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Beowulf by James A. Harrison and Robert Sharp, eds.

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hātes, 2523; acc. pl. hāte heaðo-wylmas, 2820.--Sup.: hātost heaðo-swāta,

hāt, st. n., _heat, fire_: acc. sg. geseah his mondryhten ... hāt þrowian,
_saw his lord endure the_ (drake's) _heat_, 2606.

hata, w. m., _persecutor_; in comp. dǣd-hata.

hātan, st. v.: 1) _to bid, to order, to direct_, with acc. and inf., and
acc. of the person: pres. sg. I. ic maguþegnas mīne hāte ... flotan ēowerne
ārum healdan, _I bid my thanes take good care of your craft_, 293; imp. sg.
II. hāt in gān ... sibbegedriht, 386; pl. II. hātað heaðo-mǣre hlǣw
gewyrcean, 2803; inf. þæt healreced hātan wolde ... men gewyrcean, _that he
wished to command men to build a hall-edifice_, 68. Pret. sg. heht: heht
... eahta mēaras ... on flet tēon, _gave command to bring eight horses into
the hall_, 1036; þonne ǣnne heht golde forgyldan, _commanded to make good
that one with gold_, 1054; heht þā þæt heaðo-weorc tō hagan bīodan,
_ordered the combat to be announced at the hedge_(?), 2893; swā se snottra
heht, _as the wise_ (Hrōðgār) _directed_, 1787; so, 1808, 1809. hēt: hēt
him ȳðlidan gōdne gegyrwan, _ordered a good vessel to be prepared for
him_, 198; so, hēt, 391, 1115, 3111. As the form of a wish: hēt hine wēl
brūcan, 1064; so, 2813; pret. part. þā wæs hāten hraðe Heort innan-weard
folmum gefrætwod, _forthwith was ordered Heorot, adorned by hand on the
inside_ (i.e. that the edifice should be adorned by hand on the inside),
992.--2) _to name, to call_: pres. subj. III. pl. þæt hit sǣlīðend ...
hātan Bīowulfes biorh, _that mariners may call it Bēowulf's grave-mound_,
2807; pret. part. wæs se grimma gæst Grendel hāten, 102; so, 263, 373,

ge-hātan, _to promise, to give one's word, to vow, to threaten_: pres. sg.
I. ic hit þē gehāte, 1393; so, 1672; pret. sg. hē mē mēde gehēt, _promised
me reward_, 2135; him fægre gehēt lēana (gen. pl.), _promised them proper
reward_, 2990; wēan oft gehēt earmre teohhe, _with woe often threatened the
unhappy band_, 2938; pret. pl. gehēton æt hærgtrafum wīg-weorðunga, _vowed
offerings at the shrines of the gods_, 175; þonne wē gehēton ūssum hlāforde
þæt ..., _when we promised our lord that_..., 2635; pret. part. sīo gehāten
[wæs] ... gladum suna Frōdan, _betrothed to the glad son of Froda_, 2025.

hātor, st. m. n., _heat_: in comp. and-hātor.

hæft, adj., _held, bound, fettered_: nom. sg., 2409; acc. sg. helle hæftan,
_him fettered by hell_ (Grendel), 789.

hæft-mēce, st. m., _sword with fetters_ or _chains_ (cf. fetel-hilt): dat.
sg. þǣm hæft-mēce, 1458. See Note.

hæg-steald, st. m., _man, liegeman, youth_: gen. pl. hæg-stealdra, 1890.

hæle, st. m., _man_: nom. sg., 1647, 1817, 3112; acc. sg. hæle, 720; dat.
pl. hǣlum (hǣnum, MS.), 1984.

hæleð, st. m., _hero, fighter, warrior, man_: nom. sg., 190, 331, 1070;
nom. pl. hæleð, 52, 2248, 2459, 3143; dat. pl. hæleðum 1710, 1962, etc.;
gen. pl. hæleða, 467, 497, 612, 663, etc.

hærg. See hearg.

hǣð, st. f., _heath_: dat. sg. hǣðe, 2213.

hǣðen, adj., _heathenish_; acc. sg. hǣðene sāwle, 853; dat. sg. hǣðnum
horde, 2217; gen. sg. hǣðenes, _of the heathen_ (Grendel), 987; gen. pl.
hǣðenra, 179.

hǣð-stapa, w. m., _that which goes about on the heath_ (stag): nom. sg.,

hǣl, st. f.: 1) _health, welfare, luck_: acc. sg. him hǣl ābēad, 654; mid
hǣle, 1218.--2) _favorable sign, favorable omen_: hǣl scēawedon, _observed
favorable signs_ (for Bēowulf's undertaking), 204.

hǣlo, st. f., _health, welfare, luck_: acc. sg. hǣlo ābēad heorð-genēatum,
2419.--Comp. un-hǣlo.

hǣst (O.H.G. haisterā hantī, manu violenta; heist, ira; heistigo,
iracunde), adj., _violent, vehement_: acc. sg. þurh hǣstne hād, 1336.

hē, fem. hēo, neut. hit, pers. pron., _he, she, it_; in the oblique cases
also reflexive, _himself, herself, itself_: acc. sg. hine, hī, hit; dat.
sg. him, hire, him; gen. sg. his, hire, his; plur. acc. nom. hī, hig, hīe;
dat. him; gen. hira, heora, hiera, hiora.--he omitted before the verb, 68,
300, 2309, 2345.

hebban, st. v., _to raise, to lift_, w. acc.: inf. siððan ic hond and rond
hebban mihte, 657; pret. part. hafen, 1291; hæfen, 3024.

ā-hebban, _raise, to lift from, to take away_: wæs ... icge gold āhafen of
horde, _taken up from the hoard_, 1109; þā wæs ... wōp up āhafen, _a cry of
distress raised_, 128

ge-hegan [ge-hēgan], w. v., _to enclose, to fence_: þing gehegan, _to mark
off the court, hold court_. Here figurative: inf. sceal ... āna gehegan
þing wið þyrse (_shall alone decide the matter with Grendel_), 425.

hel, st. f., _hell_: nom. sg., 853; acc. sg. helle, 179; dat. sg. helle,
101, 589; (as instr.), 789; gen. sg. helle, 1275.

hel-bend, st. m. f. _bond of hell_: instr. pl. hell-bendum fæst, 3073.

hel-rūna, w. m., _sorcerer_: nom. pl. helrūnan, 163.

be-helan, st. v., _to conceal, to hide_: pret. part. be-holen, 414.

helm, st. m.: 1) _protection in general, defence, covering that protects_:
acc. sg. on helm, 1393; under helm, 1746.--2) _helmet_: nom. sg., 1630;
acc. sg. helm, 673, 1023, 1527, 2988; (helo, MS.), 2724; brūn-fāgne,
gold-fāhne helm, 2616, 2812; dat. sg. under helme, 342, 404; gen. sg.
helmes, 1031; acc. pl. helmas, 240, 2639.--3) _defence, protector_,
designation of the king: nom. sg. helm Scyldinga (Hrōðgār), 371, 456, 1322;
acc. sg. heofena helm _(the defender of the heavens_ = God), 182; helm
Scylfinga, 2382.--Comp.: grīm-, gūð-, heaðo-, niht-helm.

ofer-helmian, w. v. w. acc., _to cover over, to overhang_: pres. sg. III.
ofer-helmað, 1365.

helm-berend, pres. part., _helm-wearing_ (warrior): acc. pl. helmberend,
2518, 2643.

helpan, st. v., _to help_: inf. þæt him holt-wudu helpan ne meahte, lind
wið līge, _that a wooden shield could not help him, a linden shield against
flame_, 2341; þæt him īrenna ecge mihton helpan æt hilde, 2685; wutun
gangan to, helpan hildfruman, _let us go thitherto help the battle-chief_,
2650; w. gen. ongan ... mǣges helpan, _began to help my kinsman_, 2880; so,
pret. sg. þǣr hē his mǣges (MS. mægenes) healp, 2699.

help, m. and f., _help, support, maintenance_: acc. sg. helpe, 551, 1553;
dat. sg. tō helpe, 1831; acc. sg. helpe, 2449.

hende, _-handed_: in comp. īdel-hende.

hēr, adv., _here_, 397, 1062, 1229, 1655, 1821, 2054, 2797, etc.; _hither_,
244, 361, 376.

here (Goth, harji-s), st. m., _army, troops_: dat. sg. on herge, _in the
army, on a warlike expedition, 1249; in the army, among the fighting men_,
2639; as instr. herge, 2348.--Comp.: flot-, scip-, sin-here.

here-brōga, w. m., _terror of the army, fear of war_: dat. sg. for
here-brōgan, 462.

here-byrne, w. f., _battle-mail, coat of mail_: nom. sg., 1444.

here-grīma, w. m., _battle-mask_, i.e. helmet (with visor): dat. sg.
-grīman, 396, 2050, 2606.

here-net, st. n., _battle-net_, i.e. coat of mail (of interlaced rings):
nom. sg., 1554.

here-nīð, st. m., _battle-enmity, battle of armies_: nom. sg., 2475.

here-pād, st. f., _army-dress_, i.e. coat of mail, armor: nom. sg., 2259.

here-rinc, st. m., _army-hero, hero in battle, warrior_: acc. sg. here-rinc
(MS. here ric), 1177.

here-sceaft, st. m., _battle-shaft_, i.e. spear: gen. pl. here-sceafta
hēap, 335.

here-spēd, st. f., _(war-speed), luck in war_: nom. sg., 64.

here-strǣl, st. m., _war-arrow, missile_: nom. sg., 1436.

here-syrce, w. f., _battle-shirt, shirt of mail_: acc. sg. here-syrcan,

here-wǣd, st. f., _army-dress, coat of mail, armor_: dat. pl. (as instr.)
here-wǣdum, 1898.

here-wǣsma, w. m., _war-might, fierce strength in battle_: dat. pl. an
here-wǣsmum, 678.--Leo.

here-wīsa, w. m., _leader of the army_, i.e. ruler, king: nom. sg., 3021.

herg, hearg, st. m., _image of a god, grove where a god was worshipped_,
hence to the Christian a wicked place(?): dat. pl. hergum geheaðerod,
_confined in wicked places_ (parallel with hell-bendum fæst), 3073.

herigean, w. v. w. dat. of pers., _to provide with an army, to support with
an army_: pres. sg. I. ic þē wēl herige, 1834.--Leo.

hete, st. m., _hate, enmity_: nom. sg. 142, 2555.--Comp.: ecg-, morðor-,

hete-līc, adj., _hated_: nom. sg., 1268.

hetend, hettend, (pres. part. of hetan, see hatian), _enemy_, hostis: nom.
pl. hetende, 1829; dat. pl. wið hettendum, 3005.

hete-nīð, st. m., _enmity full of hate_: acc. pl. hete-nīðas, 152.

hete-sweng, st. m., _a blow from hate_: acc. pl. hete-swengeas, 2226.

hete-þanc, st. m., _hate-thought, a hostile design_: dat. pl. mid his
hete-þancum, 475.

hēdan, ge-hēdan, w. v. w. gen.: 1) _to protect_: pret. sg. ne hēdde hē þæs
heafolan, _did not protect his head_, 2698.--2) _to obtain_: subj. pret.
sg. III. gehēdde, 505.

herian, w. v. w. acc., _to praise, to commend_: with reference to God, _to
adore_: inf. heofena helm herian ne cūðon, _could not worship the defence
of the heavens_ (God), 182; nē hūru Hildeburh herian þorfte Eotena trēowe,
_had no need to praise the fidelity of the Eotens_, 1072; pres. subj. þæt
mon his wine-dryhten wordum herge, 3177.

ge-heaðerian, w. v., _to force, to press in_: pret. part. ge-heaðerod,

heaðo-byrne, w. f., _battle-mail, shirt of mail_: nom. sg., 1553.

heaðo-dēor, adj., _bold in battle, brave_: nom. sg., 689; dat. pl.
heaðo-dēorum, 773.

heaðo-fyr, st. n., _battle-fire, hostile fire_: gen. sg. heaðu-fȳres,
2523; instr. pl. heaðo-fȳrum, 2548, of the drake's fire-spewing.

heaðo-grim, adj., _grim in battle_, 548.

heaðo-helm, st. m., _battle-helmet, war-helmet_: nom. sg., 3157(?).

heaðo-lāc, st. n., _battle-play, battle_: dat. sg. æt heaðo-lāce, 584; gen.
sg. heaðo-lāces hāl, 1975.

heaðo-mǣre, adj., _renowned in battle_: acc. pl. -mǣre, 2803.

heaðo-rǣs, st. m., _storm of battle, attack in battle, entrance by force_:
nom. sg., 557; acc. pl. -rǣsas, 1048; gen. pl. -rǣsa, 526.

heaðo-rēaf, st. n., _battle-dress, equipment for battle_: acc. sg.
heaðo-rēaf hēoldon (_kept the equipments_), 401.

heaðo-rinc, st. m., _battle-hero, warrior_: acc. sg. þone heaðo-rinc
(Hrēðel's son, Hæðcyn), 2467; dat. pl. þǣm heaðo-rincum, 370.

heaðo-rōf, adj., _renowned in battle_: nom. sg., 381; nom. pl. heaðo-rōfe,

heaðo-scearp, adj., _sharp in battle, bold_: n. m. pl. (-scearde, MS.),

heaðo-sēoc, adj., _battle-sick_: dat. sg. -sīocum, 2755.

heaðo-stēap, adj., _high in battle, excelling in battle_: nom. sg. in weak
form, heaðo-stēapa, 1246; acc. sg. heaðo-stēapne, 2154, both times of the

heaðo-swāt, st. m., _blood of battle_: dat. sg. heaðo-swāte, 1607; as
instr., 1461; gen. pl. hātost heaðo-swāta, 1669.

heaðo-sweng, st. m., _battle-stroke_ (blow of the sword): dat. sg. æfter
heaðu-swenge, 2582.

