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Beowulf by James A. Harrison and Robert Sharp, eds.

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feor-cȳð, st. f., _home of those living far away, distant land_: nom, pl.
feor-cȳððe bēoð sēlran gesōhte þǣm þe him selfa dēah, _foreign lands are
better sought by him who trusts to his own ability_, 1839.

feorh, ferh (Goth. fairhvu-s, _world_), st. m. and n., _life, principle of
life, soul_: nom. sg. feorh, 2124; nō þon lange wæs feorh æðelinges flǣsce
bewunden, _not for much longer was the soul of the prince enveloped in the
body_ (he was near death), 2425; ferh ellen wræc, _life expelled the
strength_ (i.e. with the departing life the strength disappeared also),
2707; acc. sg. feorh ealgian, 797, 2656, 2669; feorh gehealdan, _preserve
his life_, 2857; feorh ālegde, _gave up his life_, 852; similarly, ǣr hē
feorh seleð, 1371; feorh oðferede, _tore away her life_, 2142; oð þæt hīe
forlǣddan tō þām lindplegan swǣse gesīðas ond hyra sylfra feorh, _till in
an evil hour they carried into battle their dear companions and their
lives_ (i.e. led them to their death), 2041; gif þū þīn feorh hafast, 1850;
ymb feorh sacan (_to fight for life_), 439; wæs in feorh dropen, _was
wounded into his life_, i.e. mortally, 2982; wīdan feorh, as temporal acc.,
_through a wide life_, i.e. always, 2015; dat. sg. fēore, 1294, 1549; tō
wīdan feore, _for a wide life_, i.e. at all times, 934; on swā geongum
feore (_at a so youthful age_), 1844; as instr., 578, 3014; gen. sg.
fēores, 1434, 1943; dat. pl. būton ... feorum gumena, 73; frēonda fēorum,
1307.--Also, _body, corpse_: þā wæs heal hroden fēonda fēorum (_the hall
was covered with the slain of the enemy_), 1153; gehwearf þā in Francna
fæðm feorh cyninges, _then the body of the king_ (Hygelāc) _fell into the
power of the Franks_, 1211. --Comp. geogoð-feorh.

feorh-bana, w. m., _(life-slayer), man-slayer, murderer_: dat. sg.
feorh-bonan, 2466.

feorh-ben, st. f., _wound that takes away life, mortal wound_: dat.
(instr.) pl. feorh-bennum sēoc, 2741.

feorh-bealu, st. n., _evil destroying life, violent death_: nom. sg., 2078,
2251, 2538; acc. sg., 156.

feorh-cyn, st. n., _race of the living, mankind_: gen. pl. fela
feorh-cynna, 2267.

feorh-genīðla, w. m., _he who seeks life, life's enemy_ (N.H.G. Tod-feind),
_mortal enemy_: acc. sg. -genīðlan, 1541; dat. sg. -genīðlan, 970; acc. sg.
brǣgd feorh-genīðlan, 1541; acc. pl. folgode feorh-genīðlan, (Ongenþēow)
_pursued his mortal enemies_, 2934.

feorh-lagu, st. f., _the life allotted to anyone, life determined by fate_:
acc. sg. on māðma hord mine (mīnne, MS.) bebohte frōde feorh-lege, _for the
treasure-hoard I sold my old life_, 2801.

feorh-lāst, st. m., _trace of (vanishing) life, sign of death _: acc. pl.
feorh-lāstas bær, 847.

feorh-sēoc, adj., _mortally wounded_: nom. sg., 821.

feorh-sweng, st. m., _(stroke robbing of life), fatal blow_: acc. sg.,

feorh-wund, st. f., _mortal wound, fatal injury_: acc. sg. feorh-wunde
hlēat, 2386.

feorm, st. f., _subsistence, entertainment_: acc. sg. nō þū ymb mīnes ne
þearft līces feorme leng sorgian, _thou needest no longer have care for the
sustenance of my body_, 451.--2) _banquet_: dat. on feorme (or feorme,
MS.), 2386.

feormend-lēas, adj., _wanting the. cleanser_: acc. pl. geseah ...
fyrn-manna fatu feormend-lēase, 2762.

feormian, w. v., _to clean, to cleanse, to polish_: pres. part. nom pl.
feormiend swefað (feormynd, MS.), 2257.

ge-feormian, w. v., _to feast, to eat_; pret. part. sōna hæfde unlyfigendes
eal gefeormod fēt and folma, 745.

feorran, w. v., w. acc., _to remove_: inf. sibbe ne wolde wið manna hwone
mægenes Deniga feorh-bealo feorran, fēo þingian, (Grendel) _would not from
friendship free any one of the men of the Danes of life's evil, nor allay
it for tribute_, 156.

feorran, adv., _from afar_: a) of space, 361, 430, 826, 1371, 1820, etc.;
siððan æðelingas feorran gefricgean flēam ēowerne, _when noble men afar
learn of your flight_ (when the news of your flight reaches distant lands),
2890; fērdon folctogan feorran and nēan, _from far and from near_, 840;
similarly, nēan and feorran þū nū [friðu] hafast, 1175; wæs þæs wyrmes wīg
wīde gesȳne ... nēan and feorran, _visible from afar, far and near_,
2318.--b) temporal: sē þe cūðe frumsceaft fīra feorran reccan (_since
remote antiquity_), 91; similarly, feorran rehte, 2107.

feorran-cund, adj., _foreign-born_: dat. sg. feorran-cundum, 1796.

feor-weg, st. m., _far way_: dat. pl. mādma fela of feorwegum, _many
precious things from distant paths_ (from foreign lands), 37.

ge-fēon. See feohan.

fēond, st. m., _enemy_: nom. sg., 164, 726, 749; fēond on helle (Grendel),
101; acc. sg., 279, 1865, 2707; dat. sg. fēonde, 143, 439; gen. sg.
fēondes, 985, 2129, 2290; acc, pl. fēond, 699; dat. pl. fēondum, 420, 1670;
gen. pl. feonda 294, 809, 904.

fēond-grāp, st. f., _foe's clutch_: dat. (instr.) pl. fēond-grāpum fæst,

fēond-sceaða, w. m., _one who is an enemy and a robber_: nom. sg. fāh
fēond-scaða (_a hostile sea-monster_), 554.

fēond-scipe, st. m., _hostility_: nom. sg., 3000.

fēower, num., _four_: nom. fēower bearn, 59; fēower mēaras, 2164; fēower,
as substantive, 1638; acc. fēower māðmas, 1028.

fēower-tȳne, num., _fourteen_: nom. with following gen. pl. fēowertȳne
Gēata, 1642.

findan, st. v., _to find, to invent, to attain_: a) with simple object in
acc.: inf. þāra þe hē cēnoste findan mihte, 207; swylce hīe at Finnes-hām
findan meahton sigla searo-gimma, 1157; similarly, 2871; mæg þǣr fela
frēonda findan, 1839; wolde guman findan, 2295; swā hyt weorðlīcost
fore-snotre men findan mihton, _so splendidly as only very wise men could
devise it_, 3164; pret. sg. healþegnas fand, 720; word ōðer fand, _found
other words_, i.e. went on to another narrative, 871; grimne gryrelīcne
grund-hyrde fond, 2137; þæt ic gōdne funde bēaga bryttan, 1487; pret. part.
syððan ǣrest wearð fēasceaft funden (_discovered_), 7.--b) with acc. and
pred. adj.: pret. sg. dryhten sīnne drīorigne fand, 2790.--c) with acc. and
inf.: pret. fand þā þǣr inne æðelinga gedriht swefan, 118; fand wæccendne
wer wīges bīdan, 1268; hord-wynne fond opene standan, 2271; oð þæt hē
fyrgen-bēamas ... hleonian funde, 1416; pret. pl. fundon þā sāwullēasne
hlim-bed healdan, 3034.--d) with dependent clause: inf. nō þȳ ǣr
fēasceafte findan meahton æt þām æðelinge þæt hē Heardrēde hlāford wǣre
(_could by no means obtain it from the prince_), 2374.

on-findan, _to be sensible of, to perceive, to notice_: a) w. acc.: pret.
sg. landweard onfand eftsīð eorla, _the coast-guard observed the return of
the earls_, 1892; pret. part. þā hēo onfunden wæs (_was discovered_),
1294.--b) w. depend, clause: pret. sg. þā se gist onfand þæt se beado-lēoma
bītan nolde, _the stranger_ (Bēowulf) _perceived that the sword would not
cut_, 1523; sōna þæt onfunde, þæt ..., _immediately perceived that_...,
751; similarly, 810, 1498.

finger, st. m., _finger_: nom. pl. fingras, 761; acc. pl. fingras, 985;
dat. (instr.) pl. fingrum, 1506; gen. pl. fingra, 765.

fīras, fȳras (O.H.G. firahī, i.e. _the living_; cf. feorh), st. m., only
in pl., _men_: gen. pl. fīra, 91, 2742; monegum fīra, 2002; fȳra gehwylcne
lēoda mīnra, 2251; fīra fyrngeweorc, 2287.

firen, fyren, st. f., _cunning waylaying, insidious hostility, malice,
outrage_: nom. sg. fyren, 916; acc. sg. fyrene and fǣhðe, 153; fǣhðe and
fyrene, 880, 2481; firen' ondrysne, 1933; dat. sg. fore fǣhðe and fyrene,
137; gen. pl. fyrena, 164, 629; and fyrene, 812; fyrena hyrde (of Grendel),
751. The dat. pl., fyrenum, is used adverbially in the sense of
_maliciously_, 1745, or _fallaciously_, with reference to Hæðcyn's killing
Herebeald, which was done unintentionally, 2442.

firen-dǣd, st. f., _wicked deed_: acc. pl. fyren-dǣda, 1670; instr. pl.
fyren-dǣdum, 1002; both times of Grendel and his mother, with reference to
their nocturnal inroads.

firen-þearf, st. f., _misery through the malignity of enemies_: acc. sg.
fyren-þearfe, 14.

firgen-bēam, st. m., _tree of a mountain-forest_: acc. pl. fyrgen-bēamas,

firgen-holt, st. m., _mountain-wood, mountain-forest_: acc. sg. on
fyrgen-holt, 1394.

firgen-strēam, st. m., _mountain-stream_: nom. sg. fyrgen-strēam, 1360;
acc. sg. under fyrgen-strēam (marks the place where the mountain-stream,
according to 1360, empties into Grendel's sea), 2129.

fisc, st. m., _fish_: in comp. hron-, mere-fisc.

fīf, num., _five_: uninflect. gen. fīf nihta fyrst, 545; acc. fīfe (?),

fīfel-cyn (O.N. fīfl, stultus and gigas), st. n., _giant-race_: gen. sg.
fīfelcynnes eard, 104.

fīf-tȳne, num., _fifteen_: acc. fȳftȳne, 1583; gen. fīftȳna sum, 207.

fīf-tig, num., _fifty_: 1) as substantive with gen. following; acc. fīftig
wintra, 2734; gen. sē wæs fīftiges fōt-gemearces lang, 3043.--2) as
adjective: acc. fīftig wintru, 2210.

flān, st. m., _arrow_: dat. sg. flāne, 3120; as instr., 2439.

flān-boga, w. m., _bow which shoots the flān, bow_: dat. sg. of flān-bogan,
1434, 1745.

flǣsc, st. n., _flesh, body in contrast with soul_: instr. sg. nō þon lange
wæs feorh æðelinges flǣsce bewunden, _not much longer was the son of the
prince contained in his body_, 2425.

flǣsc-hama, w. m., _clothing of flesh_, i.e. the body: acc. sg.
flǣsc-homan, 1569.

flet, st. n.: 1) _ground, floor of a hall_: acc. sg. hēo on flet gebēah,
_fell to the ground_, 1541; similarly, 1569.--2) _hall, mansion_: nom. sg.
1977; acc. sg. flet, 1037, 1648, 1950, 2018, etc.; flett, 2035; þæt hīe him
ōðer flet eal gerȳmdon, _that they should give up entirely to them another
hall_, 1087; dat. sg. on flette, 1026.

flet-ræst, st. f., _resting-place in the hall_: acc. sg. flet-ræste gebēag,
_reclined upon the couch in the hall_, 1242.

flet-sittend, pres. part., _sitting in the hall_: acc. pl -sittende, 2023;
dat. pl. -sittendum, 1789.

flet-werod, st. n., _troop from the hall_: nom. sg., 476.

flēam, st. m., _flight_: acc. sg. on flēam gewand, _had turned to flight_,
1002; flēam ēowerne, 2890.

flēogan, st. v., _to fly_: prs. sg. III. flēogeð, 2274.

flēon, st. v., _to flee_: inf. on heolster flēon, 756; flēon on fenhopu,
765; flēon under fen-hleoðu, 821; pret. hete-swengeas flēah, 2226.

be-flēon, w. acc., _to avoid, to escape_: gerund nō þæt ȳðe byð tō
beflēonne, _that is not easy_ (i.e. not at all) _to be avoided_, 1004.

ofer-flēon, w. acc., _to flee from one, to yield_: inf. nelle ic beorges
weard oferflēon fōtes trem, _will not yield to the warder of the mountain_
(the drake) _a foot's breadth_, 2526.

flēotan, st. v., _to float upon the water, to swim_: inf. nō hē wiht fram
mē flōd-ȳðum feor flēotan meahte. hraðor on helme, _no whit, could he swim
from me farther on the waves_ (regarded as instrumental, so that the waves
marked the distance), _more swiftly in the sea_, 542; pret. sǣgenga flēat
fāmigheals forð ofer ȳðe, _floated away over the waves_, 1910.

fliht. See flyht.

flitme. See un-flitme.

flītan, st. v., _to exert one's self, to strive, to emulate_: pres. part.
flītende fealwe strǣte mēarum mǣton (_rode a race_), 917; pret. sg. II.
eart þū se Bēowulf, sē þe wið Brecan ... ymb sund flite, _art thou the
Bēowulf who once contended with Breca for the prize in swimming?_ 507.

ofer-flītan, _to surpass one in a contest, to conquer, to overcome_: pret.
w. acc. hē þē æt sunde oferflāt (_overcome thee in a swimming-wager_), 517.

ge-flīt, st. n., _emulation_: acc. sg. lēton on geflīt faran fealwe mēaras,
_let the fallow horses go in emulation_, 866.

floga, w. m., _flyer_; in the compounds: gūð-, lyft-, ūht-, wid-floga.

flota (see flēotan), w. m., _float, ship, boat_: nom. sg., 210, 218, 301;
acc. sg. flotan ēowerne, 294.--Comp. wǣg-flota.

