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Beowulf by James A. Harrison and Robert Sharp, eds.

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nom. sg., 1911.

bune, w. f., _can_ or _cup, drinking-vessel_: nom. pl. bunan, 3048; acc.
pl. bunan, 2776.

burh, burg, st. f., _castle, city, fortified house_: acc. sg. burh, 523;
dat. sg. byrig, 1200; dat. pl. burgum, 53, 1969, 2434.--Comp.: frēo,
freoðo-, hēa-, hlēo-, hord-, lēod-, mǣg-burg.

burh-loca, w. m., _castle-bars_: dat. sg. under burh-locan, _under the
castle-bars_, i.e. in the castle (Hygelāc's), 1929.

burh-stede, st. m., _castle-place, place where the castle_ or _city
stands_: acc. sg. burhstede, 2266.

burh-wela, w. m., _riches, treasure of a castle_ or _city_: gen. sg. þenden
hē burh-welan brūcan mōste, 3101.

burne, w. f., _spring, fountain_: gen. þǣre burnan wælm, _the bubbling of
the spring_, 2547.

būan, st. v.: 1) _to stay, to remain, to dwell_: inf. gif hē weard onfunde
būan on beorge, _if he had found the watchman dwelling on the mountain_,
2843.--2) _to inhabit_, w. acc.: meduseld būan, _to inhabit the
mead-house_, 3066.

ge-būan, w. acc., _to occupy a house, to take possession_: pret. part. hēan
hūses, hū hit Hring Dene æfter bēorþege gebūn hæfdon, _how the Danes, after
their beer-carouse, had occupied it_ (had made their beds in it),
117.--With the pres. part. būend are the compounds ceaster-, fold-, grund-,

būgan, st. v., _to bend, to bow, to sink; to turn, to flee_: prs. sg. III.
bon-gār būgeð, _the fatal spear sinks_, i.e. its deadly point is turned
down, it rests, 2032; inf. þæt se byrnwīga būgan sceolde, _that the armed
hero had to sink down_ (having received a deadly blow), 2919; similarly,
2975; pret. sg. bēah eft under eorðweall, _turned, fled again behind the
earth-wall_, 2957; pret. pl. bugon tō bence, _turned to the bench_, 327,
1014; hȳ on holt bugon, _fled to the wood_, 2599.

ā-būgan, _to bend off, to curve away from_: pret. fram sylle ābēag medubenc
monig, _from the threshold curved away many a mead-bench_, 776.

be-būgan, w. acc., _to surround, to encircle_: prs. swā (_which_) wæter
bebūgeð, 93; efne swā sīde swā sǣ bebūgeð windige weallas, _as far as the
sea encircles windy shores_, 1224.

ge-būgan, _to bend, to bow, to sink_: a) intrans.: hēo on flet gebēah,
_sank on the floor_, 1541; þā gebēah cyning, _then sank the king_, 2981; þā
se wyrm gebēah snūde tōsomne (_when the drake at once coiled itself up_),
2568; gewāt þā gebogen scrīðan tō, _advanced with curved body_ (the drake),
2570.--b) w. acc. of the thing to which one bends or sinks: pret. selereste
gebēah, _sank upon the couch in the hall_, 691; similarly gebēag, 1242.

būr, st. n., _apartment, room_: dat. sg. būre, 1311, 2456; dat. pl. būrum,
140.--Comp. brȳd-būr.

būtan, būton (from be and ūtan, hence in its meaning referring to what is
without, excluded): 1) conj. with subjunctive following, _lest_: būtan his
līc swice, _lest his body escape_, 967. With ind. following, _but_: būton
hit wæs māre þonne ǣnig mon ōðer tō beadulāce ætberan meahte, _but it_ (the
sword) _was greater than any other man could have carried to battle_, 1561.
After a preceding negative verb, _except_: þāra þe gumena bearn gearwe ne
wiston būton Fitela mid hine, _which the children of men did not know at
all, except Fitela, who was with him_, 880; ne nom hē māðm-ǣhta mā būton
þone hafelan, etc., _he took no more of the rich treasure than the head
alone_, 1615.--2) prep, with dat., _except_: būton folcscare, 73; būton þē,
658; ealle būton ānum, 706.

bycgan, w. v., _to buy, to pay_: inf. ne wæs þæt gewrixle til þæt hīe on bā
healfa bicgan scoldon frēonda fēorum, _that was no good transaction, that
they, on both sides_ (as well to Grendel as to his mother), _had to pay
with the lives of their friends_, 1306.

be-bycgan, _to sell_: pret. nū ic on māðma hord mīne bebohte frōde
feorhlege (_now I, for the treasure-hoard, gave up my old life_), 2800.

ge-bycgan, _to buy, to acquire; to pay_: pret. w. acc. nō þǣr ǣnige ...
frōfre gebohte, _obtained no sort of help, consolation_, 974; hit (his,
MS.) ealdre gebohte, _paid it with his life_, 2482; pret. part. sylfes
fēore bēagas [geboh]te, _bought rings with his own life_, 3015.

byldan, w. v. (_to make_ beald, which see), _to excite, to encourage, to
brave deeds_: inf. w. acc. swā hē Frēsena cyn on bēorsele byldan wolde (by
distributing gifts), 1095.

ge-byrd, st. n., "fatum destinatum" (Grein) (?): acc. sg. hīe on gebyrd
hruron gāre wunde, 1075.

ge-byrdu, st. f., _birth_; in compound, bearn-gebyrdu.

byrdu-scrūd, st. n., _shield-ornament, design upon a shield_(?): nom. sg.,

byre, st. m., (_born_) _son_: nom. sg., 2054, 2446, 2622, etc.; nom. pl.
byre, 1189. In a broader sense, _young man, youth_: acc. pl. bǣdde byre
geonge, _encouraged the youths_ (at the banquet), 2019.

byrðen, st. f., _burden_; in comp. mægen-byrðen.

byrele, st. m., _steward, waiter, cupbearer_: nom. pl. byrelas, 1162.

byrgan, w. v., _to feast, to eat_: inf., 448.

ge-byrgea, w. m., _protector_; in comp. lēod-gebyrgea.

byrht. See _beorht_.

byrne, w. f., _shirt of mail, mail_: nom. sg. byrne, 405, 1630, etc.;
hringed byrne, _ring-shirt_, consisting of interlaced rings, 1246; acc. sg.
byrnan, 1023, etc.; sīde byrnan, _large coat of mail_, 1292; hringde
byrnan, 2616; hāre byrnan, _gray coat of mail_ (of iron), 2154; dat. sg. on
byrnan, 2705; gen. sg. byrnan hring, _the ring of the shirt of mail_ (i.e.
the shirt of mail), 2261; dat. pl. byrnum, 40, 238, etc.; beorhtum byrnum,
_with gleaming mail_, 3141.--Comp.: gūð-, here-, heaðo-, īren-,

byrnend. See beornan.

byrn-wiga, w. m., _warrior dressed in a coat of mail_: nom. sg., 2919.

bysgu, bisigu, st. f., _trouble, difficulty, opposition_: nom. sg. bisigu,
281; dat. pl. bisgum, 1744, bysigum, 2581.

bysig, adj., _opposed, in need_, in the compounds līf-bysig, syn-bysig.

bȳme, w. f., _a wind-instrument, a trumpet, a trombone_: gen. sg. bȳman
gealdor, _the sound of the trumpet_, 2944.

bȳwan, w. v., _to ornament, to prepare_: inf. þā þe beado-grīman bȳwan
sceoldon, _who should prepare the helmets_, 2258.


camp, st. m., _combat, fight between two_: dat. sg. in campe (Bēowulf's
with Dæghrefn; cempan, MS.), 2506.

candel, st. f., _light, candle_: nom. sg. rodores candel, of the sun,
1573.--Comp. woruld-candel.

cempa, w. m., _fighter, warrior, hero_: nom. sg. æðele cempa, 1313; Gēata
cempa, 1552; rēðe cempa, 1586; mǣre cempa (as voc.), 1762; gyrded cempa,
2079; dat. sg. geongum (geongan) cempan, 1949, 2045, 2627; Hūga cempan,
2503; acc. pl. cempan, 206.--Comp. fēðe-cempa.

cennan, w. v.: 1) _to bear_, w. acc.: efne swā hwylc mægða swā þone magan
cende, _who bore the son_, 944; pret. part. þǣm eafera wæs æfter cenned,
_to him was a son born_, 12.--2) reflexive, _to show one's self, to reveal
one's self_: imp. cen þec mid cræfte, _prove yourself by your strength_,

ā-cennan, _to bear_: pret. part. nō hīe fæder cunnon, hwæðer him ǣnig wæs
ǣr ācenned dyrnra gāsta, _they_ (the people of the country) _do not know
his_ (Grendel's) _father, nor whether any evil spirit has been before born
to him_ (whether he has begotten a son), 1357.

cēnðu, st. f., _boldness_: acc. sg. cēnðu, 2697.

cēne, adj., _keen, warlike, bold_: gen. p.. cēnra gehwylcum, 769. Superl.,
acc. pl. cēnoste, 206.--Comp.: dǣd-, gār-cēne.

ceald, adj., _cold_: acc. pl. cealde strēamas, 1262; dat. pl. cealdum
cearsīðum, _with cold, sad journeys_, 2397. Superl. nom. sg. wedera
cealdost, 546;--Comp. morgen-ceald.

cearian, w. v., _to have care, to take care, to trouble one's self_: prs.
sg. III. nā ymb his līf cearað, _takes no care for his life_, 1537.

cearig, adj., _troubled, sad_: in comp. sorh-cearig.

cear-sīð, st. m., _sorrowful way, an undertaking that brings sorrow_, i.e.
a warlike expedition: dat. pl. cearsīðum (of Bēowulf's expeditions against
Ēadgils), 2397.

cearu, st. f., _care, sorrow, lamentation_: nom. sg., 1304; acc. sg.
[ceare], 3173.--Comp.: ealdor-, gūð-, mǣl-, mōd-cearu.

cear-wælm, st. m., _care-agitation, waves of sorrow in the breast_: dat.
pl. æfter cear-wælmum, 2067.

cear-wylm, st. m., same as above; nom. pl. þā cear-wylmas, 282.

ceaster-būend, pt, _inhabitant of a fortified place, inhabitant of a
castle_: dat. pl. ceaster-būendum, of those established in Hrōðgār's
castle, 769.

cēap, st. m., _purchase, transaction_: figuratively, nom. sg. næs þæt ȳðe
cēap, _no easy transaction_, 2416; instr. sg. þēah þe ōðer hit ealdre
gebohte, heardan cēape, _although the one paid it with his life, a dear
purchase_, 2483.

ge-cēapian, w. v., _to purchase_: pret. part. gold unrīme grimme gecēapod,
_gold without measure, bitterly purchased_ (with Bēowulf's life), 3013.

be-ceorfan, st. v., _to separate, to cut off_ (with acc. of the pers. and
instr. of the thing): pret. hine þā hēafde becearf, _cut off his head_,
1591; similarly, 2139.

ceorl, st. m., _man_: nom. sg. snotor ceorl monig, _many a wise man_, 909;
dat. sg. gomelum ceorle, _the old man_ (of King Hrēðel), 2445; so, ealdum
ceorle, of King Ongenþēow, 2973; nom. pl. snotere ceorlas, _wise men_, 202,
416, 1592.

cēol, st. m., _keel_, figuratively for the ship: nom. sg., 1913; acc. sg.
cēol, 38, 238; gen. sg. cēoles, 1807.

cēosan, st. v., _to choose_, hence, _to assume_: inf. þone cynedōm cīosan
wolde, _would assume the royal dignity_, 2377; _to seek_: pret. subj. ǣr hē
bǣl cure, _before he sought his funeral-pile_ (before he died), 2819.

ge-cēosan, _to choose, to elect_: gerund, tō gecēosenne cyning ǣnigne
(sēlran), _to choose a better king_, 1852; imp. þē þæt sēlre ge-cēos,
_choose thee the better_ (of two: bealonīð and ēce rǣdas), 1759; pret. hē
ūsic on herge gecēas tō þyssum siðfate, _selected us among the soldiers for
this undertaking_, 2639; gecēas ēcne rǣd, _chose the everlasting gain_,
i.e. died, 1202; similarly, godes lēoht gecēas, 2470; pret. part. acc. pl.
hæfde ... cempan gecorone, 206.

on-cirran, w. v., _to turn, to change_: inf. ne meahte ... þæs wealdendes
[willan] wiht on-cirran, _could not change the will of the Almighty_, 2858;
pret. ufor oncirde, _turned higher_, 2952; þyder oncirde, _turned thither_,

ā-cīgan, w. v., _to call hither_: pret. ācīgde of corðre cyninges þegnas
syfone, _called from the retinue of the king seven men_, 3122.

clam, clom, st. m., f. n.? _fetter_, figuratively of a strong gripe: dat.
pl. heardan clammum, 964; heardum clammum, 1336; atolan clommum (horrible
claws of the mother of Grendel), 1503.

clif, cleof, st. n., _cliff, promontory_: acc. pl. Gēata clifu,
1912.--Comp.: brim-, ēg-, holm-, stān-clif.

ge-cnāwan, st. v., _to know, to recognize_: inf. meaht þū, mīn wine, mēce
gecnāwan, _mayst thou, my friend, recognize the sword_, 2048.

on-cnāwan, _to recognize, to distinguish_: hordweard oncnīow mannes reorde,
_distinguished the speech of a man_, 2555.

cniht, st. m., _boy, youth_: dat. pl. þyssum cnyhtum, _to these boys_
(Hrōðgār's sons), 1220.

cniht-wesende, prs. part., _being a boy_ or _a youth_: acc. sg. ic hine
cūðe cniht-wesende, _knew him while still a boy_, 372; nom. pl. wit þæt
gecwǣdon cniht-wesende, _we both as young men said that_, 535.

cnyssan, w. v., _to strike, to dash against each other_: pret. pl. þonne
... eoferas cnysedan, _when the bold warriors dashed against each other,
stormed_ (in battle), 1329.

collen-ferhð, -ferð, adj., (properly, _of swollen mind_), _of uncommon
thoughts, in his way of thinking, standing higher than others,
high-minded_: nom. sg. cuma collen-ferhð, of Bēowulf, 1807; collen-ferð, of
Wīglāf, 2786.

corðer, st. n., _troop, division of an army, retinue_: dat. sg. þā wæs ...
Fin slægen, cyning on corðre, _then was Fin slain, the king in the troop_
(of warriors), 1154; of corðre cyninges, _out of the retinue of the king_,

costian, w. v., _to try_; pret. (w. gen.) hē mīn costode, _tried me_, 2085.

cofa, w. m., _apartment, sleeping-room, couch_: in comp. bān-cofa.

cōl, adj., _cool_: compar. cearwylmas cōlran wurðað, _the waves of sorrow
become cooler_, i.e. the mind becomes quiet, 282; him wīflufan ... cōlran
weorðað, _his love for his wife cools_, 2067.