heaðo-torht, adj., _loud, clear in battle_: nom. sg. stefn ... heaðo-torht,
_the voice clear in battle_, 2554.

heaðo-wǣd, st. f., _battle-dress, coat of mail, armor_: instr. pl.
heaðo-wǣdum, 39.

heaðo-weorc, st. n., _battle-work, battle_: acc. sg., 2893.

heaðo-wylm, st. m., _hostile (flame-) wave_: acc. pl. hāte heaðo-wylmas,
2820; gen. pl. heaðo-wylma, 82.

heaf, st. n., _sea_: acc. pl. ofer heafo, 2478. See Note.

heafola. See hafela.

heal, st. f., _hall, main apartment, large building_ (consisting of an
assembly-hall and a banqueting-hall): nom. sg. heal, 1152, 1215; heall,
487; acc. sg. healle, 1088; dat. sg. healle, 89, 615, 643, 664, 926, 1010,
1927, etc.; gen. sg. [healle], 389.--Comp.: gif-, meodo-heal.

heal-ærn, st. n., _hall-building, hall-house_: gen. sg. heal-ærna, 78.

heal-gamen, st. n., _social enjoyment in the hall, hall-joy_: nom. sg.,

heal-reced, st. n., _hall-building_: acc. sg., 68.

heal-sittend, pres. part., _sitting in the hall_ (at the banquet): dat. pl.
heal-sittendum, 2869; gen. pl. heal-sittendra, 2016.

heal-þegn, st. m., _hall-thane_, i.e. a warrior who holds the hall: gen.
sg. heal-þegnes, of Grendel, 142; acc. pl. heal-þegnas, of Bēowulfs band,

heal-wudu, _hall-wood_, i.e. hall built of wood: nom. sg., 1318.

healdan, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to hold, to hold fast; to support_: pret. pl.
hū þā stānbogan ... ēce eorðreced innan hēoldon (MS. healde), _how the
arches of rock within held the everlasting earth-house_, 2720. Pret. sg.,
with a person as object: hēold hine to fæste, _held him too fast_, 789; w.
the dat. hē him frēondlārum hēold, _supported him with friendly advice_,
2378.--2) _to hold, to watch, to preserve, to keep_; reflexive, _to
maintain one's self, to keep one's self_: pres. sg. II. eal þū hit geþyldum
healdest, mægen mid mōdes snyttrum, _all that preservest thou continuously,
strength and wisdom of mind_, 1706; III. healdeð hige-mēðum hēafod-wearde,
_holds for the dead the head-watch_, 2910; imp. sg. II. heald forð tela
nīwe sibbe, _keep well, from now on, the new relationship_, 949; heald
(heold, MS.) þū nū hrūse ... eorla ǣhte, _preserve thou now, Earth, the
noble men's possessions_, 2248; inf. sē þe holmclifu healdan scolde, _watch
the sea-cliffs_, 230; so, 705; nacan ... ārum healdan, _to keep well your
vessel_, 296; wearde healdan, 319; forlēton eorla gestrēon eorðan healdan,
3168; pres. part. drēam healdende, _holding rejoicing_ (i.e. thou who art
rejoicing), 1228; pret. sg. hēold hine syððan fyr and fæstor, _kept himself
afterwards afar and more secure_, 142; ǣgwearde hēold, _I have (hitherto)
kept watch on the sea_, 241; so, 305; hīold hēah-lufan wið hæleða brego,
_preserved high love_, 1955; ginfæstan gife ... hēold, 2184; gold-māðmas
hēold, _took care of the treasures of gold_, 2415; hēold mīn tela,
_protected well mine own_, 2738; þonne ... sceft ... nytte hēold, _had
employment, was employed_, 3119; hēold mec, _protected_, i.e. brought me
up, 2431; pret. pl. heaðo-rēaf hēoldon, _watched over the armor_, 401; sg.
for pl. hēafodbeorge ... walan ūtan hēold, _outwards, bosses kept guard
over the head_, 1032.--Related to the preceding meaning are the two
following: 3) _to rule and protect the fatherland_: inf. gif þū healdan
wylt maga rice, 1853; pret. hēold, 57, 2738.--4) _to hold, to have, to
possess, to inhabit_: inf. lēt þone brego-stōl Bēowulf healdan, 2390;
gerund. tō healdanne hlēoburh wera, 1732; pret. sg. hēold, 103, 161, 466,
1749, 2752; lyftwynne hēold nihtes hwīlum, _at night-time had the enjoyment
of the air_, 3044; pret. pl. Gēata lēode hreāwic hēoldon, _the Gēatas held
the place of corpses_ (lay dead upon it), 1215; pret. sg. þǣr hēo ǣr mǣste
hēold worolde wynne, _in which she formerly possessed the highest earthly
joy_, 1080.--5) _to win, to receive_: pret. pl. I. heoldon hēah gesceap,
_we received a heavy fate, heavy fate befell us_, 3085.

be-healdan, w. acc.: 1) _to take care of, to attend to_: pret. sg. þegn
nytte behēold, _a thane discharged the office_, 494; so, 668.--2) _to
hold_: pret. sg. sē þe flōda begong ... behēold, 1499.--3) _to look at, to
behold_: þrȳðswȳð behēold mǣg Higelāces hū ..., _great woe saw H.'s
kinsman, how ..._, 737.

for-healdan, w. acc., _(to hold badly), to fall away from, to rebel_: pret.
part. hæfdon hȳ forhealden helm Scylfinga, _had rebelled against the
defender of the Scylfings_, 2382.

ge-healdan: 1) _to hold, to receive, to hold fast_: pres. sg. III. sē þe
waldendes hyldo gehealdeð, _who receives the Lord's grace_, 2294; pres.
subj. fæder alwalda ... ēowic gehealde sīða gesunde, _keep you sound on
your journey_, 317; inf. ne meahte hē ... on þām frum-gāre feorh gehealdan,
_could not hold back the life in his lord_, 2857.--2) _to take care, to
preserve, to watch over; to stop_: imp. sg. hafa nū and geheald hūsa
sēlest, 659; inf. gehealdan hēt hilde-geatwe, 675; pret. sg. hē frætwe
gehēold fela missēra, 2621; þone þe ǣr gehēold wið hettendum hord and rīce,
_him who before preserved treasure and realm_, 3004.--3) _to rule_: inf.
folc gehealdan, 912; pret. sg. gehēold tela (brāde rīce), 2209.

healf, st. f., _half, side, part_: acc. sg. on þā healfe, _towards this
side_, 1676; dat. sg. hæleðum be healfe, _at the heroes' side_, 2263; acc.
pl. on twā healfa, _upon two sides, mutually_, 1096; on bā healfa (healfe),
_on both sides_ (to Grendel and his mother), 1306; _on two sides, on both
sides_, 2064; gen. pl. on healfa gehwone, _in half, through the middle_,

healf, adj., _half_: gen. sg. healfre, 1088.

heals, st. m., _neck_: acc. sg. heals, 2692; dat. sg. wið halse, 1567; be
healse, 1873.--Comp.: the adjectives fāmig-, wunden-heals.

heals-bēah, st. m., _neck-ring, collar_: acc. sg. þone heals-bēah, 2173;
gen. pl. heals-bēaga, 1196.

heals-gebedde, w. f., _beloved bedfellow, wife_: nom. sg. healsgebedde (MS.
healsgebedda), 63.

healsian, w. v. w. acc., _to entreat earnestly, to implore_: pret. sg. þā
se þēoden mec ... healsode hrēoh-mōd þæt..., _entreated me sorrowful,
that_..., 2133.

heard, adj.: 1) of persons, _able, efficient in war, strong, brave_: nom.
sg. heard, 342, 376, 404, 1575, 2540, etc.; in weak form, se hearda, 401,
1964; se hearda þegn, 2978; þes hearda hēap, 432; nom. pl. hearde
hilde-frecan, 2206; gen. pl. heardra, 989. Comparative: acc. sg. heardran
hæle, 720. With accompanying gen.: wīges heard, _strong in battle_, 887;
dat. sg. nīða heardum, 2171.--2) of the implements of war, _good, firm,
sharp, hard_: nom. sg. (gūð-byrne, līc-syrce) heard, 322, 551. In weak
form: masc. here-strǣl hearda, 1436; se hearda helm, 2256; neutr. here-net
hearde, 1554; acc. sg. (swurd, wǣpen), heard, 540, 2688, 2988; nom. pl.
hearde ... homera lāfe, 2830; heard and hring-mǣl Heaðobeardna gestrēon,
2038; acc. pl. heard sweord, 2639. Of other things, _hard, rough, harsh,
hard to bear_: acc. sg. hreðer-bealo hearde, 1344; nom. sg. wrōht ...
heard, 2915; here-nīð hearda, 2475; acc. sg. heoro-sweng heardne, 1591;
instr. sg. heardan cēape, 2483; instr. pl. heardan, heardum clammum, 964,
1336; gen. pl. heardra hȳnða, 166. Compar.: acc. sg. heardran feohtan,
576.--Comp.: fȳr-, īren-, nīð-, regn-, scūr-heard.

hearde, adv., _hard, very_, 1439.

heard-ecg, adj., _sharp-edged, hard, good in battle_: nom. sg., 1289.

heard-fyrde, adj., _hard to take away, heavy_: acc. sg. hard-fyrdne,

heard-hycgend, pres. part. _of a warlike disposition, brave_: nom. pl.
-hicgende, 394, 800.

hearg-træf, st. n., _tent of the gods, temple_: dat. pl. æt hærg-trafum
(MS. hrǣrg trafum), 175.

hearm, st. m., _harm, injury, insult_: dat. sg. mid hearme, 1893.

hearm-sceaða, w. m., _enemy causing injury_ or _grief_: nom. sg.
hearm-scaða, 767.

hearpe, w. f., _harp_: gen. sg. hearpan swēg, 89, 3024; hearpan wynne
(wyn), 2108, 2263.

hēaðu, st. f., _sea, waves_: acc. sg. hēaðu, 1863?

hēaðu-līðend, pres. part., _sea-farer, sailor_: nom. pl. -līðende, 1799;
dat. pl. -līðendum (designation of the Gēatas), 2956.

hēafod, st. n., _head_: acc. sg., 48, 1640; dat. sg. hēafde, 1591, 2291,
2974; dat. pl. hēafdum, 1243.

hēafod-beorh, st. f., _head-defence, protection for the head_: acc. sg.
hēafod-beorge, 1031.

hēafod-mǣg, st. m., _head-kinsman, near blood-relative_: dat. pl.
hēafod-mǣgum (_brothers_), 589; gen. pl. hēafod-māga, 2152.

hēafod-segn, st. n., _head-sign, banner_: acc. sg., 2153.

hēafod-weard, st. f., _head-watch_ acc. sg. healdeð ... hēafod-wearde
lēofes and lāðes, _for the friend and the foe_ (Bēowulf and the drake, who
lie dead near each other), 2910.

hēah, hēa, adj., _high, noble_ (in composition, also primus): nom. sg. hēah
Healfdene, 57; hēa (Higelāc), 1927; hēah (sele), 82; hēah hlǣw, 2806, 3159;
acc. sg. hēah (segn), 48, 2769; hēahne (MS. hēanne) hrōf, 984; dat. sg. in
(tō) sele þām hēan, 714, 920; gen. sg. hēan hūses, 116.--_high, heavy_:
acc. hēah gesceap (_an unusual, heavy fate_), 3085.

hēa-burh, st. f., _high city, first city of a country_: acc. sg., 1128.

hēah-cyning, st. m., _high king, mightiest of the kings_: gen. sg.
-cyninges (of Hrōðgār), 1040.

hēah-gestrēon, st. n., _splendid treasure_: gen. pl. -gestrēona, 2303.

hēah-lufe, w. f., _high love_: acc. sg. hēah-lufan, 1955.

hēah-sele, st. m., _high hall, first hall in the land, hall of the ruler_:
dat. sg. hēah-sele, 648.

hēah-setl, st. n., _high seat, throne_: acc. sg., 1088.

hēah-stede, st. m., _high place, ruler's place_: dat. sg. on hēah-stede,

hēan, adj., _depressed, low, despised, miserable_: nom. sg., 1275, 2100,
2184, 2409.

hēap, st. m., _heap, crowd, troop_: nom. sg. þegna hēap, 400; þes hearda
hēap, _this brave band_, 432; acc. sg. here-sceafta hēap, _the crowd of
spears_, 335; mago-rinca hēap, 731; dat. sg. on hēape, _in a compact body_,
as many as there were of them, 2597.--Comp. wīg-hēap.

hēawan, st. v., _to hew, to cleave_: inf., 801.

ge-hēawan, _cleave_: pres. subj. ge-hēawe, 683.

heoðu, st. f., _the interior of a building_: dat. sg. þæt hē on heoðe
gestōd, _in the interior_ (of the hall, Heorot), 404.

heofon, st. m., _heaven_: nom. sg., 3157; dat. sg. hefene, 1572; gen. sg.
heofenes, 414, 576, 1802, etc.; gen. pl. heofena, 182; dat. pl. under
heofenum, 52, 505.

heolfor, st. n., _gore, fresh_ or _crude blood_: dat. instr. sg. hātan
heolfre, 850, 1424; heolfre, 2139; under heolfre, 1303.

heolster, st. n., _haunt, hiding-place_: acc. sg. on heolster, 756.

heonan, adv., _hence, from here_: heonan, 252; heonon, 1362.

heor, st. m., _door-hinge_: nom. pl. heorras, 1000.

heorde, adj. See wunden-heorde.

heorð-genēat, st. m., _hearth-companion_, i.e. a vassal of the king, in
whose castle he receives his livelihood: nom. pl. heorð-genēatas, 261,
3181; acc. pl. heorð-genēatas, 1581, 2181; dat. pl. heorð-genēatum, 2419.

heorot, st. m., _stag_: nom. sg., 1370.

heorte, w. f., _heart_: nom. sg., 2562; dat. sg. æt heortan, 2271; gen. sg.
heortan, 2464, 2508.--Comp.: the adjectives blīð-, grom-, rūm-,

heoru, st. m., _sword_: nom. sg. heoru bunden (cf. under bīndan), 1286. In
some of the following compounds heoro- seems to be confounded with here-
(see here).

heoro-blāc, adj., _pale through the sword, fatally wounded_: nom. sg.
[heoro-]blāc, 2489.

heoru-drēor, st. m., _sword-blood_: instr. sg. heoru-drēore, 487;
heoro-drēore, 850.

heoro-drēorig, adj., _bloody through the sword_: nom. sg., 936; acc. sg.
heoro-drēorigne, 1781, 2721.

heoro-drync, st. m., _sword-drink_, i.e. blood shed by the sword: instr.
pl. hioro-dryncum swealt, _died through sword-drink_, i.e. struck by the
sword, 2359.

heoro-gīfre, adj., _eager for hostile inroads_: nom. sg., 1499.

heoro-grim, adj., _sword-grim, fierce in battle_: nom. sg. m., 1565; fem.
-grimme, 1848.

heoro-hōcihte, adj., _provided with barbs, sharp like swords _: instr. pl.
mid eofer-sprēotum heoro-hōcyhtum, 1439.

heoro-serce, w. f., _shirt of mail_: acc. sg. hioro-sercean, 2540.

heoro-sweng, st. m., _sword-stroke_: acc. sg. 1591.

heoro-weallende, pres. part., _rolling around fighting_, of the drake,
2782. See weallian.

heoro-wearh, st. m. _he who is sword-cursed, who is destined to die by the
sword_: nom. sg., 1268.

hēofan, w. v., _to lament, to moan_: part. nom. pl. hīofende, 3143.

