Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Books, poems, drama…

Beowulf by James A. Harrison and Robert Sharp, eds.

Part 2 out of 10

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 1.1 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

hringa þengel tō hofe sīnum,
swā hē ne mihte nō (hē þæs mōdig wæs)
1510 wǣpna gewealdan, ac hine wundra þæs fela
swencte on sunde, sǣ-dēor monig
hilde-tūxum here-syrcan bræc,
ēhton āglǣcan. Þā se eorl ongeat,
þæt hē in nið-sele nāt-hwylcum wæs,
1515 þǣr him nǣnig wæter wihte ne sceðede,
nē him for hrōf-sele hrīnan ne mehte
fǣr-gripe flōdes: fȳr-lēoht geseah,
blācne lēoman beorhte scīnan.
Ongeat þā se gōda grund-wyrgenne,
1520 mere-wīf mihtig; mægen-rǣs forgeaf
hilde-bille, hond swenge ne oftēah,
þæt hire on hafelan hring-mǣl āgōl
grǣdig gūð-lēoð. Þā se gist onfand,
þæt se beado-lēoma bītan nolde,
1525 aldre sceððan, ac sēo ecg geswāc
þēodne æt þearfe: þolode ǣr fela
hond-gemōta, helm oft gescær,
fǣges fyrd-hrægl: þæt wæs forma sīð
dēorum māðme, þæt his dōm ālæg.
1530 Eft wæs ān-rǣd, nalas elnes læt,
mǣrða gemyndig mǣg Hygelāces;
wearp þā wunden-mǣl wrǣttum gebunden
yrre ōretta, þæt hit on eorðan læg,
stīð and stȳl-ecg; strenge getruwode,
1535 mund-gripe mægenes. Swā sceal man dōn,
þonne hē æt gūðe gegān þenceð
longsumne lof, nā ymb his līf cearað.
Gefēng þā be eaxle (nalas for fǣhðe mearn)
Gūð-Gēata lēod Grendles mōdor;
1540 brægd þā beadwe heard, þā hē gebolgen wæs,
feorh-genīðlan, þæt hēo on flet gebēah.
Hēo him eft hraðe and-lēan forgeald
grimman grāpum and him tōgēanes fēng;
oferwearp þā wērig-mōd wigena strengest,
1545 fēðe-cempa, þæt hē on fylle wearð.
Ofsæt þā þone sele-gyst and hyre seaxe getēah,
brād and brūn-ecg wolde hire bearn wrecan,
āngan eaferan. Him on eaxle læg
brēost-net brōden; þæt gebearh fēore,
1550 wið ord and wið ecge ingang forstōd.
Hæfde þā forsīðod sunu Ecgþēowes
under gynne grund, Gēata cempa,
nemne him heaðo-byrne helpe gefremede,
here-net hearde, and hālig god
1555 gewēold wīg-sigor, wītig drihten;
rodera rǣdend hit on ryht gescēd,
ȳðelīce syððan hē eft āstōd.

XXIV. BĒOWULF SLAYS THE SPRITE.

Geseah þā on searwum sige-ēadig bil,
eald sweord eotenisc ecgum þȳhtig,
1560 wigena weorð-mynd: þæt wæs wǣpna cyst,
būton hit wæs māre þonne ǣnig mon ōðer
tō beadu-lāce ætberan meahte
gōd and geatolīc gīganta geweorc.
Hē gefēng þā fetel-hilt, freca Scildinga,
1565 hrēoh and heoro-grim hring-mǣl gebrægd,
aldres orwēna, yrringa slōh,
þæt hire wið halse heard grāpode,
bān-hringas bræc, bil eal þurh-wōd
fǣgne flǣsc-homan, hēo on flet gecrong;
1570 sweord wæs swātig, secg weorce gefeh.
Līxte se lēoma, lēoht inne stōd,
efne swā of hefene hādre scīneð
rodores candel. Hē æfter recede wlāt,
hwearf þā be wealle, wǣpen hafenade
1575 heard be hiltum Higelāces þegn,
yrre and ān-rǣd. Næs sēo ecg fracod
hilde-rince, ac hē hraðe wolde
Grendle forgyldan gūð-rǣsa fela
þāra þe hē geworhte tō West-Denum
1580 oftor micle þonne on ǣnne sīð,
þonne hē Hrōðgāres heorð-genēatas
slōh on sweofote, slǣpende fræt
folces Denigea fȳf-tȳne men
and ōðer swylc ūt of-ferede,
1585 lāðlīcu lāc. Hē him þæs lēan forgeald,
rēðe cempa, tō þæs þe hē on ræste geseah
gūð-wērigne Grendel licgan,
aldor-lēasne, swā him ǣr gescōd
hild æt Heorote; hrā wīde sprong,
1590 syððan hē æfter dēaðe drepe þrowade,
heoro-sweng heardne, and hine þā hēafde becearf,
Sōna þæt gesāwon snottre ceorlas,
þā þe mid Hrōðgāre on holm wliton,
þæt wæs ȳð-geblond eal gemenged,
1595 brim blōde fāh: blonden-feaxe
gomele ymb gōdne ongeador sprǣcon,
þæt hig þæs æðelinges eft ne wēndon,
þæt hē sige-hrēðig sēcean cōme
mǣrne þēoden; þā þæs monige gewearð,
1600 þæt hine sēo brim-wylf ābroten hæfde.
Þā cōm nōn dæges. Næs ofgēafon
hwate Scyldingas; gewāt him hām þonon
gold-wine gumena. Gistas sētan,
mōdes sēoce, and on mere staredon,
1605 wiston and ne wēndon, þæt hīe heora wine-drihten
selfne gesāwon. Þā þæt sweord ongan
æfter heaðo-swāte hilde-gicelum
wīg-bil wanian; þæt wæs wundra sum,
þæt hit eal gemealt īse gelīcost,
1610 þonne forstes bend fæder onlǣteð,
onwindeð wæl-rāpas, sē þe geweald hafað
sǣla and mǣla; þæt is sōð metod.
Ne nom hē in þǣm wīcum, Weder-Gēata lēod,
māðm-ǣhta mā, þēh hē þǣr monige geseah,
1615 būton þone hafelan and þā hilt somod,
since fāge; sweord ǣr gemealt,
forbarn brōden mǣl: wæs þæt blōd tō þæs hāt,
ǣttren ellor-gǣst, sē þǣr inne swealt.
Sōna wæs on sunde, sē þe ǣr æt sæcce gebād
1620 wīg-hryre wrāðra, wæter up þurh-dēaf;
wǣron ȳð-gebland eal gefǣlsod,
ēacne eardas, þā se ellor-gāst
oflēt līf-dagas and þās lǣnan gesceaft.
Cōm þā tō lande lid-manna helm
1625 swīð-mōd swymman, sǣ-lāce gefeah,
mægen-byrðenne þāra þe hē him mid hæfde.
Ēodon him þā tōgēanes, gode þancodon,
þrȳðlīc þegna hēap, þēodnes gefēgon,
þæs þe hī hyne gesundne gesēon mōston.
1630 Þā wæs of þǣm hrōran helm and byrne
lungre ālȳsed: lagu drūsade,
wæter under wolcnum, wæl-drēore fāg.
Fērdon forð þonon fēðe-lāstum
ferhðum fægne, fold-weg mǣton,
1635 cūðe strǣte; cyning-balde men
from þǣm holm-clife hafelan bǣron
earfoðlīce heora ǣghwæðrum
fela-mōdigra: fēower scoldon
on ðæm wæl-stenge weorcum geferian
1640 tō þǣm gold-sele Grendles hēafod,
oð þæt semninga tō sele cōmon
frome fyrd-hwate fēower-tȳne
Gēata gongan; gum-dryhten mid
mōdig on gemonge meodo-wongas træd.
1645 Þā cōm in gān ealdor þegna,
dǣd-cēne mon dōme gewurðad,
hæle hilde-dēor. Hrōðgār grētan:
Þā wæs be feaxe on flet boren
Grendles hēafod, þǣr guman druncon,
1650 egeslīc for eorlum and þǣre idese mid:
wlite-sēon wrǣtlīc weras onsāwon.