cræft, st. m., _the condition of being able_, hence: 1) _physical
strength_: nom. sg. mægða cræft, 1284; acc. sg. mægenes cræft, 418; þurh
ānes cræft, 700; cræft and cēnðu, 2697; dat. (instr.) sg. cræfte, 983,
1220, 2182, 2361.--2) _art, craft, skill_: dat. sg. as instr. dyrnum
cræfte, _with secret_ (magic) _art_, 2169; dyrnan cræfte, 2291; þēofes
cræfte, _with thief's craft_, 2221; dat. pl. dēofles cræftum, _by devil's
art_ (sorcery), 2089.--3) _great quantity_ (?): acc. sg. wyrm-horda cræft,
2223.--Comp.: leoðo-, mægen-, nearo-, wīg-cræft.

cræftig, adj.: 1) _strong, stout_: nom. sg. eafoðes cræftig, 1467; nīða
cræftig, 1963. Comp. wīg-cræftig.--2) _adroit, skilful_: in comp.
lagu-cræftig.--3) _rich_ (of treasures); in comp. ēacen-cræftig.

cringan, st. v., _to fall in combat, to fall with the writhing movement of
those mortally wounded_: pret. subj. on wæl crunge, _would sink into death,
would fall_, 636; pret. pl. for the pluperfect, sume on wæle crungon, 1114.

ge-cringan, same as above: pret. hē under rande gecranc, _fell under his
shield_, 1210; æt wīge gecrang, _fell in battle_, 1338; hēo on flet
gecrong, _fell to the ground_, 1569; in campe gecrong, _fell in single
combat_, 2506.

cuma (_he who comes_), w. m., _newcomer, guest_: nom. sg. 1807.--Comp.:
cwealm-, wil-cuma.

cuman, st. v., _to come_: pres. sg. II. gyf þū on weg cymest, _if thou
comest from there_, 1383; III. cymeð, 2059; pres. subj. sg. III. cume, 23;
pl. þonne wē ūt cymen, _when we come out_, 3107; inf. cuman, 244, 281,
1870; pret. sg. cōm, 430, 569, 826, 1134, 1507, 1601, etc.; cwōm, 419,
2915; pret. subj. sg. cwōme, 732; pret. part. cumen, 376; pl. cumene, 361.
Often with the inf. of a verb of motion, as, cōm gongan, 711; cōm sīðian,
721; cōm in gān, 1645; cwōm gān, 1163; cōm scacan, 1803; cwōmon lǣdan, 239;
cwōmon sēcean, 268; cwōman scrīðan, 651, etc.

be-cuman, _to come, to approach, to arrive_: pret. syððan niht becōm,
_after the night had come_, 115; þē on þā lēode becōm, _that had come over
the people_, 192; þā hē tō hām becōm, 2993. And with inf. following: stefn
in becōm ... hlynnan under hārne stān, 2553; lȳt eft becwōm ... hāmes
nīosan, 2366; oð þæt ende becwōm, 1255; similarly, 2117. With acc. of
pers.: þā hyne sīo þrāg becwōm, _when this time of battle came over him_,

ofer-cuman, _to overcome, to compel_: pret. þȳ hē þone fēond ofercwōm,
_thereby he overcame the foe_, 1274: pl. hīe fēond heora ... ofercōmon,
700; pret. part. (w. gen.) nīða ofercumen, _compelled by combats_, 846.

cumbol, cumbor, st. m., _banner_: gen. sg. cumbles hyrde, 2506.--Comp.

cund, adj., _originating in, descended from_: in comp. feorran-cund.

cunnan, verb pret. pres.: 1) _to know, to be acquainted with_ (w. acc. or
depend, clause): sg. pres. I. ic mīnne can glædne Hrōðulf þæt hē ... wile,
_I know my gracious H., that he will_..., 1181; II. eard gīt ne const,
_thou knowest not yet the land_, 1378; III. hē þæt wyrse ne con, _knows no
worse_, 1740. And reflexive: con him land geare, _knows the land well_,
2063; pl. men ne cunnon hwyder helrūnan scrīðað, _men do not know
whither_..., 162; pret. sg. ic hine cūðe, _knew him_, 372; cūðe hē duguð
þēaw, _knew the customs of the distinguished courtiers_, 359; so with the
acc., 2013; seolfa ne cūðe þurh hwæt..., _he himself did not know through
what_..., 3068; pl. sorge ne cūðon, 119; so with the acc., 180, 418, 1234.
With both (acc. and depend. clause): nō hīe fæder cunnon (scil. nō hīe
cunnon) hwæðer him ǣnig wæs ǣr ācenned dyrnra gāsta, 1356.--2) with inf.
following, _can, to be able_: prs. sg. him bebeorgan ne con, _cannot defend
himself_, 1747; prs. pl. men ne cunnon secgan, _cannot say_, 50; pret. sg.
cūðe reccan, 90; beorgan cūðe, 1446; pret. pl. herian ne cūðon, _could not
praise_, 182; pret. subj. healdan cūðe, 2373.

cunnian, w. v., _to inquire into, to try_, w. gen. or acc.: inf. sund
cunnian (figurative for _roam over the sea_), 1427, 1445; geongne cempan
higes cunnian, _to try the young warrior's mind_, 2046; pret. eard cunnode,
_tried the home_, i.e. came to it, 1501; pl. wada cunnedon, _tried the
flood_, i.e. swam through the sea, 508.

cūð, adj.: 1) _known, well known; manifest, certain_: nom. sg. undyrne cūð,
150, 410; wīde cūð, 2924; acc. sg. fern. cūðe folme, 1304; cūðe strǣte,
1635; nom. pl. ecge cūðe, 1146; acc. pl. cūðe næssas, 1913.--2) _renowned_:
nom. sg. gūðum cūð, 2179; nom. pl. cystum cūðe, 868.--3) also, _friendly,
dear, good_ (see un-cūð).--Comp.: un-, wīd-cūð.

cūð-līce, adv., _openly, publicly_: comp. nō hēr cūðlīcor cuman ongunnon
lind-hæbbende, _no shield-bearing men undertook more boldly to come hither_
(the coast-watchman means by this the secret landing of the Vikings), 244.

cwalu, st. f., _murder, fall_: in comp. dēað-cwalu.

cweccan (_to make alive_, see cwic), w. v., _to move, to swing_: pret.
cwehte mægen-wudu, _swung the wood of strength_ (= spear), 235.

cweðan, st. v., _to say, to speak_: a) absolutely: prs. sg. III. cwið æt
bēore, _speaks at beer-drinking_, 2042.--b) w. acc.: pret. word æfter cwæð,
315; fēa worda cwæð, 2247, 2663.--c) with þæt following: pret. sg. cwæð,
92, 2159; pl. cwǣdon, 3182.--d) with þæt omitted: pret. cwæð hē gūð-cyning
sēcean wolde, _said he would seek out the war-king_, 199; similarly, 1811,

ā-cweðan, _to say, to speak_, w. acc.: prs. þæt word ācwyð, _speaks the
word_, 2047; pret. þæt word ācwæð, 655.

ge-cweðan, _to say, to speak_: a) absolutely: pret. sg. II. swā þū gecwǣde,
2665.--b)w. acc.: pret. wēl-hwylc gecwæð, _spoke everything_, 875; pl. wit
þæt gecwǣdon, 535.--c) w. þæt following: pret. gecwæð, 858, 988.

cwellan, w. v., (_to make die_), _to kill, to murder_: pret. sg. II. þū
Grendel cwealdest, 1335.

ā-cwellan, _to kill_: pret. sg. (hē) wyrm ācwealde, 887; þone þe Grendel ǣr
māne ācwealde, _whom Grendel had before wickedly murdered_, 1056; beorn
ācwealde, 2122.

cwēn, st. f.: 1) _wife, consort_ (of noble birth): nom. sg. cwēn, 62;
(Hrōðgār's), 614, 924; (Finn's), 1154.--2) particularly denoting the queen:
nom. sg. bēaghroden cwēn (Wealhþēow), 624; mǣru cwēn, 2017; fremu folces
cwēn (Þrȳðo), 1933; acc. sg. cwēn (Wealhþēow), 666.-Comp. folc-cwēn.

cwēn-līc, adj., _feminine, womanly_: nom. sg. ne bið swylc cwēnlīc þēaw
(_such is not the custom of women, does not become a woman_), 1941.

cwealm, st. m., _violent death, murder, destruction_: acc. sg. þone cwealm
gewræc, _avenged the death_ (of Abel by Cain), 107; mǣndon mondryhtnes
cwealm, _lamented the ruler's fall_, 3150.--Comp.: bealo-, dēað-,

cwealm-bealu, st. n., _the evil of murder_: acc. sg., 1941.

cwealm-cuma, w. m., _one coming for murder, a new-comer who contemplates
murder_: acc. sg. þone cwealm-cuman (of Grendel), 793.

cwic and cwico, adj., _quick, having life, alive_: acc. sg. cwicne, 793,
2786; gen. sg. āht cwices, _something living_, 2315; nom. pl. cwice, 98;
cwico wæs þā gēna, _was still alive_, 3094.

cwide, st. m., _word, speech, saying_: in comp. gegn-, gilp-, hlēo-,

cwīðan, st. v., _to complain, to lament_: inf. w. acc. ongan ... gioguðe
cwīðan hilde-strengo, _began to lament the_ (departed) _battle-strength of
his youth_, 2113 [ceare] cwīðan, _lament their cares_, 3173.

cyme, st. m., _coming, arrival_: nom. pl. hwanan ēowre cyme syndon, _whence
your coming is_, i. e. whence ye are, 257.--Comp. eft-cyme.

cȳmlīce, adv., (convenienter), _splendidly, grandly_: comp. cȳmlīcor, 38.

cyn, st. n., _race_, both in the general sense, and denoting noble lineage:
nom. sg. Frēsena cyn, 1094; Wedera (gara, MS.) cyn, 461; acc. sg. eotena
cyn, 421; gīganta cyn, 1691; dat. sg. Caines cynne, 107; manna cynne, 811,
915, 1726; ēowrum (of those who desert Bēowulf in battle) cynne, 2886; gen.
sg. manna (gumena) cynnes, 702, etc.; mǣran cynnes, 1730; lāðan cynnes,
2009, 2355; ūsses cynnes Wǣgmundinga, 2814; gen. pl. cynna gehwylcum,
98.--Comp.: eormen-, feorh-, frum-, gum-, man-, wyrm-cyn.

cyn, st. n., _that which is suitable or proper_: gen. pl. cynna (of
etiquette) gemyndig, 614.

ge-cynde, adj., _innate, peculiar, natural_: nom. sg., 2198, 2697.

cyne-dōm, st. m., _kingdom, royal dignity_: acc. sg., 2377.

cyning, st. m., _king_: nom. acc. sg. cyning, II, 864, 921, etc.; kyning,
620, 3173; dat. sg. cyninge, 3094; gen. sg. cyninges, 868, 1211; gen. pl.
kyning[a] wuldor, of God, 666.--Comp. beorn-, eorð-, folc-, guð-, hēah-,
lēod-, sǣ-, sōð-, þēod-, worold-, wuldor-cyning.

cyning-beald, adj., "_nobly bold_" (Thorpe), _excellently brave_ (?): nom.
pl. cyning-balde men, 1635.

ge-cyssan, w. v., _to kiss_: pret. gecyste þā cyning ... þegen betstan,
_kissed the best thane_ (Bēowulf), 1871.

cyst (_choosing_, see cēosan), st. f., _the select, the best of a thing,
good quality, excellence_: nom. sg. īrenna cyst, _of the swords_, 803,
1698; wǣpna cyst, 1560; symbla cyst, _choice banquet_, 1233; acc. sg. īrena
cyst, 674; dat. pl. foldwegas ... cystum cūðe, _known through excellent
qualities_, 868; (cyning) cystum gecȳðed, 924.--Comp. gum-, hilde-cyst.

cȳð. See on-cȳð.

cȳðan (see cūð), w. v., _to make known, to manifest, to show_: imp. sg.
mægen-ellen cȳð, _show thy heroic strength_, 660; inf. cwealmbealu cȳðan,
1941; ellen cȳðan, 2696.

ge-cȳðan (_to make known_, hence): 1) _to give information, to announce_:
inf. andsware gecȳðan, _to give answer_, 354; gerund, tō gecȳðanne hwanan
ēowre cyme syndon (_to show whence ye come_), 257; pret. part. sōð is
gecȳðed þæt ... (_the truth has become known_, it has shown itself to be
true), 701; Higelāce wæs sīð Bēowulfes snūde gecȳðed, _the arrival of B.
was quickly announced_, 1972; similarly, 2325.--2) _to make celebrated_, in
pret. part.: wæs mīn fæder folcum gecȳðed (_my father was known to
warriors_), 262; wæs his mōdsefa manegum gecȳðed, 349; cystum gecȳðed,

cȳð (properly, _condition of being known_, hence _relationship_), st. f.,
_home, country, land_: in comp. feor-cȳð.

ge-cȳpan, w. v., _to purchase_: inf. næs him ǣnig þearf þæt hē ... þurfe
wyrsan wīgfrecan weorðe gecȳpan, _had need to buy with treasures no
inferior warrior_, 2497.


daroð, st. m., _spear_: dat. pl. dareðum lācan (_to fight_), 2849.

ge-dāl, st. n., _parting, separation_: nom. sg. his worulde gedāl, _his
separation from the world_ (his death), 3069.--Comp. ealdor-, līf-gedāl.

dæg, st. m., _day_: nom. sg. dæg, 485, 732, 2647; acc. sg. dæg, 2400;
andlangne dæg, _the whole day_, 2116; morgenlongne dæg (_the whole
morning_), 2895; oð dōmes dæg, _till judgment-day_, 3070; dat. sg. on þǣm
dæge þysses līfes (eo tempore, tunc), 197, 791, 807; gen. sg. dæges, 1601,
2321; hwīl dæges, _a day's time, a whole day_, 1496; dæges and nihtes, _day
and night_, 2270; dæges, _by day_, 1936; dat. pl. on tȳn dagum, _in ten
days_, 3161.--Comp. ǣr-, dēað-, ende-, ealdor-, fyrn-, geār-, lǣn-, līf-,
swylt-, win-dæg, an-dæges.

dæg-hwīl, st. f., _day-time_: acc. pl. þæt hē dæghwīla gedrogen hæfde
eorðan wynne, _that he had enjoyed earth's pleasures during the days_
(appointed to him), i.e. that his life was finished, 2727.--(After Grein.)

dæg-rīm, st. n., _series of days, fixed number of days_: nom. sg. dōgera
dægrīm (_number of the days of his life_), 824.