ā-hēoran, _to free_ (?): w. acc. pret. sg. brȳd āhēorde, 2931.

hēore, adj., _pleasant, not haunted, secure_: nom. sg. fem, nis þæt hēoru
stōw, _that is no secure place_, 1373.--Comp. un-hēore (-hȳre).

hider, adv., _hither_, 240, 370, 394, 3093, etc.

ofer-hīgian, w. v. (according to the connection, probably), _to exceed_,
2767. (O.H.G. ubar-hugjan, _to be arrogant_.)

hild, st. f., _battle, combat_: nom. sg., 452, 902, 1482, 2077; hild
heoru-grimme, 1848; acc. sg. hilde, 648; instr. sg. hilde, _through
combat_, 2917; dat. sg. æt hilde, 1461.

hilde-bil, st. n., _battle-sword_: nom. sg., 1667; instr. dat. sg.
hilde-bille, 557, 1521.

hilde-bord, st. n., _battle-shield_: acc. pl. hilde-bord, 397; instr. pl.
-bordum, 3140.

hilde-cyst, st. f., _excellence in battle, bravery in battle_: instr. pl.
-cystum, 2599.

hilde-dēor, adj., _bold in battle, brave in battle_: nom. sg., 312, 835,
1647, 1817; hilde-dīor, 3112; nom. pl. hilde-dēore, 3171.

hilde-freca, w. m., _hero in battle_: nom. pl. hilde-frecan, 2206; dat. sg.
hild-frecan, 2367.

hilde-geatwe, st. f. pl., _equipment for battle, adornment for combat_:
acc. hilde-geatwe, 675; gen. -geatwa, 2363.

hilde-gicel, st. m., _battle-icicle_, i.e. the blood which hangs upon the
sword-blades like icicles: instr. pl. hilde-gicelum, 1607.

hilde-grāp, st. f., _battle-gripe_: nom. sg., 1447, 2508.

hilde-hlemma, w. m., _one raging in battle, warrior, fighter_: nom. sg.,
2352, 2545; dat. pl. eft þæt ge-īode ... hilde-hlæmmum, _it happened to the
warriors_ (the Gēatas), 2202.

hilde-lēoma, w. m., _battle-light, gleam of battle_, hence: 1) the
fire-spewing of the drake in the fight: nom. pl. -lēoman, 2584.--2) _the
gleaming sword_: acc. sg. -lēoman, 1144.

hilde-mecg, st. m., _man of battle, warrior_: nom. pl. hilde-mecgas, 800.

hilde-mēce, st. m., _battle-sword_: nom. pl. -mēceas, 2203.

hilde-rand, st. m., _battle-shield_: acc. pl. -randas, 1243.

hllde-rǣs, st. m., _storm of battle_: acc. sg., 300.

hilde-rinc, st. m., _man of battle, warrior, hero_: nom. sg., 1308, 3125,
3137; dat. sg. hilde-rince, 1496; gen. sg. hilde-rinces, 987.

hilde-sæd, adj., _satiated with battle, not wishing to fight any more_:
acc. sg. hilde-sædne, 2724.

hilde-sceorp, st. n., _battle-dress, armor, coat of mail_: acc. sg., 2156.

hilde-setl, st. n., _battle-seat_ (saddle): nom. sg., 1040.

hilde-strengo, st. f., _battle-strength, bravery in battle_: acc., 2114.

hilde-swāt, st. m., _battle-sweat_: nom. sg. hāt hilde-swāt (the hot, damp
breath of the drake as he rushes on), 2559.

hilde-tūx, st. m., _battle-tooth_: instr. pl. hilde-tūxum, 1512.

hilde-wǣpen, st. m., _battle-weapon_: instr. pl. -wǣpnum, 39.

hilde-wīsa, w. m., _leader in battle, general_: dat. sg. fore Healfdenes
hildewīsan, _Healfdene's general_ (Hnæf), 1065.

hild-freca. See hilde-freca

hild-fruma, st. m., _battle-chief_: dat. sg. -fruma, 1679, 2650; gen. sg.
þæs hild-fruman, 2836.

hlld-lata, w. m., _he who is late in battle, coward_: nom. pl. þā
hild-latan, 2847.

hilt, st. n., _sword-hilt_: nom. gylden hilt, 1678; acc. sg. þæt hilt,
1669; hylt, 1668. Also used in the plural; acc. þā hilt, 1615; dat. pl, be
hiltum, 1575.--Comp.: fetel-, wreoðen-hilt.

hilte-cumbor, st. n., _banner with a staff_: acc. sg., 1023.

hilted, pret. part., _provided with a hilt_ or _handle_: acc. sg. heard
swyrd hiked, _sword with a_ (rich) _hilt_, 2988.

hin-fūs, adj., _ready to die_: nom. sg. hyge wæs him hinfūs (i.e. he felt
that he should not survive), 756.

hindema, adj. superl., _hindmost, last_: instr. sg. hindeman sīðe, _the
last time, for the last time_, 2050, 2518.

hirde, hyrde, st. m., (_herd_) _keeper, guardian, possessor_: nom. sg.
folces hyrde, 611, 1833, 2982; rīces hyrde, 2028; fyrena hyrde, _the
guardian of mischief, wicked one_, 751, 2220; wuldres hyrde, _the king of
glory, God_, 932; hringa hyrde, _the keeper of the rings_, 2246; cumbles
hyrde, _the possessor of the banner, the bearer of the banner_, 2506;
folces hyrde, 1850; frætwa hyrde, 3134; rīces hyrde, 3081; acc. pl. hūses
hyrdas, 1667.--Comp.: grund-hyrde.

hit (O.N. hita), st. f. (?), _heat_: nom. sg. þenden hyt sȳ, 2650.

hladan, st. v.: 1) _to load, to lay_: inf. on bǣl hladan lēofne mannan,
_lay the dear man on the funeral-pile_, 2127; him on bearm hladan bunan and
discas, _laid cups and plates upon his bosom, loaded himself with them_,
2776; pret. part. þǣr wæs wunden gold on wǣn hladen, _laid upon the wain_,
3135.--2) _to load, to burden_: pret. part. þā wæs ... sǣgēap naca hladen
herewǣdum, _loaded with armor_, 1898.--Comp. gilp-hlæden.

ge-hladan, w. acc., _to load, to burden_: pret. sg. sǣbāt gehlōd (MS
gehleod), 896.

hlāford, st. m., _lord, ruler_: nom. sg., 2376; acc. sg., 267; dat. sg.
hlāforde, 2635; gen. sg. hlāfordes, 3181.--Comp. eald-hlāford.

hlāford-lēas; adj., _without a lord_: nom. pl. hlāford-lēase, 2936.

hlāw, hlǣw, st. m., _grave-hill_: acc. sg. hlǣw, 2803, 3159, 3171; dat. sg.
for hlāwe, 1121. Also, _grave-chamber_ (the interior of the grave-hill),
_cave_: acc. sg. hlāw [under] hrūsan, 2277; hlǣw under hrūsan, 2412; dat.
sg. on hlǣwe, 2774. The drake dwells in the rocky cavern which the former
owner of his treasure had chosen as his burial-place, 2242-2271.

hlæst, st. n., _burden, load_: dat. sg. hlæste, 52.

hlem, st. m., _noise, din of battle, noisy attack_: in the compounds, ūht-,

hlemma, w. m., _one raging, one who calls_; see hilde-hlemma.

ā-hlehhan, st. v., _to laugh aloud, to shout, to exult_: pret. sg. his mōd
āhlōg, _his mood exulted_, 731.

hleahtor, st. m., _laughter_: nom. sg., 612; acc. sg., 3021.

hlēapan, st. v., _to run, to trot, to spring_: inf. hlēapan lēton ...
fealwe mēaras, 865.

ā-hleapan, _to spring up_: pret. āhlēop, 1398.

hleoðu. See hlið.

hleonian, w. v., _to incline, to hang over_: inf. oð þæt hē ...
fyrgen-bēamas ofer hārne stān hleonian funde, _till he found mountain-trees
hanging over the gray rocks_, 1416.

hlēo, st. m., _shady, protected place; defence, shelter_; figurative
designation of the king, or of powerful nobles: wīgendra hlēo, of Hrōðgār,
429; of Sigemund, 900; of Bēowulf, 1973, 2338; eorla hlēo, of Hrōðgār,
1036, 1867; of Bēowulf, 792; of Hygelāc, 2191.

hlēo-burh, st. f., _ruler's castle_ or _city_: acc. sg., 913, 1732.

hlēoðor-cwyde, st. m., _speech of solemn sound, ceremonious words_, 1980.

hlēor, st. n., _cheek, jaw_: in comp. fǣted-hlēor (adj.).

hlēor-bera, w. m., _cheek-bearer_, the part of the helmet that reaches down
over the cheek and protects it: acc. pl. ofer hlēor-beran (_visor_?), 304.

hlēor-bolster, st. m., _cheek-bolster, pillow_: nom. sg., 689.

hlēotan, st. v. w. acc., _to obtain by lot, to attain, to get_: pret. sg.
feorh-wunde hlēat, 2386.

hlīfian, w. v., _to rise, to be prominent_: inf. hlīfian, 2806; pret.
hlīfade, 81, 1800, 1899.

hlið, st. n., _cliff, precipice of a mountain_: dat. sg. on hlīðe, 3159;
gen. sg. hlīðes, 1893; pl. hliðo in composition, stān-hliðo; hleoðu in the
compounds fen-, mist-, næs-, wulf-hleoðu.

hlin-bed (Frisian hlen-bed, Richthofen 206^28, for which another text has
cronk-bed), st. n., κλινίδιον, _bed for reclining, sick-bed_: acc. sg.
hlim-bed, 3035.

tō-hlīdan, st. v., _to spring apart, to burst_: pret. part. nom. pl.
tō-hlidene, 1000.

hlūd, adj., _loud_: acc. sg. drēam ... hlūdne, 89.

hlyn, st. m., _din, noise, clatter_: nom. sg., 612.

hlynnan, hlynian, w. v., _to sound, to resound_: inf. hlynnan (of the
voice), 2554; of fire, _to crackle_: pret. sg. hlynode, 1121.

hlynsian, w. v., _to resound, to crash_: pret. sg. reced hlynsode, 771.

hlytm, st. m., _lot_: dat. sg. næs þā on hlytme, hwā þæt hord strude, _it
did not depend upon lot who should plunder the hoard_, i.e. its possession
was decided, 3127.

hnāh, adj.: 1) _low, inferior_: comp. acc. sg. hnāgran, 678; dat. sg.
hnāhran rince, _an inferior hero, one less brave_, 953.--2) _familiarly
intimate_: nom. sg. næs hīo hnāh swā þēah, _was nevertheless not familiarly
intimate_ (with the Gēatas, i.e. preserved her royal dignity towards them),
(_niggardly_?), 1930.

hnǣgan, w. v. w. acc., (for nǣgan), _to speak to, to greet_: pret. sg. þæt
hē þone wīsan wordum hnǣgde frēan Ingwina, 1319.

ge-hnǣgan, w. acc., _to bend, to humiliate, to strike down, to fell_: pret.
sg. ge-hnǣgde helle gāst, 1275; þǣr hyne Hetware hilde gehnǣgdon, 2917.

hnitan, st. v., _to dash against, to encounter_, here of the collision of
hostile bands: pret. pl. þonne hniton (hnitan) fēðan, 1328, 2545.

hoðma, w. m., _place of concealment, cave_, hence, _the grave_: dat. sg. in
hoðman, 2459.

hof, st. n., _enclosed space, court-yard, estate, manor-house_: acc. sg.
hof (Hrōðgār's residence), 312; dat. sg. tō hofe sīnum (Grendel's home in
the sea), 1508; tō hofe (Hygelāc's residence), 1975; acc. pl. beorht hofu,
2314; dat. pl. tō hofum Gēata, 1837.

hogode. See hycgan.

