē dēað
for-nam (_I had the less friends whom death snatched away_), 488; so, 1437.

þeccan, w. v., _to cover_ (thatch), _cover over_: inf. þā sceal brond
fretan, ǣled þeccean (_fire shall eat, flame shall cover, the treasures_),
3016; pret. pl. þǣr git ēagor-strēam earmum þehton (_in swimming_), 513.

þegn, st. m., _thane, liegeman, king's higher vassal; knight_: nom. sg.,
235, 494, 868, 2060, 2710; (Bēowulf), 194; (Wīglāf), 2722; acc. sg. þegen
(Bēowulf, MS. þegn), 1872; dat. sg. þegne, 1342, 1420; (Hengest), 1086;
(Wīglāf), 2811; gen. sg. þegnes, 1798; nom. pl. þegnas, 1231; acc. pl.
þegnas, 1082, 3122; dat. pl. þegnum, 2870; gen. pl. þegna, 123, 400, 1628,
1674, 1830, 2034, etc.--Comp.: ambiht-, ealdor-, heal-, magu-, sele-þegn.

þegnian, þēnian, w. v., _to serve, do liege service_: pret. sg. ic him
þēnode dēoran sweorde (_I served them with my good sword_, i.e. slew them
with it), 560.

þegn-sorh, st. f., _thane-sorrow, grief for a liegeman_: acc. sg.
þegn-sorge, 131.

þegu, st. f., _taking_: in comp.: bēah-, bēor-, sinc-þegu.

þel, st. n., _deal-board, board for benches_: in comp. benc-þel, 486, 1240.

þencan, w. v.: 1) _to think_: absolutely: pres. sg. III. sē þe wēl þenceð,
289; so, 2602. With depend. clause: pres. sg. nǣnig heora þōhte þæt hē ...
(_none of them thought that he_), 692.--2) w. inf., _to intend_: pres. sg.
III. þā and-sware ... þē mē se gōda ā-gifan þenceð (_the answer that the
good one intendeth to give me_), 355; (blōdig wæl) byrgean þenceð, 448;
þonne hē ... gegān þenceð longsumne lof (_if he will win eternal fame_),
1536; pret. sg. nē þæt āglǣca yldan þōhte (_the monster did not mean to
delay that_), 740; pret. pl. wit unc wið hronfixas werian þōhton, 541;
(hine) on healfa ge-hwone hēawan þōhton, 801.

ā-þencan, _to intend, think out_: pret. sg. (hē) þis ellen-weorc āna
ā-þōhte tō ge-fremmanne, 2644.

ge-þencan, w. acc.: 1) _to think of_: þæt hē his selfa ne mæg ... ende
ge-þencean (_so that he himself may not think of, know, its limit_),
1735.--2) _to be mindful_: imper. sg. ge-þenc nū ... hwæt wit geō sprǣcon,
1475.

þenden: 1) adv., _at this time, then, whilst_: nalles fācen-stafas
Þēod-Scyldingas þenden fremedon (_not at all at this time had the Scyldings
done foul deeds_), 1020 (referring to 1165; cf. Wīdsīð, 45 seqq.); þenden
rēafode rinc ōðerne (_whilst one warrior robbed another_, i.e. Eofor robbed
Ongenþēow), 2986.--2) conj., _so long as, whilst_, 30, 57, 284, 1860, 2039,
2500, 3028;--_whilst_, 2419. With subj., _whilst, as long as_: þenden þū
mōte, 1178; þenden þū lifige, 1255; þenden hyt sȳ (_whilst the heat
lasts_), 2650.

þengel, st. m., _prince, lord, ruler_: acc. sg. hringa þengel (Bēowulf),
1508.

þes (m.), þēos (f.), þis (n.), demons. pron., _this_: nom. sg. 411, 432,
1703; f., 484; nom. acc. neut., 2156, 2252, 2644; þȳs, 1396; acc. sg. m.
þisne, 75; f. þās, 1682; dat. sg. neut. þissum, 1170; þyssum, 2640; f.
þisse, 639; gen. m. þisses, 1217; f. þisse, 929; neut. þysses, 791, 807;
nom. pl. and acc. þās, 1623, 1653, 2636, 2641; dat. þyssum, 1063, 1220.

þē. See þæt.

þēh. See þēah.