dǣd, st. f., _deed, action_: acc. sg. dēorlīce dǣd, 585; dōmlēasan dǣd,
2891; frēcne dǣde, 890; dǣd, 941; acc. pl. Grendles dǣda, 195; gen. pl.
dǣda, 181, 479, 2455, etc.; dat. pl. dǣdum, 1228, 2437, etc.--Comp. ellen-,
fyren-, lof-dǣd.

dǣd-cēne, adj., _bold in deed_: nom. sg. dǣd-cēne mon, 1646.

dǣd-fruma, w. m., _doer of deeds, doer_: nom. sg., of Grendel, 2091.

dǣd-bata, w. m., _he who pursues with his deeds_: nom. sg., of Grendel,

dǣdla, w. m., _doer_: in comp. mān-for-dǣdla.

dǣl, st. m., _part, portion_: acc. sg. dǣl, 622, 2246, 3128; acc. pl.
dǣlas, 1733.--Often dǣl designates the portion of a thing or of a quality
which belongs in general to an individual, as, oð þæt him on innan
oferhygda dǣl weaxeð, _till in his bosom his portion of arrogance
increases_: i.e. whatever arrogance he has, his arrogance, 1741. Bīowulfe
wearð dryhtmāðma dǣl dēaðe, forgolden, _to Bēowulf his part of the splendid
treasures was paid with death_, i.e. whatever splendid treasures were
allotted to him, whatever part of them he could win in the fight with the
dragon, 2844; similarly, 1151, 1753, 2029, 2069, 3128.

dǣlan, w. v., _to divide, to bestow, to share with_, w. acc.: pres. sg.
III. mādmas dǣleð, 1757; pres. subj. þæt hē wið āglǣcean eofoðo dǣle, _that
he bestow his strength upon_ (strive with) _the bringer of misery_ the
drake), 2535; inf. hringas dǣlan, 1971; pret. bēagas dǣlde, 80; sceattas
dǣlde, 1687.

be-dǣlan, w. instr., _(to divide), to tear away from, to strip of_: pret.
part. drēamum (drēame) bedǣled, _deprived of the heavenly joys_ (of
Grendel), 722, 1276.

ge-dǣlan: 1) _to distribute_: inf. (w. acc. _of the thing distributed_);
bǣr on innan eall gedǣlan geongum and ealdum swylc him god sealde,
_distribute therein to young and old all that God had given him_, 71.--2)
_to divide, to separate_, with acc.: inf. sundur gedǣlan līf wið līce,
_separate life from the body_, 2423; so pret. subj. þæt hē gedǣlde ... ānra
gehwylces līf wið līce, 732.

denn (cf. denu, dene, vallis), st. n., _den, cave_: acc. sg. þæs wyrmes
denn, 2761; gen. sg. (draca) gewāt dennes nīosian, 3046.

ge-defe, adj.: 1) (impersonal) _proper, appropriate_: nom. sg. swā hit
gedēfe wæs (bið), _as was appropriate, proper_, 561, 1671, 3176.--2) _good,
kind, friendly_; nom sg. bēo þū suna mīnum dǣdum gedēfe, _be friendly to my
son by deeds_ (support my son in deed, namely, when he shall have attained
to the government), 1228.--Comp. un-ge-dēfelīce.

dēman (see dōm), w. v.: 1) _to judge, to award justly_: pres. subj. mǣrðo
dēme, 688.--2) _to judge favorably, to praise, to glorify_: pret. pl. his
ellenweorc duguðum dēmdon, _praised his heroic deed with all their might_,

dēmend, _judge_: dǣda dēmend (of God), 181.

deal, adj., "superbus, clarus, fretus" (Grimm): nom. pl. þrȳðum dealle,

dēad, adj., _dead_: nom. sg. 467, 1324, 2373; acc. sg. dēadne, 1310.

dēað, st. m., _death, dying_: nom. sg, dēað, 441, 447, etc.; acc. sg. dēað,
2169; dat. sg. dēaðe, 1389, 1590, (as instr.) 2844, 3046; gen. sg. dēaðes
wylm, 2270; dēaðes nȳd, 2455.--Comp. gūð-, wæl-, wundor-dēað.

dēað-bed, st. n., _death-bed_: dat. sg. dēað-bedde fæst, 2902.

dēað-cwalu, st. f., _violent death_, _ruin and death_: dat. pl. tō
dēað-cwalum, 1713.

dēað-cwealm, st. m., _violent death, murder_: nom. sg. 1671.

dēað-dæg, st. m., _death-day, dying day_: dat. sg. æfter dēað-dæge (_after
his death_), 187, 886.

dēað-fǣge, adj., _given over to death_: nom. sg. (Grendel) dēað-fǣge dēog,
_had hidden himself, being given over to death_ (mortally wounded), 851.

dēað-scūa, w. m., _death-shadow, ghostly being, demon of death_: nom. sg.
deorc dēað-scūa (of Grendel), 160.

dēað-wērig, adj., _weakened by death_, i.e. dead: acc. sg. dēað-wērigne,
2126. See wērig.

dēað-wīc, st. n. _death's house, home of death_: acc. sg. gewāt dēaðwīc
sēon (_had died_), 1276.

dēagan (O.H.G. pret. part. tougan, _hidden_), _to conceal one's self, to
hide_: pret. (for pluperf.) dēog, 851.--Leo.

deorc, adj., _dark_: of the night, nom. sg. (nihthelm) deorc, 1791; dat.
pl. deorcum nihtum, 275, 2212; of the terrible Grendel, nom. sg. deorc
dēað-scūa, 160.

dēofol, st. m. n., _devil_: gen. sg. dēofles, 2089; gen. pl. dēofla, of
Grendel and his troop, 757, 1681.

dēogol, dȳgol, adj., _concealed, hidden, inaccessible, beyond information,
unknown_: nom. sg. dēogol dǣdhata (of Grendel), 275; acc. sg. dȳgel lond,
_inaccessible land_, 1358.

dēop, st. n., _deep, abyss_: acc. sg., 2550.

dēop, adv. _deeply_: acc. sg. dēop wæter, 509, 1905.

dīope, adj., _deep_: hit oð dōmes dæg dīope benemdon þēodnas mǣre, _the
illustrious rulers had charmed it deeply till the judgment-day, had laid a
solemn spell upon it_, 3070.

dēor, st. n., _animal, wild animal_: in comp. mere-, sǣ-dēor.

dēor, adj.: 1) _wild, terrible_: nom. sg. dīor dǣd-fruma (of Grendel),
2091.--2) _bold, brave_: nom. nǣnig ... dēor, 1934.--Comp.: heaðu-,

dēore, dȳre, adj.: 1) _dear, costly_ (high in price): acc. sg. dȳre īren,
2051; drincfæt dȳre (dēore), 2307, 2255; instr. sg. dēoran sweorde, 561;
dat. sg. dēorum māðme, 1529; nom. pl. dȳre swyrd, 3049; acc. pl. dēore
(dȳre) māðmas, 2237, 3132.--2) _dear, beloved, worthy_: nom. sg. f.,
æðelum dīore, _worthy by reason of origin_, 1950; dat. sg. æfter dēorum
men, 1880; gen. sg. dēorre duguðe, 488; superl. acc. sg. aldorþegn þone
dēorestan, 1310.

dēor-līc, adj., _bold, brave_: acc. sg. dēorlīce dǣd, 585. See dēor.

disc, st. m., _disc, plate, flat dish_: nom. acc. pl. discas, 2776, 3049.

ge-dīgan. See ge-dȳgan.

dol-gilp, st. m., _mad boast, foolish pride, vain-glory, thoughtless
audacity_: dat. sg. for dolgilpe, 509.

dol-līc, adj., _audacious_: gen. pl. mǣst ... dǣda dollīcra, 2647.

dol-sceaða, w. m., _bold enemy_: acc. sg. þone dol-scaðan (Grendel), 479.

dōgor, st. m. n., _day_; 1) day as a period of 24 hours: gen. sg. ymb āntīd
ōðres dōgores, _at the same time of the next day_, 219; morgen-lēoht ōðres
dōgores, _the morning-light of the second day_, 606.--2) day in the usual
sense: acc. sg. n. þȳs dōgor, _during this day_, 1396; instr. þȳ dōgore,
1798; forman dōgore, 2574; gen. pl. dōgora gehwām, 88; dōgra gehwylce,
1091; dōgera dægrim, _the number of his days_ (the days of his life),
824.--3) _day_ in the wider sense of time: dat. pl. ufaran dōgrum, _in
later days, times_, 2201, 2393.--Comp. ende-dōgor.

dōgor-gerīm, st. n., _series of days_: gen. sg. wæs eall sceacen
dōgor-gerīmes, _the whole number of his days_ (his life) _was past_, 2729.

dōhtor, st. f., _daughter_: nom. acc. sg. dōhtor, 375, 1077, 1930, 1982,

dōm, st. m.: I., _condition, state in general_; in comp. cyne-,
wis-dōm.--II., having reference to justice, hence: 1) _judgment, judicial
opinion_: instr. sg. weotena dōme, _according to the judgment of the
Witan_, 1099. 2) _custom_: æfter dōme, _according to custom_, 1721. 3)
_court, tribunal_: gen. sg. miclan dōmes, 979; oð dōmes dæg, 3070, both
times of the last judgment.--III., _condition of freedom_ or _superiority_,
hence: 4) _choice, free will_: acc. sg. on sīnne sylfes dōm, _according to
his own choice_, 2148; instr. sg. selfes dōme, 896, 2777. 5) _might,
power_: nom. sg. dōm godes, 2859; acc. sg. Eofores ānne dōm, 2965; dat. sg.
drihtnes dōme, 441. 6) _glory, honor, renown_: nom. sg. [dōm], 955; dōm
unlȳtel, _not a little glory_, 886; þæt wæs forma sīð dēorum māðme þæt his
dōm ālæg, _it was the first time to the dear treasure_ (the sword Hrunting)
_that its fame was not made good_, 1529; acc. sg. ic mē dōm gewyrce, _make
renown for myself_, 1492; þæt þū ne ālǣte dōm gedrēosan, _that thou let not
honor fall_, 2667; dat. instr. sg. þǣr hē dōme forlēas, _here he lost his
reputation_, 1471; dōme gewurðad, _adorned with glory_, 1646; gen. sg.
wyrce sē þe mōte dōmes, _let him make himself reputation, whoever is able_,
1389. 7) _splendor_ (in heaven): acc. sōð-fæstra dōm, _the glory of the
saints_, 2821.

dōm-lēas, adj., _without reputation, inglorious_: acc. sg. f. dōmlēasan
dǣd, 2891.

dōn, red. v., _to do, to make, to treat_: 1) absolutely: imp. dōð swā ic
bidde, _do as I beg_, 1232.--2) w. acc.: inf. hēt hire selfre sunu on bǣl
dōn, 1117; pret. þā hē him of dyde īsernbyrnan, _took off the iron
corselet_, 672; (þonne) him Hūnlāfing, ... billa sēlest, on bearm dyde,
_when he made a present to him of Hūnlāfing, the best of swords_, 1145;
dyde him of healse hring gyldenne, _took off the gold ring from his neck_,
2810; nē him þæs wyrmes wīg for wiht dyde, eafoð and ellen, _nor did he
reckon as anything the drake's fighting, power, and strength_, 2349; pl. hī
on beorg dydon bēg and siglu, _placed in the (grave-) mound rings and
ornaments_, 3165.--3) representing preceding verbs: inf. tō Gēatum sprec
mildum wordum! swā sceal man dōn, _as one should do_, 1173; similarly,
1535, 2167; pres. metod eallum wēold, swā hē nū gīt dēð, _the creator ruled
over all, as he still does_, 1059; similarly, 2471, 2860, and (sg. for pl.)
1135; pret. II. swā þū ǣr dydest, 1677; III. swā hē nū gȳt dyde, 957;
similarly, 1382, 1892, 2522; pl. swā hīe oft ǣr dydon, 1239; similarly,
3071. With the case also which the preceding verb governs: wēn' ic þæt hē
wille ... Gēatena lēode etan unforhte, swā hē oft dyde mægen Hrēðmanna, _I
believe he will wish to devour the Gēat people, the fearless, as he often
did_ (devoured) _the bloom of the Hrēðmen_, 444; gif ic þæt gefricge ...
þæt þec ymbesittend egesan þȳwað, swā þec hetende hwīlum dydon, _that the
neighbors distress thee as once the enemy did thee_ (i.e. distressed),
1829; gif ic ōwihte mæg þīnre mōd-lufan māran tilian þonne ic gȳt dyde,
_if I can with anything obtain thy greater love than I have yet done_,
1825; similarly, pl. þonne þā dydon, 44.

ge-dōn, _to do, to make_, with the acc. and predicate adj.: prs. (god)
gedēð him swā gewealdene worolde dǣlas, _makes the parts of the world_
(i.e. the whole world) _so subject that ..._, 1733; inf. nē hyne on
medo-bence micles wyrðne drihten wereda gedōn wolde, _nor would the leader
of the people much honor him at the mead-banquet_, 2187. With adv.: hē mec
þǣr on innan ... gedōn wolde, _wished to place me in there_, 2091.

draca, w. m., _drake, dragon_: nom. sg., 893, 2212; acc. sg. dracan, 2403,
3132; gen. sg., 2089, 2291, 2550.--Comp.: eorð-, fȳr-, lēg-, līg-,

on-drǣdan, st. v., w. acc. of the thing and dat. of the pers., _to fear, to
be afraid of_: inf. þæt þū him on-drǣdan ne þearft ... aldorbealu, _needest
not fear death for them_, 1675; pret. nō hē him þā sæcce ondrēd, _was not
afraid of the combat_, 2348.

ge-dræg (from dragan, in the sense se gerere), st. n., _demeanor, actions_:
acc. sg. sēcan dēofla gedræg, 757.

drepan, st. v., _to hit, to strike_: pret. sg. sweorde drep ferhð-genīðlan,
2881; pret. part. bið on hreðre ... drepen biteran strǣle, _struck in the
breast with piercing arrow_, 1746; wæs in feorh dropen (_fatally hit_),

drepe, st. m., _blow, stroke_: acc. sg. drepe, 1590.

drēfan, ge-drēfan, w. v., _to move, to agitate, to stir up_: inf. gewāt ...
drēfan dēop wæter (_to navigate_), 1905; pret. part. wæter under stōd
drēorig and gedrēfed, 1418.

drēam, st. m., _rejoicing, joyous actions, joy_: nom. sg. hæleða drēam,
497; acc. sg. drēam hlūdne, 88; þū ... drēam healdende, _thou who livest in
rejoicing_ (at the drinking-carouse), _who art joyous_, 1228: dat. instr.
sg. drēame bedǣled, 1276; gen. pl. drēama lēas, 851; dat. pl. drēamum (here
adverbial) lifdon, _lived in rejoicing, joyously_, 99; drēamum bedǣled,
722; the last may refer also to heavenly joys.--Comp. glēo-, gum-, man-,

drēam-lēas, adj., _without rejoicing, joyless_: nom. sg. of King Heremōd,

drēogan, st. v.: 1) _to lead a life, to be in a certain condition_: pret.
drēah æfter dōme, _lived in honor, honorably_, 2180; pret. pl. fyren-þearfe
ongeat, þæt hīe ǣr drugon aldorlēase lange hwile, _(God) had seen the great
distress, (had seen) that they had lived long without a ruler_ (?), 15.--2)
_to experience, to live through, to do, to make, to enjoy_: imp. drēoh
symbelwynne, _pass through the pleasure of the meal, to enjoy the meal_,
1783; inf. driht-scype drēogan (_do a heroic deed_), 1471; pret. sundnytte
drēah (_had the occupation of swimming_, i.e. swam through the sea), 2361;
pret. pl. hīe gewin drugon (_fought_), 799; hī sīð drugon, _made the way,
went_, 1967.--3) _to experience, to bear, to suffer_: scealt werhðo
drēogan, _shall suffer damnation_, 590; pret. þegn-sorge drēah, _bore
sorrow for his heroes_, 131; nearoþearfe drēah, 422; pret. pl. inwidsorge
þē hīe ǣr drugon, 832; similarly, 1859.