hold, adj., _inclined to, attached to, gracious, dear, true_: nom. sg. w.
dat. of the person, hold weorod frēan Scyldinga, _a band well disposed to
the lord of the Scyldings_, 290; mandrihtne hold, 1230; Hygelāce wæs ...
nefa swȳðe hold, _to H. was his nephew_ (Bēowulf) _very much attached_,
2171; acc. sg. þurh holdne hige, _from a kindly feeling, with honorable
mind_, 267; holdne wine, 376; holdne, 1980; gen. pl. holdra, 487.

hold. See healdan.

holm, st. m., _deep sea_: nom. sg., 519, 1132, 2139; acc. sg., 48, 633;
dat. sg. holme, 543, 1436, 1915; acc. pl. holmas, 240.--Comp. wǣg-holm.

holm-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff_: dat. sg. on þām holm-clife, 1422; from þǣm
holmclife, 1636; acc. pl. holm-clifu, 230.

holm-wylm, st. m., _the waves of the sea_: dat. sg. holm-wylme, 2412.

holt, st. n., _wood, thicket, forest._ acc. sg. on holt, 2599; holt,
2847.--Comp.: æsc-, fyrgen-, gār-, Hrefnes-holt.

holt-wudu, st. m., _forest-wood_: 1) of the material: nom. sg., 2341.--2) =
_forest_: acc. sg., 1370.

hop, st. n., _protected place, place of refuge, place of concealment_, in
the compounds fen-, mōr-hop.

hord, st. m. and n., _hoard, treasure_: nom. sg., 2284, 3085; bēaga hord,
2285; māðma hord, 3012; acc. sg. hord, 913, 2213, 2320, 2510, 2745, 2774,
2956, 3057; sāwle hord, 2423; þæt hord, 3127; dat. sg. of horde, 1109; for
horde, _on account of_ (the robbing of) _the hoard_, 2782; hǣðnum horde,
2217; gen. sg. hordes, 888.--Comp.: bēah-, brēost-, word-, wyrm-hord.

hord-ærn, st. n., _place in which a treasure is kept, treasure-room_: dat.
hord-ærne, 2832; gen. pl. hord-ærna, 2280.

hord-burh, st. f., _city in which is the treasure_ (of the king's),
_ruler's castle_: acc. sg., 467.

hord-gestrēon, st. n., _hoard-treasure, precious treasure_: dat. pl.
hord-gestrēonum, 1900; gen. pl. mægen-byrðenne hord-gestrēona, _the great
burden of rich treasures_, 3093.

hord-māððum, st. m., _treasure-jewel, precious jewel_: acc. sg. (-madmum,
MS.), 1199.

hord-wela, w. m., _treasure-riches, abundance of treasures_: acc. sg.
hord-welan, 2345.

hord-weard, st. m., _warder of the treasure, hoard-warden_: 1) of the king:
nom. sg., 1048; acc. sg., 1853.--2) of the drake: nom. sg., 2294, 2303,
2555, 2594.

hord-weorðung, st. f., _ornament out of the treasure, rich ornament_: acc.
sg.--weorðunge, 953.

hord-wyn, st. f., _treasure-joy, joy-giving treasure_: acc. sg. hord-wynne,

horn, st. m., _horn_: 1) upon an animal: instr. pl. heorot hornum trum,
1370.--2) wind-instrument: nom. sg., 1424; acc. sg., 2944.--Comp. gūð-horn.

horn-boga, w. m., _bow made of horn_: dat. sg. of horn-bogan, 2438.

horn-gēap, adj., of great extent between the (stag-)horns adorning the
gables(?): nom. sg. sele ... hēah and horn-gēap, 82.

horn-reced, st. n., building whose two gables are crowned by the halves of
a stag's antler(?): acc. sg., 705. Cf. Heyne's Treatise on the Hall,
Heorot, p. 44.

hors, st. n., _horse_: nom. sg., 1400.

hōciht, adj., _provided with hooks, hooked_: in comp. heoro-hōciht.

be-hōfian, w. v. w. gen., _to need, to want_: pres. sg. III. nū is se dæg
cumen þat ūre man-dryhten mægenes behōfað gōdra gūðrinca, _now is the day
come when our lord needs the might of strong warriors_, 2648.

on-hōhsnian, w. v., _to hinder_: pret. sg. þæt onhōhsnode Heminges mǣg (on
hohsnod, MS.), 1945.

hōlinga, adv., _in vain, without reason_, 1077.

be-hōn, st. v., _to hang with_: pret. part. helmum behongen, 3140.

hōs (Goth, hansa), st. f., _accompanying troop, escort_: instr. sg. mægða
hōse, _with an accompanying train of servingwomen_, 925.

hræðe, adv., _hastily, quickly, immediately_, 224, 741, 749, 1391, etc.;
hraðe, 1438; hreðe, 992; compar. hraðor, 543.

hran-fix, st. m., _whale_: acc. pl. hron-fixas, 540.

hran-rād, st. f., _whale-road_, i.e. sea: dat. sg. ofer hron-rāde, 10.

hrā, st. n., _corpse_: nom. sg., 1589.

hrā-fyl, st. m., _fall of corpses, killing, slaughter_: acc. sg., 277.

hrædlīce, adv., _hastily, immediately_, 356, 964.

hræfn, hrefn, st. m., _raven_: nom. sg. hrefn blaca, _black raven_, 1802;
se wonna hrefn, _the dark raven_, 3025; dat. sg. hrefne, 2449.

hrægl, st. n., _dress, garment, armor_: nom. sg., 1196; gen. sg., hrægles,
1218; gen. pl. hrægla, 454--Comp.: beado-, fyrd-, mere-hrægl.

hreðe. See hraðe.

hreðer, st. m., _breast, bosom_ nom. sg. hreðer inne wēoll _(it surged in
his breast_), 2114; hreðer ǣðme wēoll, 2594; dat. sg. in hreðre, 1152; of
hreðre, 2820.--_Breast_ as the seat of feeling, _heart_: dat. sg. þæt wæs
... hreðre hygemēðe, _that was depressing to the heart_ (of the slayer,
Hæðcyn), 2443; on hreðre, 1879, 2329; gen. pl. þurh hreðra gehygd,
2046.--_Breast_ as seat of life: instr. sg. hreðre, parallel with aldre,

hreðer-bealo, st. n., _evil that takes hold on the heart, evil severely
felt_: acc. sg., 1344.

hrefn. See hræfn.

hrēð, st. f., _glory_; in composition, gūð-hrēð; _renown, assurance of
victory_, in sige-hrēð.

hrēðe, adj., _renowned in battle_: nom. sg. hrēð (on account of the
following æt, final _e_ is elided, as wēnic for wēne ic, 442; frōfor and
fultum for frōfre and fultum, 699; firen ondrysne for firene ondr., 1933,

hrēð-sigor, st. m., _glorious victory_: dat. sg. hrēð-sigora, 2584.

hrēmig, adj., _boasting, exulting_: with instr. and gen. hūðe hrēmig, 124;
since hrēmig, 1883; frætwum hrēmig, 2055; nom. pl. nealles Hetware hrēmge
þorfton (sc. wesan) fēðe-wīges, 2365.

on-hrēran, w. v., _to excite, to stir up_: pret. part. on-hrēred, 549,

hreā-wīc, st. n., _place of corpses_: acc. sg. Gēata lēode hreā-wīc
hēoldon, _held the place of corpses_, 1215.

hrēad, st. f., _ornament_(?), in comp. earm-hrēad. See hrēoðan.

hrēam, st. m., _noise, alarm_:: nom. sg., 1303.

hrēoða, w. m., _cover_, in the compound bord-hrēoða.

hrēoðan, ge-hrēoðan, st. v., _to cover, to clothe_; only in the pret. part.
hroden, gehroden, _dressed, adorned_: hroden, 495, 1023; þā wæs heal hroden
fēonda fēorum, _then was the hall covered with the corpses of the enemy_,
1152; ge-hroden golde, _adorned with gold_, 304.--Comp.: bēag-,

hrēoh, hrēow, hrēo, adj., _excited, stormy, wild, angry, raging; sad,
troubled_: nom. sg. (Bēowulf) hrēoh and heoro-grim, 1565; þæt þām gōdan wæs
hrēow on hreðre, (_that came with violence upon him, pained his heart_),
2329; hrēo wǣron ȳða, _the waves were angry, the sea stormy_, 548; næs him
hrēoh sefa, _his mind was not cruel_, 2181; dat. sg. on hrēon mōde, _of sad
heart_, 1308; on hrēoum mōde, _angry at heart_, 2582.

hrēoh-mōd, adj., _of sad heart_, 2133; _angry at heart_, 2297.

hrēosan, st. v., _to fall, to sink, to rush_: pret. hrēas, 2489, 2832;
pret. pl. hruron, 1075; hīe on weg hruron, _they rushed away_, 1431; hruron
him tēaras, _tears burst from him_, 1873.

be-hrēosan, _to fall from, to be divested of_: pret. part. acc. pl.
fyrn-manna fatu ... hyrstum behrorene, _divested of ornaments_ (from which
the ornaments had fallen away), 2760.

hrēow, st. f., _distress, sorrow_: gen. pl. þæt wæs Hrōðgāre hrēowa
tornost, _that was to Hrōðgār the bitterest of his sorrows_, 2130.

hring, st. m.: 1) _ring_: acc. sg. þone hring, 1203; hring gyldenne, 2810;
acc. pl. hringas, 1196, 1971, 3035; gen. pl. hringa, 1508, 2246.--2) _shirt
of mail_ (of interlaced rings): nom. sg. hring, 1504; byrnan hring,
2261.--Comp. bān-hring.

hringan, w. v., _to give forth a sound, to ring, to rattle_: pret. pl.
byrnan hringdon, 327.

hring-boga, w. m., _one who bends himself into a ring_: gen. sg.
hring-bogan (of the drake, bending himself into a circle), 2562.

hringed, pret. part., _made of rings_: nom. sg. hringed byrne, 1246; acc.
sg. hringde byrnan, 2616.

hringed-stefna, w. m., _ship whose stem is provided with iron rings_
(cramp-irons), especially of sea-going ships (cf. Frið-þiofs saga, I:
þorsteinn ātti skip þat er Ellidi hēt, ... borðit war spengt iarni): nom.
sg., 32, 1898; acc. sg. hringed-stefnan, 1132.

hring-īren, st. n., _ring-iron, ring-mail_: nom. sg., 322.

hring-mǣl, adj., _marked with rings_, i.e. ornamented with rings, or marked
with characters of ring-form: nom. acc. sg., of the sword, 1522, 1562(?);
nom. pl. heard and hring-mǣl Heaðobeardna gestrēon (_rich armor_), 2038.

hring-naca, w. m., _ship with iron rings, sea-going ship_: nom. sg., 1863.

hring-net, st. n., _ring-net_, i.e. a shirt of interlaced rings: acc. sg.,
2755; acc. pl. hring-net, 1890.

hring-sele, st. m., _ring-hall_, i.e. hall in which are rings, or in which
rings are bestowed: acc. sg., 2841; dat. sg., 2011, 3054.

hring-weorðung, st. f., _ring-ornament_: acc. sg. -weorðunge, 3018.

hrīnan, st. v. w. dat.: 1) _to touch, lay hold of_: inf. þæt him heardra
nān hrīnan wolde īren ǣrgōd (_that no good sword of valiant men would make
an impression on him_), 989; him for hrōf-sele hrīnan ne mehte fǣrgripe
flōdes (_the sudden grip of the flood might not touch him owing to the
hall-roof_), 1516; þæt þām hring-sele hrīnan ne mōste gumena ǣnig _(so that
none might touch the ringed-hall), _3054; pret. sg. siððan hē hire folmum
[hr]ān (_as soon as he touched it with his hands_), 723; oð þæt dēaðes wylm
hrān æt heortan (_seized his heart_), 2271. Pret. subj. þēah þe him wund
hrīne (_although he was wounded_), 2977.--2) (O.N. hrīna, _sonare,
clamare), to resound, rustle_: pres. part. nom. pl. hrīnde bearwas (for
hrīnende) 1364; but see Note.

hroden. See hrēoðan.

hron-fix. See hran-fix.

hrōðor, st. m., _joy, beneficium_: dat sg. hrefne tō hrōðre, 2449; gen. pl.
hrōðra, 2172.

hrōf, st. m., _roof, ceiling of a house_: nom. sg., 1000; acc. sg. under
Heorotes hrōf, 403; under gēapne hrōf, 838; geseah stēapne hrōf (here
_inner roof, ceiling_), 927; so, ofer hēahne hrōf, 984; ymb þæs helmes
hrōf, 1031; under beorges hrōf, 2756.--Comp. inwit-hrōf.

hrōf-sele, st. m., _covered hall_: dat. sg. hrōf-sele, 1516.

hrōr, adj., _stirring, wide-awake, valorous_: dat. sg. of þǣm hrōran,
1630.--Comp. fela-hrōr.

hruron. See hrēosan.

hrūse, w. f., _earth, soil_: nom. sg., 2248, 2559; acc. sg. on hrūsan, 773,
2832; dat. sg. under hrūsan, 2412.

hrycg, st. m., _back_: acc. sg. ofer wæteres hrycg (_over the water's back,
surface_), 471.

hryre, st. m., _fall, destruction, ruin_: acc. sg., 3181; dat. sg., 1681,
3006.--Comp.: lēod-, wīg-hryre.

hrysian, w. v., _to shake, be shaken, clatter_: pret. pl. syrcan hrysedon
(_corselets rattled_, of men in motion), 226.

hund, st. m., _dog_: instr. pl. hundum, 1369.

hund, num., _hundred_: þrēo hund, 2279; w. gen. pl. hund missēra, 1499;
hund þūsenda landes and locenra bēaga, 2995.

hū, adv., _how, quomodo_, 3, 116, 279, 738, 845, 2319, 2520, 2719, etc.

huð, st. f., _booty, plunder_: dat. (instr.) sg. hūðe, 124.