flot-here, st. m., _fleet_: instr. sg. cwōm faran flotherge on Frēsna land,

flōd, st. m., _flood, stream, sea-current_: nom. sg., 545, 580, 1362, etc.;
acc. sg. flōd, 3134; ofer fealone flōd, 1951; dat. sg. tō flōde, 1889; gen.
pl. flōda begong, _the region of floods_, i.e. the sea, 1498, 1827; flōda
genipu, 2809.

flōd-ȳð, st. f., _flood-wave_: instr. pl. flōd-ȳðum, 542.

flōr, st. m., _floor, stone-floor_: acc. sg. on fāgne flōr (the floor was
probably a kind of mosaic, made of colored flags), 726; dat. sg. gang þā
æfter flōre, _along the floor_ (i.e. along the hall), 1317.

flyht, fliht, st. m., _flight_: nom. sg. gāres fliht, _flight of the
spear_, 1766.

ge-flȳman, w. v., _to put to flight_: pret. part. geflȳmed, 847, 1371.

folc, st. n., _troop, band of warriors; folk_, in the sense of the whole
body of the fighting men of a nation: acc. sg. folc, 522, 694, 912; Sūðdene
folc, 464; folc and rīce, 1180; dat. sg. folce, 14, 2596; folce Deninga,
465; as instr. folce gestepte ofer sǣ sīde, _went with a band of warriors
over the wide sea_, 2394; gen. sg. folces, 1125; folces Denigea, 1583.--The
king is called folces hyrde, 611, 1833, 2645, 2982; frēawine folces, 2358;
or folces weard, 2514. The queen, folces cwēn, 1933.--The pl., in the sense
of _warriors, fighting men_: nom. pl. folc, 1423, 2949; dat. pl. folcum,
55, 262, 1856; gen. pl. frēo- (frēa-) wine folca, _of the king_, 430, 2430;
friðu-sibb folca, _of the queen_, 2018.--Comp. sige-folc.

folc-āgend, pres. part., _leader of a band of warriors_: nom. pl.
folc-āgende, 3114.

folc-beorn, st. m., _man of the multitude, a common man_: nom. sg.
folc-beorn, 2222.

folc-cwēn, st. f., _queen of a warlike host_: nom. sg., of Wealhþēow, 642.

folc-cyning, st. m., _king of a warlike host_: nom. sg., 2734, 2874.

folc-rǣd, st. m, _what best serves a warlike host_: acc. sg., 3007.

folc-riht, st. n., _the rights of the fighting men of a nation_: gen. pl.
him ǣr forgeaf ... folcrihta gehwylc, swā his fæder āhte, 2609.

folc-scearu, st. f., _part of a host of warriors, nation_: dat. sg.
folc-scare, 73.

folc-stede, st. m., _position of a band of warriors, place where a band of
warriors is quartered_: acc. sg. folcstede, of the hall, Heorot, 76;
folcstede fāra (_the battle-field_), 1464.

folc-toga, w. m., _leader of a body of warriors, duke_: nom. pl., powerful
liege-men of Hrōðgār are called folc-togan, 840.

fold-bold, st. n., _earth-house_ (i.e. a house on earth in contrast with a
dwelling in heaven): nom. sg. fǣger fold-bold, of the hall, Heorot, 774.

fold-būend, pres. part. _dweller on earth, man_: nom. pl. fold-būend, 2275;
fold-būende, 1356; dat. pl. fold-būendum, 309.

folde, w. f., _earth, ground_: acc. sg. under foldan, 1362; fēoll on
foldan, 2976; gen. sg. foldan bearm, _the bosom of the earth_, 1138; foldan
scēatas, 96; foldan fæðm, 1394.--Also, _earth, world_: dat. sg. on foldan,

fold-weg, st. m., _field-way, road through the country_: acc. sg. fold-weg,
1634; acc. pl. fold-wegas, 867.

folgian, w. v.: 1) _to perform vassal-duty, to serve, to follow_: pret. pl.
þēah hīe hira bēaggyfan banan folgedon, _although they followed the
murderer of their prince_, 1103.--2) _to pursue, to follow after_: folgode
feorh-genīðlan (acc. pl.) 2934.

folm, st. f, _hand_: acc. sg. folme, 971, 1304; dat. sg. mid folme, 743;
acc. pl. fēt and folma, _feet and hands_, 746; dat. pl. tō banan folmum,
158; folmum (instr.), 723, 993.--Comp.: beado-, gearo-folm.

for, prep. w. dat., instr., and acc.: 1) w. dat. local, _before_, ante: þæt
hē for eaxlum gestōd Deniga frēan, 358; for hlāwe, 1121.--b) _before_,
coram, in conspectu: no hē þǣre feohgyfte for scēotendum scamigan þorfte,
_had no need to be ashamed of the gift before the warriors_, 1027; for þǣm
werede, 1216; for eorlum, 1650; for duguðe, _before the noble band of
warriors_, 2021.--Causal, a) to denote a subjective motive, _on account of,
through, from_: for wlenco, _from bravery, through warlike courage_, 338,
1207; for wlence, 508; for his wonhȳdum, 434; for onmēdlan, 2927, etc.--b)
objective, partly denoting a cause, _through, from, by reason of_: for
metode, _for the creator, on account of the creator_, 169; for þrēanȳdum,
833; for þrēanēdlan, 2225; for dolgilpe, _on account of, in accordance with
the promise of bold deeds_ (because you claimed bold deeds for yourself),
509; him for hrōfsele hrīnan ne mehte fǣr-gripe flōdes, _on account of the
roofed hall the malicious grasp of the flood could not reach him_, 1516;
līg-egesan wæg for horde, _on account of_ (the robbing of) _the treasure_,
2782; for mundgripe mīnum, _on account of, through the gripe of my hand_,
966; for þæs hildfruman hondgeweorce, 2836; for swenge, _through the
stroke_, 2967; ne meahte ... dēop gedȳgan for dracan lēge, _could not hold
out in the deep on account of the heat of the drake_, 2550. Here may be
added such passages as ic þǣm gōdan sceal for his mōdþræce māðmas bēodan,
_will offer him treasures on account of his boldness of character, for his
high courage_, 385; ful-oft for lǣssan lēan teohhode, _gave often reward
for what was inferior_, 952; nalles for ealdre mearn, _was not uneasy about
his life_, 1443; similarly, 1538. Also denoting purpose: for ārstafum, _to
the assistance_, 382, 458.--2) w. instr. causal, _because of, for_: hē hine
feor forwræc for þȳ mane, 110.--3) w. acc., _for, as, instead of_: for
sunu frēogan, _love as a son_, 948; for sunu habban, 1176; nē him þæs
wyrmes wīg for wiht dyde, _held the drake's fighting as nothing_, 2349.

foran, adv., _before, among the first, forward_: siððan ... scēawedon
fēondes fingras, foran ǣghwylc (_each before himself_), 985; þæt wæs ān
foran ealdgestrēona, _that was one among the first of the old treasures_,
i.e. a splendid old treasure, 1459; þē him foran ongēan linde bǣron, _bore
their shields forward against him_ (went out to fight against him), 2365.

be-foran: 1) adv., local, _before_: hē ... beforan gengde, _went before_,
1413; temporal, _before, earlier_, 2498.--2) prep. w. acc. _before_, in
conspectu: mǣre māððum-sweord manige gesāwon beforan beorn beran, 1025.

ford, st. m., _ford, water-way_: acc. sg. ymb brontne ford, 568.

forð: 1) local, _forth, hither, near_: forð near ætstōp, _approached
nearer_, 746; þā cwōm Wealhþēo forð gān, 1163; similarly, 613; him seleþegn
forð wīsade, _led him_ (Bēowulf) _forth_ (to the couch that had been
prepared for him in Heorot), 1796; þæt him swāt sprong forð under fexe,
_forth under the hair of his head_, 2968. _Forward, further_: gewītað forð
beran wǣpen and gewǣdu, 291; hē tō forð gestōp, 2290; freoðo-wong þone forð
oferēodon, 2960. _Away, forth_, 45, 904; fyrst forð gewāt, _the time_ (of
the way to the ship) _was out_, i.e. they had arrived at the ship, 210; mē
... forð-gewitenum, _to me the departed_, 1480; fērdon forð, _went forth_
(from Grendel's sea), 1633; þonne hē forð scile, _when he must (go) forth_,
i.e. die, 3178; hine mihtig god ... ofer ealle men forð gefremede, _carried
him forth, over all men_, 1719.--2) temporal, _forth, from now on_: heald
forð tela nīwe sibbe, 949; ic sceal forð sprecan gēn ymbe Grendel, _shall
from now on speak again of Grendel_, 2070. See furðum and furðor.

forð-gerīmed, pres. part., _in unbroken succession_, 59.

forð-gesceaft, st. f., _that which is determined for farther on, future
destiny_: acc. sg. hē þā forð-gesceaft forgyteð and forgȳmeð, 1751.

forð-weg, st. m., _road that leads away, journey_: hē of ealdre gewāt frōd
on forð-weg (_upon the way to the next world_), 2626.

fore, prep. w. dat., local, _before_, coram, in conspectu: hēo fore þǣm
werede spræc, 1216. Causal, _through, for, because of_: nō mearn fore fǣhðe
and fyrene, 136; fore fæder dǣdum, _because of the father's deeds_,
2060,--Allied to this is the meaning, _about_, de, super: þǣr wæs sang and
swēg samod ætgædere fore Healfdenes hildewīsan, _song and music about
Healfdene's general_ (the song of Hnæf), 1065.

fore-mǣre, adj., _renowned beyond (others)_, prǣclarus: superl. þæt wæs
fore-mǣrost foldbūendum receda under roderum, 309.

fore-mihtig, adj., _able beyond (others)_, prǣpotens: nom. sg. wæs tō
foremihtig fēond on fēðe, _the enemy was too strong in going_ (could flee
too rapidly), 970.

fore-snotor, adj., _wise beyond (others)_, sapientissimus: nom. pl.
foresnotre men, 3164.

fore-þanc, st. m., _forethought, consideration, deliberation_: nom. sg.,

forht, adj., _fearful, cowardly_: nom. sg. forht, 2968; hē on mōde wearð
forht on ferhðe, 755.--Comp. unforht.

forma, adj., _foremost, first_: nom. sg. forma sīð (_the first time_), 717,
1464, 1528, 2626; instr. sg. forman sīðe, 741, 2287; forman dōgore, 2574.

fyrmest, adv. superl., _first of all, in the first place_: hē fyrmest læg,

forst, st. m., _frost, cold_: gen. sg. forstes bend, 1610.

for-þām, for-þan, for-þon, adv. and conj., _therefore, on that account,
then_: forþām, 149; forþan, 418, 680, 1060; forþon þe, _because_, 503.

fōn, st. v., _to catch, to grasp, to take hold, to take_: prs. sg. III.
fēhð ōðer tō, _another lays hold_ (takes possession), 1756; inf. ic mid
grāpe sceal fōn wið fēonde, 439; pret. sg. him tōgēanes fēng, _caught at
him, grasped at him_, 1543; w. dat. hē þām frætwum fēng, _received the rich
adornments_ (Ongenþēow's equipment), 2990.

be-fōn, _to surround, to ensnare, to encompass, to embrace_: pret. part.
hyne sār hafað ... nearwe befongen balwon bendum, 977; hēo æðelinga ānne
hæfde fæste befangen (_had seized him firmly_), 1296; helm ... befongen
frēawrāsnum (_encircled by an ornament like a diadem_), 1452; fenne
bifongen, _surrounded by the fen_, 2010; (draca) fȳre befongen, _encircled
by fire_, 2275, 2596; hæfde landwara līge befangen, _encompassed by fire_,

ge-fōn, w. acc., _to seize, to grasp_: pret. hē gefēng slǣpendne rinc, 741;
gūðrinc gefēng atolan clommum, 1502; gefēng þā be eaxle ... Gūðgēata lēod
Grendles mōdor, 1538; gefēng þā fetelhilt, 1564; hond rond gefēng, geolwe
linde, 2610; ic on ofoste gefēng micle mid mundum mægen-byrðenne, _hastily
I seized with my hands the enormous burden_, 3091.

on-fōn, w. dat., _to receive, to accept, to take_: pres. imp. sg. onfōh
þissum fulle, _accept this cup_, 1170; inf. þæt þæt þēodnes bearn ...
scolde fæder-æðelum onfōn, _receive the paternal rank_, 912; pret. sg. hwā
þǣm hlæste onfēng, _who received the ship's lading_, 52; hlēor-bolster
onfēng eorles andwlitan, _the pillow received the nobleman's face_, 689;
similarly, 853, 1495; heal swēge onfēng, _the hall received the loud
noise_, 1215; hē onfēng hraðe inwit-þancum, _he_ (Bēowulf) _at once
clutched him_ (Grendel) _devising malice_, 749.