ā-drēogan, _to suffer, to endure_: inf. wrǣc ādrēogan, 3079.

ge-drēogan, _to live through, to enjoy_, pret. part. þæt hē ... gedrogen
hæfde eorðan wynne, _that he had now enjoyed the pleasures of earth_ (i.e.
that he was at his death), 2727.

drēor, st. m., _blood dropping or flowing from wounds_: instr. sg. drēore,
447.--Comp. heoru-, sāwul-, wæl-drēor.

drēor-fāh, adj., _colored with blood, spotted with blood_: nom. sg. 485.

drēorig, adj., _bloody, bleeding_: nom. sg. wæter stōd drēorig, 1418; acc.
sg. dryhten sīnne drīorigne fand, 2790.--Comp. heoru-drēorig.

ge-drēosan, st. v., _to fall down, to sink_: pres. sg. III. līc-homa lǣne
gedrēoseð, _the body, belonging to death, sinks down_, 1755; inf. þæt þū ne
ālǣte dōm gedrēosan, _honor fall, sink_, 2667.

drincan, st. v., _to drink_ (with and without the acc.): pres. part. nom.
pl. ealo drincende, 1946; pret. blōd ēdrum dranc, _drank the blood in
streams_(?), 743; pret. pl. druncon wīn weras, _the men drank wine_, 1234;
þǣr guman druncon, _where the men drank_, 1649. The pret. part., when it
stands absolutely, has an active sense: nom. pl. druncne dryhtguman, _ye
warriors who have drunk, are drinking_, 1232; acc. pl. nealles druncne slōg
heorð-genēatas, _slew not his hearth-companions who had drunk with him_,
i.e. at the banquet, 2180. With the instr. it means _drunken_: nom. sg.
bēore (wīne) druncen, 531, 1468; nom. pl. bēore druncne, 480.

drīfan, st. v., _to drive_: pres. pl. þā þe brentingas ofer flōda genipu
feorran drīfað, _who drive their ships thither from afar over the darkness
of the sea_, 2809; inf. (w. acc.) þēah þe hē [ne] meahte on mere drīfan
hringedstefnan, _although he could not drive the ship on the sea_, 1131.

to-drīfan, _to drive apart, to disperse_: pret. oð þæt unc flōd tōdrāf,

drohtoð, st. m., _mode of living_ or _acting, calling, employment_: nom.
sg. ne wæs his drohtoð þǣr swylce hē ǣr gemētte, _there was no employment
for him_ (Grendel) _there such as he had found formerly_, 757.

drūsian, w. v. (cf. drēosan, properly, _to be ready to fall_; here of
water), _to stagnate, to be putrid_. pret. lagu drūsade (through the blood
of Grendel and his mother), 1631.

dryht, driht, st. f., _company, troop, band of warriors; noble band_: in
comp. mago-driht.

ge-dryht, ge-driht, st. f., _troop, band of noble warriors_: nom. sg. mīnra
eorla gedryht, 431; acc. sg. æðelinga gedriht, 118; mid his eorla (hæleða)
gedriht (gedryht), 357, 663; similarly, 634, 1673.--Comp. sibbe-gedriht.

dryht-bearn, st. n., _youth from a noble warrior band, noble young man_:
nom. sg. dryhtbearn Dena, 2036.

dryhten, drihten, st. m., _commander, lord_: a) _temporal lord_: nom. sg.
dryhten, 1485, 2001, etc.; drihten, 1051; dat. dryhtne, 2483, etc.;
dryhten, 1832.--b) _God_: nom. drihten, 108, etc.; dryhten, 687, etc.; dat.
sg. dryhtne, 1693, etc.; drihtne, 1399, etc.; gen. sg. dryhtnes, 441;
drihtnes, 941.--Comp.: frēa-, frēo-, gum-, man-, sige-, wine-dryhten.

dryht-guma, w. m., _one of a troop of warriors, noble warrior_: dat. sg.
drihtguman, 1389; nom. pl. drihtguman, 99; dryhtguman, 1232; dat. pl. ofer
dryhtgumum, 1791 (of Hrōðgār's warriors).

dryht-līc, adj., _(that which befits a noble troop of warriors), noble,
excellent_: dryhtlīc īren, _excellent sword_, 893; acc. sg. f. (with an
acc. sg. n.) drihtlīce wīf (of Hildeburh), 1159.

dryht-māðum, st. m., _excellent jewel, splendid treasure_: gen. pl.
dryhtmāðma, 2844.

dryht-scipe, st. m., _(lord-ship) warlike virtue, bravery; heroic deed_:
acc. sg. drihtscype drēogan, _to do a heroic deed_, 1471.

dryht-sele, st. m., _excellent, splendid hall_: nom. sg. driht-sele, 485;
dryhtsele, 768; acc. sg. dryhtsele, 2321.

dryht-sib, st. f., _peace_ or _friendship between troops of noble
warriors_: gen. sg. dryhtsibbe, 2069.

drync, st. m., _drink_: in comp. heoru-drync.

drync-fæt, st. n., _vessel for drink, to receive the drink_: acc. sg.,
2255; drinc-fæt, 2307.

drysmian, w. v., _to become obscure, gloomy_ (through the falling rain):
pres. sg. III. lyft drysmað, 1376.

drysne, adj. See on-drysne.

dugan, v., _to avail, to be capable, to be good_: pres. sg. III. hūru se
aldor dēah, _especially is the prince capable_, 369; ðonne his ellen dēah,
_if his strength avails, is good_, 573; þē him selfa dēah, _who is capable
of himself, who can rely on himself_, 1840; pres. subj. þēah þīn wit duge,
_though, indeed, your understanding be good, avail_, 590; similarly, 1661,
2032; pret. sg. þū ūs wēl dohtest, _you did us good, conducted yourself
well towards us_, 1822; similarly, nū sēo hand ligeð sē þe ēow welhwylcra
wilna dohte, _which was helpful to each one of your desires_, 1345; pret.
subj. þēah þū heaðorǣsa gehwǣr dohte, _though thou wast everywhere strong
in battle_, 526.

duguð (_state of being fit, capable_), st. f.: 1) _capability, strength_:
dat. pl. for dugeðum, _in ability_(?), 2502; duguðum dēmdon, _praised with
all their might_(?), 3176.--2) _men capable of bearing arms, band of
warriors_, esp., _noble warriors_: nom. sg. duguð unlȳtel, 498; duguð,
1791, 2255; dat. sg. for duguðe, _before the heroes_, 2021; nalles frætwe
geaf ealdor duguðe, _gave the band of heroes no treasure_ (more), 2921;
lēoda duguðe on lāst, _upon the track of the heroes of the people_, i.e.
after them, 2946; gen. sg. cūðe hē duguðe þēaw, _the custom of the noble
warriors_, 359; dēorre duguðe, 488; similarly, 2239, 2659; acc. pl. duguða,
2036.--3) contrasted with geogoð, duguð designates the noted warriors of
noble birth (as in the Middle Ages, knights in contrast with squires): so
gen. sg. duguðe and geogoðe, 160; gehwylc ... duguðe and iogoðe, 1675;
duguðe and geogoðe dǣl ǣghwylcne, 622.

durran, v. pret. and pres. _to dare_; prs. sg. II. þū dearst bīdan, _darest
to await_, 527; III. hē gesēcean dear, 685; pres. subj. sēc gyf þū dyrre,
_seek_ (Grendel's mother), _if thou dare_, 1380; pret. dorste, 1463, 1469,
etc.; pl. dorston, 2849.

duru, st. f., _door, gate, wicket_: nom. sg., 722; acc. sg. [duru], 389.

ge-dūfan, st. v., _to dip in, to sink into_: pret. þæt sweord gedēaf (_the
sword sank into the drake_, of a blow), 2701.

þurh-dūfan, _to dive through; to swim through, diving_: pret. wæter up
þurh-dēaf, _swam through the water upwards_ (because he was before at the
bottom), 1620.

dwellan, w. v., _to mislead, to hinder_: prs. III. nō hine wiht dweleð, ādl
nē yldo, _him nothing misleads, neither sickness nor age_, 1736.

dyhtig, adj., _useful, good for_: nom. sg. n. sweord ... ecgum dyhtig,

dynnan, w. v., _to sound, to groan, to roar_: pret. dryhtsele (healwudu,
hrūse) dynede, 768, 1318, 2559.

dyrne, adj.: 1) _concealed, secret, retired_: nom. sg. dyrne, 271; acc. sg.
dryhtsele dyrnne (of the drake's cave-hall), 2321.--2) _secret, malicious,
hidden by sorcery_: dat. instr. sg. dyrnan cræfte, _with secret magic art_,
2291; dyrnum cræfte, 2169; gen. pl. dyrnra gāsta, _of malicious spirits_
(of Grendel's kin), 1358.--Comp. un-dyrne.

dyrne, adv., _in secret, secretly_: him ...æfter dēorum men dyrne langað,
_longs in secret for the dear man_, 1880.

dyrstig, adj., _bold, daring_: þēah þe hē dǣda gehwæs dyrstig wǣre,
_although he had been courageous for every deed_, 2839.

ge-dȳgan, ge-dīgan, w. v., _to endure, to overcome_, with the acc. of the
thing endured: pres. sg. II. gif þū þæt ellenweorc aldre gedīgest, _if thou
survivest the heroic work with thy life_, 662; III. þæt þone hilderǣs hāl
gedīgeð, _that he survives the battle in safety_, 300; similarly, inf.
unfǣge gedīgan wēan and wræcsīð, 2293; hwæðer sēl mǣge wunde gedȳgan,
_which of the two can stand the wounds better_ (come off with life), 2532;
ne meahte unbyrnende dēop gedȳgan, _could not endure the deep without
burning_ (could not hold out in the deep), 2550; pret. sg. I. III.
ge-dīgde, 578, 1656, 2351, 2544.

dȳgol. See dēogol.

dȳre. See dēore.


ecg, st. f., _edge of the sword, point_: nom. sg. sweordes ecg, 1107; ecg,
1525, etc.; acc. sg. wið ord and wið ecge ingang forstōd, _defended the
entrance against point and edge_ (i.e. against spear and sword), 1550;
mēces ecge, 1813; nom. pl. ecge, 1146.--_Sword, battle-axe, any cutting
weapon_: nom. sg. ne wæs ecg bona (_not the sword killed him_), 2507; sīo
ecg brūn (Bēowulf's sword Nægling), 2578; hyne ecg fornam, _the sword
snatched him away_, 2773, etc.; nom. pl. ecga, 2829; dat. pl. æscum and
ecgum, 1773; dat. pl. (but denoting only one sword) ēacnum ecgum, 2141;
gen. pl. ecga, 483, 806, 1169;--_blade_: ecg wæs īren, 1460.--Comp.: brūn-,
heard-, stȳl-ecg, adj.

ecg-bana, w. m., _murderer by the sword_: dat. sg. Cain wearð tō ecg-banan
āngan brēðer, 1263.

ecg-hete, st. m., _sword-hate, enmity which the sword carries out_: nom.
sg., 84, 1739.

ecg-þracu, st. f., _sword-storm_ (of violent combat): acc. atole ecg-þræce,

ed-hwyrft, st. m., _return_ (of a former condition): þā þǣr sōna wearð
edhwyrft eorlum, siððan inne fealh Grendles mōdor (i.e. after Grendel's
mother had penetrated into the hall, the former perilous condition, of the
time of the visits of Grendel, returned to the men), 1282.

ed-wendan, w. v., _to turn back, to yield, to leave off_: inf. gyf him
edwendan ǣfre scolde bealuwa bisigu, _if for him the affliction of evil
should ever cease_, 280.

ed-wenden, st. f., _turning, change_: nom. sg. edwenden, 1775; ed-wenden
torna gehwylces (_reparation for former neglect_), 2189.

edwīt-līf, st. n., _life in disgrace_: nom. sg., 2892.

efn, adj., _even, like_, with preceding on, and with depend. dat., _upon
the same level, near_: him on efn ligeð ealdorgewinna, _lies near him_,

efnan (see æfnan) w. v., _to carry out, to perform, to accomplish_: pres.
subj. eorlscype efne (_accomplish knightly deeds_), 2536; inf. eorlscipe
efnan, 2623; sweorda gelāc efnan (_to battle_), 1042; gerund. tō efnanne,
1942; pret. eorlscipe efnde, 2134, 3008.

efne, adv., _even, exactly, precisely, just_, united with swā or swylc:
efne swā swīðe swā, _just so much as_, 1093; efne swā sīde swā, 1224; wæs
se gryre lǣssa efne swā micle swā, _by so much the less as ..._, 1284;
lēoht inne stōd efne swā ... scīneð, _a gleam stood therein_ (in the sword)
_just as when ... shines_, 1572; efne swā hwylc mægða swā þone magan cende
(_a woman who has borne such a son_), 944; efne swā hwylcum manna swā him
gemet þūhte, _to just such a man as seemed good to him_, 3058; efne swylce
mǣla swylce ... þearf gesǣlde, _just at the times at which necessity
commanded it_, 1250.

efstan, w. v., _to be in haste, to hasten_: inf. uton nū efstan, _let us
hurry now_, 3102; pret. efste mid elne, _hastened with heroic strength_,

eft, adv.: l) _thereupon, afterwards_: 56, 1147, 2112, 3047, etc.; eft sōna
bið, _then it happens immediately_, 1763; bōt eft cuman, _help come again_,
281.--2) _again, on the other side_: þæt hine on ylde eft gewunigen
wilgesīðas, _that in old age again_ (also on their side) _willing
companions should be attached to him_, 22;--_anew, again_: 135, 604, 693,
1557, etc.; eft swā ǣr, _again as formerly_, 643.--3) retro, rursus,
_back_: 123, 296, 854, etc.; þæt hig æðelinges eft ne wēndon (_did not
believe that he would come back_), 1597.