XXV. HROTHGAR'S GRATITUDE: HE DISCOURSES.

Bēowulf maðelode, bearn Ecgþēowes:
"Hwæt! wē þē þās sǣ-lāc, sunu Healfdenes,
"lēod Scyldinga, lustum brōhton,
1655 "tīres tō tācne, þē þū hēr tō lōcast.
"Ic þæt unsōfte ealdre gedīgde:
"wigge under wætere weorc genēðde
"earfoðlīce, æt-rihte wæs
"gūð getwǣfed, nymðe mec god scylde.
1660 "Ne meahte ic æt hilde mid Hruntinge
"wiht gewyrcan, þēah þæt wǣpen duge,
"ac mē geūðe ylda waldend,
"þæt ic on wāge geseah wlitig hangian
"eald sweord ēacen (oftost wīsode
1665 "winigea lēasum) þæt ic þȳ wǣpne gebrǣ.
"Ofslōh þā æt þǣre sæcce (þā mē sǣl āgeald)
"hūses hyrdas. Þā þæt hilde-bil
"forbarn, brogden mǣl, swā þæt blōd gesprang,
"hātost heaðo-swāta: ic þæt hilt þanan
1670 "fēondum ætferede; fyren-dǣda wræc,
"dēað-cwealm Denigea, swā hit gedēfe wæs.
"Ic hit þē þonne gehāte, þæt þū on Heorote mōst
"sorh-lēas swefan mid þīnra secga gedryht,
"and þegna gehwylc þīnra lēoda,
1675 "duguðe and iogoðe, þæt þū him ondrǣdan ne þearft,
"þēoden Scyldinga, on þā healfe,
"aldor-bealu eorlum, swā þū ǣr dydest."
Þā wæs gylden hilt gamelum rince.
hārum hild-fruman, on hand gyfen,
1680 enta ǣr-geweorc, hit on ǣht gehwearf
æfter dēofla hryre Denigea frēan,
wundor-smiða geweorc, and þā þās worold ofgeaf
grom-heort guma, godes andsaca,
morðres scyldig, and his mōdor ēac;
1685 on geweald gehwearf worold-cyninga
þǣm sēlestan be sǣm twēonum
þāra þe on Sceden-igge sceattas dǣlde.
Hrōðgār maðelode, hylt scēawode,
ealde lāfe, on þǣm wæs ōr writen
1690 fyrn-gewinnes: syððan flōd ofslōh,
gifen gēotende, gīganta cyn,
frēcne gefērdon: þæt wæs fremde þēod
ēcean dryhtne, him þæs ende-lēan
þurh wæteres wylm waldend sealde.
1695 Swā wæs on þǣm scennum scīran goldes
þurh rūn-stafas rihte gemearcod,
geseted and gesǣd, hwām þæt sweord geworht,
īrena cyst ǣrest wǣre,
wreoðen-hilt and wyrm-fāh. þā se wīsa spræc
1700 sunu Healfdenes (swīgedon ealle):
"Þæt lā mæg secgan, sē þe sōð and riht
"fremeð on folce, (feor eal gemon
"eald ēðel-weard), þæt þes eorl wǣre
"geboren betera! Blǣd is ārǣred
1705 "geond wīd-wegas, wine mīn Bēowulf,
"þīn ofer þēoda gehwylce. Eal þū hit geþyldum healdest,
"mægen mid mōdes snyttrum. Ic þē sceal mīne gelǣstan
"frēode, swā wit furðum sprǣcon; þū scealt tō frōfre weorðan
"eal lang-twidig lēodum þīnum,
1710 "hæleðum tō helpe. Ne wearð Heremōd swā
"eaforum Ecgwelan, Ār-Scyldingum;
"ne gewēox hē him tō willan, ac tō wæl-fealle
"and tō dēað-cwalum Deniga lēodum;
"brēat bolgen-mōd bēod-genēatas,
1715 "eaxl-gesteallan, oð þæt hē āna hwearf,
"mǣre þēoden. mon-drēamum from:
"þēah þe hine mihtig god mægenes wynnum,
"eafeðum stēpte, ofer ealle men
"forð gefremede, hwæðere him on ferhðe grēow
1720 "brēost-hord blōd-rēow: nallas bēagas geaf
"Denum æfter dōme; drēam-lēas gebād,
"þæt hē þæs gewinnes weorc þrowade,
"lēod-bealo longsum. Þū þē lǣr be þon,
"gum-cyste ongit! ic þis gid be þē
1725 "āwræc wintrum frōd. Wundor is tō secganne,
"hū mihtig god manna cynne
"þurh sīdne sefan snyttru bryttað,
"eard and eorl-scipe, hē āh ealra geweald.
"Hwīlum hē on lufan lǣteð hworfan
1730 "monnes mōd-geþonc mǣran cynnes,
"seleð him on ēðle eorðan wynne,
"tō healdanne hlēo-burh wera,
"gedēð him swā gewealdene worolde dǣlas,
"sīde rīce, þæt hē his selfa ne mæg
1735 "for his un-snyttrum ende geþencean;
"wunað hē on wiste, nō hine wiht dweleð,
"ādl nē yldo, nē him inwit-sorh
"on sefan sweorceð, nē gesacu ōhwǣr,
"ecg-hete ēoweð, ac him eal worold
1740 "wendeð on willan; hē þæt wyrse ne con,
"oð þæt him on innan ofer-hygda dǣl
"weaxeð and wridað, þonne se weard swefeð,
"sāwele hyrde: bið se slǣp tō fæst,
"bisgum gebunden, bona swīðe nēah,
1745 "sē þe of flān-bogan fyrenum scēoteð.

XXVI. THE DISCOURSE IS ENDED.-BĒOWULF PREPARES TO LEAVE.

"Þonne bið on hreðre under helm drepen
"biteran strǣle: him bebeorgan ne con
"wom wundor-bebodum wergan gāstes;
"þinceð him tō lȳtel, þæt hē tō lange hēold,
1750 "gȳtsað grom-hȳdig, nallas on gylp seleð
"fǣtte bēagas and hē þā forð-gesceaft
"forgyteð and forgȳmeð, þæs þe him ǣr god sealde
"wuldres waldend, weorð-mynda dǣl.
"Hit on ende-stæf eft gelimpeð,
1755 "þæt se līc-homa lǣne gedrēoseð,
"fǣge gefealleð; fēhð ōðer tō,
"sē þe unmurnlīce mādmas dǣleð,
"eorles ǣr-gestrēon, egesan ne gȳmeð.
"Bebeorh þē þone bealo-nīð, Bēowulf lēofa,
1760 "secg se betsta, and þē þæt sēlre gecēos,
"ēce rǣdas; oferhȳda ne gȳm,
"mǣre cempa! Nū is þīnes mægnes blǣd
"āne hwīle; eft sōna bið,
"þæt þec ādl oððe ecg eafoðes getwǣfeð,
1765 "oððe fȳres feng oððe flōdes wylm,
"oððe gripe mēces oððe gāres fliht,
"oððe atol yldo, oððe ēagena bearhtm
"forsiteð and forsworceð; semninga bið,
"þæt þec, dryht-guma, dēað oferswȳðeð.
1770 "Swā ic Hring-Dena hund missēra
"wēold under wolcnum, and hig wigge belēac
"manigum mǣgða geond þysne middan-geard,
"æscum and ecgum, þæt ic mē ǣnigne
"under swegles begong gesacan ne tealde.
1775 "Hwæt! mē þæs on ēðle edwenden cwōm,
"gyrn æfter gomene, seoððan Grendel wearð,
"eald-gewinna, in-genga mīn:
"ic þǣre sōcne singāles wæg
"mōd-ceare micle. Þæs sig metode þanc,
1780 "ēcean drihtne, þæs þe ic on aldre gebād,
"þæt ic on þone hafelan heoro-drēorigne
"ofer eald gewin ēagum starige!
"Gā nū tō setle, symbel-wynne drēoh
"wīgge weorðad: unc sceal worn fela
1785 "māðma gemǣnra, siððan morgen bið."
Gēat wæs glæd-mōd, gēong sōna tō,
setles nēosan, swā se snottra heht.
Þā wæs eft swā ǣr ellen-rōfum,
flet-sittendum fægere gereorded
1790 nīowan stefne. Niht-helm geswearc
deorc ofer dryht-gumum. Duguð eal ārās;
wolde blonden-feax beddes nēosan,
gamela Scylding. Gēat ungemetes wēl,
rōfne rand-wigan restan lyste:
1795 sōna him sele-þegn sīðes wērgum,
feorran-cundum forð wīsade,
se for andrysnum ealle beweotede
þegnes þearfe, swylce þȳ dōgore
hēaðo-līðende habban scoldon.
1800 Reste hine þā rūm-heort; reced hlīfade
gēap and gold-fāh, gæst inne swæf,
oð þæt hrefn blaca heofones wynne
blīð-heort bodode. Þā cōm beorht sunne
scacan ofer grundas; scaðan ōnetton,
1805 wǣron æðelingas eft tō lēodum
fūse tō farenne, wolde feor þanon
cuma collen-ferhð cēoles nēosan.
Heht þā se hearda Hrunting beran,
sunu Ecglāfes, heht his sweord niman,
1810 lēoflīc īren; sægde him þæs lēanes þanc,
cwæð hē þone gūð-wine gōdne tealde,
wīg-cræftigne, nales wordum lōg
mēces ecge: þæt wæs mōdig secg.
And þā sīð-frome searwum gearwe
1815 wīgend wǣron, ēode weorð Denum
æðeling tō yppan, þǣr se ōðer wæs
hæle hilde-dēor, Hrōðgār grētte.