hūru, adv., _above all, certainly_, 369; _indeed, truly_, 182, 670, 1072,
1466, 1945, 2837; _yet, nevertheless_, 863; _now_, 3121.

hūs, st. n., _house_: gen. sg. hūses, 116; gen. pl. hūsa sēlest (Heorot),
146, 285, 659, 936.

hwan, adv., _whither_: tō hwan syððan wearð hondrǣs hæleða (_what issue the
hand-to-hand fight of the heroes had_), 2072.

hwanan, hwanon, adv., _whence_: hwanan, 257, 2404; hwanon, 333.

hwā, interrog. and indef. pron., _who_: nom. sg. m. hwā, 52, 2253, 3127;
neut. hwæt, 173; ānes hwæt (_a part only_), 3011; hwæt þā men wǣron (_who
the men were_), 233, etc.; hwæt syndon gē searo-hæbbendra (_what armed men
are ye?_), 237; acc. sg. m. wið manna hwone (_from (?) any man_), 155;
neut. þurh hwæt, 3069; hwæt wit geō sprǣcon, 1477; hwæt ... hȳnðo (gen.),
fǣr-nīða (_what shame and sudden woes_), 474; so, hwæt þū worn fela (_how
very much thou_), 530; swylces hwæt, 881; hwæt ... ārna, 1187; dat. m.
hwām, 1697.--Comp. ǣg-hwā.

hwæt, interj., _what! lo! indeed!_ 1, 943, 2249.

ge-hwā, w. part, gen., _each, each one_: acc. sg. m. wið fēonda gehwone,
294; nīða gehwane, 2398; mēca gehwane, 2686; gum-cynnes gehwone, 2766; fem,
on healfa gehwone, 801; dat. sg. m. dōgora gehwām, 88; æt nīða gehwām, 883;
þegna gehwām, 2034; eorla gehwǣm, 1421; fem. in mǣgða ge-hwǣre, 25; nihta
gehwǣm, 1366; gen. sing. m. manna gehwæs, 2528; fem. dǣda gehwæs, 2839.

hwār. See hwǣr.

hwæder. See hwider.

hwæðer, pron., _which of two_: nom. sg. hwæðer ... uncer twēga, 2531; swā
hwæðer, _utercunque_: acc. sg. on swā hwæðere hond swā him gemet þince,
687.--Comp. ǣg-hwæðer.

ge-hwæðer, _each of two, either-other_: nom. sg. m. wæs gehwæðer ōðrum
lifigende lāð, 815; wæs ... gehwæðer ōðrum hrōðra gemyndig, 2172; nē
gehwæðer incer (_nor either of you two_), 584; nom. sg. neut. gehwæðer þāra
(_either of them_, i.e. ready for war or peace), 1249; dat. sg. hiora
gehwæðrum, 2995; gen. sg. bēga gehwæðres, 1044.

hwæðer, hwæðere, hwæðre, 1) adv., _yet, nevertheless_: hwæðre, 555, 891,
1271, 2099, 2299, 2378, etc.; hwæðre swā þēah, _however, notwithstanding_,
2443; hwæðere, 574, 578, 971, 1719--2) conj., = _utrum, whether_: hwæðre,
1315; hwæðer, 1357, 2786.

hwæt, adj., _sharp, bold, valiant_: nom. sg. se secg hwata, 3029; dat. sg.
hwatum, 2162; nom. pl. hwate, 1602, 2053; acc. pl. hwate, 2643,
3006.--Comp.: fyrd-, gold-hwæt.

hwæt. See hwā.

hwǣr, adv., _where_: elles hwǣr, _elsewhere_, 138; hwǣr, _somewhere_, 2030.
In elliptical question: wundur hwār þonne..., _is it a wonder when...?_
3063.--Comp. ō-hwǣr.

ge-hwǣr, _everywhere_: þēah þū heaðo-rǣsa gehwǣr dohte (_everywhere good in
battle_), 526.

hwele. See hwyle.

hwergen, adv., _anywhere_: elles hwergen, _elsewhere_, 2591.

hwettan, w. v., _to encourage, urge_: pres. subj. swā þin sefa hwette (_as
thy mind urges, as thou likest_), 490; pret. pl. hwetton higerōfne (_they
whetted the brave one_), 204.

hwēne, adv., _a little, paululum_, 2700.

hwealf, st. f., _vault_: acc. sg. under heofones hwealf, 576, 2016.

hweorfan, st. v., _to stride deliberately, turn, depart, move, die_: pres.
pl. þāra þe cwice hwyrfað, 98; inf. hwīlum hē on lufan lǣteð hworfan monnes
mōd-geþonc (_sometimes on love_ (?) _possessions_ (?) _permits the thoughts
of man to turn_), 1729; londrihtes mōt ... monna ǣghwylc īdel hweorfan (_of
rights of land each one of men must be deprived_), 2889; pret. sg. fæder
ellor hwearf ... of earde (_died_), 55; hwearf þā hrædlīce þǣr Hrōðgār sæt,
356; hwearf þā bī bence (_turned then to the bench_), 1189; so, hwearf þā
be wealle, 1574; hwearf geond þæt reced, 1982; hlǣw oft ymbe hwearf (_went
oft round the cave_), 2297; nalles æfter lyfte lācende hwearf (_not at all
through the air did he go springing_), 2833; subj. pret. sg, ǣr hē on weg
hwurfe ... of geardum (_died_), 264.

and-hweorfan, _to move against_: pret. sg. oð þæt ... norðan wind
heaðo-grim and-hwearf (_till the fierce north wind blew in our faces_),

æt-hweorfan, _to go to_: pret. sg. hwīlum hē on beorh æt-hwearf (_at times
returned to the mountain_), 2300.

ge-hweorfan, _to go, come_: pret. sg. gehwearf þā in Francna fæðm feorh
cyninges, 1211; hit on ǣht gehwearf ... Denigea frēan, 1680; so, 1685,

geond-hweorfan, _to go through from end to end_: pres. sg. flet eall
geond-hwearf, 2018.

hwider, adv., _whither_: hwyder, 163; hwæder (hwæðer, MS.), 1332.

hwīl, st. f., _time, space of time_: nom. sg. wæs sēo hwīl micel (_it was a
long time_), 146; þā wæs hwīl dæges (_the space of a day_), 1496; acc. sg.
hwīle, _for a time_, 2138; _a while_, 105, 152; lange (longe) hwīle, _a
long while_, 16, 2781; āne hwīle, _a while_, 1763; lȳtle hwīle, _brief
space_, 2031, 2098; ǣnige hwīle, _any while_, 2549; lǣssan hwīle, _a lesser
while_, 2572; dat. sg. ǣr dæges hwīle, _before daybreak_, 2321; dat. pl.
nihtes hwīlum, _sometimes at night_, 3045. Adv., _sometimes, often_:
hwīlum, 175, 496, 917, 1729, 1829, 2017, 2112, etc.; hwīlum ... hwīlum,
2108-9-10.--Comp.: dæg-, gescæp-, orleg-, sige-hwīl.

hwīt, adj., _brilliant, flashing_: nom. sg. se hwīta helm, 1449.

hworfan. See hweorfan.

hwōpan, st. v., _to cry, cry out mourn_: pret. sg. hwēop, 2269.

hwyder. See hwider.

hwylc, pron., _which, what, any_: 1) adj.: nom. sg. m. sceaða ic nāt hwylc,
274; fem, hwylc orleghwīl, 2003; nom. pl. hwylce Sǣgēata sīðas wǣron,
1987.--2) subst., w. gen. pl. nom. m.: Frisna hwylc, 1105; fem, efne swā
hwylc mægða swā þone magan cende (_whatever woman brought forth this son_),
944; neut. þonne his bearna hwylc (_than any one of his sons_), 2434; dat.
sg. efne swā hwylcum manna swā him gemet þūhte, 3058.--Comp.: ǣg-, nāt-,

ge-hwylc, ge-hwilc, ge-hwelc, w. gen. pl., _each_: nom. sg. m. gehwylc,
986, 1167, 1674; acc. sg. m. gehwylcne, 937, 2251, 2517; gehwelcne, 148;
fem, gehwylce, 1706; neut. gehwylc, 2609; instr. sg. dōgra gehwylce, 1091;
so, 2058, 2451; dat. sg. m. gehwylcum, 412, 769, 785, etc.; fem, ecga
gehwylcre, 806; neut. cynna gehwylcum, 98; gen. sg. m. and neut. gehwylces,
733, 1397, 2095.

hwyrft, st. m., _circling movement, turn_: dat. pl. adv. hwyrftum scrīðað
(_wander to and fro_), 163.--Comp. ed-hwyrft.

hycgan, w. v., _to think, resolve upon_: pret. sg. ic þæt hogode þæt ...
(_my intention was that ..._), 633.--Comp. w. pres. part.: bealo-, heard-,
swīð-, þanc-, wīs-hycgend.

for-hycgan, _to despise, scorn, reject with contempt_: pres. sg. I. ic þæt
þonne for-hicge þæt ..., _reject with scorn the proposition that ..._, 435.

ge-hycgan, _to think, determine upon_: pret. sg. þā þū ... feorr gehogodest
sæcce sēcean, 1989.

ofer-hycgan, _to scorn_: pret. sg. ofer-hogode þā hringa fengel þæt hē þone
wīdflogan weorode gesōhte (_scorned to seek the wide-flier with a host_),

hȳdig (for hygdig), adj., _thinking, of a certain mind_: comp. ān-,
bealo-, grom-, nīð-, þrīst-hȳdig.

ge-hygd, st. n., _thought, sentiment_: acc. sg. þurh hreðra gehygd,
2046.--Comp.: brēost-, mōd-gehygd, won-hyd.

hyge, hige, st. m., _mind, heart, thought_: nom. sg. hyge, 756; hige, 594;
acc. sg. þurh holdne hige, 267; gen. sg. higes, 2046; dat. pl. higum, 3149.

hyge-bend, st. m. f., _mind-fetter, heart-band_: instr. pl. hyge-bendum
fæst, _fast in his mind's fetters, secretly_, 1879.

hyge-geōmor, adj., _sad in mind_: nom. sg. hyge-giōmor, 2409.

hyge-mēðe, adj.: 1) _sorrowful, soul-crushing_: nom. sg., 2443.--2)
_life-weary, dead_: dat. pl. hyge-mēðum (-mǣðum, MS.), 2910.

hyge-rōf, adj., _brave, valiant, vigorous-minded_: nom. sg. [hygerōf], 403;
acc. sg. hige-rōfne, 204.

hyge-sorh, st. f., _heart-sorrow_: gen. pl. -sorga, 2329.

hyge-þȳhtig, adj., _doughty, courageous_: acc. sg. hige-þihtigne (of
Bēowulf), 747. See þȳhtig.

hyge-þrym, st. m., _animi majestas, high-mindedness_: dat. pl. for
hige-þrymmum, 339.

hyht, st. m., _thought, pleasant thought, hope_ (Dietrich): nom. sg., 179.

ge-hyld (see healdan), st. n., _support, protection_: nom. sg., 3057.--Leo.

hyldan, w. v., _to incline one's self, lie down to sleep_: pret. sg. hylde
hine, _inclined himself, lay down_, 689.

hyldo, st. f., _inclination, friendliness, grace_: acc. sg. hyldo, 2068,
2294; gen. sg. hyldo, 671, 2999.

ā-hyrdan, w. v., _harden_: pret. part. ā-hyrded, 1461.

hyrde. See hirde.

hyrst, st. f., _accoutrements, ornament, armor_: acc. sg. hyrste
(Ongenþēow's _equipments and arms_), 2989; acc. pl. hyrsta, 3166; instr.
pl. hyrstum, 2763.

hyrstan, w. v., _to deck, adorn_: pret. part. hyrsted sweord, 673; helm
[hyr]sted golde, 2256.

hyrtan, w. v., _to take heart, be emboldened_: pret. sg. hyrte hyne
hord-weard (_the drake took heart_; see 2566, 2568, 2570), 2594.

hyse, st. m., _youth, young man_: nom. sg. as voc., 1218.

hyt. See hit.

hȳdan, w. v., _to hide, conceal, protect, preserve_: pres. subj. hȳde
[hine, _himself_] sē þe wylle, 2767; inf. w. acc. nō þū mīnne þearft
hafalan hȳdan, 446; ǣr hē in wille hafelan [hȳdan] (_ere in it he_ [the
stag] _will hide his head_), 1373.

ge-hȳdan, w. acc., _to conceal, preserve_: pret. sg. gehȳdde, 2236, 3060.

hȳð, st. f., _haven_: dat. sg. æt hȳðe, 32.

hȳð-weard, st. m., _haven-warden_: nom. sg., 1915.

hȳnan (see hēan), w. v. w. acc., _to crush, afflict, injure_: pret. sg.
hȳnde, 2320.

hȳnðu, st. f., _oppression, affliction, injury_: acc. sg. hȳnðu, 277;
gen. sg. hwæt ... hȳnðo, 475; fela ... hȳnðo, 594; gen. pl. heardra
hȳnða, 166.

hȳran, w. v.: 1) _to hear, perceive, learn_: a) w. inf. or acc. with inf.:
I. pret. sg. hȳrde ic, 38, 582, 1347, 1843, 2024; III. sg. þæt hē fram
Sigemunde secgan hȳrde, 876; I. pl. swā wē sōðlīce secgan hȳrdon, 273. b)
w. acc.: nǣnigne ic ... sēlran hȳrde hordmāððum (_I heard of no better
hoard-jewel_), 1198. c) w. dependent clause: I. sg. pret. hȳrde ic þæt
..., 62, 2164, 2173.--2) w. dat. of person, _to obey_: inf. oð þæt him
ǣghwylc þāra ymbsittendra hȳran scolde, 10; hȳran heaðo-sīocum, 2755;
Pret. pl. þæt him winemāgas georne hȳrdon, 66.