þearf, st. f., _need_: nom. sg. þearf, 1251, 2494, 2638; þā him wæs manna
þearf (_as he was in need of men_), 201; acc. sg. þearfe, 1457, 2580, 2850;
fremmað gē nū lēoda þearfe (_do ye now what is needful for the folk_),
2802; dat. sg. æt þearfe, 1478, 1526, 2695, 2710; acc. pl. se for andrysnum
ealle beweotede þegnes þearfe (_who would supply in courtesy all the
thane's needs_), 1798 (cf. sele-þegn, 1795.--Comp.: firen-, nearo-,
ofer-þearf.

þearf. See þurfan.

ge-þearfian, w. v., = _necessitatem imponere_: pret. part. þā him swā
ge-þearfod wæs (_since so they found it necessary_), 1104.

þearle, adv., _very, exceedingly_, 560.

þēah, þēh, conj., _though, even though_ or _if_: 1) with subj. þēah, 203,
526, 588, 590, 1168, 1661, 2032, 2162. Strengthened by þe: þēah þe, 683,
1369, 1832, 1928, 1942, 2345, 2620; þēah ... eal (_although_), 681.--2)
with indic.: þēah, 1103; þēh, 1614.--3) doubtful: þēah hē ūðe wēl, 2856;
swā þēah (_nevertheless_), 2879; nō ... swā þēah (_not then however_), 973;
næs þē forht swā þēh (_he was not, though, afraid_), 2968; hwæðre swā þēah
(_yet however_), 2443.

þēaw, st. m., _custom, usage_: nom. sg., 178, 1247; acc. sg. þēaw, 359;
instr. pl. þēawum (_in accordance with custom_), 2145.

þeód, st. f.: 1) _war-troop, retainers_: nom. sg., 644, 1231, 1251.--2)
_nation, folk_: nom. sg., 1692; gen. pl. þēoda, 1706.--Comp.: sige-,
wer-þēod.

þēod-cyning, st. m., (=folc-cyning), _warrior-king, king of the people_:
nom. sg. (Hrōðgār), 2145; (Ongenþēow), 2964, 2971; þīod-cyning (Bēowulf),
2580; acc. sg. þēod-cyning (Bēowulf), 3009; gen. sg. þēod-cyninges
(Bēowulf), 2695; gen. pl. þēod-cyninga, 2.

þēoden, st. m., _lord of a troop, war-chief, king; ruler_: nom. sg., 129,
365, 417, 1047, 1210, 1676, etc.; þīoden, 2337, 2811; acc. sg. þēoden, 34,
201, 353, 1599, 2385, 2722, 2884, 3080; þīoden, 2789; dat. sg. þēodne, 345,
1526, 1993, 2573, 2710, etc.; þēoden, 2033; gen. sg. þēodnes 798, 911,
1086, 1628, 1838, 2175; þīodnes, 2657; nom. pl. þēodnas, 3071.

þēoden-lēas, adj., _without chief_ or _king_: nom. pl. þēoden-lēase, 1104.

þēod-gestrēon, st. n., _people's-jewel, precious treasure_: instr. pl.
þēod-ge-strēonum, 44; gen. pl. þēod-ge-strēona, 1219.

þēodig, adj., _appertaining to a_ þēod: in comp. el-þēodig.

þēod-scaða, w. m., _foe of the people, general foe_: nom. sg. þēod-sceaða
(_the dragon_), 2279, 2689.

þēod-þrēa, st. f. m., _popular misery, general distress_: dat. pl. wið
þēod-þrēaum, 178.

þēof, st. m., _thief_: gen. sg. þēofes cræfte, 2221.

þēon, st. v.: 1) _to grow, ripen, thrive_: pret. sg. weorðmyndum þāh (_grew
in glory_), 8.--2) _to thrive in, succeed_: pret. sg. hūru þæt on lande
lȳt manna þāh (_that throve to few_), 2837. See Note, l. 901.

ge-þēon, _to grow, thrive; increase in power and influence_: imper. ge-þēoh
tela, 1219; inf. lof-dǣdum sceal ... man geþēon, 25; þæt þæt þēodnes bearn
ge-þēon scolde, 911.

on-þēon? _to begin, undertake_, w. gen.: pret. hē þæs ǣr onþāh, 901. [In
MS. Emended in text.--KTH] See Note l. 901.

þēon (for þēowan), w. v., _to oppress, restrain_: inf. næs se folc-cyning
ymb-sittendra ǣnig þāra þe mec ... dorste egesan þēon (_that durst oppress
me with terror_), 2737.

þēostor, adj., _dark, gloomy_: instr. pl. þēostrum ge-þoncum, 2333.

þēow, st. m., _slave, serf_ 2225.