XXVII. THE PARTING WORDS.

Bēowulf maðelode, bearn Ecgþēowes:
"Nū wē sǣ-līðend secgan wyllað
1820 "feorran cumene, þæt wē fundiað
"Higelāc sēcan. Wǣron hēr tela
"willum bewenede; þū ūs wēl dohtest.
"Gif ic þonne on eorðan ōwihte mæg
"þīnre mōd-lufan māran tilian,
1825 "gumena dryhten, þonne ic gȳt dyde,
"gūð-geweorca ic bēo gearo sōna.
"Gif ic þæt gefricge ofer flōda begang,
"þæt þec ymbe-sittend egesan þȳwað,
"swā þec hetende hwīlum dydon,
1830 "ic þē þūsenda þegna bringe,
"hæleða tō helpe. Ic on Higelāce wāt,
"Gēata dryhten, þēah þe hē geong sȳ,
"folces hyrde, þæt hē mec fremman wile
"wordum and worcum, þæt ic þē wēl herige,
1835 "and þē tō gēoce gār-holt bere
"mægenes fultum, þǣr þē bið manna þearf;
"gif him þonne Hrēðrīc tō hofum Gēata
"geþingeð, þēodnes bearn, hē mæg þǣr fela
"frēonda findan: feor-cȳððe bēoð
1840 "sēlran gesōhte þǣm þe him selfa dēah."
Hrōðgār maðelode him on andsware:
"Þē þā word-cwydas wittig drihten
"on sefan sende! ne hȳrde ic snotorlīcor
"on swā geongum feore guman þingian:
1845 "þū eart mægenes strang and on mōde frōd,
"wīs word-cwida. Wēn ic talige,
"gif þæt gegangeð, þæt þe gār nymeð,
"hild heoru-grimme Hrēðles eaferan,
"ādl oððe īren ealdor þīnne,
1850 "folces hyrde, and þū þīn feorh hafast,
"þæt þe Sǣ-Gēatas sēlran næbben
"tō gecēosenne cyning ǣnigne,
"hord-weard hæleða, gif þū healdan wylt
"māga rīce. Mē þīn mōd-sefa
1855 "līcað leng swā wēl, lēofa Bēowulf:
"hafast þū gefēred, þæt þām folcum sceal,
"Gēata lēodum and Gār-Denum
"sib gemǣnum and sacu restan,
"inwit-nīðas, þē hīe ǣr drugon;
1860 "wesan, þenden ic wealde wīdan rīces,
"māðmas gemǣne, manig ōðerne
"gōdum gegrētan ofer ganotes bæð;
"sceal hring-naca ofer hēaðu bringan
"lāc and luf-tācen. Ic þā lēode wāt
1865 "gē wið fēond gē wið frēond fæste geworhte
"ǣghwæs untǣle ealde wīsan."
Þā gīt him eorla hlēo inne gesealde,
mago Healfdenes māðmas twelfe,
hēt hine mid þǣm lācum lēode swǣse
1870 sēcean on gesyntum, snūde eft cuman.
Gecyste þā cyning æðelum gōd,
þēoden Scildinga, þegen betstan
and be healse genam; hruron him tēaras,
blonden-feaxum: him wæs bēga wēn,
1875 ealdum infrōdum, ōðres swīðor,
þæt hī seoððan gesēon mōston
mōdige on meðle. Wæs him se man tō þon lēof,
þæt hē þone brēost-wylm forberan ne mehte,
ac him on hreðre hyge-bendum fæst
1880 æfter dēorum men dyrne langað
beorn wið blōde. Him Bēowulf þanan,
gūð-rinc gold-wlanc græs-moldan træd,
since hrēmig: sǣ-genga bād
āgend-frēan, sē þe on ancre rād.
1885 Þā wæs on gange gifu Hrōðgāres
oft geæhted: þæt wæs ān cyning
ǣghwæs orleahtre, oð þæt hine yldo benam
mægenes wynnum, sē þe oft manegum scōd.

XXVIII. BĒOWULF RETURNS TO GEATLAND.-THE QUEENS HYGD AND THRYTHO.

Cwōm þā tō flōde fela-mōdigra
1890 hæg-stealdra hēap; hring-net bǣron,
locene leoðo-syrcan. Land-weard onfand
eft-sīð eorla, swā hē ǣr dyde;
nō hē mid hearme of hlīðes nosan
gæstas grētte, ac him tōgēanes rād;
1895 cwæð þæt wilcuman Wedera lēodum
scawan scīr-hame tō scipe fōron.
Þā wæs on sande sǣ-gēap naca
hladen here-wǣdum, hringed-stefna
mēarum and māðmum: mæst hlīfade
1900 ofer Hrōðgāres hord-gestrēonum.
Hē þǣm bāt-wearde bunden golde
swurd gesealde, þæt hē syððan wæs
on meodu-bence māðme þȳ weorðra,
yrfe-lāfe. Gewāt him on ȳð-nacan,
1905 drēfan dēop wæter, Dena land ofgeaf.
Þā wæs be mæste mere-hrægla sum,
segl sāle fæst. Sund-wudu þunede,
nō þǣr wēg-flotan wind ofer ȳðum
sīðes getwǣfde; sǣ-genga fōr,
1910 flēat fāmig-heals forð ofer ȳðe,
bunden-stefna ofer brim-strēamas,
þæt hīe Gēata clifu ongitan meahton,
cūðe næssas. Cēol up geþrang,
lyft-geswenced on lande stōd.
1915 Hraðe wæs æt holme hȳð-weard gearo,
sē þe ǣr lange tīd, lēofra manna
fūs, æt faroðe feor wlātode;
sǣlde tō sande sīd-fæðme scip
oncer-bendum fæst, þȳ lǣs hym ȳða þrym
1920 wudu wynsuman forwrecan meahte.
Hēt þā up beran æðelinga gestrēon,
frætwe and fǣt-gold; næs him feor þanon
tō gesēcanne sinces bryttan:
Higelāc Hrēðling þǣr æt hām wunað,
1925 selfa mid gesīðum sǣ-wealle nēah;
bold wæs betlīc, brego-rōf cyning,
hēa on healle, Hygd swīðe geong,
wīs, wēl-þungen, þēah þe wintra lȳt
under burh-locan gebiden hæbbe
1930 Hæreðes dōhtor: næs hīo hnāh swā þēah,
nē tō gnēað gifa Gēata lēodum,
māðm-gestrēona. Mod Þrȳðo wæg,
fremu folces cwēn, firen ondrysne:
nǣnig þæt dorste dēor genēðan
1935 swǣsra gesīða, nefne sin-frēa,
þæt hire an dæges ēagum starede;
ac him wæl-bende weotode tealde,
hand-gewriðene: hraðe seoððan wæs
æfter mund-gripe mēce geþinged,
1940 þæt hit sceaðen-mǣl scȳran mōste,
cwealm-bealu cȳðan. Ne bið swylc cwēnlīc þēaw
idese tō efnanne, þēah þe hīo ǣnlīcu sȳ,
þætte freoðu-webbe fēores onsæce
æfter līge-torne lēofne mannan.
1945 Hūru þæt onhōhsnode Heminges mǣg;
ealo drincende ōðer sǣdan,
þæt hīo lēod-bealewa lǣs gefremede,
inwit-nīða, syððan ǣrest wearð
gyfen gold-hroden geongum cempan,
1950 æðelum dīore, syððan hīo Offan flet
ofer fealone flōd be fæder lāre
sīðe gesōhte, þǣr hīo syððan wēl
in gum-stōle, gōde mǣre,
līf-gesceafta lifigende brēac,
1955 hīold hēah-lufan wið hæleða brego,
ealles mon-cynnes mīne gefrǣge
þone sēlestan bī sǣm twēonum
eormen-cynnes; forþām Offa wæs
geofum and gūðum gār-cēne man,
1960 wīde geweorðod; wīsdōme hēold
ēðel sīnne, þonon Ēomǣr wōc
hæleðum tō helpe, Heminges mǣg,
nefa Gārmundes, nīða cræftig.