þurh-fōn, w. acc., _to break through with grasping, to destroy by
grasping_: inf. þæt hēo þone fyrd-hom þurh-fōn ne mihte, 1505.

wið-fōn, w. dat., _(to grasp at), to seize, to lay hold of_: pret. sg. him
fæste wið-fēng, 761.

ymbe-fōn, w. acc., _to encircle_: pret. heals ealne ymbefēng biteran bānum,
_encircled his_ (Bēowulf's) _whole neck with sharp bones_ (teeth), 2692.

fōt, st. m., _foot_: gen. sg. fōtes trem (_the measure of a foot, a foot
broad_), 2526; acc. pl. fēt, 746; dat. pl. æt fōtum, _at the feet_, 500,

fōt-gemearc, st. n., _measure, determining by feet, number of feet_: gen.
sg. sē wæs fīftiges fōtgemearces lang (_fifty feet long_), 3043.

fōt-lāst, st. m., _foot-print_: acc. sg. (draca) onfand fēondes fōt-lāst,

fracod, adj., _objectionable, useless_. nom. sg. næs sēo ecg fracod
hilde-rince, 1576.

fram, from, I. prep. w. dat. loc. _away from something_: þǣr fram sylle
ābēag medubenc monig, 776, 1716; þanon eft gewiton ealdgesīðas ... fram
mere, 856; cyning-balde men from þǣm holmclife hafelan bǣron, 1636;
similarly, 541, 543, 2367. Standing after the dat.: hē hine feor forwræc
... mancynne fram, 110; similarly, 1716. Also, _hither from something_: þā
ic cwōm ... from fēondum, 420; ǣghwæðrum wæs ... brōga fram ōðrum,
2566.--Causal with verbs of saying and hearing, _of, about, concerning_:
sægdest from his sīðe, 532; nō ic wiht fram þē swylcra searo-nīða secgan
hȳrde, 581; þæt hē fram Sigemunde secgan hyrde, 876. II adv., _away,
thence_: nō þȳ ǣr fram meahte, 755; _forth, out_: from ǣrest cwōm oruð
āglǣcean ūt of stāne, _the breath of the dragon came forth first from the
rock_ 2557.

fram, from, adj.: 1) _directed forwards, striving forwards_; in comp.
sīð-fram.--2) _excellent, splendid_, of a man with reference to his warlike
qualities: nom. sg. ic eom on mōde from, 2528; nom. pl. frome fyrd-hwate,
1642, 2477. Of things: instr. pl. fromum feoh-giftum, 21.--Comp. un-from;
see freme, forma.

ge-frægen. See frignan.

frætwe, st. f. pl., _ornament, anything costly_, originally _carved
objects_ (cf. Dietrich in Hpts. Ztschr. X. 216 ff.), afterwards of any
costly and artistic work: acc. pl. frætwe, 2920; beorhte frætwe, 214;
beorhte frætwa, 897; frætwe.. eorclan-stānas, 1208; frætwe,...
brēost-weorðunge, 2504, both times of Hygelāc's collar; frætwe and
fæt-gold, 1922; frætwe (Eanmund's sword and armor), 2621; dat. instr. pl.
þām frætwum, 2164; on frætewum, 963; frætwum (Heaðobeard sword) hrēmig,
2055; frætwum, of the drake's treasures, 2785; frætwum (Ongenþēow's armor),
2990; gen. pl. fela ... frætwa, 37; þāra frætwa (drake's treasure), 2795;
frætwa hyrde (drake), 3134.

frætwan, w. v., _to supply with ornaments, to adorn_: inf. folc-stede
frætwan, 76.

ge-frætwian, w. v., _to adorn_: pret. sg. gefrætwade foldan scēatas leomum
and lēafum, 96; pret. part. þā wæs hāten Heort innanweard folmum gefrætwod,

ge-frǣge, adj., _known by reputation, renowned_: nom. sg. lēod-cyning ...
folcum gefrǣge, 55; swā hyt gefrǣge wæs, 2481.

ge-frǣge, st. n., _information through hearsay_: instr. sg. mine gefrǣge
(_as I learned through the narrative of others_), 777, 838, 1956, etc.

ge-frǣgnian, w. v., _to become known through hearsay_: pret. part. fylle
gefrǣgnod (of Grendel's mother, who had become known through the carrying
off of Æschere), 1334?

freca, w. m., properly _a wolf_, as one that breaks in, robs; here a
designation of heroes: nom. sg. freca Scildinga, of Bēowulf, 1564.--Comp.:
gūð-, hilde-, scyld-, sweord-, wīg-freca; ferð-frec (adj.).

fremde, adj., properly _distant, foreign_; then _estranged, hostile_: nom
sg. þæt wæs fremde þēod ēcean dryhtne, of the giants, 1692.

freme, adj., _excellent, splendid_: nom. sg. fem. fremu folces cwēn, of
Þrȳðo, 1933(?).

fremman, w. v., _to press forward, to further_, hence: 1) in general, _to
perform, to accomplish, to do, to make_: pres. subj. without an object,
fremme sē þe wille, _let him do (it) whoever will_, 1004. With acc.: imp.
pl. fremmað gē nū lēoda þearfe, 2801; inf. fyrene fremman, 101; sæcce
fremman, 2500; fǣhðe ... mǣrðum fremman, 2515, etc.; pret. sg. folcrǣd
fremede (_did what was best for his men_, i.e. ruled wisely), 3007; pl. hū
þā æðelingas ellen fremedon, 3; feohtan fremedon, 960; nalles fācenstafas
... þenden fremedon, 1020; pret. subj. þæt ic ... mǣrðo fremede, 2135. --2)
_to help on, to support_: inf. þæt hē mec fremman wile wordum and worcum
(to an expedition), 1833.

ge-fremman, w. acc., _to do, to make, to render_: inf. gefremman eorlīc
ellen, 637; helpan gefremman, _to give help_, 2450; æfter wēaspelle wyrpe
gefremman, _to work a change after sorrow_ (to give joy after sorrow),
1316; gerund, tō gefremmanne, 174, 2645; pret. sg. gefremede, 135, 165,
551, 585, etc.; þēah þe hine mihtig god ... ofer ealle men forð gefremede,
_placed him away, above all men_, i.e. raised him, 1719; pret. pl.
gefremedon, 1188, 2479; pret. subj. gefremede, 177; pret. part. gefremed,
476; fem, nū scealc hafað ... dǣd gefremede, 941; absolutely, þū þē self
hafast dǣdum gefremed, þæt ..., _hast brought it about by thy deeds that_,

fretan, st. v., _to devour, to consume_: inf. þā (the precious things)
sceal brond fretan, 3015; nū sceal glēd fretan wigena strengel, 3115; pret.
sg. (Grendel) slǣpende fræt folces Denigea fȳftȳne men, 1582.

frēcne, adj., _dangerous, bold_: nom. sg. frēcne fȳr-draca, 2690;
feorh-bealo frēcne, 2251, 2538; acc. sg. frēcne dǣde, 890; frēcne fengelād,
1360; frēcne stōwe, 1379; instr. sg. frēcnan sprǣce (_through provoking
words_), 1105.

frēcne, adv., _boldly, audaciously_, 960, 1033, 1692.

frēa, w. m., _ruler, lord_, of a temporal ruler: nom. sg. frēa, 2286; acc.
sg. frēan, 351, 1320, 2538, 3003, 3108; gen. sg. frēan, 359, 500, 1167,
1681; dat. sg. frēan, 271, 291, 2663. Of a husband: dat. sg. ēode ... tō
hire frēan sittan, 642. Of God: dat. sg. frēan ealles, _the Lord of all_,
2795; gen. sg. frēan, 27.-- Comp.: āgend-, līf-, sin-frēa.

frēa-dryhten, st. m., _lord, ruling lord_: gen. sg. frēa-drihtnes, 797.

frēa-wine, st. m., _lord and friend, friendly ruler_: nom. sg. frēa-wine
folces (folca), 2358, 2430; acc. sg. his frēa-wine, 2439.

frēa-wrāsn, st. f., _encircling ornament like a diadem_: instr. pl. helm
... befongen frēawrāsnum, 1452; see wrāsn.

freoðu, friðu, f., _protection, asylum, peace_: acc. sg. wēl bið þǣm þe mōt
... tō fæder fæðmum freoðo wilnian, _who may obtain an asylum in God's
arms_, 188; nēan and feorran þū nū [friðu] hafast, 1175.--Comp. fen-freoðo.

freoðo-burh, st. f., _castle, city affording protection_: acc. sg.
freoðoburh fægere, 522.

freoðo-wong, st. m., _field of peace, field of protection_: acc. sg., 2960;
seems to have been the proper name of a field.

freoðo-wǣr, st. f., _peace-alliance, security of peace_: acc. sg. þā hīe
getruwedon on twā healfa fæste frioðu-wǣre, 1097; gen. sg. frioðowǣre bæd
hlāford sīnne, _entreated his lord for the protection of peace_ (i.e. full
pardon for his delinquency), 2283.

freoðo-webbe, w. f., _peace-weaver_, designation of the royal consort
(often one given in marriage as a confirmation of a peace between two
nations): nom. sg., 1943.

frēo-burh, st. f., = frēa-burg (?), _ruler's castle_ (?) (according to
Grein, arx ingenua): acc. sg. frēoburh, 694.

frēod, st. f., _friendship_: acc. sg. frēode ne woldon ofer heafo healdan,
2477; gen. sg. næs þǣr māra fyrst frēode tō friclan, _was no longer time to
seek for friendship_, 2557; --_favor, acknowledgement_: acc. sg. ic þē
sceal mīne gelǣstan frēode (_will show myself grateful_, with reference to
1381 ff.), 1708.

frēo-dryhten (= frēa-dryhten), st. m., _lord, ruler_; according to Grein,
dominus ingenuus vel nobilis: nom. sg. as voc. frēo-drihten min! 1170; dat.
sg. mid his frēo-dryhtne, 2628.

frēogan, w. v., _to love; to think of lovingly_: pres. subj. þæt mon his
wine-dryhten ... ferhðum frēoge, 3178; inf. nū ic þec ... mē for sunu wylle
frēogan on ferhðe, 949.

frēo-līc, adj., _free, free-born_ (here of the lawful wife in contrast with
the bond concubine): nom. sg. frēolīc wīf, 616; frēolīcu folc-cwēn, 642.

frēond, st. m., _friend_: acc. sg. frēond, 1386, 1865; dat. pl. frēondum,
916, 1019, 1127; gen. pl. frēonda, 1307, 1839.

frēond-laðu, st. f., _friendly invitation_: nom. sg. him wæs ful boren and
frēond-laðu (_friendly invitation to drink_) wordum bewægned, 1193.

frēond-lār, st. f., _friendly counsel_: dat. (instr.) pl. frēond-lārum,

frēond-līce, adv., _in a friendly manner, kindly_: compar. frēond-līcor,

frēond-scipe, st. m., _friendship_: acc. sg. frēond-scipe fæstne, 2070.

frēo-wine, st. m. (see frēawine), _lord and friend, friendly ruler_;
according to Grein, amicus nobilis, princeps amicus: nom. sg. as voc.
frēo-wine folca! 430.

fricgean, w. v., _to ask, to inquire into_: inf. ongan sīnne geseldan fægre
fricgean hwylce Sǣ-Gēata sīðas wǣron, 1986; pres. part, gomela Scilding
fela fricgende feorran rehte, _the old Scilding, asking many questions_
(having many things related to him), _told of old times_ (the conversation
was alternate), 2107.

ge-fricgean, _to learn, to learn by inquiry_: pres. pl. syððan hīe
ge-fricgeað frēan ūserne ealdorlēasne, _when they learn that our lord is
dead_, 3003; pres. subj. gif ic þæt gefricge, þæt..., 1827; pl. syððan
æðelingas feorran gefricgean flēam ēowerne, 2890.

friclan (see freca), w. v. w. gen., _to seek, to desire, to strive for_:
inf. næs þǣr māra fyrst frēode tō friclan, 2557.

friðo-sib, st. f., _kin for the confirming of peace_, designation of the
queen (see freoðo--webbe), _peace-bringer_: nom. sg. friðu-sibb folca,

frignan, fringan, frīnan, st. v., _to ask, to inquire_: imp. ne frīn þū
æfter sǣlum, _ask not after the well-being!_ 1323; inf. ic þæs wine Deniga
frīnan wille ... ymb þīnne sīð, 351; pret. sg. frægn, 236, 332; frægn gif
..., _asked whether_ ..., 1320.

ge-frignan, ge-fringan, ge-frīnan, _to find out by inquiry, to learn by
narration._ pret. sg. (w. acc.) þæt fram hām gefrægn Higelāces þegn
Grendles dǣda, 194; nō ic gefrægn heardran feohtan, 575; (w. acc. and inf.)
þā ic wīde gefrægn weorc gebannan, 74; similarly, 2485, 2753, 2774; ne
gefrægen ic þā mǣgðe māran weorode ymb hyra sincgyfan sēl gebǣran, _I never
heard that any people, richer in warriors, conducted itself better about
its chief_, 1012; similarly, 1028; pret. pl. (w. acc.) wē þēodcyninga þrym
gefrūnon, 2; (w. acc. and inf.) geongne gūðcyning gōdne gefrūnon hringas
dǣlan, 1970; (parenthetical) swā guman gefrungon, 667, (after þonne)
medo-ærn micel (_greater_) ... þone yldo bearn ǣfre gefrūnon, 70; pret.
part. hæfde Higelāces hilde gefrūnen, 2953; hæfdon gefrūnen þæt..., _had
learned that_ ..., 695; hæfde gefrūnen hwanan sīo fǣhð ārās, 2404;
healsbēaga mǣst þāra þe ic on foldan gefrægen hæbbe, 1197.

from, See fram.

frōd, adj.: 1) ǣtate provectus, _old, gray_: nom. sg. frōd, 2626, 2951;
frōd cyning, 1307, 2210; frōd folces weard, 2514; wintrum frōd, 1725, 2115,
2278; se frōda, 2929; ac. sg. frōde feorhlege (_the laying down of my old
life_), 2801; dat. sg. frōdan fyrnwitan (may also, from its meaning, belong
under No. 2), 2124.--2) mente excellentior, _intelligent, experienced,
wise_: nom. sg. frōd, 1367; frōd and gōd, 279; on mōde frōd, 1845.--Comp.:
in-, un-frōd.

frōfor, st. f., _consolation, compensation, help_: nom. sg. frōfor, 2942;
acc. sg. frōfre, 7, 974; fyrena frōfre, 629; frōfre and fultum, 1274;
frōfor and fultum, 699; dat. sg. tō frōfre, 14, 1708; gen. sg. frōfre, 185.

fruma (see forma), w. m., _the foremost_, hence: l) _beginning_: nom. sg.
wæs se fruma egeslīc lēodum on lande, swā hyt lungre wearð on hyra
sincgifan sāre geendod (_the beginning of the dragon-combat was terrible,
its end distressing through the death of Bēowulf_), 2310.--2) _he who
stands first, prince_; in comp. dǣd-, hild-, land-, lēod-, ord-, wīg-fruma.

frum-cyn, st. n., (genus primitivum), _descent, origin_: acc. sg. nū ic
ēower sceal frumcyn witan, 252.

frum-gār, st. m., primipilus, _duke, prince_: dat. sg. frumgāre (of
Bēowulf), 2857.

frum-sceaft, st. f., prima creatio, _beginning_: acc. sg. sē þe cūðe
frumsceaft fīra feorran reccan, _who could tell of the beginning of mankind
in old times_, 91; dat. sg. frum-sceafte, _in the beginning_, i.e at his
birth, 45.

fugol, st. m., _bird_: dat. sg. fugle gelīcost, 218; dat. pl. [fuglum] tō
gamene, 2942.

ful, adj., _full, filled_: nom. sg. w. gen. pl. sē wæs innan full wrǣtta
and wīra, 2413.--Comp.: eges-, sorh-, weorð-ful.

ful, adv., plene, _very_: ful oft, 480; ful-oft, 952.

ful, st. n., _cup, beaker_: nom. sg., 1193; acc. sg. ful, 616, 629, 1026;
ofer ȳða ful, _over the cup of the waves_ (the basin of the sea filled
with waves), 1209; dat. sg. onfōh þissum fulle, 1170.--Comp.: medo-,

fullǣstian, w. v. w. dat, _to give help_: pres. sg. ic þē fullǣstu, 2669.

fultum, st. m., _help, support, protection_: acc. sg. frōfor (frōfre) and
fultum, 699, 1274; mægenes fultum, 1836; on fultum, 2663.--Comp.

fundian, w. v., _to strive, to have in view_: pres. pl. wē fundiað Higelāc
sēcan, 1820; pret. sg. fundode of geardum, 1138.

furðum, adv., primo, _just, exactly; then first_: þā ic furðum wēold folce
Deninga, _then first governed the people of the Danes_ (had just assumed
the government), 465; þā hīe tō sele furðum ... gangan cwōmon, 323; ic þǣr
furðum cwōm tō þām hringsele, 2010;--_before, previously_: ic þē sceal mīne
gelǣstan frēode, swā wit furðum sprǣcon, 1708.

furður, adv., _further, forward, more distant_, 254, 762, 3007.

fūs, adj., _inclined to, favorable, ready_: nom. sg. nū ic eom sīðes fūs,
1476; lēofra manna fūs, _prepared for the dear men_, i.e. expecting them,
1917; sigel sūðan fūs, _the sun inclined from the south_ (midday sun),
1967; se wonna hrefn fūs ofer fǣgum, _eager over the slain_, 3026; sceft
... feðer-gearwum fūs, 3120; nom. pl. wǣron ... eft to lēodum fūse tō
farenne, 1806.--Sometimes fūs means _ready for death_, moribundus: fūs and
fǣge, 1242.--Comp.: hin-, ūt-fūs.

fūs-līc, adj., _prepared, ready_: acc. sg. fūs-līc f[yrd]-lēoð, 1425;
fyrd-searo fūs-līc, 2619; acc. pl. fyrd-searu fūs-līcu, 232.

fyl, st. m., _fall_: nom. sg. fyll cyninges, _the fall of the king_ (in the
dragon-fight), 2913; dat. sg. þæt hē on fylle wearð, _that he came to a
fall, fell_, 1545.--Comp. hrā-fyl.

fylce (collective form from folc), st. n., _troop, band of warriors_: in
comp. æl-fylce.

ge-fyllan (see feal), w. v., _to fell, to slay in battle_: inf. fāne
gefyllan, _to slay the enemy_, 2656; pret. pl. fēond gefyldan, _they had
slain the enemy_, 2707.