þicgan, st. v. w. acc., _to seize, attain, eat, appropriate_: inf. þæt hē
(Grendel) mā mōste manna cynnes þicgean ofer þā niht, 737; symbel þicgan
(_take the meal, enjoy the feast_), 1011; pret. pl. þæt hīe mē þēgon, 563;
þǣr wē medu þēgun, 2634.

ge-þicgan, w. acc., _to grasp, take_: pret. sg. (symbel and sele-ful, ful)
ge-þeah, 619, 629; Bēowulf ge-þah ful on flette, 1025; pret. pl. (medo-ful
manig) ge-þǣgon, 1015.

þider, þyder, adv., _thither_: þyder, 3087, 379, 2971.

þīhtig, þȳhtig, adj., _doughty, vigorous, firm_: acc. sg. neut. sweord ...
ecgum þȳhtig, 1559.--Comp. hyge-þīhtig.

þincan. See þyncan.

þing, st. n.: 1) _thing_: gen. pl. ǣnige þinga (_ullo modo_), 792, 2375,
2906.--2) _affair, contest, controversy_: nom. sg. mē wearð Grendles þing
... undyrne cūð (_Grendel's doings became known to me_), 409.--3)
_judgment, issue, judicial assembly_(?): acc. sg. sceal ... āna gehegan
þing wið þyrse (_shall bring the matter alone to an issue against the
giant_: see hegan), 426.

ge-þing, st. n.: 1) _terms, covenant_: acc. pl. ge-þingo, 1086.--2) _fate,
providence, issue_: gen. sg. ge-þinges, 398, 710; (ge-þingea, MS.), 525.

ge-þingan, st. v., _to grow, mature, thrive_ (Dietrich, Haupt IX., 430):
pret. part. cwēn mōde ge-þungen (_mature-minded, high-spirited, queen_),
625. See wēl-þungen.

ge-þingan (see ge-þing), w. v.: 1) _to conclude a treaty_: w. refl. dat,
_enter into a treaty_: pres. sg. III. gif him þonne Hrēðrīc tō hofum Gēata
ge-þingeð _(if H. enters into a treaty_ (seeks aid at?) _with the court of
the Gēatas_, referring to the old German custom of princes entering the
service or suite of a foreign king), 1838. Leo.--2) _to prepare, appoint_:
pret. part. wiste [æt] þǣm āhlǣcan ... hilde ge-þinged, 648; hraðe wæs ...
mēce ge-þinged, 1939.

þingian, w. v.: 1) _to speak in an assembly, make an address_: inf. ne
hȳrde ic snotor-līcor on swā geongum feore guman þingian (_I never heard a
man so young speak so wisely_), 1844.--2) _to compound, settle, lay aside_:
inf. ne wolde feorh-bealo ... fēo þingian (_would not compound the
life-bale for money_), 156; so, pret. sg. þā fǣhðe fēo þingode, 470.

þīhan. See þēon.

þin, possess, pron., _thy, thine_, 267, 346, 353, 367, 459, etc.

ge-þōht, st. m., _thought, plan_: acc. sg. ān-fealdne ge-þōht, 256;
fæst-rǣdne ge-þōht, 611.

þolian, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to endure, bear_: inf. (inwid-sorge) þolian,
833; pres. sg. III. þrēa-nȳd þolað, 284; pret. sg. þolode þrȳðswȳð,
131.--2) _to hold out, stand, survive_: pres. sg. (intrans.) þenden þis
sweord þolað (_as long as this sword holds out_), 2500; pret. sg. (sēo ecg)
þolode ǣr fela hand-gemōta, 1526.

ge-þolian: 1) _to suffer, bear, endure_: gerund. tō ge-þolianne, 1420;
pret. sg. earfoð-lice þrāge ge-þolode..., þæt hē ... drēam gehȳrde (_bore
ill that he heard the sound of joy_), 87; torn ge-þolode (_bore the
misery_), 147.--2) _to have patience, wait_: inf. þǣr hē longe sceal on þæs
waldendes wǣre ge-þolian, 3110.

þon (Goth, þan) = _tum, then, now_, 504; æfter þon (_after that_), 725; ǣr
þon dæg cwōme (_ere day came_), 732; nō þon lange (_it was not long till
then_), 2424; næs þā long tō þon (_it was not long till then_), 2592, 2846;
wæs him se man tō þon lēof þæt ... _(the man was to that degree dear to him
that ..._), 1877.