XXIX. HIS ARRIVAL. HYGELAC'S RECEPTION.

Gewāt him þā se hearda mid his hond-scole
1965 sylf æfter sande sǣ-wong tredan,
wīde waroðas. Woruld-candel scān,
sigel sūðan fūs: hī sīð drugon,
elne geēodon, tō þæs þe eorla hlēo,
bonan Ongenþēowes burgum on innan,
1970 geongne gūð-cyning gōdne gefrūnon
hringas dǣlan. Higelāce wæs
sīð Bēowulfes snūde gecȳðed,
þæt þǣr on worðig wīgendra hlēo,
lind-gestealla lifigende cwōm,
1975 heaðo-lāces hāl tō hofe gongan.
Hraðe wæs gerȳmed, swā se rīca bebēad,
fēðe-gestum flet innan-weard.
Gesæt þā wið sylfne, sē þā sæcce genæs,
mǣg wið mǣge, syððan man-dryhten
1980 þurh hlēoðor-cwyde holdne gegrētte
mēaglum wordum. Meodu-scencum
hwearf geond þæt reced Hæreðes dōhtor:
lufode þā lēode, līð-wǣge bær
hǣlum tō handa. Higelāc ongan
1985 sīnne geseldan in sele þām hēan
fægre fricgean, hyne fyrwet bræc,
hwylce Sǣ-Gēata sīðas wǣron:
"Hū lomp ēow on lāde, lēofa Bīowulf,
"þā þū fǣringa feorr gehogodest,
1990 "sæcce sēcean ofer sealt wæter,
"hilde tō Hiorote? Ac þū Hrōðgāre
"wīd-cūðne wēan wihte gebēttest,
"mǣrum þēodne? Ic þæs mōd-ceare
"sorh-wylmum sēað, sīðe ne truwode
1995 "lēofes mannes; ic þē lange bæd,
"þæt þū þone wæl-gǣst wihte ne grētte,
"lēte Sūð-Dene sylfe geweorðan
"gūðe wið Grendel. Gode ic þanc secge,
"þæs þe ic þē gesundne gesēon mōste."
2000 Bīowulf maðelode, bearn Ecgþīowes:
"Þæt is undyrne, dryhten Higelāc,
"mǣre gemēting monegum fīra,
"hwylc orleg-hwīl uncer Grendles
"wearð on þām wange, þǣr hē worna fela
2005 "Sige-Scildingum sorge gefremede,
"yrmðe tō aldre; ic þæt eal gewræc,
"swā ne gylpan þearf Grendeles māga
"ǣnig ofer eorðan ūht-hlem þone,
"sē þe lengest leofað lāðan cynnes,
2010 "fenne bifongen. Ic þǣr furðum cwōm,
"tō þām hring-sele Hrōðgār grētan:
"sōna mē se mǣra mago Healfdenes,
"syððan hē mōd-sefan mīnne cūðe,
"wið his sylfes sunu setl getǣhte.
2015 "Weorod wæs on wynne; ne seah ic wīdan feorh
"under heofenes hwealf heal-sittendra
"medu-drēam māran. Hwīlum mǣru cwēn,
"friðu-sibb folca flet eall geond-hwearf,
"bǣdde byre geonge; oft hīo bēah-wriðan
2020 "secge sealde, ǣr hīo tō setle gēong.
"Hwīlum for duguðe dōhtor Hrōðgāres
"eorlum on ende ealu-wǣge bær,
"þā ic Frēaware flet-sittende
"nemnan hȳrde, þǣr hīo nægled sinc
2025 "hæleðum sealde: sīo gehāten wæs,
"geong gold-hroden, gladum suna Frōdan;
"hafað þæs geworden wine Scyldinga
"rīces hyrde and þæt rǣd talað,
"þæt hē mid þȳ wīfe wæl-fǣhða dǣl,
2030 "sæcca gesette. Oft nō seldan hwǣr
"æfter lēod-hryre lȳtle hwīle
"bon-gār būgeð, þēah sēo brȳd duge!