ā-fyllan (see ful), w. v., _to fill_: pret. part. Heorot innan wæs frēondum
āfylled (_was filled with trusted men_), 1019.

fyllo, st. f. (_plenty, abundant meal_: dat. (instr.) sg. fylle gefrǣgnod,
1334; gen. sg. næs hīe þǣre fylle gefēan hæfdon, 562; fylle gefǣgon,
1015.--Comp.: wæl-, wist-fyllo.

fyl-wērig, adj., _weary enough to fall, faint to death_, moribundus: acc.
sg. fyl-wērigne, 963.

fyr. See feor.

fyrian, w. v. w. acc. (= ferian) _to bear, to bring, carry_: pret. pl. þā
þe gif-sceattas Gēata fyredon þyder tō þance, 378.

fȳras. See fīras.

fyren. See firen.

fyrde, adj., _movable, that can be moved_.--Comp. hard-fyrde.--Leo.

fyrd-gestealla, w. m., _comrade on an expedition, companion in battle_:
dat. pl. fyrd-gesteallum, 2874

fyrd-ham, st. m., _war-dress, coat of mail_: acc. sg. þone fyrd-hom, 1505.

fyrd-hrægl, st. n., _coat of mail, war-dress_: acc. sg. fyrd-hrægl, 1528.

fyrd-hwæt, adj., _sharp, good in war, warlike_: nom. pl. frome fyrd-hwate,
1642, 2477.

fyrd-lēoð, st. n., _war-song, warlike music_: acc. sg. horn stundum song
fūslīc f[yrd]leoð, 1425.

fyrd-searu, st. n., _equipment for an expedition_: acc. sg. fyrd-searu
fūslīc, 2619; acc. pl. fyrd-searu fūslīcu, 232.

fyrd-wyrðe, adj., _of worth in war, excellent in battle_: nom. sg.
fyrd-wyrðe man (Bēowulf), 1317.

ge-fyrðran (see forð), w. v., _to bring forward, to further_: pret. part.
ār wæs on ofoste, eftsīðes georn, frætwum gefyrðred, _he was hurried
forward by the treasure_ (i.e. after he had gathered up the treasure, he
hasted to return, so as to be able to show it to the mortally-wounded
Bēowulf), 2785.

fyrmest. See forma.

fyrn-dagas, st. m. pl., _by-gone days_: dat. pl. fyrndagum (_in old
times_), 1452.

fyrn-geweorc, st. n., _work, something done in old times_: acc. sg. fīra
fyrn-geweorc (the drinking-cup mentioned in 2283, 2287.

fyrn-gewin, st. n., _combat in ancient times_: gen. sg. ōr fyrn-gewinnes
(_the origin of the battles of the giants_), 1690.

fyrn-man, st. m., _man of ancient times_: gen. pl. fyrn-manna fatu, 2762.

fyrn-wita, w. m., _counsellor ever since ancient times, adviser for many
years_: dat. sg. frōdan fyrnwitan, of Æschere, 2124.

fyrst, st. m., _portion of time, definite time, time_: nom. sg. næs hit
lengra fyrst, ac ymb āne niht ..., 134; fyrst forð gewāt, _the time_ (of
going to the harbor) _was past_, 210; næs þǣr māra fyrst frēode tō friclan,
2556; acc. sg. niht-longne fyrst, 528; fīf nihta fyrst, 545; instr. sg. þȳ
fyrste, 2574; dat. sg. him on fyrste gelomp ..., _within the fixed time_,

fyr-wit, -wet, -wyt, st. n., _prying spirit, curiosity_: nom. sg. fyrwyt,
232; fyrwet, 1986, 2785.

ge-fȳsan (fūs), w. v., _to make ready, to prepare_: part. winde gefȳsed
flota, _the ship provided with wind_ (for the voyage), 217; (wyrm) fȳre
gefȳsed, _provided with fire_, 2310; þā wæs hringbogan (of the drake)
heorte gefȳsed sæcce tō sēceanne, 2562; with gen., in answer to the
question, for what? gūðe gefȳsed, _ready for battle, determined to fight_,

fȳr, st. n., _fire_: nom. sg., 1367, 2702, 2882; dat. sg. fȳre, 2220; as
instr. fȳre, 2275, 2596; gen. sg. fȳres fæðm, 185; fȳres feng, 1765.--
Comp.: ād-, bǣl-, heaðu-, wæl-fȳr.

fȳr-bend, st. m., _band forged in fire_: dat. pl. duru ... fȳr-bendum
fæst, 723.

fȳr-draca, w. m., _fire-drake, fire-spewing dragon_: nom. sg., 2690.

fȳr-heard, adj., _hard through fire, hardened in fire_: nom. pl.
(eoforlīc) fāh and fȳr-heard, 305.

fȳr-lēoht, st. n., _fire-light_: acc. sg., 1517.

fȳr-wylm, st. m., _wave of fire, flame-wave_: dat. pl. wyrm ... fȳrwylmum
fāh, 2672.


galan, st. v., _to sing, to sound_: pres. sg. sorh-lēoð gæleð, 2461; inf.
gryre-lēoð galan, 787; bearhtm ongeāton, gūðhorn galan, _heard the clang,
the battle-trumpet sound_, 1433.

ā-galan, _to sing, to sound_: pret. sg. þæt hire on hafelan hringmǣl āgōl
grǣdig gūðlēoð, _that the sword caused a greedy battle-song to sound upon
her head_, 1522.

gamban, or, according to Bout., gambe, w. f., _tribute, interest_: acc. sg.
gomban gyldan, 11.

gamen, st. n., _social pleasure, rejoicing, joyous doings_: nom. sg. gamen,
1161; gomen, 2460; gomen glēobēames, _the pleasure of the harp_, 2264; acc.
sg. gamen and glēodrēam, 3022; dat. sg. gamene, 2942; gomene, 1776.--Comp.

gamen-wāð, st. f., _way offering social enjoyment, journey in joyous
society_: dat. sg. of gomen-wāðe, 855.

gamen-wudu, st. m., _wood of social enjoyment_, i.e. harp: nom. sg. þǣr wæs
... gomenwudu grēted, 1066; acc. sg. gomenwudu grētte, 2109.

gamol, gomol, gomel, adj., _old_; of persons, _having lived many years,
gray_: gamol, 58, 265; gomol, 3096; gomel, 2113, 2794; se gomela, 1398;
gamela (gomela) Scylding, 1793, 2106; gomela, 2932; acc. sg. þone gomelan,
2422; dat. sg. gamelum rince, 1678; gomelum ceorle, 2445; þām gomelan,
2818; nom. pl. blondenfeaxe gomele, 1596.--Also, _late, belonging to former
time_: gen. pl. gomelra lāfe (_legacy_), 2037.--Of things, _old, from old
times_: nom. sg. sweord ... gomol, 2683; acc. sg. gomele lāfe, 2564; gomel
swyrd, 2611; gamol is a more respectful word than eald.

gamol-feax, adj., _with gray hair_: nom. sg., 609.

gang, st. m.: 1) _gait, way_: dat. sg. on gange, 1885; gen. sg. ic hine ne
mihte ... ganges ge-twǣman, _could not keep him from going_, 969.--2)
_step, foot-step_: nom. sg. gang (the foot-print of the mother of Grendel),
1405; acc. sg. uton hraðe fēran Grendles māgan gang scēawigan, 1392.--Comp.

be-gang, bi-gang, st. m., (_so far as something goes_), _extent_: acc. sg.
ofer geofenes begang, _over the extent of the sea_, 362; ofer flōda begang,
1827; under swegles begong, 861, 1774; flōda begong, 1498; sioleða bigong,

gangan. See under gān.

ganot, st. m., _diver_, fulica marina: gen. sg. ofer ganotes bæð (i.e. the
sea), 1862.

gād, st. n., _lack_: nom. sg. ne bið þē wilna gād (_thou shalt have no lack
of desirable_ [valuable] _things_), 661; similarly, 950.

gān, _expanded_ = gangan, st. v., _to go_: pres. sg. III. gǣð ā Wyrd swā
hīo scel, 455; gǣð eft ... tō medo, 605; þonne hē ... on flett gǣð, 2035;
similarly, 2055; pres. subj. III. sg. gā þǣr hē wille, _let him go whither
he will_, 1395; imp. sg. II. gā nū tō setle, 1783; nū þū lungre geong, hord
scēawian, under hārne stān, 2744; inf. in gān, _to go in_, 386, 1645 'forð
gān, _to go forth, to go thither_, 1164; þat hīe him tō mihton gegnum
gangan, _to go towards, to go to_, 314; tō sele ... gangan cwōmon, 324; in
a similar construction, gongan, 1643; nū gē mōton gangan ... Hrōðgār
gesēon, 395; þā cōm of mōre ... Grendel gongan, _there came Grendel (going)
from the fen_, 712; ongēan gramum gangan, _to go to meet the enemy, to go
to the war_, 1035; cwōm ... tō hofe gongan, 1975; wutun gangan tō, _let us
go thither_, 2649.--As preterite, serve, 1) gēong or gīong: hē tō healle
gēong, 926; similarly, 2019; sē þe on orde gēong, _who went at the head,
went in front, _3126; on innan gīong, _went in_, 2215; hē ... gīong tō þæs
þe hē eorðsele ānne wisse, _went thither, where he knew of that earth-hall,
_2410; þā se æðeling, gīong, þæt hē bī wealle gesæt, _then went the prince_
(Bēowulf) _that he might sit down by the wall_, 2716.--2) gang: tō healle
gang Healfdenes sunu, 1010; similarly, 1296; gang þā æfter flōre, _went
along the floor, along the hall_, 1317.--3) gengde (Goth. gaggida): hē ...
beforan gengde ..., wong scēawian, _went in front to inspect the fields_,
1413; gengde, also of riding, 1402.--4) from another stem, ēode (Goth.
iddja): ēode ellenrōf, þæt hē for eaxlum gestōd Deniga frēan, 358;
similarly, 403; [wið duru healle Wulfgār ēode], _went towards the door of
the hall_, 390; ēode Wealhþēow forð, _went forth_, 613; ēode tō hire frēan
sittan, 641; ēode yrremōd, _went with angry feeling_, 727; ēode ... tō
sele, 919; similarly, 1233; ēode ... þǣr se snottra bād, 1313; ēode weorð
Denum æðeling tō yppan, _the prince_ (Bēowulf), _honored by the Danes, went
to the high seat_, 1815; ēode ... under inwit-hrōf, 3124; pl. þǣr
swīðferhðe sittan ēodon, 493; ēodon him þā tōgēanes, _went to meet him_,
1627; ēodon under Earna næs, 3032.