eft-cyme, st. m., _return_: gen. sg. eftcymes, 2897.

eft-sīð, st. m., _journey back, return_: acc. sg. 1892; gen. sg. eft-sīðes
georn, 2784; acc. pl. eftsīðas tēah, _went the road back_, i.e. returned,

egesa, egsa (_state of terror_, active or passive): l) _frightfulness_:
acc. sg. þurh egsan, 276; gen. egesan ne gȳmeð, _cares for nothing
terrible, is not troubled about future terrors_(?), 1758.--2) _terror,
horror, fear_: nom. sg. egesa, 785; instr. sg. egesan, 1828, 2737.--Comp.:
glēd-, līg-, wæter-egesa.

eges-full, adj., _horrible (full of fear, fearful)_, 2930.

eges-līc, adj., _terrible, bringing terror_: of Grendel's head, 1650; of
the beginning of the fight with the drake, 2310; of the drake, 2826.

egle, adj., _causing aversion, hideous_: nom. pl. neut., or, more probably,
perhaps, adverbial, egle (MS. egl), 988.

egsian (denominative from egesa), w. v., _to have terror, distress_: pret.
(as pluperf.) egsode eorl(?), 6.

ehtian, w. v., _to esteem, to make prominent with praise_: III. pl. pres.
þæt þē ... weras ehtigað, _that thee men shall esteem, praise_, 1223.

elde (_those who generate_, cf. O.N. al-a, generare), st. m. only in the
pl., _men_: dat. pl. eldum, 2215; mid eldum, _among men_, 2612.--See ylde.

eldo, st. f., _age_: instr. sg. eldo gebunden, 2112.

el-land, st. n., _foreign land, exile_: acc. sg. sceall ... elland tredan,
(_shall be banished_), 3020.

ellen, st. n., _strength, heroic strength, bravery_: nom. sg. ellen, 573;
eafoð and ellen, 903; Gēata ... eafoð and ellen, 603; acc. sg. eafoð and
ellen, 2350; ellen cȳðan, _show bravery_, 2696; ellen fremedon, _exercised
heroic strength, did heroic deeds_, 3; similarly, ic gefremman sceal eorlīc
ellen, 638; ferh ellen wræc, _life drove out the strength_, i.e. with the
departing life (of the dragon) his strength left him, 2707; dat. sg. on
elne, 2507, 2817; as instr. þā wæs æt þām geongum grim andswaru ēðbegēte
þām þe ǣr his elne forlēas, _then it was easy for_ (every one of) _those
who before had lost his hero-courage, to obtain rough words from the young
man_ (Wīglāf), 2862; mid elne, 1494, 2536; elne, alone, in adverbial sense,
_strongly, zealously_, and with the nearly related meaning, _hurriedly,
transiently_, 894, 1098, 1968, 2677, 2918; gen. sg. elnes læt, 1530; þā him
wæs elnes þearf, 2877.--Comp. mægen-ellen.

ellen-dǣd, st. f., _heroic deed_: dat. pl. -dǣdum, 877, 901.

ellen-gǣst, st. m., _strength-spirit, demon with heroic strength_: nom. sg.
of Grendel, 86.

ellen-līce, adv., _strongly, with heroic strength_, 2123.

ellen-mǣrðu, st. f., _renown of heroic strength_, dat. pl. -mǣrðum, 829,

ellen-rōf, adj., _renowned for strength_: nom. sg. 340, 358, 3064; dat. pl.
-rōfum, 1788.

ellen-sēoc, adj., _infirm in strength_: acc. sg. þēoden ellensīocne (_the
mortally wounded king, Bēowulf_), 2788.

ellen-weorc, st. n., (_strength-work_), _heroic deed, achievement in
battle_: acc. sg. 662, 959, 1465, etc.; gen. pl. ellen-weorca, 2400.

elles, adv., _else, otherwise_: a (modal), _in another manner_, 2521.--b
(local), elles hwǣr, _somewhere else_, 138; elles hwergen, 2591.

ellor, adv., _to some other place_, 55, 2255.

ellor-gāst, -gǣst, st. m., _spirit living elsewhere_ (standing outside of
the community of mankind): nom. sg. se ellorgāst (Grendel), 808; (Grendel's
mother), 1622; ellorgǣst (Grendel's mother), 1618; acc. pl. ellorgǣstas,

ellor-sīð, st. m., _departure, death_: nom. sg. 2452.

elra, adj. (comparative of a not existing form, ele, Goth. aljis, alius),
_another_: dat. sg. on elran men, 753.

el-þēodig, adj., _of another people: foreign_: acc. pl. el-þēodige men,

ende, st. m., _the extreme_: hence, 1) _end_: nom. sg. aldres (līfes) ende,
823, 2845; oð þæt ende becwōm (scil. unrihtes), 1255; acc. sg. ende
līfgesceafta (līfes, lǣn-daga), 3064, 1387, 2343; hæfde eorðscrafa ende
genyttod, _had used the end of the earth-caves_ (had made use of the caves
for the last time), 3047; dat. sg. ealdres (līfes) æt ende, 2791, 2824;
eoletes æt ende, 224.--2) _boundary_: acc. sg. sīde rīce þæt hē his selfa
ne mæg ... ende geþencean, _the wide realm, so that he himself cannot
comprehend its boundaries_, 1735.--3) _summit, head_: dat. sg. eorlum on
ende, _to the nobles at the end_ (the highest courtiers), 2022.--Comp.

ende-dæg, st. m., _last day, day of death_: nom. sg. 3036; acc. sg. 638.

ende-dōgor, st. m., _last day, day of death_: gen. sg. bēga on wēnum
endedōgores and eftcymes lēotes monnes (_hesitating between the belief in
the death and in the return of the dear man_), 2897.

ende-lāf, st. f., _last remnant_: nom. sg. þū eart ende-lāf ūsses cynnes,
_art the last of our race_, 2814.

ende-lēan, st. n., _final reparation_: acc. sg. 1693.

ende-sǣta, w. m., _he who sits on the border, boundary-guard_: nom. sg.
(here of the strand-watchman), 241.

ende-stæf, st. m. (elementum finis), _end_: acc. sg. hit on endestæf eft
gelimpeð, _then it draws near to the end_, 1754.

ge-endian, w. v., _to end_: pret. part. ge-endod, 2312.

enge, adj., _narrow_: acc. pl. enge ānpaðas, _narrow paths_, 1411.

ent, st. m., _giant_: gen. pl. enta ǣr-geweorc (the sword-hilt out of the
dwelling-place of Grendel), 1680; enta geweorc (the dragon's cave), 2718;
eald-enta ǣr-geweorc (the costly things in the dragon's cave), 2775.

entisc, adj., _coming from giants_: acc. sg. entiscne helm, 2980.

etan, st. v., _to eat, to consume_: pres. sg. III. blōdig wæl ... eteð
ān-genga, _he that goes alone_ (Grendel) _will devour the bloody corpse_,
448; inf. Gēatena lēode ... etan, 444.

þurh-etan, _to eat through_: pret. part. pl. nom. swyrd ... þurhetone,
_swords eaten through_ (by rust), 3050.


ēc. See ēac.

ēce, adj., _everlasting_; nom. ēce drihten (God), 108; acc. sg. ēce
eorðreced, _the everlasting earth-hall_ (the dragon's cave), 2720; gecēas
ēcne rǣd, _chose the everlasting gain_ (died), 1202; dat. sg. ēcean
dryhtne, 1693, 1780, 2331; acc. pl. gecēos ēce rǣdas, 1761.

ēdre. See ǣdre.

ēð-begēte, adj., _easy to obtain, ready_: nom. sg. þā wæs æt þām geongum
grim andswaru ēð-begēte, _then from the young man_ (Wīglāf) _it was an easy
thing to get a gruff answer_, 2862.

ēðe. See ēaðe.

ēðel, st. m., _hereditary possessions, hereditary estate_: acc. sg. swǣsne
ēðel, 520; dat. sg. on ēðle, 1731.--In royal families the hereditary
possession is the whole realm: hence, acc. sg. ēðel Scyldinga, _of the
kingdom of the Scyldings_, 914; (Offa) wīsdōme hēold ēðel sīnne, _ruled
with wisdom his inherited kingdom_, 1961.

ēðel-riht, st. n., _hereditary privileges_ (rights that belong to a
hereditary estate): nom. sg. eard ēðel-riht, _estate and inherited
privileges_, 2199.

ēðel-stōl, st. m., _hereditary seat, inherited throne_: acc. pl.
ēðel-stōlas, 2372.

ēðel-turf, st. f., _inherited ground, hereditary estate_: dat. sg. on mīnre
ēðeltyrf, 410.

ēðel-weard, st. m., _lord of the hereditary estate_ (realm): nom. sg.
ēðelweard (_king_), 1703, 2211; dat. sg. Ēast-Dena ēðel wearde (King
Hrōðgār), 617.

ēðel-wyn, st. f., _joy in_, or _enjoyment of, hereditary possessions_: nom.
sg. nū sceal ... eall ēðelwyn ēowrum cynne, lufen ālicgean, _now shall your
race want all home-joy, and subsistence_(?) (your race shall be banished
from its hereditary abode), 2886; acc. sg. hē mē lond forgeaf, eard
ēðelwyn, _presented me with land, abode, and the enjoyment of home_, 2494.

ēð-gesȳne, ȳð-gesēne, adj., _easy to see, visible to all_: nom. sg. 1111,

ēg-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff_: acc. sg. ofer ēg-clif (ecg-clif, MS.), 2894.

ēg-strēam, st. m., _sea-stream, sea-flood_: dat. pl. on ēg-strēamum, _in
the sea-floods_, 577. See ēagor-strēam.

ēhtan (M.H.G. ǣchten; cf. ǣht and ge-æhtla), w. v. w. gen., _to be a
pursuer, to pursue_: pres. part. ǣglǣca ēhtende wæs duguðe and geogoðe,
159; pret. pl. ēhton āglǣcan, _they pursued the bringer of sorrow_
(Bēowulf)(?), 1513.

ēst, st. m. f., _favor, grace, kindness_: acc. sg. hē him ēst getēah mēara
and māðma (_honored him with horses and jewels_), 2166; gearwor hæfde
āgendes ēst ǣr gescēawod, _would rather have seen the grace of the Lord_
(of God) _sooner_, 3076.--dat. pl., adverbial, libenter: him on folce
hēold, ēstum mid āre, 2379; ēstum geȳwan (_to present_), 2150; him wæs ...
wunden gold ēstum geēawed (_presented_), 1195; wē þæt ellenweorc ēstum
miclum fremedon, 959.

ēste, adj., _gracious_: w. gen. ēste bearn-gebyrdo, _gracious through the
birth_ (of such a son as Bēowulf), 946.


eafoð, st. n., _power, strength_: nom, sg. eafoð and ellen, 603, 903; acc.
sg. eafoð and ellen, 2350; wē frēcne genēðdon eafoð uncūðes, _we have
boldly ventured against the strength of the enemy_ (Grendel) _have
withstood him_, 961; gen. sg. eafoðes cræftig, 1467; þæt þec ādl oððe ecg
eafoðes getwǣfed, _shall rob of strength_, 1764; dat. pl. hine mihtig god
... eafeðum stēpte, _made him great through strength_, 1718.

eafor, st. m., _boar_; here the image of the boar as banner: acc. sg.
eafor, 2153.

eafora (_offspring_), w. m.: 1) _son_: nom. sg. eafera, 12, 898; eafora,
375; acc. sg. eaferan, 1548, 1848; gen. sg. eafera, 19; nom. pl. eaferan,
2476; dat. pl. eaferum, 1069, 2471; uncran eaferan, 1186.--2) in broader
sense, _successor_: dat. pl. eaforum, 1711.

eahta, num., _eight_: acc. pl. eahta mēaras, 1036; ēode eahta sum, _went as
one of eight, with seven others_, 3124.

eahtian, w. v.: 1) _to consider; to deliberate_: pret. pl. w. acc. rǣd
eahtedon, _consulted about help_, 172; pret. sg. (for the plural) þone
sēlestan þāra þe mid Hrōðgāre hām eahtode, _the best one of those who with
Hrōðgār deliberated about their home_ (ruled), 1408.--2) _to speak with
reflection of_ (along with the idea of praise): pret. pl. eahtodan
eorlscipe, _spoke of his noble character_, 3175.

eal, eall, adj., _all, whole_: nom. sg. werod eall, 652; pl. eal bencþelu,
486; sg. eall ēðelwyn, 2886; eal worold, 1739, etc.; þæt hit wearð eal
gearo, healærna mǣst, 77; þæt hit (wīgbil) eal gemealt, 1609. And with a
following genitive: þǣr wæs eal geador Grendles grāpe, _there was all
together Grendel's hand, the whole hand of Grendel_, 836; eall ... lissa,
_all favor_, 2150; wæs eall sceacen dōgorgerīmes, 2728. With apposition:
þūhte him eall tō rūm, wongas and wīcstede, 2462; acc. sg. bēot eal, 523;
similarly, 2018, 2081; oncȳððe ealle, _all distress_, 831; heals ealne,
2692; hlǣw ... ealne ūtan-weardne, 2298; gif hē þæt eal gemon, 1186, 2428;
þæt eall geondseh, recedes geatwa, 3089; ealne wīde-ferhð, _through the
whole wide life, through all time_, 1223; instr. sg. ealle mægene, _with
all strength_, 2668; dat. sg. eallum ... manna cynne, 914; gen. sg. ealles
moncynnes, 1956. Subst. ic þæs ealles mæg ... gefēan habban, 2740; brūc
ealles well, 2163; frēan ealles þanc secge, _give thanks to the Lord of
all_, 2795; nom. pl. untȳdras ealle, 111; scēotend ... ealle, 706; wē
ealle, 942; acc. pl. fēond ealle, 700; similarly, 1081, 1797, 2815; subst.
ofer ealle, 650; ealle hīe dēað fornam, 2237; līg ealle forswealg þāra þe
þǣr gūð fornam, _all of those whom the war had snatched away_, 1123; dat.
pl. eallum ceaster-būendum, 768; similarly, 824, 907, 1418; subst. āna wið
eallum, _one against all_, 145; with gen. eallum gumena cynnes, 1058; gen.
pl. æðelinga bearn ealra twelfa, _the kinsmen of all twelve nobles_ (twelve
nobles hold the highest positions of the court), 3172; subst. hē āh ealra
geweald, _has power over all_, 1728.

Uninflected: bil eal þurhwōd flǣschoman, _the battle-axe cleft the body
through and through_, 1568; hæfde ... eal gefeormod fēt and folma, _had
devoured entirely feet and hands_, 745; sē þe eall geman gār-cwealm gumena,
_who remembers thoroughly the death of the men by the spear_, 2043, etc.