XXX. BĒOWULF'S STORY OF THE SLAYINGS.

"Mæg þæs þonne ofþyncan þēoden Heaðobeardna
"and þegna gehwām þāra lēoda,
2035 "þonne hē mid fǣmnan on flett gǣð,
"dryht-bearn Dena duguða biwenede:
"on him gladiað gomelra lāfe
"heard and hring-mǣl, Heaðobeardna gestrēon,
"þenden hīe þām wǣpnum wealdan mōston,
2040 "oð þæt hīe forlǣddan tō þām lind-plegan
"swǣse gesīðas ond hyra sylfra feorh.
"Þonne cwið æt bēore, sē þe bēah gesyhð,
"eald æsc-wiga, sē þe eall geman
"gār-cwealm gumena (him bið grim sefa),
2045 "onginneð geōmor-mōd geongne cempan
"þurh hreðra gehygd higes cunnian,
"wīg-bealu weccean and þæt word ācwyð:
"'Meaht þū, mīn wine, mēce gecnāwan,
"'þone þin fæder tō gefeohte bær
2050 "'under here-grīman hindeman sīðe,
"'dȳre īren, þǣr hyne Dene slōgon,
"'wēoldon wæl-stōwe, syððan wiðer-gyld læg,
"'æfter hæleða hryre, hwate Scyldungas?
"'Nu hēr þāra banena byre nāt-hwylces,
2055 "'frætwum hrēmig on flet gǣð,
"'morðres gylpeð and þone māððum byreð,
"'þone þe þū mid rihte rǣdan sceoldest!'"
"Manað swā and myndgað mǣla gehwylce
"sārum wordum, oð þæt sǣl cymeð,
2060 "þæt se fǣmnan þegn fore fæder dǣdum
"æfter billes bite blōd-fāg swefeð,
"ealdres scyldig; him se ōðer þonan
"losað lifigende, con him land geare.
"Þonne bīoð brocene on bā healfe
2065 "āð-sweord eorla; syððan Ingelde
"weallað wæl-nīðas and him wīf-lufan
"æfter cear-wælmum cōlran weorðað.
"Þȳ ic Heaðobeardna hyldo ne telge,
"dryht-sibbe dǣl Denum unfǣcne,
2070 "frēond-scipe fæstne. Ic sceal forð sprecan
"gēn ymbe Grendel, þæt þū geare cunne,
"sinces brytta, tō hwan syððan wearð
"hond-rǣs hæleða. Syððan heofones gim
"glād ofer grundas, gæst yrre cwōm,
2075 "eatol ǣfen-grom, ūser nēosan,
"þǣr wē gesunde sæl weardodon;
"þǣr wæs Hondscīo hild onsǣge,
"feorh-bealu fǣgum, hē fyrmest læg,
"gyrded cempa; him Grendel wearð,
2080 "mǣrum magu-þegne tō mūð-bonan,
"lēofes mannes līc eall forswealg.
"Nō þȳ ǣr ūt þā gēn īdel-hende
"bona blōdig-tōð bealewa gemyndig,
"of þām gold-sele gongan wolde,
2085 "ac hē mægnes rōf mīn costode,
"grāpode gearo-folm. Glōf hangode
"sīd and syllīc searo-bendum fæst,
"sīo wæs orþoncum eall gegyrwed
"dēofles cræftum and dracan fellum:
2090 "hē mec þǣr on innan unsynnigne,
"dīor dǣd-fruma, gedōn wolde,
"manigra sumne: hyt ne mihte swā,
"syððan ic on yrre upp-riht āstōd.
"Tō lang ys tō reccenne, hū ic þām lēod-sceaðan
2095 "yfla gehwylces ond-lēan forgeald;
"þǣr ic, þēoden mīn, þīne lēode
"weorðode weorcum. Hē on weg losade,
"lȳtle hwīle līf-wynna brēac;
"hwæðre him sīo swīðre swaðe weardade
2100 "hand on Hiorte and hē hēan þonan,
"mōdes geōmor mere-grund gefēoll.
"Mē þone wæl-rǣs wine Scildunga
"fǣttan golde fela lēanode,
"manegum māðmum, syððan mergen cōm
2105 "and wē tō symble geseten hæfdon.
"Þǣr wæs gidd and glēo; gomela Scilding
"fela fricgende feorran rehte;
"hwīlum hilde-dēor hearpan wynne,
"gomen-wudu grētte; hwīlum gyd āwræc
2110 "sōð and sārlīc; hwīlum syllīc spell
"rehte æfter rihte rūm-heort cyning.
"Hwīlum eft ongan eldo gebunden,
"gomel gūð-wiga gioguðe cwīðan
"hilde-strengo; hreðer inne wēoll,
2115 "þonne hē wintrum frōd worn gemunde.
"Swā wē þǣr inne andlangne dæg
"nīode nāman, oð þæt niht becwōm
"ōðer tō yldum. Þā wæs eft hraðe
"gearo gyrn-wræce Grendeles mōdor,
2120 "sīðode sorh-full; sunu dēað fornam,
"wīg-hete Wedra. Wīf unhȳre
"hyre bearn gewræc, beorn ācwealde
"ellenlīce; þǣr wæs Æsc-here,
"frōdan fyrn-witan, feorh ūðgenge;
2125 "nōðer hȳ hine ne mōston, syððan mergen cwōm,
"dēað-wērigne Denia lēode
"bronde forbærnan, nē on bǣl hladan
"lēofne mannan: hīo þæt līc ætbær
"fēondes fæðmum under firgen-strēam.
2130 "Þæt wæs Hrōðgāre hrēowa tornost
"þāra þe lēod-fruman lange begeāte;
"þā se þēoden mec þīne līfe
"healsode hrēoh-mōd, þæt ic on holma geþring
"eorl-scipe efnde, ealdre genēðde,
2135 "mǣrðo fremede: hē mē mēde gehēt.
"Ic þā þæs wælmes, þē is wīde cūð,
"grimne gryrelīcne grund-hyrde fond.
"Þǣr unc hwīle wæs hand gemǣne;
"holm heolfre wēoll and ic hēafde becearf
2140 "in þām grund-sele Grendeles mōdor
"ēacnum ecgum, unsōfte þonan
"feorh oðferede; næs ic fǣge þā gȳt,
"ac mē eorla hlēo eft gesealde
"māðma menigeo, maga Healfdenes.

XXXI. HE GIVES PRESENTS TO HYGELAC. HYGELAC REWARDS HIM. HYGELAC'S DEATH. BĒOWULF REIGNS.

2145 "Swā se þēod-kyning þēawum lyfde;
"nealles ic þām lēanum forloren hæfde,
"mægnes mēde, ac hē mē māðmas geaf,
"sunu Healfdenes, on sīnne sylfes dōm;
"þā ic þē, beorn-cyning, bringan wylle,
2150 "ēstum geȳwan. Gēn is eall æt þē
"lissa gelong: ic lȳt hafo
"hēafod-māga, nefne Hygelāc þec!"
Hēt þā in beran eafor, hēafod-segn,
heaðo-stēapne helm, hāre byrnan,
2155 gūð-sweord geatolīc, gyd æfter wræc:
"Mē þis hilde-sceorp Hrōðgār sealde,
"snotra fengel, sume worde hēt,
"þæt ic his ǣrest þē eft gesægde,
"cwæð þæt hyt hæfde Hiorogār cyning,
2160 "lēod Scyldunga lange hwīle:
"nō þȳ ǣr suna sīnum syllan wolde,
"hwatum Heorowearde, þēah hē him hold wǣre,
"brēost-gewǣdu. Brūc ealles well!"
Hȳrde ic þæt þām frætwum fēower mēaras
2165 lungre gelīce lāst weardode,
æppel-fealuwe; hē him ēst getēah
mēara and māðma. Swā sceal mǣg dōn,
nealles inwit-net ōðrum bregdan,
dyrnum cræfte dēað rēnian
2170 hond-gesteallan. Hygelāce wæs,
nīða heardum, nefa swȳðe hold
and gehwæðer ōðrum hrōðra gemyndig.
Hȳrde ic þæt hē þone heals-bēah Hygde gesealde,
wrǣtlīcne wundur-māððum, þone þe him Wealhþēo geaf,
2175 þēodnes dōhtor, þrīo wicg somod
swancor and sadol-beorht; hyre syððan wæs
æfter bēah-þege brēost geweorðod.
Swā bealdode bearn Ecgþēowes,
guma gūðum cūð, gōdum dǣdum,
2180 drēah æfter dōme, nealles druncne slōg
heorð-genēatas; næs him hrēoh sefa,
ac hē man-cynnes mǣste cræfte
gin-fæstan gife, þē him god sealde,
hēold hilde-dēor. Hēan wæs lange,
2185 swā hyne Gēata bearn gōdne ne tealdon,
nē hyne on medo-bence micles wyrðne
drihten wereda gedōn wolde;
swȳðe oft sægdon, þæt hē slēac wǣre,
æðeling unfrom: edwenden cwōm
2190 tīr-ēadigum menn torna gehwylces.
Hēt þā eorla hlēo in gefetian,
heaðo-rōf cyning, Hrēðles lāfe,
golde gegyrede; næs mid Gēatum þā
sinc-māððum sēlra on sweordes hād;
2195 þæt hē on Bīowulfes bearm ālegde,
and him gesealde seofan þūsendo,
bold and brego-stōl. Him wæs bām samod
on þām lēod-scipe lond gecynde,
eard ēðel-riht, ōðrum swīðor
2200 sīde rīce, þām þǣr sēlra wæs.
Eft þæt geīode ufaran dōgrum
hilde-hlæmmum, syððan Hygelāc læg
and Heardrēde hilde-mēceas
under bord-hrēoðan tō bonan wurdon,
2205 þā hyne gesōhtan on sige-þēode
hearde hilde-frecan, Heaðo-Scilfingas,
nīða genǣgdan nefan Hererīces.
Syððan Bēowulfe brāde rīce
on hand gehwearf: hē gehēold tela
2210 fīftig wintru (wæs þā frōd cyning,
eald ēðel-weard), oð þæt ān ongan
deorcum nihtum draca rīcsian,
sē þe on hēare hǣðe hord beweotode,
stān-beorh stēapne: stīg under læg,
2215 eldum uncūð. Þǣr on innan gīong
niða nāt-hwylces nēode gefēng
hǣðnum horde hond . d . . geþ . . hwylc
since fāhne, hē þæt syððan . . . . .
. . . þ . . . lð . þ . . l . g
2220 slǣpende be fȳre, fyrena hyrde
þēofes cræfte, þæt sie . . . . ðioð . . . . .
. idh . folc-beorn, þæt hē gebolgen wæs.