ā-gangan, _to go out, to go forth, to befall_: pret. part. swā bit āgangen
wearð eorla manegum (_as it befell many a one of the earls_), 1235.

full-gangan, _to emulate, to follow after_: pret. sg. þonne ... sceft nytte
hēold, feðer-gearwum fūs flāne full-ēode, _when the shaft had employment,
furnished with feathers it followed the arrow, did as the arrow_, 3120.

ge-gān, ge-gangan: 1) _to go, to approach_: inf. (w. acc.) his mōdor ...
gegān wolde sorhfulne sīð, 1278; sē þe gryre-sīðas gegān dorste, _who dared
to go the ways of terror_ (to go into the combat), 1463; pret. sg. se maga
geonga under his mǣges scyld elne geēode, _went quickly under his kinsman's
shield_, 2677; pl. elne geēodon tō þæs þe ..., _went quickly thither where_
..., 1968; pret. part. syððan hīe tō-gædre gegān hæfdon, _when they_
(Wīglāf and the drake) _had come together_, 2631; þæt his aldres wæs ende
gegongen, _that the end of his life had come_, 823; þā wæs endedæg gōdum
gegongen, þæt se gūðcyning ... swealt, 3037.--2) _to obtain, to reach_:
inf. (w. acc.) þonne hē æt gūðe gegān þenceð longsumne lof, 1536; ic mid
elne sceall gold gegangan, 2537; gerund, næs þæt ȳðe cēap tō gegangenne
gumena ǣnigum, 2417; pret. pl. elne geēodon ... þæt se byrnwīga būgan
sceolde, 2918; pret. part. hæfde ... gegongen þæt, _had attained it, that_
..., 894; hord ys gescēawod, grimme gegongen, 3086.--3) _to occur, to
happen_: pres. sg. III. gif þæt gegangeð þæt ..., _if that happen, that_
..., 1847; pret. sg. þæt geīode ufaran dōgrum hilde-hlæmmum, _it happened
in later times to the warriors_ (the Gēatas), 2201; pret. part. þā wæs
gegongen guman unfrōdum earfoðlīce þæt, _then it had happened to the young
man in sorrowful wise that_ ..., 2822.

oð-gangan, _to-go thither_: pret. pl. oð þæt hī oðēodon ... in Hrefnesholt,

ofer-gangan, w. acc., _to go over_: pret. sg. oferēode þā æðelinga bearn
stēap stān-hliðo, _went over steep, rocky precipices_, 1409; pl.
freoðo-wong þone forð oferēodon, 2960.

ymb-gangan, w. acc., _to go around_: pret. ymb-ēode þā ides Helminga duguðe
and geogoðe dǣl ǣghwylcne, _went around in every part, among the superior
and the inferior warriors_, 621.

gār, st. m., _spear, javelin, missile_: nom. sg., 1847, 3022; instr. sg.
gāre, 1076; blōdigan gāre, 2441; gen. sg. gāres fliht, 1766; nom. pl.
gāras, 328; gen. pl., 161(?).--Comp.: bon-, frum-gār.

gār-cēne, adj., _spear-bold_: nom. sg., 1959.

gār-cwealm, st. m., _murder, death by the spear_: acc. sg. gār-cwealm
gumena, 2044.

gār-holt, st. n., _forest of spears_, i.e. crowd of spears: acc. sg., 1835.

gār-secg, st. m. (cf. Grimm, in Haupt l. 578), _sea, ocean_: acc. sg. on
gār-secg, 49, 537; ofer gār-secg, 515.

gār-wiga, w. m., _one who fights with the spear_: dat. sg. geongum
gār-wigan, of Wīglāf, 2675, 2812.

gār-wīgend, pres. part., _fighting with spear, spear-fighter_: acc. pl.
gār-wīgend, 2642.

gāst, gǣst, st. m., _ghost, demon_: acc. sg. helle gāst (Grendel), 1275;
gen. sg. wergan gāstes (of Grendel), 133; (of the tempter), 1748; gen. pl.
dyrnra gāsta (Grendel's race), 1358; gǣsta gīfrost (_flames consuming
corpses_), 1124.--Comp.: ellor-, geō-sceaft-gāst; ellen-, wæl-gǣst.

gāst-bana, w. m., _slayer of the spirit_, i.e. the devil: nom. sg.
gāst-bona, 177.

gædeling, st. m., _he who is connected with another, relation, companion_:
gen. sg. gædelinges, 2618; dat. pl. mid his gædelingum, 2950.

æt-gædere, adv., _together, united_: 321, 1165, 1191; samod ætgædere, 329,
387, 730, 1064.

tō-gadere, adv., _together_, 2631.

gæst, gist, gyst, st. m., _stranger, guest_: nom. sg. gæst, 1801; se gæst
(the drake), 2313; se grimma gæst (Grendel), 102; gist, 1139, 1523; acc.
sg. gryre-līcne gist (the nixy slain by Bēowulf), 1442; dat. sg. gyste,
2229; nom. pl. gistas, 1603; acc. pl. gæs[tas], 1894.--Comp.: fēðe-,
gryre-, inwit-, nīð-, sele-gæst (-gyst).

gæst-sele, st. m., _hall in which the guests spend their time, guest-hall_:
acc. sg., 995.

gē, conj., _and_, 1341; gē ... gē ..., _as well ... as ..._, 1865; gē ...
gē ..., gē ..., 1249; gē swylce, _and likewise, and moreover_, 2259.

gē, pron., _ye, you_, plur. of þū, 237, 245, etc.

gegn-cwide, st. m., _reply_: gen. pl. þīnra gegn-cwida, 367.

gegnum, adv., _thither, towards, away_, with the prep, tō, ofer, giving the
direction: þæt hīe him tō mihton gegnum gangan (_that they might go
thither_), 314; gegnum fōr [þā] ofer myrcan mōr, _away over the dark moor_,

gehðu, geohðu, st. f., _sorrow, care_: instr. sg. giohðo mǣnde, 2268; dat.
sg. on gehðo, 3096; on giohðe, 2794.

gēn (from gegn), adv., _yet, again_. ne wæs hit lenge þā gēn, þæt ..., _it
was not then long before_ ..., 83; ic sceal forð sprecan gēn ymb Grendel,
_shall from now on speak again of Grendel_, 2071; nō þȳ ǣr ūt þā gēn ...
gongan wolde (_still he would not yet go out_), 2082; gēn is eall æt þē
lissa gelong (_yet all my favor belongs to thee_), 2150; þā gēn, _then
again_, 2678, 2703; swā hē nū gēn dēð, _as he still does_, 2860; furður
gēn, _further still, besides_, 3007; nū gēn, _now again_, 3169; ne gēn, _no
more, no farther_: ne wæs þæt wyrd þā gēn, _that was no more fate_ (fate no
longer willed that), 735.

gēna, _still_: cwico wæs þā gēna, _was still living_, 3094.

genga, w. m., _goer_; in comp. in-, sǣ-, sceadu-genga.

gengde. See gān(3).

genge. See ūð-genge.

gēnunga (from gegnunga), adv., _precisely, completely_, 2872.

gerwan, gyrwan, w. v.: 1) _to prepare, to make ready, to put in condition_:
pret. pl. gestsele gyredon, 995.--2) _to equip, to arm for battle_: pret.
sg. gyrede hine Bēowulf eorl-gewǣdum (_dressed himself in the armor_),

ge-gyrwan: 1) _to make, to prepare_: pret. pl. him þā gegiredan Gēata lēode
ād ... unwāclīcne, 3138; pret. part. glōf ... eall gegyrwed dēofles cræftum
and dracan fellum, 2088.--2) _to fit out, to make ready_: inf. cēol
gegyrwan hilde-wǣpnum and heaðowǣdum, 38; hēt him ȳðlidan gōdne gegyrwan,
_had (his) good ship fitted up for him_, 199. Also, _to provide warlike
equipment_: pret. part. syððan hē hine tō gūðe gegyred hæfde, 1473.--3) _to
endow, to provide, to adorn_: pret. part. nom. sg. beado-hrægl ... golde
gegyrwed, 553; acc. sg. lāfe ... golde gegyrede, 2193; acc. pl. mādmas ...
golde gegyrede, 1029.

gētan, w. v., _to injure, to slay_: inf., 2941.

be-gēte, adj., _attainable_; in comp. ēð-begēte.

geador, adv., _unitedly, together, jointly_, 836; geador ætsomne, 491.

on-geador, adv., _unitedly, together_, 1596.

gealdor, st. n.: 1) _sound_: acc. sg. bȳman gealdor, 2944.--2) _magic
song, incantation, spell_: instr. sg. þonne wæs þæt yrfe ... galdre
bewunden (_placed under a spell_), 3053.

gealga, w. m., _gallows_: dat. sg. þæt his byre rīde giong on galgan, 2447.

gealg-mōd, adj., _gloomy_: nom. sg. gīfre and galgmōd, 1278.

gealg-trēow, st. n., _gallows_: dat. pl. on galg-trēowu[m], 2941.

geard, st. m., _residence_; in Bēowulf corresponding to the house-complex
of a prince's residence, used only in the plur.: acc. in geardas (_in
Finn's castle_), 1135; dat. in geardum, 13, 2460; of geardum, 1139; ǣr hē
on weg hwurfe ... of geardum, _before he went away from his
dwelling-place_, i.e. died, 265.--Comp. middan-geard.

gearo, adj., properly, _made, prepared_; hence, _ready, finished,
equipped_: nom. sg. þæt hit wearð eal gearo, heal-ærna mǣst, 77; wiht
unhǣlo ... gearo sōna wæs, _the demon of destruction was quickly ready, did
not delay long_, 121; Here-Scyldinga betst beadorinca wæs on bǣl gearu,
_was ready for the funeral-pile_ (for the solemn burning), 1110; þēod (is)
eal gearo, _the warriors are altogether ready, always prepared_, 1231;
hraðe wæs æt holme hȳð-weard gearo (geara, MS.), 1915; gearo gūð-freca,
2415; sīe sīo bǣr gearo ǣdre geæfned, _let the bier be made ready at once_,
3106. With gen.: gearo gyrnwræce, _ready for revenge for harm done_, 2119,
acc. sg. gearwe stōwe, 1007; nom. pl. beornas gearwe, 211; similarly, 1814.

gearwe, gearo, geare, adv., _completely, entirely_: nē gē ... gearwe ne
wisson, _you do not know at all_ ..., 246; similarly, 879; hine gearwe
geman witena welhwyle (_remembers him very well_), 265; wisse hē gearwe þæt
..., _he knew very well that_ ..., 2340, 2726; þæt ic ... gearo scēawige
swegle searogimmas (_that I may see the treasures altogether, as many as
they are_), 2749; ic wāt geare þæt ..., 2657.--Comp. gearwor, _more
readily, rather_, 3077.--Superl. gearwost, 716.

gearo-folm, adj., _with ready hand_, 2086.

gearwe, st. f., _equipment, dress_; in comp. feðer-gearwe.

geat, st. n., _opening, door_; in comp. ben-, hilde-geat.

geato-līc, adj., _well prepared, handsome, splendid_: of sword and armor,
215, 1563, 2155; of Heorot, 308. Adv.: wīsa fengel geatolīc gengde, _passed
on in a stately manner_, 1402.

geatwe, st. f. pl., _equipment, adornment_: acc. recedes geatwa, _the
ornaments of the dragon's cave_ (its treasures), 3089.--Comp.: ēored-,
gryre-, gūð-, hilde-, wīg-geatwe.

gēan (from gegn), adv. in

on-gēan, adv. and prep., _against, towards_: þæt hē mē ongēan slēa, 682;
rǣhte ongēan fēond mid folme, 748; foran ongēan, _forward towards_, 2365.
With dat.: ongēan gramum, _against the enemy_, 1035.

tō-gēanes, tō-genes, prep, _against, towards_: Grendle tōgēanes, _towards
Grendel, against Grendel_, 667; grāp þā tōgēanes, _she grasped at_
(Bēowulf), 1502; similarly, him tōgēanes fēng, 1543; ēodon him þā tōgēanes,
_went towards him_, 1627; hēt þā gebēodan ... þæt hīe bǣl-wudu feorran
feredon gōdum tōgēnes, _had it ordered that they should bring the wood from
far for the funeral-pyre towards the good man_ (i.e. to the place where the
dead Bēowulf lay), 3115.

gēap, adj., _roomy, extensive, wide_: nom. sg. reced ... gēap, _the roomy
hall_, 1801; acc. sg. under gēapne hrōf, 837.--Comp.: horn-, sǣ-gēap.

geār, st. n., _year_: nom. sg., 1135; gen. pl. geāra, in adverbial sense,
olim, _in former times_, 2665. See un-geāra.

geār-dagas, st. m. pl., _former days_: dat. pl. in (on) geār-dagum, 1,

geofe. See gifu.

geofon, gifen, gyfen (see Kuhn Zeitschr. I. 137), st. n., _sea, flood_:
nom. sg. geofon, 515; gifen gēotende, _the streaming flood_, 1691; gen. sg.
geofenes begang, 362; gyfenes, 1395.

geogoð, st. f.: 1) _youth, time of youth_: dat. sg. on geogoðe, 409, 466,
2513; on giogoðe, 2427; gen. gioguðe, 2113.--2) contrasted with duguð, _the
younger warriors of lower rank_ (about as in the Middle Ages, the squires
with the knights): nom. sg. geogoð, 66; giogoð, 1191; acc. sg. geogoðe,
1182; gen. duguðe and geogoðe, 160; duguðe and iogoðe (geogoðe), 1675, 622.

geoguð-feorh, st. n., _age of youth_, i.e. age in which one still belongs
in the ranks of the geogoð: on geogoð- (geoguð-) fēore, 537, 2665.

geohðo. See gehðo.

geolo, adj., _yellow_: acc. sg. geolwe linde (_the shield of yellow linden
bark_), 2611.

geolo-rand, st. m., _yellow shield_ (shield with a covering of interlaced
yellow linden bark): acc. sg., 438.

geond, prep. w. acc., _through, throughout, along, over_: geond þisne
middangeard, _through the earth, over the earth_, 75; wide geond eorðan,
266, 3100; fērdon folctogan ... geond wīd-wegas, _went along the ways
coming from afar_, 841; similarly, 1705; geond þæt sæld, _through the hall,
through the extent of the hall_, 1281; similarly, 1982, 2265.

geong, adj., _young, youthful_: nom. sg., 13, 20, 855, etc.; giong, 2447;
w. m. se maga geonga, 2676; acc. sg. geongne gūðcyning, 1970; dat. sg.
geongum, 1949, 2045, 2675, etc.; on swā geongum feore, _at a so youthful
age_, 1844; geongan cempan, 2627; acc. pl. geonge, 2019; dat. pl. geongum
and ealdum, 72.--Superl. gingest, _the last_: nom. sg. w. f. gingeste word,

georn, adj., _striving, eager_, w. gen. of the thing striven for: eft sīðes
georn, 2784.--Comp. lof-georn.

georne, adv., _readily, willingly_: þæt him wine-māgas georne hȳrdon, 66;
georne truwode, 670.--_zealously, eagerly_: sōhte georne æfter grunde,
_eagerly searched over the ground_, 2295.--_carefully, industriously_: nō
ic him þæs georne ætfealh (_held him not fast enough_), 969.--_completely,
exactly_: comp. wiste þē geornor, 822.

geō, iū, adv., _once, formerly, earlier_, 1477; giō, 2522; iū, 2460.

gēoc, st. f., _help, support_: acc. sg. gēoce gefremman, 2675; þæt him
gāst-bona gēoce gefremede wið þēod-þrēaum, 177; gēoce gelȳfde, _believed
in the help_ (of Bēowulf), 609; dat. sg. tō gēoce, 1835.

gēocor, adj., _ill, bad_: nom. sg., 766.--See Haupt's Zeitschrift 8, p. 7.

geō-man, iū-man, st. m., _man of former times_: gen. pl. iū-manna, 3053.

geō-meowle, w. f., (_formerly a virgin), wife_: acc. sg. īo-meowlan, 2932.

geōmor, adj., _with depressed feelings, sad, troubled_: nom. sg. him wæs
geōmor sefa, 49, 2420, 2633, 2951; mōdes geōmor, 2101; fem. þæt wæs geōmuru
ides, 1076.

geōmore, adv., _sadly_, 151.

geōmor-gid, st. n., _dirge_: acc. sg. giōmor-gyd, 3151.