ge-hȳran, _to hear, learn_: a) w. acc.: II. pers. sg. pres. mīnne gehȳrað
ānfealdne geþōht, 255; III. sg. pret. gehȳrde on Bēowulfe fæstrǣdne
geþōht, 610. b) w. acc. and inf.: III. pl. pret. gehȳrdon, 786. c) w.
depend. clause: I. pres. sg. ic þæt gehȳre þæt ..., 290.


ic, pers. pron. _I_: acc. mec, dat. mē, gen. mīn; dual nom. wit, acc.
uncit, unc, dat. unc, gen. uncer; pl. nom. wē, acc. ūsic, ūs, dat. ūs, gen.
ūser. ic omitted before the verb, 470.

icge, _gold_ (perhaps related to Sanskrit īç, = dominare, imperare, O.H.G.
ēht, _wealth_, opes), _treasure?, sword_ (edge)?, 1108.--Körner.

ides, st. f., _woman, lady, queen_: nom. sg., 621, 1076, 1118, 1169; dat.
sg. idese, 1650, 1942. Also of Grendel's mother: nom. sg., 1260; gen. sg.
idese, 1352.

in. See inn.

in: I. prep. w. dat. and acc.: 1) w. dat. (local, indicating rest), _in_:
in geardum, 13, 2460; in þǣm gūðsele, 443; in bēorsele, 2636; so, 89, 482,
589, 696, 729, 2140, 2233, etc.; in mǣgða gehwǣre, 25; in þȳstrum, 87; in
Caines cynne, 107; in hyra gryregeatwum (_in their accoutrements of terror,
war-weeds_), 324; so, 395; in campe (_in battle_), 2506; hiora in ānum (_in
one of them_), 2600. Prep. postpositive: Scedelandum in, 19. Also, _on,
upon_, like on: in ealo-bence, 1030; in gumstōle, 1953; in þām wongstede
(_on the grassy plain, the battle-field_), 2787; in bǣlstede, 3098.
Temporal: in geār-dagum, 1.--2) w. acc. (local, indicating motion), _in,
into_: in woruld, 60; in fȳres fæðm, 185; so, 1211; in Hrefnesholt, 2936.
Temporal, _in, at, about, toward_: in þā tīde (in watide, MS.), 2228.

II. adv., _in_ (here or there), 386, 1038, 1372, 1503, 1645, 2153, 2191,
2228; inn, 3091.

incge, adj. (perhaps related to icge), instr. sg. incge lāfe (_with the
costly sword_ ? or _with mighty sword_?), 2578.--[_Edge_: incge lāfe, _edge
of the sword_.--K. Körner?]

in-frōd, adj., _very aged_: nom. sg., 2450; dat. sg. in-frōdum, 1875.

in-gang, st. m., _entrance, access to_: acc. sg., 1550.

in-genga, w. m., _in-goer, visitor_: nom. sg., of Grendel, 1777.

in-gesteald, st. m., _house-property, possessions in the house_: acc. sg.,

inn, st. n., _apartment, house_: nom. sg. in, 1301.

innan, adv., _within, inside_, 775, 1018, 2413, 2720; on innan (_in the
interior_), _within_, 1741, 2716; þǣr on innan (_in there_), 71; burgum on
innan (_within his city_), 1969. Also, _therein_: þǣr on innan, 2090, 2215,

innan-weard, adv., _inwards, inside, within_, 992, 1977; inne-weard, 999.

inne, adv.: 1) _inside, within_, 643, 1282, 1571, 2114, 3060; word inne
ābēad (_called, sent word, in_, i.e. standing in the hall door), 390; _in
it_ (i.e. the battle), 1142; þǣr inne (_therein_), 118, 1618, 2116, 2227,
3088.--2) = _insuper, still further, besides_, 1867.

inwit, st. n., _evil, mischief, spite, cunning hostility_, as in

inwit-feng, st. m., _malicious grasp, grasp of a cunning foe_: nom. sg.,

inwit-gæst, st. m., _evil guest, hostile stranger_: nom. sg., 2671.

inwit-hrōf, st. m., _hostile roof, hiding-place of a cunning foe_: acc. sg.
under inwit-hrōf, 3124.

inwit-net, st. n., _mischief-net, cunning snare_: acc. sg., 2168.

inwit-nīð, st. n., _cunning hostility, hostile contest_: nom. pl.
inwit-nīðas (_hostility through secret attack_), 1859; gen. pl. inwit-nīða,

inwit-scear, st. m., _massacre through cunning, murderous attack_: acc. sg.
eatolne inwit-scear, 2479.

inwit-searo, st. n., _cunning, artful intrigue_: acc. sg. þurh inwit-searo,
1102. See searo.

inwit-sorh, st. f., _grief, remorse, mourning springing from hostile
cunning_: nom. sg., 1737; acc. sg. inwid-sorge, 832.

inwit-þanc, adj., _ill-disposed, malicious_: dat. sg. hē onfēng hraðe
inwit-þancum (_he quickly grasped the cunning-in-mind_ [Grendel]), 749.

irnan (for rinnan), st. v., _to run_: so be-irnan, _to run up to, occur_:
pret. sg him on mōd be-arn (_came into his mind_), 67.

on-irnan, _to open_: pret. sg. duru sōna onarn, 722.

irre-mōd, adj. See yrre-mōd.


īdel, adj., _empty, bare; deprived of_: nom. sg., 145, 413; w. gen.
lond-rihtes þǣre mǣgburge īdel (_deprived of his land-possessions among the
people_ [of the Gēatas]), 2889.

īdel-hende, adj., _empty-handed_, 2082.

īren, st. n., _iron, sword_: nom. sg. dryhtlīc īren (_the doughty, lordly
sword_), 893; īren ǣr-gōd, 990; acc. sg. lēoflīc īren, 1810; gen. pl. īrena
cyst (_choicest of swords_), 674; īrenna cyst, 803; īrenna ecge (_edges of
swords_), 2684.

īren, adj., _of iron_: nom. sg. ecg wæs īren, 1460.

īren-bend, st. f., _iron band, bond, rivet_: instr. pl. īren-bendum fæst
(bold), 775, 999.

īren-byrne, w. f., _iron corselet_: acc. sg. īren-byrnan, 2987. See

īren-heard, adj., _hard as iron_: nom. sg., 1113.

īrenne, adj., _of iron_: in comp. eall-īrenne.

īren-þrēat, st. m., _iron troop, armored band_: nom. sg., 330.

īs, st. n., _ice_: dat. sg. īse, 1609.

īsern-byrne, w. f., _iron corselet_: acc. sg. īsern-byrnan, 672. See

īsern-scūr, st. f., _iron shower, shower of arrows_: gen. sg. þone þe oft
gebād īsern-scūre, 3117.

īs-gebind, st. n., _fetters of ice_: instr. sg. īs-gebinde, 1134.

īsig, adj., _shining, brilliant_ (like brass): nom. sg. īsig (said of a
vessel covered with plates(?) of metal), 33.--Leo.


iū. See geō.

iū-man. See geō-man.

īo-mēowle. See geō-mēowle.


laðu, st. f., _invitation_.--Comp.: frēond-, nēod-laðu.

ge-lafian, w. v. w. acc. pers. and instr. of the thing, _to refresh, lave_:
pret. sg. wine-dryhten his wætere gelafede, 2723.

lagu, st. m., _lake, sea_: nom. sg., 1631.

lagu-cræftig, adj., _acquainted with the sea_: nom. sg. lagu-cræftig mon
(_pilot_), 209.

lagu-strǣt, st. f., _path over the sea_: acc. sg. ofer lagu-strǣte, 239.

lagu-strēam, st. m., _sea-current, flood_: acc. pl. ofer lagu-strēamas,

land, st. n., _land_: nom. sg. lond, 2198; acc. sg. land, 221, 2063; lond,
2472, 2493; land Dena, 242, 253; lond Brondinga, 521; Finna land, 580; dat.
sg. on lande (_in the land_), 2311, 2837; _at near, land, shore_, 1914; tō
lande (_to the land, ashore_), 1624; gen. sg. landes, 2996; gen. pl. ofer
landa fela (_over much country, space; afar_), 311.--Comp.: el-, ēa-land.

land-būend, part, pres., terricola, _inhabitant of the land_: nom. pl.
lond-būend, 1346; dat. pl. land-būendum, 95.

land-fruma, w. m., _ruler, prince of the country_: nom. sg., 31.

land-gemyrcu, st. n. pl., _frontier, land-mark_: acc. pl., 209.

land-geweorc, st. n., _land-work, fortified place_: acc. sg. lēoda
land-geweorc, 939. See weorc, geweorc.

land-riht, st. n., _prerogatives based upon land-possessions, right to
possess land_, hence _real estate_ itself: gen. sg. lond-rihtes īdel, 2887.

land-waru, st. f., _inhabitants, population_: acc. pl. land-wara, 2322.

land-weard, st. m., _guard, guardian of the frontier_: nom. sg., 1891.

lang, long, adj., _long_: 1) temporal: nom. sg. tō lang, 2094; næs þā long
(lang) tō þon (_not long after_), 2592, 2846; acc. sg. lange hwīle (_for a
long time_), 16, 2160, 2781; longe (lange) þrāge, 54, 114, 1258; lange tīd,
1916. Compar. nom. sg. lengra fyrst, 134.--2) local, nom. sg. sē wæs
fīftiges fōtgemearces lang, 3044.--Comp.: and-, morgen-, niht-, up-lang.

lange, longe, adv., _long_: lange, 31, 1995, 2131, 2345, 2424; longe, 1062,
2752, 3109; tō lange (_too long, excessively long_), 906, 1337, 1749.
Compar. leng, 451, 1855, 2802, 3065; nō þȳ leng (_none the longer_), 975.
Superl. lengest (_longest_), 2009, 2239.

ge-lang, adj., _extending, reaching to something_ or _somebody_, hence
_ready, prepared_: nū is rǣd gelang eft æt þē ānum (_now is help [counsel]
at hand in thee alone_), 1377; gēn is eall æt þē lissa gelong (_all of
favor is still on thee dependent, is thine_), 2151. See ge-lenge.

lang-ge-strēon, st. n., _long-lasting treasure_: gen. pl. long-gestrēona,

langian, w. v., reflex, w. dat, _to long, yearn_: pres. sg. III. him
...æfter dēorum men dyrne langað beorn (_the hero longeth secretly after
the dear man_), 1880.

lang-sum, adj., _long-lasting, continuing_: nom. sg. longsum, 134, 192,
1723; acc. sg. long-sumne, 1537.

lang-twidig, adj., _long-granted, assured_: nom. sg., 1709.

lata, w. m., _a lazy, cowardly one_; in comp. hild-lata.

lā, interj., _yes! indeed!_ 1701, 2865.

lāc, st. n.: 1) _measured movement, play_: in comp. beadu-, heaðo-lāc.--2)
_gift, offering_: acc. pl. lāc, 1864; lāðlīcu lāc (_loathly offering,
prey_), 1585; dat. pl. lācum, 43, 1869.--Comp. sǣ-lāc.

ge-lāc, st. n., _sport, play_: acc. pl. sweorda gelāc (_battle_), 1041;
dat. pl. æt ecga gelācum, 1169.

lācan, st. v., _to move in measured time, dancing, playing, fighting,
flying_, etc.: inf. dareðum lācan (_fight_), 2849; part. pres. æfter lyfte
lācende (_flying through the air_), 2833.

for-lācan, _to deceive, betray_: part, pret. hē wearð on fēonda geweald
forð forlācen (_deceitfully betrayed into the enemy's hands_), 904.

lād, st. f., _street, way, journey_: dat. sg. on lāde, 1988; gen. sg. lāde,
569.--Comp.: brim-, sǣ-lād.

ge-lād, st. n., _way, path, road_: acc. sg. uncūð gelād, 1411.

lāð, adj., _loathly, evil, hateful, hostile_: nom. sg. lāð, 816; lāð
lyft-floga, 2316; lāð (_enemy_), 440; nē lēof nē lāð, 511; neut. lāð, 134,
192; in weak form, se lāða (of the dragon), 2306; acc. sg. lāðne (wyrm),
3041; dat. sg. lāðum, 440, 1258; gen. sg. lāðes (of the enemy), 842; fela
lāðes (_much evil_), 930; so, 1062; lāðan līges, 83; lāðan cynnes, 2009,
2355; þæs lāðan (of the enemy), 132; acc. pl. neut. lāð gewidru (_hateful
storms_), 1376; dat. instr. pl. wið lāðum, 550; lāðum scuccum and scinnum,
939; lāðum dǣdum (_with evil deeds_), 2468; lāðan fingrum, 1506; gen. pl.
lāðra manna, spella, 2673, 3030; lāðra (_the enemy_), 242. Compar. nom. sg.
lāðra ... beorn, 2433.

lāð-bite, st. m., _hostile bite_: dat. sg. lāð-bite līces (_the body's
hostile bite_ = the wound), 1123.

lāð-getēona, w. m., _evil-doer, injurer_: nom. sg., 975; nom. pl.
lāð-getēonan, 559.

lāð-līc, adj., _loathly, hostile_: acc. pl. lāð-līcu, 1585.

lāf, st. f.: 1) _what is left, relic; inheritance, heritage, legacy_: nom.
sg. Hrēðlan lāf (Bēowulf's corselet), 454; nom. pl. fēla lāfe (_the
leavings of files_ = swords, Grein), 1033; so, homera lāfe, 2830; on him
gladiað gomelra lāfe, heard and hringmǣl Heaðobeardna gestrēon (_on him
gleams the forefather's bequest, hard and ring-decked, the Heaðobeardas'
treasure_, i.e. the equipments taken from the slain king of the
Heaðobeardas), 2037; acc. sg. sweorda lāfe (_leavings of the sword_, i.e.
those spared by the sword), 2937.--2) _the sword as a specially precious
heir-loom_: nom. sg., 2629; acc. sg. lāfe, 796, 1489, 1689, 2192, 2564;
instr. sg. incge lāfe, 2578.--Comp.: ende-, eormen-, wēa-, yrfe-, ȳð-lāf.