XXXII. THE FIRE-DRAKE. THE HOARD.

Nealles mid geweoldum wyrm-horda . . . cræft
sōhte sylfes willum, sē þe him sāre gesceōd,
2225 ac for þrēa-nēdlan þēow nāt-hwylces
hæleða bearna hete-swengeas flēah,
for ofer-þearfe and þǣr inne fealh
secg syn-bysig. Sōna in þā tīde
þæt . . . . . þām gyste . . . . br . g . stōd,
2230 hwæðre earm-sceapen . . . . . . .
. . ð . . . sceapen o . . . . i r . . e se fǣs begeat,
sinc-fæt geseah: þǣr wæs swylcra fela
in þām eorð-scræfe ǣr-gestrēona,
swā hȳ on geār-dagum gumena nāt-hwylc
2235 eormen-lāfe æðelan cynnes
þanc-hycgende þǣr gehȳdde,
dēore māðmas. Ealle hīe dēað fornam
ǣrran mǣlum, and se ān þā gēn
lēoda duguðe, sē þǣr lengest hwearf,
2240 weard wine-geōmor wīscte þæs yldan,
þæt hē lȳtel fæc long-gestrēona
brūcan mōste. Beorh eal gearo
wunode on wonge wæter-ȳðum nēah,
nīwe be næsse nearo-cræftum fæst:
2245 þǣr on innan bær eorl-gestrēona
hringa hyrde hard-fyrdne dǣl
fǣttan goldes, fēa worda cwæð:
"Heald þū nū, hrūse, nū hæleð ne mōston,
"eorla ǣhte. Hwæt! hit ǣr on þē
2250 "gōde begeāton; gūð-dēað fornam,
"feorh-bealo frēcne fȳra gehwylcne,
"lēoda mīnra, þāra þe þis līf ofgeaf,
"gesāwon sele-drēam. Nāh hwā sweord wege
"oððe fetige fǣted wǣge,
2255 "drync-fæt dēore: duguð ellor scōc.
"Sceal se hearda helm hyrsted golde
"fǣtum befeallen: feormiend swefað,
"þā þe beado-grīman bȳwan sceoldon,
"gē swylce sēo here-pād, sīo æt hilde gebād
2260 "ofer borda gebræc bite īrena,
"brosnað æfter beorne. Ne mæg byrnan hring
"æfter wīg-fruman wīde fēran
"hæleðum be healfe; næs hearpan wyn,
"gomen glēo-bēames, nē gōd hafoc
2265 "geond sæl swingeð, nē se swifta mearh
"burh-stede bēateð. Bealo-cwealm hafað
"fela feorh-cynna feorr onsended!"
Swā giōmor-mōd giohðo mǣnde,
ān æfter eallum unblīðe hwēop,
2270 dæges and nihtes, oð þæt dēaðes wylm
hrān æt heortan. Hord-wynne fond
eald ūht-sceaða opene standan,
sē þe byrnende biorgas sēceð
nacod nīð-draca, nihtes flēogeð
2275 fȳre befangen; hyne fold-būend
wīde gesāwon. Hē gēwunian sceall
hlāw under hrūsan, þǣr hē hǣðen gold
warað wintrum frōd; ne byð him wihte þē sēl.
Swā se þēod-sceaða þrēo hund wintra
2280 hēold on hrūsan hord-ærna sum
ēacen-cræftig, oð þæt hyne ān ābealh
mon on mōde: man-dryhtne bær
fǣted wǣge, frioðo-wǣre bæd
hlāford sīnne. Þā wæs hord rāsod,
2285 onboren bēaga hord, bēne getīðad
fēa-sceaftum men. Frēa scēawode
fīra fyrn-geweorc forman sīðe.
Þā se wyrm onwōc, wrōht wæs genīwad;
stonc þā æfter stāne, stearc-heort onfand
2290 fēondes fōt-lāst; hē tō forð gestōp,
dyrnan cræfte, dracan hēafde nēah.
Swā mæg unfǣge ēaðe gedīgan
wēan and wræc-sīð, sē þe waldendes
hyldo gehealdeð. Hord-weard sōhte
2295 georne æfter grunde, wolde guman findan,
þone þe him on sweofote sāre getēode:
hāt and hrēoh-mōd hlǣw oft ymbe hwearf,
ealne ūtan-weardne; nē þǣr ǣnig mon
wæs on þǣre wēstenne. Hwæðre hilde gefeh,
2300 beado-weorces: hwīlum on beorh æthwearf,
sinc-fæt sōhte; hē þæt sōna onfand,
þæt hæfde gumena sum goldes gefandod
hēah-gestrēona. Hord-weard onbād
earfoðlīce, oð þæt ǣfen cwōm;
2305 wæs þā gebolgen beorges hyrde,
wolde se lāða līge forgyldan
drinc-fæt dȳre. Þā wæs dæg sceacen
wyrme on willan, nō on wealle leng
bīdan wolde, ac mid bǣle fōr,
2310 fȳre gefȳsed. Wæs se fruma egeslīc
lēodum on lande, swā hyt lungre wearð
on hyra sinc-gifan sāre geendod.

XXXIII. BEOWULF RESOLVES TO KILL THE FIRE-DRAKE.

Þā se gæst ongan glēdum spīwan,
beorht hofu bærnan; bryne-lēoma stōd
2315 eldum on andan; nō þǣr āht cwices
lāð lyft-floga lǣfan wolde.
Wæs þæs wyrmes wīg wīde gesȳne,
nearo-fāges nīð nēan and feorran,
hū se gūð-sceaða Gēata lēode
2320 hatode and hȳnde: hord eft gescēat,
dryht-sele dyrnne ǣr dæges hwīle.
Hæfde land-wara līge befangen,
bǣle and bronde; beorges getruwode,
wīges and wealles: him sēo wēn gelēah.
2325 Þā wæs Bīowulfe brōga gecȳðed
snūde tō sōðe, þæt his sylfes him
bolda sēlest bryne-wylmum mealt,
gif-stōl Gēata. Þæt þām gōdan wæs
hrēow on hreðre, hyge-sorga mǣst:
2330 wēnde se wīsa, þæt hē wealdende,
ofer ealde riht, ēcean dryhtne
bitre gebulge: brēost innan wēoll
þēostrum geþoncum, swā him geþȳwe ne wæs.
Hæfde līg-draca lēoda fæsten,
2335 ēa-lond ūtan, eorð-weard þone
glēdum forgrunden. Him þæs gūð-cyning,
Wedera þīoden, wræce leornode.
Heht him þā gewyrcean wīgendra hlēo
eall-īrenne, eorla dryhten
2340 wīg-bord wrǣtlīc; wisse hē gearwe,
þæt him holt-wudu helpan ne meahte,
lind wið līge. Sceolde lǣn-daga
æðeling ǣr-gōd ende gebīdan
worulde līfes and se wyrm somod;
2345 þēah þe hord-welan hēolde lange.
Oferhogode þā hringa fengel,
þæt hē þone wīd-flogan weorode gesōhte,
sīdan herge; nō hē him þā sæcce ondrēd,
nē him þæs wyrmes wīg for wiht dyde,
2350 eafoð and ellen; forþon hē ǣr fela
nearo nēðende nīða gedīgde,
hilde-hlemma, syððan hē Hrōðgāres,
sigor-ēadig secg, sele fǣlsode
and æt gūðe forgrāp Grendeles mǣgum,
2355 lāðan cynnes. Nō þæt lǣsest wæs
hond-gemota, þǣr mon Hygelāc slōh,
syððan Gēata cyning gūðe rǣsum,
frēa-wine folces Frēslondum on,
Hrēðles eafora hioro-dryncum swealt,
2360 bille gebēaten; þonan Bīowulf cōm
sylfes cræfte, sund-nytte drēah;
hæfde him on earme ... XXX
hilde-geatwa, þā hē tō holme stāg.
Nealles Hetware hrēmge þorfton
2365 fēðe-wīges, þē him foran ongēan
linde bǣron: lȳt eft becwōm
fram þām hild-frecan hāmes nīosan.
Oferswam þā sioleða bigong sunu Ecgþēowes,
earm ān-haga eft tō lēodum,
2370 þǣr him Hygd gebēad hord and rīce,
bēagas and brego-stōl: bearne ne truwode,
þæt hē wið æl-fylcum ēðel-stōlas
healdan cūðe, þā wæs Hygelāc dēad.
Nō þȳ ǣr fēa-sceafte findan meahton
2375 æt þām æðelinge ǣnige þinga,
þæt hē Heardrēde hlāford wǣre,
oððe þone cyne-dōm cīosan wolde;
hwæðre hē him on folce frēond-lārum hēold,
ēstum mid āre, oð þæt hē yldra wearð,
2380 Weder-Gēatum wēold. Hyne wræc-mæcgas
ofer sǣ sōhtan, suna Ōhteres:
hæfdon hȳ forhealden helm Scylfinga,
þone sēlestan sǣ-cyninga,
þāra þe in Swīo-rīce sinc brytnade,
2385 mǣrne þēoden. Him þæt tō mearce wearð;
hē þǣr orfeorme feorh-wunde hlēat
sweordes swengum, sunu Hygelāces;
and him eft gewāt Ongenþīowes bearn
hāmes nīosan, syððan Heardrēd læg;
2390 lēt þone brego-stōl Bīowulf healdan,
Gēatum wealdan: þæt wæs gōd cyning.