geōmor-līc, adj., _sad, painful_: swā bið geōmorlīc gomelum ceorle tō
gebīdanne þæt..., _it is painful to an old man to experience it, that ..._,

geōmor-mōd, adj., _sad, sorrowful_: nom. sg., 2045, 3019; giōmor-mōd, 2268.

geōmrian, w. v., _to complain, to lament_: pret. sg. geōmrode giddum, 1119.

geō-sceaft, st. f., (_fixed in past times), fate_: acc. sg. geōsceaft
grimme, 1235.

geōsceaft-gāst, st. m., _demon sent by fate_: gen. pl. fela
geōsceaft-gāsta, of Grendel and his race, 1267.

gēotan, st. v. intrans., _to pour, to flow, to stream_: pres. part. gifen
gēotende, 1691.

gicel, st. m., _icicle_: in comp. hilde-gicel.

gid, gyd, st. n., _speech, solemn alliterative song_: nom. sg. þǣr wæs ...
gid oft wrecen, 1066; lēoð wæs āsungen, glēomannes gyd, _the song was sung,
the gleeman's lay_, 1161; þǣr wæs gidd and glēo, 2106; acc. sg. ic þis gid
āwræc, 1724; gyd āwræc, 2109; gyd æfter wræc, 2155; þonne hē gyd wrece,
2447; dat. pl. giddum, 151, 1119; gen. pl. gidda gemyndig, 869.--Comp.:
geōmor-, word-gid.

giddian, w. v., _to speak, to speak in alliteration_: pret. gyddode, 631.

gif, conj.: 1) _if_, w. ind., 442, 447, 527, 662, etc.; gyf, 945, etc. With
subj., 452, 594, 1482, etc.; gyf, 280, 1105, etc.--2) _whether_, w. ind.,
272; w. subj., 1141, 1320.

gifa, geofa, w. m., _giver_; in comp. gold-, sinc-, wil-gifa (-geofa).

gifan, st. v., _to give_: inf. giofan, 2973; pret. sg. nallas bēagas geaf
Denum, 1720; hē mē [māðmas] geaf, 2147; and similarly, 2174, 2432, 2624,
etc.; pret. pl. gēafon (hyne) on gārsecg, 49; pret. part. þā wæs Hrōðgāre
here-spēd gyfen, 64; þā wæs gylden hilt gamelum rince ... on hand gyfen,
1679; syððan ǣrest wearð gyfen ... geongum cempan (_given in marriage_),

ā-gifan, _to give, to impart_: inf. andsware ... āgifan, _to give an
answer_, 355; pret. sg. sōna him se frōda fæder Ōhtheres ... ondslyht āgeaf
(_gave him a counter-blow_), (_hand-blow_?), 2930.

for-gyfan, _to give, to grant_: pret. sg. him þæs līf-frēa ... worold-āre
forgeaf, 17; þǣm tō hām forgeaf Hrēðel Gēata āngan dōhtor (_gave in
marriage_), 374; similarly, 2998; hē mē lond forgeaf, _granted me land_,
2493; similarly, 697, 1021, 2607, 2617; mægen-rǣs forgeaf hilde-bille, _he
gave with his battle-sword a mighty blow_, i.e. he struck with full force,

of-gifan, (_to give up_), _to leave_: inf. þæt se mǣra maga Ecgþēowes
grund-wong þone ofgyfan wolde (_was fated to leave the earth-plain_), 2589;
pret. sg. þās worold ofgeaf gromheort guma, 1682; similarly, gumdrēam
ofgeaf, 2470; Dena land ofgeaf, 1905; pret. pl. næs ofgēafon hwate
Scyldingas, _left the promontory_, 1601; þæt þā hildlatan holt ofgēfan,
_that the cowards left the wood_ (into which they had fled), 2847; sg.
pret. for pl. þāra þe þis [līf] ofgeaf, 2252.

gifeðe, adj., _given, granted_: Gūðfremmendra swylcum gifeðe bið þæt...,
_to such a warrior is it granted that_..., 299; similarly, 2682; swā mē
gifeðe wæs, 2492; þǣr mē gifeðe swā ǣnig yrfeweard æfter wurde, _if an
heir_, (living) _after me, had been given me_, 2731.--Neut. as subst.: wæs
þæt gifeðe tō swīð, þē þone [þēoden] þyder ontyhte, _the fate was too harsh
that has drawn hither the king_, 3086; gyfeðe, 555, 820.--Comp. un-gifeðe.

gif-heal, st. f., _hall in which fiefs were bestowed, throne-hall_: acc.
sg. ymb þā gifhealle, 839.

gif-sceat, st. m., _gift of value_: acc. pl. gif-sceattas, 378.

gif-stōl, st. m., _seat from which fiefs are granted, throne_: nom. sg.,
2328; acc. sg., 168.

gift, st. f., _gift, present_: in comp. feoh-gift.

gifu, geofu, st. f., _gift, present, grant; fief_: nom. sg. gifu, 1885 acc.
sg. gimfæste gife þē him god sealde, _the great gift that God had granted
him_ (i.e. the enormous strength), 1272; ginfæstan gife þē him god sealde,
2183; dat. pl. (as instr.) geofum, 1959; gen. pl. gifa, 1931; geofena,
1174.--Comp.: māððum-, sinc-gifu.

gīgant, st. m., _giant_: nom. pl. gīgantas, 113; gen. pl. gīganta, 1563,

gild, gyld, st. n., _reparation_: in comp. wiðer-gyld(?).

gildan, gyldan, st. v., _to do something in return, to repay, to reward, to
pay_: inf. gomban gyldan, _pay tribute_, 11; hē mid gōde gyldan wille
uncran eaferan, 1185; wē him þā gūðgeatwa gyldan woldon, 2637; pret. sg.
heaðorǣsas geald mēarum and māðmum, _repaid the battles with horses and
treasures_, 1048; similarly, 2492; geald þone gūðrǣs ... Jofore and Wulfe
mid ofermāðmum, _repaid Eofor and Wulf the battle with exceedingly great
treasures_, 2992.

an-gildan, _to pay for_: pret. sg. sum sāre angeald ǣfenræste, _one_
(Æschere) _paid for the evening-rest with death's pain_, 1252.

ā-gildan, _to offer one's self_: pret. sg. þā mē sǣl āgeald, _when the
favorable opportunity offered itself_, 1666; similarly, þā him rūm āgeald,

for-gildan, _to repay, to do something in return, to reward_: pres. subj.
sg. III. alwalda þec gōde forgylde, _may the ruler of all reward thee with
good_, 957; inf. þone ǣnne heht golde forgyldan, _he ordered that the one_
(killed by Grendel) _be paid for_ (atoned for) _with gold_, 1055; hē ...
wolde Grendle for-gyldan gūðrǣsa fela, _wished to pay Grendel for many
attacks_, 1578; wolde se lāða līge forgyldan drinc-fæt dȳre, _the enemy
wished to repay with fire the costly drinking vessel_ (the theft of it),
2306; pret. sg. hē him þæs lēan forgeald, _he gave them the reward
therefore_, 114; similarly, 1542, 1585, 2095; forgeald hraðe wyrsan wrixle
wælhlem þone, _repaid the murderous blow with a worse exchange_, 2969.

gilp, gylp, st. m., _speech in which one promises great things for himself
in a coming combat, defiant speech, boasting speech_: acc. sg. hæfde ...
Gēat-mecga lēod gilp gelǣsted (_had fulfilled what he had claimed for
himself before the battle_), 830; nallas on gylp seleð fǣtte bēagas, _gives
no chased gold rings for a boastful speech_, 1750; þæt ic wið þone
gūðflogan gylp ofersitte, _restrain myself from the speech of defiance_,
2529; dat. sg. gylpe wiðgrīpan (_fulfil my promise of battle_),
2522.--Comp. dol-gilp.

gilpan, gylpan, st. v. w. gen., acc., and dat., _to make a defiant speech,
to boast, to exult insolently_: pres. sg. I. nō ic þæs gilpe (after a break
in the text), 587; sg. III. morðres gylpeð, _boasts of the murder_, 2056;
inf. swā ne gylpan þearf Grendles maga ǣnig ... ūhthlem þone, 2007; nealles
folc-cyning fyrdgesteallum gylpan þorfte, _had no need to boast of his
fellow-warrior_, 2875; pret. sg. hrēðsigora ne gealp goldwine Gēata, _did
not exult at the glorious victory_ (could not gain the victory over the
drake), 2584.

gilp-cwide, st. m., _speech in which a man promises much for himself for a
coming combat, speech of defiance_: nom. sg., 641.

gilp-hlæden, pret. part., _laden with boasts of defiance_ (i.e. he who has
made many such boasts, and consequently has been victorious in many
combats), _covered with glory_: nom. sg. guma gilp-hlæden, 869.

gilp-sprǣc, same as gilp-cwide, _speech of defiance, boastful speech_: dat.
sg. on gylp-sprǣce, 982.

gilp-word, st. n., _defiant word before the coming combat, vaunting word_:
gen. pl. gespræc ... gylp-worda sum, 676.

gim, st. m., _gem, precious stone, jewel_: nom. sg. heofones gim, _heaven's
jewel_, i.e. the sun, 2073. Comp. searo-gim.

gimme-rīce, adj., _rich in jewels_: acc. sg. gimme-rīce hord-burh hæleða,

gin (according to Bout., ginne), adj., properly _gaping_, hence, _wide,
extended_: acc. sg. gynne grund (_the bottom of the sea_), 1552.

gin-fæst, adj., _extensive, rich_: acc. sg. gim-fæste gife (gim-, on
account of the following _f_), 1272; in weak form, gin-fæstan gife, 2183.

ginnan, st. v., original meaning, _to be open, ready_; in

on-ginnan, _to begin, to undertake_: pret. oð þæt ān ongan fyrene fremman
fēond on helle, 100; secg eft ongan sīð Bēowulfes snyttrum styrian, 872; þā
þæt sweord ongan ... wanian, _the sword began to diminish_, 1606; Higelāc
ongan sīnne geseldan ... fægre fricgean, _began with propriety to question
his companion_, 1984, etc.; ongon, 2791; pret. pl. nō hēr cūðlīcor cuman
ongunnon lindhæbbende, _no shield-bearing men e'er undertook more openly to
come hither_, 244; pret. part. hæbbe ic mǣrða fela ongunnen on geogoðe,
_have in my youth undertaken many deeds of renown_, 409.

gist. See gæst.

gistran, adv., _yesterday_: gystran niht, _yesterday night_, 1335.

git, pron., _ye two_, dual of þū, 508, 512, 513, etc.

gīt, gȳt, adv., _yet; then still_, 536, 1128, 1165, 2142; _hitherto_, 957;
nǣfre gīt, _never yet_, 583; _still_, 945, 1059, 1135; _once more_, 2513;
_moreover_, 47, 1051, 1867.

gitan (original meaning, _to take hold of, to seize, to attain_), in

be-gitan, w. acc., _to grasp, to seize, to reach_: pret. sg. begeat, 1147,
2231; þā hine wīg beget, _when war seized him, came upon him_, 2873;
similarly, begeat, 1069; pret. pl. hit ǣr on þē gōde be-geāton, _good men
received it formerly from thee_, 2250; subj. sg. for pl. þæt wæs Hrōðgāre
hrēowa tornost þāra þe lēodfruman lange begeāte, _the bitterest of the
troubles that for a long time had befallen the people's chief_, 2131.

for-gitan, w. acc., _to forget_: pres. sg. III. hē þā forðgesceaft forgyteð
and forgȳmeð, 1752.

an-gitan, on-gitan, w. acc.: 1) _to take hold of, to grasp_: imp. sg.
gumcyste ongit, _lay hold of manly virtue, of what becomes the man_, 1724;
pret. sg. þē hine se brōga angeat, _whom terror seized_, 1292.--2) _to
grasp intellectually, to comprehend, to perceive, to distinguish, to
behold_: pres. subj. I. þæt ic ǣrwelan ... ongite, _that I may behold the
ancient wealth_ (the treasures of the drake's cave), 2749; inf. sæl timbred
... ongytan, 308, 1497; Gēata clifu ongitan, 1912; pret. sg. fyren-þearfe
ongeat, _had perceived their distress from hostile snares_, 14; ongeat ...
grund-wyrgenne, _beheld the she-wolf of the bottom_, 1519; pret. pl.
bearhtm ongeāton, gūðhorn galan, _perceived the noise_, (heard) _the
battle-trumpet sound_, 1432; syððan hīe Hygelāces horn and bȳman gealdor
ongeāton, 2945.

gīfre, adj., _greedy, eager_: nom. sg. gīfre and galgmōd, of Grendel's
mother, 1278.--Superl.: līg..., gǣsta gīfrost, 1124.--Comp. heoro-gīfre.

gītsian, w. v., _to be greedy_: pres. sg. III. gȳtsað, 1750.

gio-, giō-. see geo-, geō-.

gladian, w. v., _to gleam, to shimmer_: pres. pl. III. on him gladiað
gomelra lāfe, _upon him gleams the legacy of the men of ancient times_
(armor), 2037.

glæd, adj., _gracious, friendly_ (as a form of address for princes): nom.
sg. bēo wið Gēatas glæd, 1174; acc. sg. glædne Hrōðgār, 864; glædne
Hrōðulf, 1182; dat. sg. gladum suna Frōdan, 2026.

glæde, adv., _in a gracious, friendly way_, 58.

glædnian, w. v., _to rejoice_: inf. w. gen., 367.

glæd-mōd, adj., _joyous, glad_, 1786.

glēd, st. f., _fire, flame_: nom. sg., 2653, 3115; dat. (instr.) pl.
glēdum, 2313, 2336, 2678, 3042.

glēd-egesa, w. m., _terror on account of fire, fire-terror_: nom. sg.
glēd-egesa grim (_the fire-spewing of the drake_), 2651.

glēaw (Goth, glaggwu-s), adj., _considerate, well-bred_, of social conduct;
in comp. un-glēaw.

glēo, st. n., _social entertainment_, (especially by music, play, and
jest): nom. sg. þǣr wæs gidd and glēo, 2106.

glēo-bēam, st. m., _(tree of social entertainment, of music), harp._ gen.
sg. glēo-bēames, 2264.

glēo-drēam, st. _m., joyous carrying-on in social entertainment, mirth,
social gaiety_: acc. sg. gamen and glēo-drēam, 3022.

glēo-man, m., _(gleeman, who enlivens the social entertainment, especially
with music), harper_: gen. sg. glēomannes gyd, 1161.

glitinian (O.H.G. glizinōn), w. v., _to gleam, to light, to glitter_: inf.
geseah þā ... gold glitinian, 2759.