lār, st. f., _lore, instruction, prescription_: dat. sg. be fæder lāre,
1951; gen. pl. lāra, 1221; lārena, 269.--Comp. frēond-lār.

lāst, st. m., _footstep, track_: acc. sg. lāst, 132, 972, 2165; on lāst
(_on the traces of, behind_), 2946; nom. pl. lāstas, 1403; acc. pl. lāstas,
842.--Comp.: fēðe-, feorh-, fōt-, wræc-lāst.

læger. See leger.

lāger-bed, st. n., _bed to lie on_ : instr. sg. leger-bedde, 1008.

lǣs, adj., _less_, 1947; þȳ lǣs (_the less_), 487; conjunct, _that not,
lest_, 1919.

lǣssa, adj., _less, fewer_: nom. sg. lǣssa, 1283; acc. sg. m. lǣssan, 43;
fem, lǣssan hwīle, 2572; dat. sg. for lǣssan (_for less, smaller_), 952.
Superl. nom. sg. nō þæt lǣsest wæs hond-gemōt[a], 2355.

læt, adj., _negligent, neglectful_; w. gen.: nom. sg. elnes læt, 1530.

lǣdan, w. v. w. acc.: _to lead, guide, bring_: inf. lǣdan, 239; pret. pl.
lǣddon, 1160.

for-1ǣdan, _to mislead_: pret. pl. for-lǣddan, 2440 (?).

ge-lǣdan, _lead, bring_: part. pret. ge-lǣded, 37.

lǣfan, w. v.: 1), _to bequeathe, leave_: imper. sg. þīnum magum lǣf folc
and rīce, 1179; pret. sg. eaferum lǣfde ... lond and lēodbyrig, 2471.--2)
_spare, leave behind_: āht cwices lǣfan (_to spare aught living_), 2316.

lǣn-dagas, st. m. pl., _loan-days, transitory days_ (of earthly existence
as contrasted with the heavenly, unending): acc. pl. lǣn-dagas, 2592; gen.
pl. lǣn-daga, 2342.

lǣne, adj., _inconstant, perishable, evanescent, given over to death or
destruction_: nom. sg., 1755, 3179; acc. sg. of rust-eaten treasures, 3130;
þās lǣnan gesceaft (_this fleeting life_), 1623; gen. sg. lǣnan līfes,

lǣran, w. v., _to teach, instruct_: imper. sg. þū þē lǣr be þon (_learn
this, take this to heart_), 1723.

ge-lǣran, _to teach, instruct, give instruction_: inf. ic þæs Hrōðgār mæg
... rǣd gelǣran (_I can give H. good advice about this_), 278; so, 3080;
pret. pl. þā mē þæt ge-lǣrdon lēode mīne (_gave me the advice_), 415.

lǣstan, w. v.: 1) _to follow, to sustain, serve_: inf. þæt him se līc-homa
lǣstan nolde (_that his body would not sustain him_), 813.--2) _perform_:
imper. lǣst eall tela (_do all well_), 2664.

ge-lǣstan: 1) _to follow, serve_: pret. sg. (sweord) þæt mec ǣr and oft
gelǣste, 2501.--2) _to fulfil, grant_: subj. pres. pl. þæt ... wilgesīðas,
þonne wīg cume, lēode gelǣstan (_render war service_), 24; inf. ic þē sceal
mīne gelǣstan frēode (_shall grant thee my friendship, be grateful_), 1707;
pret. sg. bēot ... gelǣste (_fulfilled his boast_), 524; gelǣste swā (_kept
his word_), 2991; pres. part. hæfde Ēast-Denum ... gilp gelǣsted (_had
fulfilled for the East Danes his boast_), 830.

lǣtan, st. v., _to let, allow_, w. acc. and inf.: pres. sg. III. lǣteð,
1729; imper. pl. II. lǣtað, 397; sg. II. lǣt, 1489; pret. sg. lēt, 2390,
2551, 2978, 3151(?); pret. pl. lēton, 48, 865, 3133; subj. pret. sg. II.
lēte, 1997; sg. III. lēte, 3083.

ā-lǣtan: 1) _to let, allow_: subj. pres. sg. II. þæt þū ne ālǣte ... dōm
ge-drēosan, 2666.--2) _to leave, lay aside_: inf. ālǣtan lǣn-dagas (_die_)
2592; so, ālǣtan līf and lēodscipe, 2751.

for-lǣtan: 1) _to let, permit_, w. acc. and inf.: pret. sg. for-lēt, 971;
pret. pl. for-lēton, 3168. Also with inf. omitted: inf. nolde eorla hlēo
... þone cwealmcuman cwicne (i.e. wesan) forlǣtan (_would not let the
murderous spirit go alive_), 793.--2) _to leave behind, leave_: pret. sg.
in þām wong-stede ... þǣr hē hine ǣr forlēt (_where he had previously left
him_), 2788.

of-lǣtan, _to leave, lay aside_: pres. sg. II. gyf þū ǣr þonne hē worold
oflǣtest (_leavest the world, diest_), 1184; so pret. sg. oflēt līf-dagas
and þās lǣnan gesceaft, 1623.

on-lǣtan, _to release, liberate_: pres. sg. III. þonne forstes bend fæder
on-lǣteð (_as soon as the Father looseth the frost's fetters_), 1610.

ā-lecgan, w. v.: 1) _to lay, lay down_: pret. sg. syððan hilde-dēor hond
ā-legde ... under gēapne hrōf, 835; þæt hē on Bēowulfes bearm ā-legde
(_this_ [the sword] _he laid in B.'s bosom, presented to him_), 2195; pret.
pl. ā-ledon þā lēofne þēoden ... on bearm scipes, 34; ā-legdon þā tō middes
mǣrne þēoden _(laid the mighty prince in the midst_ [of the pyre]),
3142.--2) _to lay aside, give up_: siððan ... in fen-freoðo feorh ā-legde
(_laid down his life, died_), 852; nū se here-wīsa hleahtor ā-legde, gamen
and glēo-drēam _(now the war-chief has left laughter_, etc.), 3021.

leger, st. n., _couch, bed, lair_: dat. sg. on legere, 3044.

lemian, w. v., _to lame, hinder, oppress_: pret. sg. (for pl.) hine
sorh-wylmas lemede tō lange, 906. MS.

leng. See lang.

lenge, adj., _extending along_ or _to, near_ (of time): nom. sg. neut. ne
wæs hit lenge þā gēn (_nor was it yet long_), 83.

ge-lenge, adj., _extending, reaching to, belonging_: nom. sg. yrfe-weard
... līce gelenge (_an heir belonging to one's body_), 2733.

let, st. m., _place of rest, sojourn?_ in comp. eo-let (_voyage?_).

lettan, w. v., _to hinder_: pret. pl. (acc. pers. and gen. thing), þæt
syððan nā ... brim-līðende lāde ne letton (_might no longer hinder
seafarers from journeying_), 569.

ā-lēdon. See ā-lecgan.

lēg, st. m., _flame, fire_: nom. sg. wonna lēg (_the lurid flame_), 3116;
swōgende lēg, 3146; dat. sg. for dracan lēge, 2550. See līg.

lēg-draca, w. m., _fire-drake, flaming dragon_: nom. sg., 3041.

leahtre. See or-leahtre.

lēaf, st. n., _leaf, foliage_: instr. pl. lēafum, 97.

lēafnes-word, st. n., _permission, leave_: acc. pl., 245.

lēan, st. v. w. acc. _to scold, blame_: pres. sg. III. lyhð, 1049; pret.
sg. lōg, 1812; pret. pl. lōgon, 203, 863.

be-lēan, _to dissuade, prevent_: inf. nē inc ǣnig mon ... belēan mihte
sorhfullne sīð (_no one might dissuade you twain from your difficult
journey_), 511.

lēan, st. n., _reward, compensation_: acc. sg., 114, 952, 1221, 1585, 2392;
dat. sg. lēane, 1022. Often in the pl.: acc. þā lēan, 2996; dat. þām
lēanum, 2146; gen. lēana, 2991.--Comp.: and-, ende-lēan.

leān (for lǣn, O.H.G. lēhan), st. n, _loan_, 1810.

lēanian, w. v., _to reward, compensate_: pres. sg. I. ic þē þā fǣhðe fēo
lēanige (_repay thee for the contest with old-time treasures_), 1381; pret.
sg. mē þone wæl-rǣs wine Scyldinga fǣttan golde fela lēanode (_the friend
of the Scyldings rewarded me richly for the combat with plated gold_),

lēas, adj., _false_: nom. pl. lēase, 253.

lēas, adj., _deprived of, free from_, w. gen.: nom. sg. drēama lēas, 851;
dat. sg. winigea lēasum, 1665.--Comp.: dōm-, drēam-, ealdor-, feoh-,
feormend-, hlāford-, sāwol-, sige-, sorh-, tīr-, þēoden-, wine-, wyn-lēas.

lēasig, adj., _concealing one's self_; in comp. sin-lēasig(?).

leoðo-cræft, st. m., _the art of weaving_ or _working in meshes, wire_,
etc.: instr. pl. segn eall-gylden ... gelocen leoðo-cræftum (_a banner all
hand-wrought of interlaced gold_), 2770.

leoðo-syrce, w. f., _shirt of mail (limb-sark)_: acc. sg. locene
leoðo-syrcan (_locked linked sark_), 1506; acc. pl. locene leoðo-syrcan,

leomum. See lim.

leornian, w. v., _to learn, devise, plan_: pret. him þæs gūð-cyning ...
wræce leornode (_the war-king planned vengeance therefor_), 2337.

lēod, st. m., _prince_: nom. sg., 341, 348, 670, 830, 1433, 1493, 1613,
1654, etc.; acc. lēod, 626.

lēod, st. f., _people_: gen. sg. lēode, 597, 600, 697. In pl. indicates
_individuals, people, kinsmen_: nom. pl. lēode, 362, 415, 1214, 2126, etc.;
gum-cynnes Gēata lēode (_people of the race of the Gēatas_), 260; acc. pl.
lēode, 192, 443, 1337, 1346, etc.; dat. pl. lēodum, 389, 521, 619, 698,
906, 1160, etc.; gen. pl. lēoda, 205, 635, 794, 1674, 2034, etc.

lēod-bealo, st. n., (_mischief, misfortune affecting an entire people_),
_great, unheard-of calamity_: acc. sg., 1723; gen. pl. lēod-bealewa, 1947.

lēod-burh, st. f., _princely castle, stronghold of a ruler, chief city_:
acc. pl. -byrig, 2472.

lēod-cyning, st. m., _king of the people_: nom. sg., 54.

lēod-fruma, w. m., _prince of the people, ruler_: acc. sg. lēod-fruman,

lēod-gebyrgea, w. m., _protector of the people, prince_: acc. sg.
-gebyrgean, 269.

lēod-hryre, st. m., _fall, overthrow, of the prince, ruler_: dat. sg. æfter
lēod-hryre (_after the fall of the king of the Heaðobeardas_, Frōda, cf.
2051, 2031; gen. sg. þæs lēod-hryres (of the fall of Heardred, cf. 2389,

lēod-sceaða, w. m., _injurer of the people_: dat. sg. þām lēod-sceaðan,

lēod-scipe, st. m., _the whole nation, people_: acc. sg., 2752; dat. sg. on
þām lēod-scipe, 2198.

lēoð, st. n., _song, lay_: nom. sg., 1160.--Comp.: fyrd-, gryre-, gūð-,

lēof, adj., _lief, dear_: nom. sg., 31, 54, 203, 511, 521, 1877, 2468; weak
form m., lēofa, 1217, 1484, 1855, 2664; acc. sg. m. lēofne, 34, 297, 619,
1944, 2128, 3109, 3143; gen. sg. lēofes (m.), 1995, 2081, 2898; (neut.),
1062, 2911; dat. pl. lēofum, 1074; gen. pl. lēofra, 1916. Compar. nom. sg.
neut. lēofre, 2652. Superl. nom. sg. m. lēofost, 1297; acc. sg. þone
lēofestan, 2824.

lēoflīc, _dear, precious, valued_: nom. sg. m. lēoflīc lind-wiga, 2604;
acc. sg. neut. lēoflīc īren, 1810.

lēogan, st. v., _to lie, belie, deceive_. subj. pres. næfne him his wlite
lēoge (_unless his looks belie him_), 250; pret. sg. hē ne lēag fela wyrda
nē worda, 3030.