Adverbial: þēah ic eal mǣge, _although I am entirely able_, 681; hī on
beorg dydon bēg and siglu eall swylce hyrsta, _they placed in the
grave-mound rings, and ornaments, all such adornments_, 3165.--The gen. sg.
ealles, adverbial in the sense of _entirely_, 1001, 1130.

eald, adj., _old_: a) of the age of living beings: nom. sg. eald, 357,
1703, 2211, etc.; dat. sg. ealdum, 2973; gen. sg. ealdes ūhtflogan
(_dragon_), 2761; dat. sg. ealdum, 1875; geongum and ealdum, 72.--b) of
things and of institutions: nom. sg. helm monig eald and ōmig, 2764; acc.
sg. ealde lāfe (_sword_), 796, 1489; ealde wīsan, 1866; eald sweord, 1559,
1664, etc.; eald gewin, _old_ (lasting years), _distress_, 1782; eald enta
geweorc (_the precious things in the drake's cave_), 2775; acc. pl. ealde
māðmas, 472; ofer ealde riht, _against the old laws_ (namely, the Ten
Commandments; Bēowulf believes that God has sent him the drake as a
punishment, because he has unconsciously, at some time, violated one of the
commandments), 2331.

yldra, compar. _older_: mīn yldra mǣg, 468; yldra brōðor, 1325; oð þæt hē
(Heardrēd) yldra wearð, 2379.

yldesta, superl. _oldest_, in the usual sense; dat. sg. þām yldestan, 2436;
in a moral sense, _the most respected_: nom. sg. se yldesta, 258; acc. sg.
þone yldestan, 363, both times of Bēowulf.

eald-fæder, st. m., _old-father, grandfather, ancestor_: nom. sg. 373.

eald-gesegen, st. f., _traditions from old times_: gen. pl. eal-fela
eald-gesegena, _very many of the old traditions_, 870.

eald-gesīð, st. m., _companion ever since old times, courtier for many
years_: nom. pl. eald-gesīðas, 854.

eald-gestrēon, st. n., _treasure out of the old times_: dat. pl.
eald-gestrēonum, 1382; gen. pl. -gestrēona, 1459.

eald-gewinna, w. m., _old-enemy, enemy for many years_: nom. sg. of
Grendel, 1777.

eald-gewyrht, st. n., _merit on account of services rendered during many
years_: nom. pl. þæt nǣron eald-gewyrht, þæt hē āna scyle gnorn þrowian,
_that has not been his desert ever since long ago, that he should bear the
distress alone_, 2658.

eald-hlāford, st. m., _lord through many years_: gen. sg. bill
eald-hlāfordes (of the old Bēowulf(?)), 2779.

eald-metod, st. m., _God ruling ever since ancient times_: nom. sg. 946.

ealdor, aldor, st. m., _lord, chief_ (king or powerful noble): nom. sg.
ealdor, 1645, 1849, 2921; aldor, 56, 369, 392; acc. sg. aldor, 669; dat.
sg. ealdre, 593; aldre, 346.

ealdor, aldor, st. n., _life_: acc. sg. aldor, 1372; dat. sg. aldre, 1448,
1525; ealdre, 2600; him on aldre stōd herestrǣl hearda (in vitalibus),
1435; nalles for ealdre mearn, _was not troubled about his life_, 1443; of
ealdre gewāt, _went out of life, died_, 2625; as instr. aldre, 662, 681,
etc.; ealdre, 1656, 2134, etc.; gen. sg. aldres, 823; ealdres, 2791, 2444;
aldres orwēna, _despairing of life_, 1003, 1566; ealdres scyldig, _having
forfeited life_, 1339, 2062; dat. pl. aldrum nēðdon, 510, 538.--Phrases: on
aldre (_in life_), _ever_, 1780; tō aldre (_for life_), _always_, 2006,
2499; āwa tō aldre, _for ever and ever_, 956.

ealdor-bealu, st. n., _life's evil_: acc. sg. þū ... ondrǣdan ne þearft ...
aldorbealu eorlum, _thou needest not fear death for the courtiers_, 1677.

ealdor-cearu, st. f., _trouble that endangers life, great trouble_: dat.
sg. hē his lēodum wearð ... tō aldor-ceare, 907.

ealdor-dagas, st. m. pl., _days of one's life_: dat. pl. nǣfre on
aldor-dagum (_never in his life_), 719; on ealder-dagum ǣr (_in former
days_), 758.

ealdor-gedāl, st. n., _severing of life, death, end_: nom. sg. aldor-gedāl,

ealdor-gewinna, w. m., _life-enemy, one who strives to take his enemy's
life_ (in N.H.G. the contrary conception, Tod-feind): nom. sg.
ealdorgewinna (_the dragon_), 2904.

ealdor-lēas, adj., _without a ruler_(?): nom. pl. aldor-lēase, 15.

ealdor-lēas, adj., _lifeless, dead_: acc. sg. aldor-lēasne, 1588;
ealdor-lēasne, 3004.

ealdor-þegn, st. m., _nobleman at the court, distinguished courtier_: acc.
sg. aldor-þegn (Hrōðgār's confidential adviser, Æschere), 1309.

eal-fela, adj., _very much_: with following gen., eal-fela eald-gesegena,
_very many old traditions_, 870; eal-fela eotena cynnes, 884.

ealgian, w. v., _to shield, to defend, to protect_: inf. w. acc. feorh
ealgian, 797, 2656, 2669; pret. siððan hē (Hygelāc) under segne sinc
eal-gode, wælrēaf werede, _while under his banner he protected the
treasures, defended the spoil of battle_ (i.e. while he was upon the Viking
expeditions), 1205.

eal-gylden, adj., _all golden, entirely of gold_: nom. sg. swȳn ealgylden,
1112; acc. sg. segn eallgylden, 2768.

eal-īrenne, adj., _entirely of iron_: acc. sg. eall-īrenne wīgbord, _a
wholly iron battle-shield_, 2339.

ealu, st. n., _ale, beer_: acc. sg. ealo drincende, 1946.

ealu-benc, st. f., _ale-bench, bench for those drinking ale_: dat. sg. in
ealo-bence, 1030; on ealu-bence, 2868.

ealu-scerwen, st. f., _terror_, under the figure of a mishap at an
ale-drinking, probably the sudden taking away of the ale: nom. sg. Denum
eallum wearð ... ealuscerwen, 770.

ealu-wǣge, st. n., _ale-can, portable vessel out of which ale is poured
into the cups_: acc. sg. 2022; hroden ealowǣge, 495; dat. sg. ofer ealowǣge
(_at the ale-carouse_), 481.

eal-wealda, w. adj., _all ruling_ (God): nom. sg. fæder alwalda, 316;
alwalda, 956, 1315; dat. sg. al-wealdan, 929.

eard, st. m., _cultivated ground, estate, hereditary estate_; in a broader
sense, _ground in general, abode, place of sojourn_: nom. sg. him wæs bām
... lond gecynde, eard ēðel-riht, _the land was bequeathed to them both,
the land and the privileges attached to it._ 2199; acc. sg. fīfel-cynnes
eard, _the ground of the giant race, place of sojourn_, 104; similarly,
ælwihta eard, 1501; eard gemunde, _thought of his native ground, his home_,
1130; eard gīt ne const, _thou knowest not yet the place of sojourn._ 1378;
eard and eorlscipe, _prǣdium et nobilitatem_, 1728; eard ēðelwyn, _land and
the enjoyment of home_, 2494; dat. sg. ellor hwearf of earde, _went
elsewhere from his place of abode_, i.e. died, 56; þæt wē rondas beren eft
tō earde, _that we go again to our homes_, 2655; on earde, 2737; nom. pl.
ēacne eardas, _the broad expanses_ (in the fen-sea where Grendel's home
was), 1622.

eardian, w. v.: 1) _to have a dwelling-place, to live; to rest_: pret. pl.
dȳre swyrd swā hīe wið eorðan fæðm þǣr eardodon, _costly swords, as they
had rested in the earth's bosom_, 3051.--2) also transitively, _to
inhabit_: pret. sg. Heorot eardode, 166; inf. wīc eardian elles hwergen,
_inhabit a place elsewhere_ (i.e. die), 2590.

eard-lufa, w. m., _the living upon one's land, home-life_: acc. sg.
eard-lufan, 693.

earfoð, st. n., _trouble, difficulty, struggle_: acc. pl. earfeðo, 534.

earfoð-līce, adv., _with trouble, with difficulty_, 1637, 1658; _with
vexation, angrily_, 86; _sorrowfully_, 2823; _with difficulty, scarcely_,
2304, 2935.

earfoð-þrāg, st. f., _time full of troubles, sorrowful time_: acc. sg.
-þrāge, 283.

earh, adj., _cowardly_: gen. sg. ne bið swylc earges sīð (_no coward
undertaken that_), 2542.

earm, st. m., _arm_: acc. sg. earm, 836, 973; wið earm gesæt, _supported
himself with his arm_, 750; dat. pl. earmum, 513.

earm, adj., _poor, miserable, unhappy_: nom. sg. earm, 2369; earme ides,
_the unhappy woman_, 1118; dat. sg. earmre teohhe, _the unhappy band_,
2939.--Comp. acc. sg. earmran mannan, _a more wretched, more forsaken man_,

earm-bēag, st. m., _arm-ring, bracelet_: gen. pl. earm-bēaga fela searwum
gesǣled, _many arm-rings interlaced_, 2764.

earm-hrēad, st. f., _arm-ornament_. nom. pl. earm-hrēade twā, 1195 (Grein's
conjecture, MS. earm reade).

earm-līc, adj., _wretched, miserable_: nom. sg. sceolde his ealdor-gedāl
earmlīc wurðan, _his end should be wretched_, 808.

earm-sceapen, pret. part. as adj. (_properly, wretched by the decree of
fate_), _wretched_: nom. sg. 1352.

earn, st. m., _eagle_: dat. sg. earne, 3027.

eatol. See atol.

eaxl, st. f., _shoulder_: acc. sg. eaxle, 836, 973; dat. sg. on eaxle, 817,
1548; be eaxle, 1538; on eaxle ides gnornode, _the woman sobbed on the
shoulder_ (of her son, who has fallen and is being burnt), 1118; dat. pl.
sæt frēan eaxlum nēah, _sat near the shoulders of his lord_ (Bēowulf lies
lifeless upon the earth, and Wīglāf sits by his side, near his shoulder, so
as to sprinkle the face of his dead lord), 2854; hē for eaxlum gestōd
Deniga frēan, _he stood before the shoulders of the lord of the Danes_
(i.e. not directly before him, but somewhat to the side, as etiquette
demanded), 358.

eaxl-gestealla, w. m., _he who has his position at the shoulder_ (sc. of
his lord), _trusty courtier, counsellor of a prince_: nom. sg. 1327; acc.
pl. -gesteallan, 1715.


ēac, conj., _also_: 97, 388, 433, etc.; ēc, 3132.

ēacen (pret. part. of a not existing eacan, augere), adj., _wide-spread_,
_large_: nom. pl. ēacne eardas, _broad plains_, 1622.--_great, heavy_: eald
sweord ēacen, 1664; dat. pl. ēacnum ecgum, 2141, both times of the great
sword in Grendel's habitation.--_great, mighty, powerful_: æðele and ēacen,
of Bēowulf, 198.

ēacen-cræftig, adj., _immense_ (of riches), _enormously great_: acc. sg.
hord-ærna sum ēacen-cræftig, _that enormous treasure-house_, 2281; nom. sg.
þæt yrfe ēacen-cræftig, iūmonna gold, 3052.

ēadig, adj., _blessed with possessions, rich, happy by reason of property_:
nom. sg. wes, þenden þū lifige, æðeling ēadig, _be, as long as thou livest,
a prince blessed with riches_, 1226; ēadig mon, 2471.--Comp. sige-, sigor-,

ēadig-līce, adv., _in abundance, in joyous plenty_: drēamum lifdon
ēadiglīce, _lived in rejoicing and plenty_, 100.

ēaðe, ēðe, ȳðe, adj., _easy, pleasant_: nom. pl. gode þancedon þæs þe him
ȳð-lāde ēaðe wurdon, _thanked God that the sea-ways_ (the navigation) _had
become easy to them_, 228; ne wæs þæt ēðe sīð, _no pleasant way_, 2587; næs
þæt ȳðe cēap, _no easy purchase_, 2416; nō þæt ȳðe byð tō beflēonne, _not
easy_ (as milder expression for _in no way, not at all_), 1003.

ēaðe, ȳðe, adv., _easily_. ēaðe, 478, 2292, 2765.

ēað-fynde, adj., _easy to find_: nom. sg. 138.

ēage, w. n., _eye_: dat. pl. him of ēagum stōd lēoht unfǣger, _out of his
eyes came a terrible gleam_, 727; þæt ic ... ēagum starige, _see with eyes,
behold_, 1782; similarly, 1936; gen. pl. ēagena bearhtm, 1767.

ēagor-strēam, st. m., _sea-stream sea_: acc. sg. 513.

ēa-land, st. n., _land surrounded by water_ (of the land of the Gēatas):
acc. sg. ēa-lond, 2335; _island_.

ēam, st. m., _uncle, mothers brother_: nom. sg. 882.

ēastan, adv., _from the east_, 569.

ēawan, w. v., _to disclose, to show, to prove_: pres. sg. III. ēaweð ...
uncūðne nīð, _shows evil enmity_, 276. See ēowan, ȳwan.

ge-ēawan, _to show, to offer_: pret. part. him wæs ... wunden gold ēstum
ge-ēawed, _was graciously presented_, 1195.