glīdan, st. v., _to glide_: pret. sg. syððan heofones gim glād ofer
grundas, _after heaven's gem had glided over the fields_ (after the sun had
set), 2074; pret. pl. glidon ofer gārsecg, _you glided over the ocean_
(swimming), 515.

tō-glīdan _(to glide asunder), to separate, to fall asunder_: pret.
gūð-helm tō-glād (Ongenþēow's helmet was split asunder by the blow of
Eofor), 2488.

glōf, st. f., _glove_: nom. sg. glōf hangode, (on Grendel) _a glove hung_,

gnēað, adj., _niggardly_: nom. sg. f. næs hīo ... tō gnēað gifa Gēata
lēodum, _was not too niggardly with gifts to the people of the Gēatas_,

gnorn, st. m., _sorrow, sadness_: acc. sg. gnorn þrowian, 2659.

gnornian, w. v., _to be sad, to complain_: pret. sg. earme ... ides
gnornode, 1118.

be-gnornian, w. acc., _to bemoan, to mourn for_: pret. pl. begnornodon ...
hlāfordes [hry]re, _bemoaned their lord's fall_, 3180.

god, st. m., _god_: nom. sg., 13, 72, 478, etc.; hālig god, 381, 1554;
wītig god, 686; mihtig god, 702; acc. sg. god, 812; ne wiston hīe drihten
god, _did not know the Lord God_, 181; dat. sg. gode, 113, 227, 626, etc.;
gen. sg. godes, 570, 712, 787, etc.

gold, st. n., _gold_: nom. sg., 3013, 3053; icge gold, 1108; wunden gold,
_wound gold, gold in ring-form_, 1194, 3136; acc. sg. gold, 2537, 2759,
2794, 3169; hǣðen gold, _heathen gold_ (that from the drake's cave), 2277;
brād gold, _massive gold_, 3106; dat. instr. sg. golde, 1055, 2932, 3019;
fǣttan golde, _with chased gold, with gold in plate-form_, 2103; gehroden
golde, _covered with gold, gilded_, 304; golde gegyrwed (gegyrede),
_provided with, ornamented with gold_, 553, 1029, 2193; golde geregnad,
_adorned with gold_, 778; golde fāhne (hrōf), _the roof shining with gold_,
928; bunden golde, _bound with gold_ (see under bindan), 1901; hyrsted
golde (helm), _the helmet ornamented with, mounted with gold_, 2256; gen.
sg. goldes, 2302; fǣttan goldes, 1094, 2247; scīran goldes, _of pure gold_,
1695. --Comp. fæt-gold.

gold-ǣht, st. f., _possessions in gold, treasure_: acc. sg., 2749.

gold-fāh, adj., _variegated with gold, shining with gold_: nom. sg. reced
... gold-fāh, 1801; acc. sg. gold-fāhne helm, 2812; nom. pl. gold-fāg
scinon web æfter wāgum, _variegated with gold, the tapestry gleamed along
the walls_, 995.

gold-gifa, w. m., _gold-giver_, designation of the prince: acc. sg. mid
mīnne goldgyfan, 2653.

gold-hroden, pret. part., _(covered with gold), ornamented with gold_: nom.
sg., 615, 641, 1949, 2026; epithet of women of princely rank.

gold-hwæt, adj., _striving after gold, greedy for gold_: næs hē goldhwæt,
_he_ (Bēowulf) _was not greedy for gold_ (he did not fight against the
drake for his treasure, cf. 3067 ff.) 3075.

gold-māðm, st. m., _jewel of gold_: acc. pl. gold-māðmas (the treasures of
the drake's cave), 2415.

gold-sele, st. m., _gold-hall_, i.e. the hall in which the gold was
distributed, ruler's hall: acc. sg., 716, 1254; dat. sg. gold-sele, 1640,

gold-weard, st. m., _gold-ward, defender of the gold_: acc. sg. (of the
drake), 3082.

gold-wine, st. m., _friend who distributes gold_, i.e. ruler, prince: nom.
sg. (partly as voc.) goldwine gumena, 1172, 1477, 1603; goldwine Gēata,
2420, 2585.

gold-wlanc, adj., _proud of gold_: nom. sg. gūðrinc goldwlanc (Bēowulf
rewarded with gold by Hrōðgār on account of his victory), 1882.

gomban, gomel, gomen. See gamban, gamal, gamen.

gong, gongan. See gang, gangan.

gōd, adj., _good, fit_, of persons and things: nom. sg., 11, 195, 864,
2264, 2391, etc.; frōd and gōd, 279; w. dat. cyning æðelum gōd, _the king
noble in birth_, 1871; gumcystum gōd, 2544; w. gen. wes þū ūs lārena gōd,
_be good to us with teaching_ (help us thereto through thy instruction),
269; in weak form, se gōda, 205, 355, 676, 1191, etc.; acc. sg. gōdne, 199,
347, 1596, 1970, etc.; gumcystum gōdne, 1487; neut. gōd, 1563; dat. sg.
gōdum, 3037, 3115; þǣm gōdan, 384, 2328; nom. pl. gōde, 2250; þā gōdan,
1164; acc. pl. gōde, 2642; dat. pl. gōdum dǣdum, 2179; gen. pl. gōdra
gūðrinca, 2649.--Comp. ǣr-gōd.

gōd, st. n.: 1) _good that is done, benefit, gift_: instr. sg. gōde, 20,
957, 1185; gōde mǣre, _renowned on account of her gifts_ (Þrȳðo), 1953;
instr. pl. gōdum, 1862.--2) _ability_, especially in fight: gen. pl. nāt hē
þāra gōda, 682.

gram, adj., _hostile_: gen. sg. on grames grāpum, _in the gripe of the
enemy_ (Bēowulf), 766; nom. pl. þā graman, 778; dat. pl. gramum, 424, 1035.

gram-heort, adj., _of a hostile heart, hostile_: nom. sg. grom-heort guma,

gram-hȳdig, adj., _with hostile feeling, maliciously inclined_: nom. sg.
gromhȳdig, 1750.

grāp, st. f., _the hand ready to grasp, hand, claw_: dat. sg. mid grāpe,
438; on grāpe, 555; gen. sg. eal ... Grendles grāpe, _all of Grendel's
claw, the whole claw_, 837; dat. pl. on grames grāpum, 766; (as instr.)
grimman grāpum, _with grim claws_, 1543.--Comp.: fēond-, hilde-grāp.

grāpian, w. v., _to grasp, to lay hold of, to seize_: pret. sg. þæt hire
wið halse heard grāpode, _that_ (the sword) _griped hard at her neck_,
1567; hē ... grāpode gearofolm, _he took hold with ready hand_, 2086.

græs-molde, w. f., _grass-plot_: acc. sg. græsmoldan træd, _went over the
grass-plot_, 1882.

grǣdig, adj., _greedy, hungry, voracious_: nom. sg. grim and grǣdig, 121,
1500; acc. sg. grǣdig gūðlēoð, 1523.

grǣg, adj., _gray_: nom. pl. æsc-holt ufan grǣg, _the ashen wood, gray
above_ (the spears with iron points) 330; acc. pl. grǣge syrcan, _gray_
(i.e. iron) _shirts of mail_, 334.

grǣg-mǣl, adj., _having a gray color_, here = _iron_: nom. sg. sweord
Bēowulfes gomol and grǣgmǣl, 2683.

grǣpe. See æt-grǣpe.

grētan, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to greet, to salute_: inf. hine swā gōdne
grētan, 347; Hrōðgār grētan, 1647, 2011; ēowic grētan hēt (_bade me bring
you his last greeting_), 3096; pret. sg. grētte Gēata lēod, 626; grētte þā
guma ōðerne, 653; Hrōðgār grētte, 1817.-- 2) _to come on, to come near, to
seek out; to touch; to take hold of_: inf. gifstōl grētan, _take possession
of the throne, mount it as ruler_, 168; næs se folccyning ǣnig ... þē mec
gūðwinum grētan dorste (_attack with swords_), 2736; Wyrd ... sē þone
gomelan grētan sceolde, 2422; þæt þone sin-scaðan gūðbilla nān grētan
nolde, _that no sword would take hold upon the irreconcilable enemy_, 804;
pret. sg. grētte goldhroden guman on healle, _the gold-adorned_ (queen)
_greeted the men in the hall_, 615; nō hē mid hearme ... gæstas grētte,
_did not approach the strangers with insults_, 1894; gomenwudu grētte,
_touched the wood of joy, played the harp_, 2109; pret. subj. II. sg. þæt
þū þone wælgǣst wihte ne grētte, _that thou shouldst by no means seek out
the murderous spirit_ (Grendel), 1996; similarly, sg. III. þæt hē ne grētte
goldweard þone, 3082; pret. part. þǣr wæs ... gomenwudu grēted, 1066.

ge-grētan, w. acc.: 1) _to greet, to salute, to address_: pret. sg. holdne
gegrētte mēaglum wordum, _greeted the dear man with formal words_, 1981;
gegrētte þā gumena gehwylcne ... hindeman siðe, _spoke then the last time
to each of the men_, 2517.--2) _to approach, to come near, to seek out_:
inf. sceal ... manig ōðerne gōdum gegrētan ofer ganotes bæð, _many a one
will seek another across the sea with gifts_, 1862.

grēot, st. m., _grit, sand, earth_: dat. sg. on grēote, 3169.

grēotan, st. v., _to weep, to mourn, to lament_: pres. sg. III. sē þe æfter
sincgyfan on sefan grēoteð, _who laments in his heart for the
treasure-giver_, 1343.

grim, adj., _grim, angry, wild, hostile_: nom. sg., 121, 555, 1500, etc.;
weak form, se grimma gæst, 102; acc. sg. m. grimne, 1149, 2137; fem,
grimme, 1235; gen. sg. grimre gūðe, 527; instr. pl. grimman grāpum,
1543.--Comp.: beado-, heaðo-, heoro-, searo-grim.

grimme, adv., _grimly, in a hostile manner, bitterly_, 3013, 3086.

grim-līc, adj., _grim, terrible_: nom. sg. grimlīc gry[re-gæst], 3042.

grimman, st. v., (properly _to snort_), _to go forward hastily, to hasten_:
pret. pl. grummon, 306.

grindan, st. v., _to grind_, in

for-grindan, _to destroy, to ruin_: pret. sg. w. dat. forgrand gramum,
_destroyed the enemy, killed them_ (?), 424; pret. part. w. acc. hæfde
līgdraca lēoda fæsten ... glēdum forgrunden, _had with flames destroyed the
people's feasts_, 2336; þā his āgen (scyld) wæs glēdum forgrunden, _since
his own (shield) had been destroyed by the fire_, 2678.

gripe, st. m., _gripe, attack_: nom. sg. gripe mēces, 1766; acc. sg. grimne
gripe, 1149.--Comp.: fǣr-, mund-, nīð-gripe.

grīma, w. m., _mask, visor_: in comp. beado-, here-grīma.

grīm-helm, st. m., _mask-helmet, helmet with visor_: acc. pl. grīm-helmas,

grīpan, st. v., _to gripe, to seize, to grasp_: pret. sg. grāp þā tōgēanes,
_then she caught at_, 1502.

for-grīpan _(to gripe vehemently), to gripe so as to kill, to kill by the
grasp_, w. dat.: pret. sg. æt gūðe forgrāp Grendeles mǣgum, 2354.
wið-grīpan, w. dat., _(to seize at), to maintain, to hold erect_: inf. hū
wið þām āglǣcean elles meahte gylpe wið-grīpan, _how else I might maintain
my boast of battle against the monster_, 2522.

grōwan, st. v., _to grow, to sprout_: pret. sg. him on ferhðe grēow
brēosthord blōdrēow, 1719.

grund, st. m.: 1) _ground, plain, fields_ in contrast with highlands;
_earth_ in contrast with heaven: dat. sg. sōhte ... æfter grunde, _sought
along the ground_, 2295; acc. pl. ofer grundas, 1405, 2074.--2) _bottom,
the lowest part_: acc. sg. grund (of the sea of Grendel), 1368; on gyfenes
grund, 1395; under gynne grund (_bottom of the sea_) 1552; dat. sg. tō
grunde (of the sea), 553; grunde (of the drake's cave) getenge, 2759; so,
on grunde, 2766.--Comp.: eormen-, mere-, sǣ-grund.

grund-būend, pres. part., _inhabitant of the earth_: gen. pl.
grund-būendra, 1007.

grund-hyrde, st. m., _warder of the bottom_ (of the sea): acc. sg. (of
Grendel's mother), 2137.

grund-sele, st. m., _hall at the bottom_ (of the sea): dat sg. in þām
[grund]sele, 2140.

grund-wang, st. m., _ground surface, lowest surface_: acc. sg. þone
grund-wong (_bottom of the sea_), 1497; (bottom of the drake's cave), 2772,

grund-wyrgen, st. f., _she-wolf of the bottom_ (of the sea): acc. sg.
grund-wyrgenne (Grendel's mother), 1519.

gryn (cf. Gloss. Aldh. "retinaculum, rete grin," Hpts. Ztschr. IX. 429),
st. n., _net, noose, snare_: gen. pl. fela ... grynna, 931. See gyrn.

gryre, st. m., _horror, terror, anything causing terror_: nom. sg., 1283;
acc. sg. wið Grendles gryre, 384; hīe Wyrd forswēop on Grendles gryre,
_snatched them away into the horror of Grendel, to the horrible Grendel_,
478; dat. pl. mid gryrum ecga, 483; gen. pl. swā fela gryra, 592.--Comp.:
fǣr-, wīg-gryre.

gryre-brōga, w. m., _terror and horror, amazement_: nom. sg.
[gryre-]br[ō]g[a], 2229.

gryre-fāh, adj., _gleaming terribly_: acc. sg. gryre-fāhne (_the
fire-spewing drake_, cf. also [draca] fȳrwylmum fāh, 2672, 2577.

gryre-gæst, st. m., _terror-guest, stranger causing terror_: nom. sg.
grimlīc gry[regæst], 3042; dat. sg. wið þām gryregieste (the dragon), 2561.

gryre-geatwe, st. f. pl., _terror-armor, warlike equipment_: dat. pl. in
hyra gryre-geatwum, 324.

gryre-lēoð, st. n., _terror-song, fearful song_: acc. sg. gehȳrdon
gryrelēoð galan godes and-sacan (_heard Grendel's cry of agony_), 787.

gryre-līc, adj., _terrible, horrible_: acc. sg. gryre-līcne, 1442, 2137.

gryre-sīð, st. m., _way of terror, way causing terror_, i.e. warlike
expedition: acc. pl. sē þe gryre-sīðas gegān dorste, 1463.