XXXIV. RETROSPECT OF BĒOWULF.--STRIFE BETWEEN SWEONAS AND GEATAS.

Sē þæs lēod-hryres lēan gemunde
uferan dōgrum, Ēadgilse wearð
fēa-sceaftum fēond. Folce gestepte
2395 ofer sǣ sīde sunu Ōhteres
wigum and wǣpnum: hē gewræc syððan
cealdum cear-sīðum, cyning ealdre binēat.
Swā hē nīða gehwane genesen hæfde,
slīðra geslyhta, sunu Ecgþīowes,
2400 ellen-weorca, oð þone ānne dæg,
þē hē wið þām wyrme gewegan sceolde.
Gewāt þā twelfa sum torne gebolgen
dryhten Gēata dracan scēawian;
hæfde þā gefrūnen, hwanan sīo fǣhð ārās,
2405 bealo-nīð biorna; him tō bearme cwōm
māððum-fæt mǣre þurh þæs meldan hond,
Sē wæs on þām þrēate þreotteoða secg,
sē þæs orleges ōr onstealde,
hæft hyge-giōmor, sceolde hēan þonon
2410 wong wīsian: hē ofer willan gīong
tō þæs þe hē eorð-sele ānne wisse,
hlǣw under hrūsan holm-wylme nēh,
ȳð-gewinne, sē wæs innan full
wrǣtta and wīra: weard unhīore,
2415 gearo gūð-freca, gold-māðmas hēold,
eald under eorðan; næs þæt ȳðe cēap,
tō gegangenne gumena ǣnigum.
Gesæt þā on næsse nīð-heard cyning,
þenden hǣlo ābēad heorð-genēatum
2420 gold-wine Gēata: him wæs geōmor sefa,
wǣfre and wæl-fūs, Wyrd ungemete nēah,
sē þone gomelan grētan sceolde,
sēcean sāwle hord, sundur gedǣlan
līf wið līce: nō þon lange wæs
2425 feorh æðelinges flǣsce bewunden.
Bīowulf maðelade, bearn Ecgþēowes:
"Fela ic on giogoðe guð-rǣsa genæs,
"orleg-hwīla: ic þæt eall gemon.
"Ic wæs syfan-wintre, þā mec sinca baldor,
2430 "frēa-wine folca æt mīnum fæder genam,
"hēold mec and hæfde Hrēðel cyning,
"geaf mē sinc and symbel, sibbe gemunde;
"næs ic him tō līfe lāðra ōwihte
"beorn in burgum, þonne his bearna hwylc,
2435 "Herebeald and Hæðcyn, oððe Hygelāc mīn.
"Wæs þām yldestan ungedēfelīce
"mǣges dǣdum morðor-bed strēd,
"syððan hyne Hæðcyn of horn-bogan,
"his frēa-wine flāne geswencte,
2440 "miste mercelses and his mǣg ofscēt,
"brōðor ōðerne, blōdigan gāre:
"þæt wæs feoh-lēas gefeoht, fyrenum gesyngad
"hreðre hyge-mēðe; sceolde hwæðre swā þēah
"æðeling unwrecen ealdres linnan.
2445 "Swā bið geōmorlīc gomelum ceorle
"tō gebīdanne, þæt his byre rīde
"giong on galgan, þonne hē gyd wrece,
"sārigne sang, þonne his sunu hangað
"hrefne tō hrōðre and hē him helpe ne mæg,
2450 "eald and in-frōd, ǣnige gefremman.
"Symble bið gemyndgad morna gehwylce
"eaforan ellor-sīð; ōðres ne gȳmeð
"tō gebīdanne burgum on innan
"yrfe-weardes, þonne se ān hafað
2455 "þurh dēaðes nȳd dǣda gefondad.
"Gesyhð sorh-cearig on his suna būre
"wīn-sele wēstne, wind-gereste,
"rēote berofene; rīdend swefað
"hæleð in hoðman; nis þǣr hearpan swēg,
2460 "gomen in geardum, swylce þǣr iū wǣron.