ā-lēogan, _to deceive, leave unfulfilled_: pret. sg. hē bēot ne ā-lēh (_he
left not his promise unfulfilled_), 80.

ge-lēogan, _to deceive, betray_: pret. sg. him sēo wēn gelēah (_hope
deceived him_), 2324.

lēoht, st. n., _light, brilliance_: nom. sg., 569, 728, 1751 (?); acc. sg.
sunnan lēoht, 649; godes lēoht gecēas (_chose God's light, died_), 2470;
dat. sg. tō lēohte, 95.--Comp.: ǣfen-, fȳr-, morgen-lēoht.

lēoht, adj., _luminous, bright_: instr. sg. lēohtan sweorde, 2493.

lēoma, w. m.: 1) _light, splendor_: nom. sg., 311, 2770; acc. sg. lēoman,
1518; sunnan and mōnan lēoman (_light of sun and moon_), 95.--2) (as beadu-
and hilde-lēoma), _the glittering sword_: nom. sg. līxte se lēoma (_the
blade-gleam flashed_), 1571.

lēosan, st. v., = amitti, in

be-lēosan, _to deprive, be deprived of_: pres. part. (hēo) wearð beloren
lēofum bearnum and brōðrum (_was deprived of her dear children and
brethren_), 1074.

for-lēosan, with dat. instr., _to lose something_: pret. sg. þǣr hē dōme
for-lēas, ellen-mǣrðum (_there lost he the glory, the repute, of his heroic
deeds_), 1471; pret. sg. for pl. þām þe ǣr his elne for-lēas (_to him who,
before, had lost his valor_), 2862; part. pret. nealles ic þām lēanum
for-loren hæfde (_not at all had I lost the rewards_), 2146.

libban, w. v., _to live, be, exist_: pres. sing. III. lifað, 3169; lyfað,
945; leofað, 975, 1367, 2009; subj. pres. sg. II. lifige, 1225; pres. part.
lifigende, 816, 1954, 1974, 2063; dat. sg. be þē lifigendum (_in thy
lifetime_), 2666; pret. sg. lifde, 57, 1258; lyfde, 2145; pret. pl. lifdon,
99. See unlifigende.

licgan, st. v.: 1) _to lie, lie down_ or _low_: pres. sg. nū sēo hand ligeð
(_now the hand lies low_), 1344; nū se wyrm ligeð, 2746, so 2904; inf.
licgan, 3130; licgean, 967, 3083; pret. sg. læg, 40, 552, 2078; syððan
Heardrēd læg (_after Heardrēd had fallen_), 2389; pret. pl. lāgon, 3049;
lǣgon, 566.--2) _to lie prostrate, rest, fail_: pret. sg. nǣfre on ōre læg
wīd-cūðes wīg (_never failed the far-famed one's valor at the front_),
1042; syððan wiðer-gyld læg (_after vengeance failed_, or, _when Withergyld
lay dead_, if _W._ is a proper name), 2052.

ā-licgan, _to succumb, fail, yield_: inf. 2887; pret. sg. þæt his dōm ā-læg
(_that its power failed it_), 1529.

ge-licgan, _to rest, lie still_: pret. sg. wind-blond gelæg, 3147.

lida, w. m., _boat, ship_ (as in motion); in comp.: sund-, ȳð-lida.

lid-man, st. m., _seafarer, sailor_: gen. pl. lid-manna, 1624.

lim, st. n., _limb, branch_: instr. pl. leomum, 97.

limpan, st. v., _to happen, befall_ (well or ill); impers. w. dat. pret.
sg. hū lomp ēow on lāde (_how went it with you on the journey?_), 1988.

ā-limpan, _to come about, offer itself_: pret. sg. oð þæt sǣl ā-lamp (_till
the opportunity presented itself_), 623; pret. part, þā him ā-lumpen wæs
wistfylle wēn (_since a hope of a full meal had befallen him_), 734.

be-limpan, _to happen to, befall_: pret. sg. him sīo sār belamp, 2469.

ge-limpan, _to happen, occur, turn out_: pres. sg. III. hit eft gelimpeð
þæt..., 1754; subj. pres. þisse ansȳne alwealdan þanc lungre gelimpe
(_thanks to the Almighty forthwith for this sight!_), 930; pret. sg. him on
fyrste gelamp þæt..., 76; swā him ful-oft gelamp (_as often happened to
them_), 1253; þæs þe hire se willa gelamp þæt ... (_because her wish had
been fulfilled_), 627; frōfor eft gelamp sārig-mōdum, 2942; subj. pret. gif
him þyslīcu þearf gelumpe, 2638; pret. part. Denum eallum wearð ... willa
gelumpen, 825.

lind, st. f. (properly _linden_; here, a a wooden shield covered with
linden-bark or pith): nom. sg., 2342; acc. sg. geolwe linde, 2611; acc. pl.
linde, 2366.

lind-gestealla, w. m., _shield-comrade, war-comrade_: nom. sg., 1974.

lind-hæbbend, pres. part., _provided with a shield_, i.e. warrior: nom. pl.
-hæbbende, 245; gen. pl. hæbbendra, 1403.

lind-plega, w. m., _shield-play_, i.e. battle: dat. sg. lind-plegan, 1074,

lind-wiga, w. m., _shield-fighter, warrior_: nom. sg., 2604.

linnan, st. v., _to depart, be deprived of_: inf. aldre linnan (_depart
from life_), 1479; ealdres linnan, 2444.

lis, st. f., _favor, affection_: gen. pl. eall ... lissa, 2151.

list, st. m., _art, skill, cleverness, cunning_: dat. pl. adverbial, listum
(_cunningly_), 782.

līxan, w. v., _to shine, flash_: pret. sg. līxte, 311, 485, 1571.

līc, st. n.: 1) _body, corpse_: nom. sg., 967; acc. sg. līc, 2081; þæt līc
(_the body, corpse_), 2128; dat. sg. līce, 734, 1504, 2424, 2572, 2733,
2744; gen. sg. līces, 451, 1123.-- 2) _form, figure_: in comp. eofor-,

ge-līc, adj., _like, similar_: nom. pl. m. ge-līce, 2165. Superl.
ge-līcost, 218, 728, 986, 1609.

līc-hama, -homa, w. m. _(body-home, garment), body_: nom. sg. līc-homa,
813, 1008, 1755; acc. sg. līc-haman, 2652; dat. sg. līc-haman, 3179.

līcian, w. v., _to please, like_ (impers.): pres. sg. III. mē þīn mōd-sefa
līcað leng swā wēl, 1855; pret. pl. þām wīfe þā word wēl līcodon, 640.

līcnes. See on-līcnes.

līc-sār, st. n., _bodily pain_: acc. sg. līc-sār, 816.

līc-syrce, w. f., _body-sark, shirt of mail covering the body_: nom. sg.,

1īðan, st. v., _to move, go_: pres. part. nom. pl. þā līðende (_navigantes,
sailors_), 221; þā wæs sund liden (_the water was then traversed_),
223.--Comp.: hēaðu-, mere-, wǣg-līðend.

līðe (O.H.G. lindi), adj., _gentle, mild, friendly_: nom. sg. w. instr.
gen. lāra līðe, 1221. Superl. nom. sg. līðost, 3184.

lið-wǣge, st. n., _can in which līð_ (a wine-like, foaming drink) _is
contained_: acc. sg., 1983.

līf, st. n., _life_: acc. sg. līf, 97, 734, 1537, 2424, 2744, 2752; dat.
sg. līfe, 2572; tō līfe (_in one's life, ever_) 2433; gen. sg. līfes, 197,
791, 807, 2824, 2846; worolde līfes (_of the earthly life_), 1388,
2344.--Comp. edwīt-līf.

līf-bysig, adj. _(striving for life or death), weary of life, in torment of
death_: nom. sg., 967.

līf-dagas, st. m. pl., _lifetime_: acc.-dagas, 794, 1623.

līf-frēa, w. m., _lord of life, God_: nom. sg., 16.

līf-gedāl, st. n., _separation from life_: nom. sg., 842.

līf-gesceaft, st. f., _fate, destiny_: gen. pl.-gesceafta, 1954, 3065.

līf-wraðu, st. f., _protection for one's life, safety_: acc. sg. līf-wraðe,
2878; dat. sg. tō līf-wraðe, 972.

līf-wyn, st. f., _pleasure, enjoyment, joy_ (of life): gen. pl. līf-wynna,

līg, st. m. n., _flame, fire_: nom. sg., 1123; dat. instr. sg. līge, 728,
2306, 2322, 2342; gen. sg. līges, 83, 782. See lēg.

līg-draca, w. m., _ fire-drake, flaming dragon_; nom. pl., 2334. See

līg-egesa, w. m., _horror arising through fire, flaming terror_: acc. sg.,

līge-torn, st. m., _false, pretended insult_ or _injury, fierce anger_(?):
dat. sg. æfter līge-torne (_on account of a pretended insult?_ or _fierce
anger?_ cf. Bugge in Zacher's Zeits. 4, 208), 1944.

līg-ȳð, st. m., _wave of fire_: instr. pl. līg-ȳðum, 2673.

lēon, st. v., _to lend_: pret. sg. þæt him on þearfe lāh þyle Hrōðgāres
(_which H.'s spokesman lent him in need_), 1457.

on-lēoon, _to lend, grant as a loan_, with gen. of thing and dat. pers.:
pret. sg. þā hē þæs wǣpnes on-lāh sēlran sweord-frecan, 1468.

loca, w. m., _bolt, lock_: in comp. bān-, burh-loca.

locen. See lūcan.

lond, long. See land, lang.

lof, st. m. n., _praise, repute_: acc. sg. lof, 1537.

lof-dǣd, st. f., _deed of praise_: instr. pl. lof-dǣdum, 24.

lof-georn, adj., _eager for praise, ambitious_: superl. nom. sg.
lof-geornost, 3184.

loga, w. m., _liar_; in comp. trēow-loga.

losian, w. v., _to escape, flee_: pres. sg. III. losað, 1393, 2063; pret.
sg. hē on weg losade (_fled away_), 2097.

lōcian, w. v., _to see, look at_: pres. sg. II. sǣ-lāc ... þē þū hēr tō
lōcast (_booty of the sea that thou lookest on_), 1655.

ge-lōme, adv., _often, frequently_, 559.

lufe, w. f., _love_: in comp. hēah-, mōd-, wīf-lufe.

lufa (cf. and-leofa, big-leofa, _nourishment_), w. m., _food, subsistence;
property, real estate_: acc. sg. on lufan (_on possessions_), 1729.--Comp.

lufen, st. f. (cf. lufa), _subsistence, food; real estate, (enjoyment?)_:
nom. sg. lufen (parallel with ēðel-wyn), 2887.

luf-tācen, st. n., _love-token_: acc. pl. luf-tācen, 1864.

lufian, w. v., _to love, serve affectionately_: pret. sg. III. lufode þā
lēode (_was on affectionate terms with the people_), 1983.

lungre, adv.: 1) _hastily, quickly, forthwith_, 930, 1631, 2311, 2744.--2)
_quite, very, fully_: fēower mēaras lungre gelīce (_four horses quite
alike_), 2165.

lust, st. m., _pleasure, joy_: dat. pl. adv. lustum (_joyfully_), 1654; so,
on lust, 619, cf. 600.

lūcan, st. v., _to twist, wind, lock, interweave_: pret. part. acc. sg. and
pl. locene leoðo-syrcan (_shirt of mail wrought of meshes or rings
interlocked_), 1506, 1891; gen. pl. locenra bēaga (_rings wrought of gold
wire_), 2996.

be-lūcan: 1) _to shut, close in or around_: pret. sg. winter ȳðe be-lēac
īs-gebinde (_winter locked the waves with icy bond_), 1133.-- 2) _to shut
in, off, preserve, protect_: pret. sg. I. hig wīge belēac manegum mǣgða (_I
shut them in, protected them, from war arising from many a tribe_), 1771.
Cf. mē wīge belūc wrāðum fēondum (_protect me against mine enemies_), Ps.
34, 3.

ge-lūcan, _to unite, link together, make_: pret. part. gelocen, 2770.

on-lūcan, _to unlock, open_: pret. sg. word-hord on-lēac (_opened the
word-hoard, treasure of speech_), 259.

tō-lucan, _(to twist, wrench, in two) to destroy_: inf., 782.

lyft, st. f. (m. n.?), _air_: nom. sg., 1376; dat. sg. æfter lyfte (_along,
through, the air_), 2833.

lyft-floga, w. m., _air-flier_: nom. sg. (of the dragon), 2316.

lyft-geswenced, pret. part., _urged, hastened on, by the wind_, 1914.

lyft-wyn, st. f., _enjoyment of the air_: acc. sg. lyft-wynne, 3044.

lyhð. See leahan.

lystan, w. v., _to lust after, long for_: pret. sg. Gēat ungemetes wēl ...
restan lyste(_the Gēat_ [Bēowulf] _longed sorely to rest_), 1794.

lȳt, adj. neut. (= parum), _little, very little, few_: lȳt eft becwōm ...
hāmes nīosan (_few escaped homeward_), 2366; lȳt ǣnig (_none at all_),
3130; usually with gen.: wintra lȳt, 1928; lȳt ... hēafod-māga, 2151;
wergendra tō lȳt (_too few defenders_), 2883; lȳt swīgode nīwra spella
(_he kept to himself little, none at all, of the new tidings_), 2898; dat.
sg. lȳt manna (_too few of men_), 2837.

lȳtel, adj., _small, little_: nom. sg. neut. tō lȳtel, 1749; acc. sg. f.
lȳtle hwīle (_a little while_), 2031, 2098; lif-wraðe lȳtle (_little
protection for his life_), 2878.--Comp. un-lȳtel.

lȳt-hwōn, adv., _little = not at all_: lȳt-hwōn lōgon, 204.

lȳfe, st. n., _leave, permission, (life?)_: instr. sg. þīne lȳfe (life,
MS.), 2132.--Leo. Cf. O.N. leyfi, n., _leave, permission_, in Möbius'
Glossary, p. 266.

lȳfan, w. v., (fundamental meaning _to believe, trust_) in

ā-lȳfan, _to allow, grant, entrust_: pret. sg. nǣfre ic ǣnegum men ǣr
ālȳfde ... þrȳð-ærn Dena (_never before to any man have I entrusted the
palace of the Danes_), 656; pret. part. (þā mē wæs) sīð ... ālȳfed inn
under eorð-weall (_the way in under the wall of earth was allowed me_),

ge-lȳfan, w. v., _to believe, trust_: 1) w. dat.: inf. þǣr gelȳfan sceal
dryhtnes dōme sē þe hine dēað nimeð (_whomever death carrieth away, shall
believe it to be the judgment of God_, i.e. in the contest between Bēowulf
and Grendel), 440.--2) w. acc.: pret. sg. gēoce gelȳfde brego Beorht-Dena
(_believed in, expected, help_, etc.), 609; þæt hēo on ǣnigne eorl gelȳfde

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