þonne: 1) adv., _there, then, now_, 377, 435, 525, 1105, 1456, 1485, 1672,
1823, 3052, 3098(?).--2) conj., _if, when, while_: a) w. indic., 573, 881,
935, 1034, 1041, 1043, 1144, 1286, 1327, 1328, 1375, etc.; þæt ic
gum-cystum gōdne funde bēaga bryttan, brēac þonne mōste (_that I found a
good ring-giver and enjoyed him whilst I could_), 1488. b) w. subj., 23,
1180, 3065; þonne ...þonne (_then ... when_), 484-85, 2447-48; gif þonne
...þonne (_if then ... then_), 1105-1107. c) _than_ after comparatives, 44,
248, 469, 505, 534, 679, 1140, 1183, etc.; a comparative must be supplied,
l. 70, before þone: þæt hē ... hātan wolde medo-ærn micel men ge-wyrcean
þone yldo bearn ǣfre ge-frūnon (_a great mead-house_ (greater) _than men
had ever known_).

þracu, st. f., _strength, boldness_: in comp. mōd-þracu; = impetus in
ecg-þracu.

þrāg, st. f., _period of time, time_: nom. sg. þā hine sīo þrāg be-cwōm
(_when the_ [battle]-_hour befell him_), 2884; acc. sg. þrāge (_for a
time_), 87; longe (lange) þrāge, 54, 114.--Comp. earfoð-þrāg.

ge-þræc, st. n., _multitude, crowd_: in comp. searo-ge-þræc.

þrec-wudu, st. m., (_might-wood_), _spear_ (cf. mægen-wudu): acc. sg.,
1247.

þrēa, st. m. f., _misery, distress_: in comp. þēod-þrēa, þrēa-nēdla, -nȳd.

þrēa-nēdla, w. m., _crushing distress, misery_: dat. sg. for þrēa-nēdlan,
2225.

þrea-nȳd, st. f., _oppression, distress_: acc. sg. þrēa-nȳd, 284; dat.
pl. þrēa-nȳdum, 833.

þrēat, st. m., _troop, band_: dat. sg. on þām þrēate, 2407; dat. pl.
sceaðena þrēatum, 4.--Comp. īren-þrēat.

þrēatian, w. v. w. acc., _to press, oppress_: pret. pl. mec ...þrēatedon,
560.

þreot-teoða, num. adj. w. m., _thirteenth_: nom. sg. þreot-teoða secg,
2407.

þrēo, num. (neut.), _three_: acc. þrīo wicg, 2175; þrēo hund wintra, 2279.

þridda, num. adj. w. m., _third_: instr. þriddan sīðe, 2689.

ge-þring, st. n., _eddy, whirlpool, crush_: acc. on holma ge-þring, 2133.

þringan, st. v., _to press_: pret. sg. wergendra tō lȳt þrong ymbe þēoden
(_too few defenders pressed round the prince_), 2884; pret. pl. syððan
Hrēðlingas tō hagan þrungon (_after the Hrethlingas had pressed into the
hedge_), 2961.

for-þringan, _to press out; rescue, protect_: inf. þæt hē ne mehte ...þā
wēa-lāfe wīge for-þringan þēodnes þegne (_that he could not rescue the
wretched remnant from the king's thane by war_), 1085.

ge-þringan, _to press_: pret. sg. cēol up geþrang (_the ship shot up_),
i.e. on the shore in landing), 1913.

þrītig, num., _thirty_ (neut. subst.): acc. sg. w. partitive gen.: þrītig
þegna, 123; gen. þrīttiges (XXXtiges MS.) manna, 379.

þrīst-hȳdig, adj., _bold-minded, valorous_: nom. sg. þīoden þrīst-hȳdig
(Bēowulf), 2811.

þrowian, w. v. w. acc., _to suffer, endure_: inf. (hāt, gnorn) þrowian,
2606, 2659; pret. sg. þrowade, 1590, 1722; þrowode, 2595.

þrȳð, st. f., _abundance, multitude_, _excellence, power_: instr. pl.
þrȳðum (_excellently, extremely; excellent in strength?_), 494.

þrȳð-ærn, st. n., _excellent house, royal hall_: acc. sg. (of Heorot),
658.

þrȳðlīc, adj., _excellent, chosen_: nom. sg. þrȳð-līc þegna hēap, 400,
1628; superl. acc. pl. þrȳð-līcost, 2870.

þrȳð-swȳð, st. n.?, _great pain_ (?): acc., 131, 737 [? adj., _very
powerful, exceeding strong_].

þrȳð-word, st. n., _bold speech, choice discourse_: nom. sg., 644. (Great

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