ēode. See gangan.

eodor, st. m., _fence, hedge, railing_. Among the old Germans, an estate
was separated by a fence from the property of others. Inside of this fence
the laws of peace and protection held good, as well as in the house itself.
Hence eodor is sometimes used instead of _house_: acc. pl. heht eahta
mēaras on flet tēon, in under eoderas, _gave orders to lead eight steeds
into the hall, into the house_, 1038.--2) figuratively, _lord, prince_, as
protector: nom. sg. eodor, 428, 1045; eodur, 664.

eofoð, st. n., _strength_: acc. pl. eofoðo, 2535. See eafoð.

eofer, st. m.: 1) _boar_, here of the metal boar-image upon the helmet:
nom. sg. eofer īrenheard, 1113.--2) figuratively, _bold hero, brave
fighter_ (O.N. iöfur): nom. pl. þonne ... eoferas cnysedan, _when the
heroes rushed upon each other_, 1329, where eoferas and fēðan stand in the
same relation to each other as cnysedan and hniton.

eofor-līc, st. n. _boar-image_ (on the helmet): nom. pl. eofor-līc scionon,

eofor-sprēot, st. m., _boar-spear_: dat. pl. mid eofer-sprēotum
hēoro-hōcyhtum, _with hunting-spears which were provided with sharp hooks_,

eoguð, ioguð. See geogoð.

eolet, st. m. n., _sea_(?): gen. sg. eoletes, 224.

eorclan-stān, st. m., _precious stone_: acc. pl. -stānas, 1209.

eorð-cyning, st. m., _king of the land_: gen. sg. eorð-cyninges (Finn),

eorð-draca, w. m., _earth-drake, dragon that lives in the earth_: nom. sg.
2713, 2826.

eorðe, w. f.: 1) _earth_ (in contrast with heaven), _world_: acc. sg.
ælmihtiga eorðan worhte, 92; wīde geond eorðan, _far over the earth,
through the wide world_, 266; dat. sg. ofer eorðan, 248, 803; on eorðan,
1823, 2856, 3139; gen. sg. eorðan, 753.--2) _earth, ground_: acc. sg. hē
eorðan gefēoll, _fell to the ground_, 2835; forlēton eorla gestrēon eorðan
healdan, _let the earth hold the nobles' treasure_, 3168; dat. sg. þæt hit
on eorðan læg, 1533; under eorðan, 2416; gen. sg. wið eorðan fæðm (_in the
bosom of the earth_), 3050.

eorð-reced, st. n., _hall in the earth, rock-hall_: acc. sg. 2720.

eorð-scræf, st. n., _earth-cavern, cave_: dat. sg. eorð-[scræfe], 2233;
gen. pl. eorð-scræfe, 3047.

eorð-sele, st. m., _hall in the earth, cave_: acc. sg. eorð-sele, 2411; dat
sg. of eorðsele, 2516.

eorð-weall, st. m., _earth-wall_: acc. sg. (Ongenþēow) bēah eft under
eorðweall, _fled again under the earth-wall_ (into his fortified camp),
2958; þā mē wæs ... sīð ālȳfed inn under eorðweall, _then the way in,
under the earth-wall was opened to me_ (into the dragon's cave), 3091.

eorð-weard, st. m., _land-property, estate_: acc. sg. 2335.

eorl, st. m., _noble born man, a man of the high nobility_: nom. sg. 762,
796, 1229, etc.; acc. sg. eorl, 573, 628, 2696; gen. sg. eorles, 690, 983,
1758, etc.; acc. pl. eorlas, 2817; dat. pl. eorlum, 770, 1282, 1650, etc.;
gen. pl. eorla, 248, 357, 369, etc.--Since the king himself is from the
stock of the eorlas, he is also called eorl, 6, 2952.

eorl-gestrēon, st. n., _wealth of the nobles_: gen. pl. eorl-gestrēona ...
hardfyrdne dǣl, 2245.

eorl-gewǣde, st. n., _knightly dress, armor_: dat. pl. -gewǣdum, 1443.

eorlīc (i.e. eorl-līc), adj., _what it becomes a noble born man to do,
chivalrous_: acc. sg. eorlīc ellen, 638.

eorl-scipe, st. m., _condition of being noble born, chivalrous nature,
nobility_: acc. sg. eorl-scipe, 1728, 3175; eorl-scipe efnan, _to do
chivalrous deeds_, 2134, 2536, 2623, 3008.

eorl-weorod, st. n., _followers of nobles_: nom. sg. 2894.

eormen-cyn, st. n., _very extensive race, mankind_: gen. sg. eormen-cynnes,

eormen-grund, st. m., _immensely wide plains, the whole broad earth_: acc.
sg. ofer eormen-grund, 860.

eormen-lāf, st. f., _enormous legacy_: acc. sg. eormen-lāfe æðelan cynnes
(_the treasures of the dragon's cave_) 2235.

eorre, adj., _angry, enraged_: gen. sg. eorres, 1448.

eoton, st. m.: 1) _giant_: nom. sg. eoten (Grendel), 762; dat. sg.
uninflected, eoton (Grendel), 669; nom. pl. eotenas, 112.--2) Eotens,
subjects of Finn, the N. Frisians: 1073, 1089, 1142; dat. pl. 1146. See
List of Names, p. 114.

eotonisc, adj., _gigantic, coming from giants_: acc. sg. eald sweord
eotenisc (eotonisc), 1559, 2980, (etonisc, MS.) 2617.


ēored-geatwe, st. f. pl., _warlike adornments_: acc. pl., 2867.

ēowan, w. v., _to show, to be seen_: pres. sg. III. ne gesacu ōhwǣr,
ecghete ēoweð, _nowhere shows itself strife, sword-hate_, 1739. See ēawan,

ēower: 1) gen. pl. pers. pron., vestrum: ēower sum, _that one of you_
(namely, Bēowulf), 248; fǣhðe ēower lēode, _the enmity of the people of
you_ (of your people), 597; nis þæt ēower sīð ... nefne mīn ānes, 2533.--2)
poss. pron., _your_, 251, 257, 294, etc.


ge-fandian, -fondian, w. v., _to try, to search for, to find out, to
experience_: w. gen. pret. part. þæt hæfde gumena sum goldes gefandod,
_that a man had discovered the gold_, 2302; þonne se ān hafað þurh deāðes
nȳd dǣda gefondad, _now the one_ (Herebeald) _has with death's pang
experienced the deeds_ (the unhappy bow-shot of Hæðcyn), 2455.

fara, w. m., _farer, traveller_: in comp. mere-fara.

faran, st. v., _to move from one place to another, to go, to wander_: inf.
tō hām faran, _to go home_, 124; lēton on geflīt faran fealwe mēaras, _let
the fallow horses go in emulation_, 865; cwōm faran flotherge on Frēsna
land, _had come to Friesland with a fleet_, 2916; cōm lēoda dugoðe on lāst
faran, _came to go upon the track of the heroes of his people_, i.e. to
follow them, 2946; gerund wǣron æðelingas eft tō lēodum fūse tō farenne,
_the nobles were ready to go again to their people_, 1806; pret. sg. gegnum
fōr [þā] ofer myrcan mōr, _there had_ (Grendel's mother) _gone away over
the dark fen_, 1405; sǣgenga fōr, _the seafarer_ (the ship) _drove along_,
1909; (wyrm) mid bǣle fōr, (the dragon) _fled away with fire_, 2309; pret.
pl. þæt ... scawan scīrhame tō scipe fōron, _that the visitors in
glittering attire betook themselves to the ship_, 1896.

gefaran, _to proceed, to act_: inf. hū se mānsceaða under fǣrgripum gefaran
wolde, _how he would act in his sudden attacks_, 739.

ūt faran, _to go out_: w. acc. lēt of brēostum ... word ūt faran, _let
words go out of his breast, uttered words_, 2552.

faroð, st. m., _stream, flood of the sea, shore, strand, edge_: dat. sg. tō
brimes faroðe, 28; æfter faroðe, _with the stream_, 580; æt faroðe, 1917.

faru, st. f., _way, passage, expedition_: in comp. ād-faru.

fācen-stæf (elementum nequitiae), st. m., _wickedness, treachery, deceit_.
acc. pl. fācen-stafas, 1019.

fāh, fāg, adj., _many-colored, variegated, of varying color_ (especially
said of the color of gold, of bronze, and of blood, in which the beams of
light are refracted): nom. sg. fāh (_covered with blood_), 420; blōde fāh,
935; ātertānum fāh (sc. īren) [This is the MS reading; emmended to
ātertēarum in text--KTH], 1460; sadol searwum fāh (_saddle artistically
ornamented with gold_), 1039; sweord swāte fāh, 1287; brim blōde fāh, 1595;
wældrēore fāg, 1632; (draca) fȳrwylmum fāh (_because he spewed flame_),
2672; sweord fāh and fǣted, 2702; blōde fāh, 2975; acc. sg. drēore fāhne,
447; goldsele fǣttum fāhne, 717; on fāgne flōr treddode, _trod the shining
floor_ (of Heorot), 726; hrōf golde fāhne, _the roof shining with gold_,
928; nom. pl. eoforlīc ... fāh and fȳr-beard, 305; acc. pl. þā hilt since
fāge, 1616; dat. pl. fāgum sweordum, 586.--Comp. bān-, blōd-, brūn-,
drēor-, gold-, gryre-, searo-, sinc-, stān-, swāt-, wæl-, wyrm-fāh.

fāh, fāg, fā, adj.: 1) _hostile_: nom. sg. fāh fēond-scaða, 554; hē wæs fāg
wið god (Grendel), 812; acc. sg. fāne (_the dragon_), 2656; gen. pl. fāra,
578, 1464.--2) _liable to pursuit, without peace, outlawed_: nom. sg. fāg,
1264; māne fāh, _outlawed through crime_, 979; fyren-dǣdum fāg,
1002.--Comp. nearo-fāh.

fāmig-heals, adj., _with foaming neck_: nom. sg. flota fāmig-heals, 218;
(sǣgenga) fāmig-heals, 1910.

fæc, st. n., _period of time_: acc. sg. lȳtel fæc, _during a short time_,

fæder, st. m., _father_: nom. sg. fæder, 55, 262, 459, 2609; of God, 1610;
fæder alwalda, 316; acc. sg. fæder, 1356; dat. sg. fæder, 2430; gen. sg.
fæder, 21, 1480; of God, 188--Comp.: ǣr, eald-fæder.

fædera, w. m., _father's brother_ in comp. suhter-gefæderan.

fæder-æðelo, st. n. pl., _paternus principatus_ (?): dat. pl. fæder-æðelum,

fæderen-mǣg, st. m., _kinsman descended from the same father,
co-descendant_: dat. sg. fæderen-mǣge, 1264.

fæðm, st. m.: 1) _the outspread, encircling arms_: instr. pl. fēondes
fæð[mum], 2129.--2) _embrace, encircling_: nom. sg. līges fæðm, 782; acc.
sg. in fȳres fæðm, 185.--3) _bosom, lap_: acc. sg. on foldan fæðm, 1394;
wið eorðan fæðm, 3050; dat. pl. tō fæder (God's) fæðmum, 188.--4) _power,
property_: acc. in Francna fæðm, 1211.--Cf. sīd-fæðmed, sīð-fæðme.

fæðmian, w. v., _to embrace, to take up into itself_: pres. subj. þæt minne
līchaman ... glēd fæðmie, 2653; inf. lēton flōd fæðmian frætwa hyrde, 3134.

ge-fæg, adj., _agreeable, desirable_ (Old Eng., fawe, _willingly_): comp.
ge-fægra, 916.

fægen, adj., _glad, joyous_: nom. pl. ferhðum fægne, _the glad at heart_,

fæger, fǣger, adj., _beautiful, lovely_: nom. sg. fǣger fold-bold, 774;
fæger foldan bearm, 1138; acc. sg. freoðoburh fægere, 522; nom. pl. þǣr him
fold-wegas fægere þūhton, 867.--Comp. un-fǣger.

fægere, fægre, adv., _beautifully, well, becomingly, according to
etiquette_: fægere geþǣgon medoful manig, 1015; þā wæs flet-sittendum
fægere gereorded, _becomingly the repast was served_, 1789; Higelāc ongan
... fægre fricgean, 1986; similarly, 2990.

fær, st. n., _craft, ship_: nom. sg., 33.

fæst, adj., _bound, fast_: nom. sg. bið se slǣp tō fæst, 1743; acc. sg.
frēondscipe fæstne, 2070; fæste frioðuwǣre, 1097.--The prep. on stands to
denote the where or wherein: wæs tō fæst on þām (sc. on fǣhðe and fyrene),
137; on ancre fæst, 303. Or, oftener, the dative: fēond-grāpum fæst,
_(held) fast in his antagonist's clutch_, 637; fȳrbendum fæst, _fast in
the forged hinges_, 723; handa fæst, 1291, etc.; hygebendum fæst (beorn him
langað), _fast (shut) in the bonds of his bosom, the man longs for_ (i.e.
in secret), 1879.--Comp: ār-, blǣd-, gin-, sōð-, tīr-, wīs-fæst.

fæste, adv., _fæst_ 554, 761, 774, 789, 1296.--Comp. fæstor, 143.

be-fæstan, w. v., _to give over_: inf. hēt Hildeburh hire selfre sunu
sweoloðe befæstan, _to give over to the flames her own son_, 1116.

fæsten, st. n., _fortified place, or place difficult of access_: acc. sg.
lēoda fæsten, _the fastness of the Gēatas_ (with ref. to 2327, 2334; fæsten
(Ongenþēow's castle or fort), 2951; fæsten (Grendel's house in the
fen-sea), 104.

fæst-rǣd, adj., _firmly resolved_: acc. sg. fæst-rǣdne geþōht, _firm
determination_, 611.

fæt, st. m., _way, journey_: in comp. sīð-fæt.

fæt, st. n., _vessel; vase, cup_: acc. pl. fyrn-manna fatu, _the
(drinking-) vessels of men of old times_, 2762.--Comp.: bān-, drync-,
māððum-, sinc-, wundor-fæt.

fǣge, adj.: 1) _forfeited to death, allotted to death by fate_: nom. sg.
fǣge, 1756, 2142, 2976; fǣge and ge-flȳmed, 847; fūs and fǣge, 1242; acc.
sg. fǣgne flǣsc-homan, 1569; dat. sg. fǣgum, 2078; gen. sg. fǣges,
1528.--2) _dead_: dat. pl. ofer fǣgum (_over the warriors fallen in the
battle_), 3026.--Comp.: dēað-, un-fǣge.

fǣhð (_state of hostility_, see fāh), st. f., _hostile act, feud, battle_:
nom. sg. fǣhð, 2404, 3062; acc. sg. fǣhðe, 153, 459, 470, 596, 1334, etc.;
also of the unhappy bowshot of the Hrēðling, Hæðcyn, by which he killed his
brother, 2466; dat. sg. fore fǣhðe and fyrene, 137; nalas for fǣhðe mearn
(_did not recoil from the combat_), 1538; gen. sg, ne gefeah hē þǣre fǣhðe,
109; gen. pl. fǣhða gemyndig, 2690.--Comp. wæl-fǣhð.

fǣhðo, st. f., same as above: nom. sg. sīo fǣhðo, 3000; acc. fǣhðo, 2490.

fǣlsian, w. v., _to bring into a good condition, to cleanse_: inf. þæt ic
mōte ... Heorot fǣlsian (from the plague of Grendel), 432; pret. Hrōðgāres
... sele fǣlsode, 2353.

ge-fǣlsian, w. v., same as above: pret. part. hæfde gefǣlsod ... sele
Hrōðgāres, 826; Heorot is gefǣlsod, 1177; wǣron ȳð-gebland eal gefǣlsod,

fǣmne, w. f., _virgin, recens nupta_: dat. sg. fǣmnan, 2035; gen. sg.
fǣmnan, 2060, both times of Hrōðgār's daughter Frēaware.

fǣr, st. m., _sudden, unexpected attack_: nom. sg. (attack upon Hnæf's band
by Finn's), 1069, 2231.

fǣr-gripe, st. m., _sudden, treacherous gripe, attack_: nom. sg. fǣr-gripe
flōdes, 1517; dat. pl. under fǣrgripum, 739.