guma, w. m., _man, human being_: nom. sg., 653, 869, etc.; acc. sg. guman,
1844, 2295; dat. sg. guman (gumum, MS.), 2822; nom pl. guman, 215, 306,
667, etc.; acc. pl. guman, 615; dat. pl. gumum, 127, 321; gen. pl. gumena,
73, 328, 474, 716, etc.--Comp.: driht-, seld-guma.

gum-cyn, st. n., _race of men, people, nation_: gen. sg. wē synt gumcynnes
Gēata lēode, _people from the nation of the Gēatas_, 260; dat. pl. æfter
gum-cynnum, _along the nations, among the nations_, 945.

gum-cyst, st. f., _man's excellence, man's virtue_: acc. sg. (or pl.)
gumcyste, 1724; dat. pl. as adv., _excellently, preeminently_: gumcystum
gōdne bēaga bryttan, 1487; gumcystum gōd ... hilde-hlemma (Bēowulf), 2544.

gum-drēam, st. m., _joyous doings of men_: acc. sg. gum-drēam ofgeaf
(died), 2470.

gum-dryhten, st. m., _lord of men_: nom. sg. 1643.

gum-fēða, w. m., _troop of men going on foot_: nom. sg., 1402.

gum-man, st. m., _man_: gen. pl. gum-manna fela, 1029.

gum-stōl, st. m., _man's seat, κατ' ἐζωχήν, ruler's seat, throne_: dat. sg.
in gumstōle, 1953.

gūð, st. f., _combat, battle_: nom. sg., 1124, 1659, 2484, 2537; acc. sg.
gūðe, 604; instr. sg. gūðe, 1998; dat. sg. tō (æt) gūðe, 438, 1473. 1536,
2354, etc.; gen. sg. gūðe, 483, 527, 631, etc.; dat. pl. gūðum, 1959, 2179;
gen. pl. gūða, 2513, 2544.

gūð-beorn, st. m., _warrior_: gen. pl. gūð-beorna sum (_the strand-guard on
the Danish coast_), 314.

gūð-bil, st. n., _battle-bill_: nom. sg. gūðbill, 2585; gen. pl. gūð-billa
nān, 804.

gūð-byrne, w. f., _battle-corselet_: nom. sg., 321.

gūð-cearu, st. f., _sorrow which the combat brings_: dat. sg. æfter
gūð-ceare, 1259.

gūð-cræft, st. m., _warlike strength, power in battle_: nom. sg. Grendles
gūð-cræft, 127.

gūð-cyning, st. m., _king in battle, king directing a battle_: nom. sg.,
199, 1970, 2336, etc.

gūð-dēað, st. m., _death in battle_: nom. sg., 2250.

gūð-floga, w. m., _flying warrior_: acc. sg. wið þone gūðflogan (the
drake), 2529.

gūð-freca, w. m., _hero in battle, warrior_ (see freca): nom. sg. gearo
gūð-freca, of the drake, 2415.

gūð-fremmend, pres. part., _fighting a battle, warrior_: gen. pl.
gūð-fremmendra, 246; gūð- (gōd-, MS.) fremmendra swylcum, _such a warrior_
(meaning Bēowulf), 299.

gūð-gewǣde, st. n., _battle-dress, armor_: nom. pl. gūð-gewǣdo, 227; acc.
pl. -gewǣdu, 2618, 2631(?), 2852, 2872; gen. pl. -gewǣda, 2624.

gūð-geweorc, st. n., _battle-work warlike deed_: gen. pl., -geweorca, 679,
982, 1826.

gūð-geatwe, st. f. pl., _equipment for combat_: acc. þā gūð-geatwa
(-getawa, MS.), 2637; dat. in ēowrum gūð-geatawum, 395.

gūð-helm, st. m., _battle-helmet_: nom. sg., 2488.

gūð-horn, st. n., _battle-horn_: acc. sg., 1433.

gūð-hrēð, st. f., _battle-fame_: nom. sg., 820.

gūð-lēoð, st. n., _battle-song_: acc., sg., 1523.

gūð-mōd, adj., _disposed to battle, having an inclination to battle_. nom.
pl. gūð-mōde, 306.

gūð-rǣs, st. m., _storm of battle, attack_: acc. sg., 2992; gen. pl.
gūð-rǣsa, 1578, 2427.

gūð-rēow, adj., _fierce in battle_: nom. sg., 58.

gūð-rinc, st. m., _man of battle, fighter, warrior_: nom. sg., 839, 1119,
1882; acc. sg., 1502; gen. pl. gūð-rinca, 2649.

gūð-rōf, adj., _renowned in battle_: nom. sg., 609.

gūð-sceaða, w. m., _battle-foe, enemy in combat_: nom. sg., of the drake,

gūð-scearu, st. f., _decision of the battle_: dat. sg. æfter gūð-sceare,

gūð-sele, st. m., _battle-hall, hall in which a battle takes place_: dat
sg. in þǣm gūðsele (in Heorot), 443.

gūð-searo, st. n. pl., _battle-equipment, armor_; acc., 215, 328.

gūð-sweord, st. n., _battle-sword_: acc. sg., 2155.

gūð-wērig, adj., _wearied by battle dead_: acc. sg. gūð-wērigne Grendel,

gūð-wine, st. m., _battle-friend, comrade in battle_ designation of the
sword: acc. sg., 1811; instr. pl. þē mec gūð-winum grētan dorste, _who
dared to attack me with his war-friends_, 2736.

gūð-wiga, w. m., _fighter of battles, warrior_: nom. sg., 2112.

gyd. See gid.

gyfan. See gifan.

gyldan. See gildan.

gylden, adj., _golden_: nom. sg. gylden hilt, 1678; acc. sg. segen
gyldenne, 47, 1022; bring gyldenne, 2810; dat. sg. under gyldnum bēage,
1164.--Comp. eal-gylden.

gylp. See gilp.

gyrdan, w. v., _to gird, to lace_: pret. part. gyrded cempa, _the (sword-)
girt warrior_, 2079.

gyrn, st. n., _sorrow, harm_: nom. sg., 1776.

gyrn-wracu, st. f., _revenge for harm_: dat. sg. tō gyrn-wræce, 1139; gen.
sg. þā wæs eft hraðe gearo gyrn-wræce Grendeles mōdor, _then was Grendel's
mother in turn immediately ready for revenge for the injury_, 2119.

gyrwan. See gerwan.

gystran. See gistran.

gȳman, w. v. w. gen., _to take care of, to be careful about_: pres. III.
gȳmeð, 1758, 2452; imp. sg. oferhȳda ne gȳm! _do not study arrogance_
(despise it), 1761.

for-gȳman, w. acc., _to neglect, to slight_: pres. sg. III. hē þā
forð-gesceaft forgyteð and forgȳmeð, 1752.

gȳtsian. See gītsian.

gȳt. See gīt.


habban, w. v., _to have_: 1) w. acc.: pres. sg. I. þæs ic wēn hæbbe (_as I
hope_), 383; þē ic geweald hæbbe, 951; ic mē on hafu bord and byrnan, _have
on me shield and coat of mail_, 2525; hafo, 3001; sg. II. þū nū [friðu]
hafast, 1175; pl. I. habbað wē ... micel ǣrende, 270; pres. subj. sg. III.
þæt hē þrīttiges manna mægencræft on his mundgripe hæbbe, 381. Blended with
the negative: pl. III. þæt be Sǣ-Gēatas sēlran næbben tō gecēosenne cyning
ǣnigne, _that the Sea-Gēatas will have no better king than you to choose_,
1851; imp. hafa nū and geheald hūsa sēlest, 659; inf. habban, 446, 462,
3018; pret. sg. hæfde, 79, 518, 554; pl. hæfdon, 539.--2) used as an
auxiliary with the pret. part.: pres. sg. I. hæbbe ic ... ongunnen, 408;
hæbbe ic ... geāhsod, 433; II. hafast, 954, 1856; III. hafað, 474, 596;
pret. sg. hæfde, 106, 220, 666, 2322, 2334, 2953, etc.; pl. hæfdon, 117,
695, 884, 2382, etc. Pret. part. inflected: nū scealc hafað dǣd gefremede,
940; hæfde se gōda ... cempan gecorone, 205. With the pres. part. are
formed the compounds: bord-, rond-hæbbend.

for-habban, _to hold back, to keep one's self_: inf. ne meahte wǣfre mōd
forhabban in hreðre, _the expiring life could not hold itself back in the
breast_, 1152; ne mihte þā for-habban, _could not restrain himself_, 2610.

wið-habban, _to resist, to offer resistance_: pret. þæt se wīnsele
wið-hæfde heaðo-dēorum, _that the hall resisted them furious in fight_,

hafela, heafola, w. m., _head_: acc. sg. hafelan, 1373, 1422, 1615, 1636,
1781; nā þū mīnne þearft hafalan hȳdan, 446; þonne wē on orlege hafelan
weredon, _protected our heads, defended ourselves_, 1328; se hwīta helm
hafelan werede, 1449; dat. sg. hafelan, 673, 1522; heafolan, 2680; gen. sg.
heafolan, 2698; nom. pl. hafelan, 1121.--Comp. wīg-heafola.

hafenian, w. v., _to raise, to uplift_: pret. sg. wǣpen hafenade heard be
hiltum, _raised the weapon, the strong man, by the hilt_, 1574.

hafoc, st. m., _hawk_: nom. sg., 2264.

haga, w. m., _enclosed piece of ground, hedge, farm-enclosure_: dat. sg. tō
hagan, 2893, 2961.

haga, w. m. See ān-haga.

hama, homa, w. m., _dress_: in the comp. flǣsc-, fyrd-, līc-hama, scīr-ham

hamer, st. m., _hammer_: instr. sg. hamere, 1286; gen. pl. homera lāfe
(swords), 2830.

hand, hond, st. f., _hand_: nom. sg. 2138; sīo swīðre ... hand, _the right
hand_, 2100; hond, 1521, 2489, 2510; acc. sg. hand, 558, 984; hond, 657,
687, 835, 928, etc.; dat. sg. on handa, 495, 540; mid handa, 747, 2721; be
honda, 815; dat. pl. (as instr.) hondum, 1444, 2841.

hand-bana, w. m., _murderer with the hand_, or _in hand-to-hand combat_:
dat. sg. tō hand-bonan (-banan), 460, 1331.

hand-gemōt, st. n., _hand-to-hand conflict, battle_: gen. pl. (ecg) þolode
ǣr fela hand-gemōta, 1527; nō þæt lǣsest wæs hond-gemōta, 2356.

hand-gesella, w. m., _hand-companion, man of the retinue_: dat. pl.
hond-gesellum, 1482.

hand-gestealla, w. m., _(one whose position is near at hand), comrade,
companion, attendant_: dat. sg. hond-gesteallan, 2170; nom. pl.
hand-gesteallan, 2597.

hand-geweorc, st. n., _work done with the hands_, i.e. achievement in
battle: dat. sg. for þæs hild-fruman hondgeweorce, 2836.

hand-gewriðen, pret. part. _hand-wreathed, bound with the hand._ acc. pl.
wælbende ... hand-gewriðene, 1938.

hand-locen, pret. part., _joined, united by hand_: nom. sg. (gūð-byrne,
līc-syrce) hondlocen (because the shirts of mail consisted of interlaced
rings), 322, 551.

hand-rǣs, st. m., _hand-battle_, i.e. combat with the hands: nom. sg.
hond-rǣs, 2073.

hand-scalu, st. f., _hand-attendance, retinue_: dat. sg. mid his hand-scale
(hond-scole), 1318, 1964.

hand-sporu, st. f., _finger_ (on Grendel's hand), under the figure of a
spear: nom. pl. hand-sporu, 987.

hand-wundor, st. n., _wonder done by the hand, wonderful handwork_: gen.
pl. hond-wundra mǣst, 2769.

hangan. See hōn.

hangian, w. v., _to hang_: pres. sg. III. þonne his sunu hangað hrefne to
hrōðre, _when his son hangs, a joy to the ravens_, 2448; pl. III. ofer þǣm
(mere) hongiað hrīmge bearwas, _over which frosty forests hang_, 1364; inf.
hangian, 1663; pret. hangode, _hung down_, 2086.

hatian, w. v. w. acc., _to hate, to be an enemy to, to hurt_: inf. hē þone
heaðo-rinc hatian ne meahte lāðum dǣdum (_could not do him any harm_),
2467; pret. sg. hū se gūð-sceaða Gēata lēode hatode and hȳnde, 2320.

hād, st. m., _form, condition, position, manner_: acc. sg. þurh hǣstne hād,
_in a powerful manner_, 1336; on gesīðes hād, _in the position of follower,
as follower_, 1298; on sweordes hād, _in the form of a sword_, 2194. See
under on.

hādor, st. m., _clearness, brightness_: acc. sg. under heofenes hādor, 414.

hādor, adj., _clear, fresh, loud_: nom. sg. scop hwīlum sang hādor on
Heorote, 497.

hādre, adv., _clearly, brightly_, 1572.

hāl, adj., _hale, whole, sound, unhurt_: nom. sg. hāl, 300. With gen.
heaðo-lāces hāl, _safe from battle_, 1975. As form of salutation, wes ...
hāl, 407; dat. sg. hālan līce, 1504.

hālig, adj., _holy_: nom. sg. hālig god, 381, 1554; hālig dryhten, 687.

hām, st. m., _home, residence, estate, land_: acc. sg. hām, 1408; Hrōðgāres
hām, 718. Usually in adverbial sense: gewāt him hām, _betook himself home_,
1602; tō hām, 124, 374, 2993; fram hām, _at home_, 194; æt hām, _at home_,
1249, 1924, 1157; gen. sg. hāmes, 2367; acc. pl. hāmas, 1128.--Comp.
Finnes-hām, 1157.

hām-weorðung, st. f., _honor_ or _ornament of home_: acc. sg. hām-weorðunge
(designation of the daughter of Hygelāc, given in marriage to Eofor), 2999.

hār, adj., _gray_: nom. sg. hār hilde-rinc, 1308, 3137; acc. sg. under
(ofer) hārne stān, 888, 1416, 2554; hāre byrnan (i.e. iron shirt of mail),
2154; dat. sg. hārum hildfruman, 1679; f. on hēare hǣðe (on heaw ... h ...
ðe, MS.), 2213; gen. sg. hāres, _of the old man_, 2989.--Comp. un-hār.

hāt, adj., _hot, glowing, flaming_ nom sg., 1617, 2297, 2548, 2559, etc.;
wyrm hāt gemealt, _the drake hot_ (of his own heat) _melted_, 898; acc.
sg., 2282(?); inst. sg. hātan heolfre, 850, 1424; g. sg. heaðu-fȳres

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