fǣr-gryre, st. m., _fright caused by a sudden attack_: dat. pl. wið
fǣr-gryrum (against the inroads of Grendel into Heorot), 174.

fǣringa, adv., _suddenly, unexpectedly_, 1415, 1989.

fǣr-nīð, st. m., _hostility with sudden attacks_: gen. pl. hwæt mē Grendel
hafað ... fǣrnīða gefremed, 476.

fǣt, st. n. (?), _plate, sheet of metal_, especially _gold plate_ (Dietrich
Hpt. Ztschr. XI. 420): dat. pl. gold sele ... fǣttum fāhne, _shining with
gold plates_ (the walls and the inner part of the roof were partly covered
with gold), 717; sceal se hearda helm hyrsted golde fǣtum befeallen (sc.
wesan), _the gold ornaments shall fall away from it_, 2257.

fǣted, fǣtt, part., _ornamented with gold beaten into plate-form_: gen. sg.
fǣttan goldes, 1094, 2247; instr. sg. fǣttan golde, 2103. Elsewhere,
_covered, ornamented with gold plate_: nom. sg. sweord ... fǣted, 2702;
acc. sg. fǣted wǣge, 2254, 2283; acc. pl. fǣtte scyldas, 333; fǣtte bēagas,

fǣted-hlēor, adj., phaleratus gena (Dietr.): acc. pl. eahta mēaras
fǣted-hlēore (_eight horses with bridles covered with plates of gold_),

fǣt-gold, st. n., _gold in sheets_ or _plates_: acc. sg., 1922.

feðer-gearwe, st. f. pl. _(feather-equipment), the feathers of the shaft of
the arrow_: dat. (instr.) pl. sceft feðer-gearwum fūs, 3120.

fel, st. n., _skin, hide_: dat. pl. glōf ... gegyrwed dracan fellum, _made
of the skins of dragons_, 2089.

fela, I., adj. indecl., _much, many_: as subst.: acc. sg. fela fricgende,
2107. With worn placed before: hwæt þū worn fela ... ymb Brecan sprǣce,
_how very much you spoke about Breca_, 530.--With gen. sg.: acc. sg. fela
fyrene, 810; wyrm-cynnes fela, 1426; worna fela sorge, 2004; tō fela micles
... Denigea lēode, _too much of the race of the Danes_, 695; uncūðes fela,
877; fela lāðes, 930; fela lēofes and lāðes, 1061.--With gen. pl.: nom. sg.
fela mādma, 36; fela þǣra wera and wīfa, 993, etc.; acc. sg. fela missēra,
153; fela fyrena, 164; ofer landa fela, 311; māððum-sigla fela (falo, MS.),
2758; nē mē swōr fela āða on unriht, _swore no false oaths_, 2739, etc.;
worn fela māðma, 1784; worna fela gūða, 2543.--Comp. eal-fela.

II., adverbial, _very_, 1386, 2103, 2951.

fela-hrōr, adj., valde agitatus, _very active against the enemy, very
warlike_, 27.

fela-mōdig, adj., _very courageous_: gen. pl. -mōdigra, 1638, 1889.

fela-synnig, adj., _very criminal, very guilty_: acc. sg. fela-sinnigne
secg (in MS., on account of the alliteration, changed to simple sinnigne),

fēolan, st. v., _to betake one's self into a place, to conceal one's self_:
pret. siððan inne fealh Grendles mōdor (in Heorot), 1282; þǣr inne fealh
secg syn-bysig (in the dragon's cave), 2227.--_to fall into, undergo,
endure_: searonīðas fealh, 1201.

æt-fēolan, w. dat., insistere, adhǣrere: pret. nō ic him þæs georne ætfealh
_(held him not fast enough_, 969.

fen, st. n., _fen, moor_: acc. sg. fen, 104; dat. sg. tō fenne, 1296;
fenne, 2010.

fen-freoðo, st. f., _refuge in the fen_: dat. sg. in fen-freoðo, 852.

feng, st. m., _gripe, embrace_: nom. sg. fȳres feng, 1765; acc. sg. fāra
feng (of the hostile sea-monsters), 578.--Comp. inwit-feng.

fengel (probably _he who takes possession_, cf. tō fōn, 1756, and fōn tō
rīce, _to enter upon the government_), st. m., _lord, prince, king_: nom.
sg. wīsa fengel, 1401; snottra fengel, 1476, 2157; hringa fengel, 2346.

fen-ge-lād, st. n., _fen-paths, fen with paths_: acc. pl. frēcne fengelād
(_fens difficult of access_), 1360.

fen-hlið, st. n., _marshy precipice_: acc. pl. under fen-hleoðu, 821.

fen-hop, st. n., _refuge in the fen_: acc. pl. on fen-hopu, 765.

ferh, st. m. n., _life_; see feorh.

ferh, st. m., _hog, boar_, here of the boar-image on the helmet: nom. sg.,

ferhð, st. m., _heart, soul_: dat. sg. on ferhðe, 755, 949, 1719; gehwylc
hiora his ferhðe trēowde, þæt ..., _each of them trusted to his_
(Hunferð's) _heart, that_ ..., 1167; gen. sg. ferhðes fore-þanc, 1061; dat.
pl. (adverbial) ferhðum fægne, _happy at heart_, 1634; þæt mon ... ferhðum
frēoge, _that one ... heartily love_, 3178.--Comp.: collen-, sarig-,
swift-, wide-ferhð.

ferhð-frec, adj., _having good courage, bold, brave_: acc. sg. ferhð-frecan
Fin, 1147.

ferhð-genīðla, w. m., _mortal enemy_: acc. sg. ferhð-genīðlan, of the
drake, 2882.

ferian, w. v. w. acc., _to bear, to bring, to conduct_: pres. II. pl.
hwanon ferigeað fǣtte scyldas, 333; pret. pl. tō scypum feredon eal
ingesteald eorðcyninges, 1155; similarly, feredon, 1159, 3114.

æt-ferian, _to carry away, to bear off_: pret. ic þæt hilt þanan fēondum
ætferede, 1669.

ge-ferian, _bear, to bring, to lead_: pres. subj. I. pl. þonne (wē)
geferian frēan ūserne, 3108; inf. geferian ... Grendles hēafod, 1639; pret.
þæt hī ūt geferedon dȳre māðmas, 3131; pret. part. hēr syndon geferede
feorran cumene ... Gēata lēode, _men of the Gēatas, come from afar, have
been brought hither_ (by ship), 361.

oð-ferian, _to tear away, to take away_: pret. sg. I. unsōfte þonan feorh
oð-ferede, 2142.

of-ferian, _to carry off, to take away, to tear away_: pret. ōðer swylc ūt
offerede, _took away another such_ (sc. fifteen), 1584.

fetel-hilt, st. n., _sword-hilt_, with the gold chains fastened to it: acc.
(sg. or pl.?), 1564. (See "Leitfaden f. nord. Altertumskunde," pp.45, 46.)

fetian, w. v., _to bring near, bring_: pres. subj. nāh hwā ... fe[tige]
fǣted wǣge, _bring the gold-chased tankard_, 2254; pret. part. hraðe wæs tō
būre Bēowulf fetod, 1311.

ge-fetian, _to bring_: inf. hēt þā eorla hlēo in gefetian Hrēðles lāfe,
_caused Hrēðel's sword to be brought_, 2191.

ā-fēdan, w. v., _to nourish, to bring up_: pret. part. þǣr hē āfēded wæs,

fēða (O.H.G. fendo), w. m.: 1) _foot-soldiers_: nom. pl. fēðan, 1328,
2545.--2) collective in sing., _band of foot-soldiers, troop of warriors_:
nom. fēða eal gesæt, 1425; dat. on fēðan, 2498, 2920.--Comp. gum-fēða.

fēðe, st. n., _gait, going, pace_: dat. sg. wæs tō foremihtig fēond on
fēðe, _the enemy was too strong in going_ (i.e. could flee too fast), 971.

fēðe-cempa, w. m., _foot-soldier_: nom. sg., 1545, 2854.

fēðe-gæst, st. m., _guest coming on foot_: dat. pl. fēðe-gestum, 1977.

fēðe-lāst, st. m., _signs of going, footprint_: dat. pl. fērdon forð þonon
fēðe-lāstum, _went forth from there upon their trail_, i.e. by the same way
that they had gone, 1633.

fēðe-wīg, st. m., _battle on foot_: gen. sg. nealles Hetware hrēmge þorfton
(sc. wesan) fēðe-wīges, 2365.

fēl (= fēol), st. f. _file_: gen. pl. fēla lāfe, _what the files have left
behind_ (that is, the swords), 1033.

fēran, w. v., iter (A.S. fōr) facere, _to come, to go, to travel_: pres.
subj. II. pl. ǣr gē ... on land Dena furður fēran, _ere you go farther into
the land of the Danes_, 254; inf. fēran on frēan wǣre (_to die_), 27;
gewiton him þā fēran (_set out upon their way_), 301; mǣl is mē tō fēran,
316; fēran ... gang scēawigan, _go, so as to see the footprints_, 1391;
wīde fēran, 2262; pret. fērdon folctogan ... wundor scēawian, _the princes
came to see the wonder_, 840; fērdon forð, 1633.

ge-fēran: 1) adire, _to arrive at_: pres. subj. þonne eorl ende gefēre
līfgesceafta, _reach the end of life_, 3064; pret. part. hæfde ǣghwæðer
ende gefēred lǣnan līfes, _frail life's end had both reached_, 2845.--2)
_to reach, to accomplish, to bring about_: pret. hafast þū gefēred þæt ...,
1222, 1856.--3) _to behave one's self, to conduct one's self_: pret. frēcne
gefērdon, _had shown themselves daring_, 1692.

feal, st. m., _fall_: in comp. wæl-feal.

feallan, st. v., _to fall, to fall headlong_: inf. feallan, 1071; pret. sg.
þæt hē on hrūsan ne fēol, _that it_ (the hall) _did not fall to the
ground_, 773; similarly, fēoll on foldan, 2976; fēoll on fēðan (dat. sg.),
_fell in the band_ (of his warriors), 2920; pret. pl. þonne walu fēollon,

be-feallen, pret. part. w. dat. or instr., _deprived of, robbed_: frēondum
befeallen, _robbed of friends_, 1127; sceal se hearda helm ... fǣtum
befeallen (sc. wesan), _be robbed of its gold mountings_ (the gold mounting
will fall away from it moldering), 2257.

ge-feallan, _to fall, to sink down_: pres. sg. III. þæt se līc-homa ...
fǣge gefealleð, _that the body doomed to die sinks down_, 1756.--Also, with
the acc. of the place whither: pret. meregrund gefēoll, 2101; hē eorðan
gefēoll, 2835.

fealu, adj., _fallow, dun-colored, tawny_: acc. sg. ofer fealone flōd
(_over the sea_), 1951; fealwe strǣte (with reference to 320, 917; acc. pl.
lēton on geflīt faran fealwe mēaras, 866.--Comp. æppel-fealo.

feax, st. n., _hair, hair of the head_: dat. sg. wæs be feaxe on flet boren
Grendles hēafod, _was carried by the hair into the hall_, 1648; him ...
swāt ... sprong forð under fexe, _the blood sprang out under the hair of
his head_, 2968.--Comp.: blonden-, gamol-, wunden-feax.

ge-fēa, w. m., _joy_: acc. sg. þǣre fylle gefēan, _joy at the abundant
repast_, 562; ic þæs ealles mæg ... gefēan habban (_can rejoice at all
this_), 2741.

fēa, adj., _few_ dat. pl. nemne fēaum ānum, _except some few_, 1082; gen.
pl. fēara sum, _as one of a few, with a few_, 1413; fēara sumne, _one of a
few (some few)_, 3062. With gen. following: acc. pl. fēa worda cwæð, _spoke
few words_, 2663, 2247.

fēa-sceaft, adj., _miserable, unhappy, helpless_: nom. sg. syððan ǣrest
wearð fēasceaft funden, 7; fēasceaft guma (Grendel), 974; dat. sg.
fēasceaftum men, 2286; Ēadgilse ... fēasceaftum, 2394; nom. pl. fēasceafte
(the Gēatas robbed of their king, Hygelāc), 2374.

feoh, fēo, st. n., (_properly cattle, herd_) here, _possessions, property,
treasure_: instr. sg. ne wolde ... feorh-bealo fēo þingian, _would not
allay life's evil for treasure_ (tribute), 156; similarly, þā fǣhðe fēo
þingode, 470; ic þē þā fǣhðe fēo lēanige, 1381.

ge-feohan, ge-fēon, st. v. w. gen. and instr., _to enjoy one's self, to
rejoice at something_: a) w. gen.: pret. sg. ne gefeah hē þǣre fǣhðe, 109;
hilde gefeh, beado-weorces, 2299; pl. fylle gefǣgon, _enjoyed themselves at
the bounteous repast_, 1015; þēodnes gefēgon, _rejoiced at_ (the return of)
_the ruler_, 1628.--b) w. instr.: niht-weorce gefeh, ellen-mǣrðum, 828;
secg weorce gefeh, 1570; sǣlāce gefeah, mægen-byrðenne þāra þe hē him mid
hæfde, _rejoiced at the gift of the sea, and at the great burden of that_
(Grendel's head and the sword-hilt) _which he had with him_, 1625.

feoh-gift, -gyft, st. f., _bestowing of gifts_ or _treasures_: gen. sg.
þǣre feoh-gyfte, 1026; dat. pl. æt feohgyftum, 1090; fromum feohgiftum,
_with rich gifts_, 21.

feoh-lēas, adj., _that cannot be atoned for through gifts_: nom. sg. þæt
wæs feoh-lēas gefeoht, _a deed of arms that cannot be expiated_ (the
killing of his brother by Hæðcyn), 2442.

ge-feoht, st. n., _combat; warlike deed_: nom. sg. (the killing of his
brother by Hæðcyn), 2442; dat. sg. mēce þone þīn fader tō gefeohte bær,
_the sword which thy father bore to the combat_, 2049.

ge-feohtan, st. v., _to fight_: inf. w. acc. ne mehte ... wīg Hengeste wiht
gefeohtan (_could by no means offer Hengest battle_), 1084.

feohte, w. f., _combat_: acc. sg. feohtan, 576, 960. See were-fyhte.

feor, adj., _far, remote_: nom. sg. nis þæt feor heonon, 1362; næs him feor
þanon tō gesēcanne sinces bryttan, 1922; acc. sg. feor eal (_all that is
far, past_), 1702.

feor, adv., _far, far away_: a) of space, 42, 109, 809, 1806, 1917; feor
and (oððe) nēah, _far and (or) near_, 1222, 2871; feorr, 2267.--b) of time:
gē feor hafað fǣhðe gestǣled (_has placed us under her enmity henceforth_),

Comparative, fyr, feorr, and feor: fyr and fæstor, 143; fyr, 252; feorr,
1989; feor, 542.

feor-būend, pt., _dwelling far away_: nom. pl. gē feor-būend, 254.

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