XXXV. MEMORIES OF PAST TIME.-THE FEUD WITH THE FIRE-DRAKE.

"Gewīteð þonne on sealman, sorh-lēoð gæleð
"ān æfter ānum: þūhte him eall tō rūm,
"wongas and wīc-stede. Swā Wedra helm
"æfter Herebealde heortan sorge
2465 "weallende wæg, wihte ne meahte
"on þām feorh-bonan fǣhðe gebētan:
"nō þȳ ǣr hē þone heaðo-rinc hatian ne meahte
"lāðum dǣdum, þēah him lēof ne wæs.
"Hē þā mid þǣre sorge, þē him sīo sār belamp,
2470 "gum-drēam ofgeaf, godes lēoht gecēas;
"eaferum lǣfde, swā dēð ēadig mon,
"lond and lēod-byrig, þā hē of līfe gewāt.
"Þā wæs synn and sacu Swēona and Gēata,
"ofer wīd wæter wrōht gemǣne,
2475 "here-nīð hearda, syððan Hrēðel swealt,
"oððe him Ongenþēowes eaferan wǣran
"frome fyrd-hwate, frēode ne woldon
"ofer heafo healdan, ac ymb Hrēosna-beorh
"eatolne inwit-scear oft gefremedon.
2480 "Þæt mǣg-wine mīne gewrǣcan,
"fǣhðe and fyrene, swā hyt gefrǣge wæs,
"þēah þe ōðer hit ealdre gebohte,
"heardan cēape: Hæðcynne wearð,
"Gēata dryhtne, gūð onsǣge.
2485 "Þā ic on morgne gefrægn mǣg ōðerne
"billes ecgum on bonan stǣlan,
"þǣr Ongenþēow Eofores nīosade:
"gūð-helm tōglād, gomela Scylfing
"hrēas heoro-blāc; hond gemunde
2490 "fǣhðo genōge, feorh-sweng ne oftēah.
"Ic him þā māðmas, þē hē mē sealde,
"geald æt gūðe, swā mē gifeðe wæs,
"lēohtan sweorde: hē mē lond forgeaf,
"eard ēðel-wyn. Næs him ǣnig þearf,
2495 "þæt hē tō Gifðum oððe tō Gār-Denum
"oððe in Swīo-rīce sēcean þurfe
"wyrsan wīg-frecan, weorðe gecȳpan;
"symle ic him on fēðan beforan wolde,
"āna on orde, and swā tō aldre sceall
2500 "sæcce fremman, þenden þis sweord þolað,
"þæt mec ǣr and sīð oft gelǣste,
"syððan ic for dugeðum Dæghrefne wearð
"tō hand-bonan, Hūga cempan:
"nalles hē þā frætwe Frēs-cyninge,
2505 "brēost-weorðunge bringan mōste,
"ac in campe gecrong cumbles hyrde,
"æðeling on elne. Ne wæs ecg bona,
"ac him hilde-grāp heortan wylmas,
"bān-hūs gebræc. Nū sceall billes ecg,
2510 "hond and heard sweord ymb hord wīgan."
Bēowulf maðelode, bēot-wordum spræc
nīehstan sīðe: "Ic genēðde fela
"gūða on geogoðe; gȳt ic wylle,
"frōd folces weard, fǣhðe sēcan,
2515 "mǣrðum fremman, gif mec se mān-sceaða
"of eorð-sele ūt gesēceð!"
Gegrētte þā gumena gehwylcne,
hwate helm-berend hindeman sīðe,
swǣse gesīðas: "Nolde ic sweord beran,
2520 "wǣpen tō wyrme, gif ic wiste hū
"wið þām āglǣcean elles meahte
"gylpe wiðgrīpan, swā ic giō wið Grendle dyde;
"ac ic þǣr heaðu-fȳres hātes wēne,
"rēðes and-hāttres: forþon ic mē on hafu
2525 "bord and byrnan. Nelle ic beorges weard
"oferflēon fōtes trem, fēond unhȳre,
"ac unc sceal weorðan æt wealle, swā unc Wyrd getēoð,
"metod manna gehwæs. Ic eom on mōde from,
"þæt ic wið þone gūð-flogan gylp ofersitte.
2530 "Gebīde gē on beorge byrnum werede,
"secgas on searwum, hwæðer sēl mǣge
"æfter wæl-rǣse wunde gedȳgan
"uncer twēga. Nis þæt ēower sīð,
"nē gemet mannes, nefne mīn ānes,
2535 "þæt hē wið āglǣcean eofoðo dǣle,
"eorl-scype efne. Ic mid elne sceall
"gold gegangan oððe gūð nimeð,
"feorh-bealu frēcne, frēan ēowerne!"
Ārās þā bī ronde rōf ōretta,
2540 heard under helm, hioro-sercean bær
under stān-cleofu, strengo getruwode
ānes mannes: ne bið swylc earges sīð.
Geseah þā be wealle, sē þe worna fela,
gum-cystum gōd, gūða gedīgde,
2545 hilde-hlemma, þonne hnitan fēðan,
(stōd on stān-bogan) strēam ūt þonan
brecan of beorge; wæs þǣre burnan wælm
heaðo-fȳrum hāt: ne meahte horde nēah
unbyrnende ǣnige hwīle
2550 dēop gedȳgan for dracan lēge.
Lēt þā of brēostum, þā hē gebolgen wæs,
Weder-Gēata lēod word ūt faran,
stearc-heort styrmde; stefn in becōm
heaðo-torht hlynnan under hārne stān.
2555 Hete wæs onhrēred, hord-weard oncnīow
mannes reorde; næs þǣr māra fyrst,
frēode tō friclan. From ǣrest cwōm
oruð āglǣcean ūt of stāne,
hāt hilde-swāt; hrūse dynede.
2560 Biorn under beorge bord-rand onswāf
wið þām gryre-gieste, Gēata dryhten:
þā wæs hring-bogan heorte gefȳsed
sæcce tō sēceanne. Sweord ǣr gebrǣ
gōd gūð-cyning gomele lāfe,
2565 ecgum unglēaw, ǣghwæðrum wæs
bealo-hycgendra brōga fram ōðrum.
Stīð-mōd gestōd wið stēapne rond
winia bealdor, þā se wyrm gebēah
snūde tōsomne: hē on searwum bād.
2570 Gewāt þā byrnende gebogen scrīðan tō,
gescīfe scyndan. Scyld wēl gebearg
līfe and līce lǣssan hwīle
mǣrum þēodne, þonne his myne sōhte,
þǣr hē þȳ fyrste forman dōgore
2575 wealdan mōste, swā him Wyrd ne gescrāf
hrēð æt hilde. Hond up ābræd
Gēata dryhten, gryre-fāhne slōh
incge lāfe, þæt sīo ecg gewāc
brūn on bāne, bāt unswīðor,
2580 þonne his þīod-cyning þearfe hæfde,
bysigum gebǣded. Þā wæs beorges weard
æfter heaðu-swenge on hrēoum mōde,
wearp wæl-fȳre, wīde sprungon
hilde-lēoman: hrēð-sigora ne gealp
2585 gold-wine Gēata, gūð-bill geswāc
nacod æt nīðe, swā hyt nō sceolde,
īren ǣr-gōd. Ne wæs þæt ēðe sīð,
þæt se mǣra maga Ecgþēowes
grund-wong þone ofgyfan wolde;
2590 sceolde wyrmes willan wīc eardian
elles hwergen, swā sceal ǣghwylc mon
ālǣtan lǣn-dagas. Næs þā long tō þon,
þæt þā āglǣcean hȳ eft gemētton.
Hyrte hyne hord-weard, hreðer ǣðme wēoll,
2595 nīwan stefne: nearo þrowode
fȳre befongen sē þe ǣr folce wēold.
Nealles him on hēape hand-gesteallan,
æðelinga bearn ymbe gestōdon
hilde-cystum, ac hȳ on holt bugon,
2600 ealdre burgan. Hiora in ānum wēoll
sefa wið sorgum: sibb ǣfre ne mæg
wiht onwendan, þām þe wēl þenceð.

XXXVI. WIGLAF HELPS BĒOWULF IN THE FEUD

Wīglāf wæs hāten Wēoxstānes sunu,
lēoflīc lind-wiga, lēod Scylfinga,
2605 mǣg Ælfheres: geseah his mon-dryhten
under here-grīman hāt þrowian.
Gemunde þā þā āre, þē hē him ǣr forgeaf
wīc-stede weligne Wǣgmundinga,
folc-rihta gehwylc, swā his fæder āhte;
2610 ne mihte þā forhabban, hond rond gefēng,
geolwe linde, gomel swyrd getēah,
þæt wæs mid eldum Ēanmundes lāf,
suna Ōhteres, þām æt sæcce wearð
wracu wine-lēasum Wēohstānes bana
2615 mēces ecgum, and his māgum ætbær
brūn-fāgne helm, hringde byrnan,
eald sweord eotonisc, þæt him Onela forgeaf,
his gædelinges gūð-gewǣdu,
fyrd-searo fūslīc: nō ymbe þā fǣhðe spræc,
2620 þēah þe hē his brōðor bearn ābredwade.
Hē frætwe gehēold fela missēra,
bill and byrnan, oð þæt his byre mihte
eorl-scipe efnan, swā his ǣr-fæder;
geaf him þā mid Gēatum gūð-gewǣda
2625 ǣghwæs unrīm; þā hē of ealdre gewāt,
frōd on forð-weg. Þā wæs forma sīð
geongan cempan, þæt hē gūðe rǣs
mid his frēo-dryhtne fremman sceolde;
ne gemealt him se mōd-sefa, nē his mǣges lāf
2630 gewāc æt wīge: þæt se wyrm onfand,
syððan hīe tōgædre gegān hæfdon.
Wīglāf maðelode word-rihta fela,
sægde gesīðum, him wæs sefa geōmor:
"Ic þæt mǣl geman, þǣr wē medu þēgun,
2635 "þonne wē gehēton ūssum hlāforde
"in bīor-sele, þē ūs þās bēagas geaf,
"þæt wē him þā gūð-geatwa gyldan woldon,
"gif him þyslīcu þearf gelumpe,
"helmas and heard sweord: þē hē ūsic on herge gecēas
2640 "tō þyssum sīð-fate sylfes willum,
"onmunde ūsic mǣrða and mē þās māðmas geaf,
"þē hē ūsic gār-wīgend gōde tealde,
"hwate helm-berend, þēah þe hlāford ūs
"þis ellen-weorc āna āþōhte
2645 "tō gefremmanne, folces hyrde,
"forþām hē manna mǣst mǣrða gefremede,
"dǣda dollīcra. Nū is sē dæg cumen,
"þæt ūre man-dryhten mægenes behōfað
"gōdra gūð-rinca: wutun gangan tō,
2650 "helpan hild-fruman, þenden hyt sȳ,
"glēd-egesa grim! God wāt on mec,
"þæt mē is micle lēofre, þæt mīnne līc-haman
"mid mīnne gold-gyfan glēd fæðmie.
"Ne þynceð mē gerysne, þæt wē rondas beren
2655 "eft tō earde, nemne wē ǣror mǣgen
"fāne gefyllan, feorh ealgian
"Wedra þīodnes. Ic wāt geare,
"þæt nǣron eald-gewyrht, þæt hē āna scyle
"Gēata duguðe gnorn þrowian,
2660 "gesīgan æt sæcce: sceal ūrum þæt sweord and helm,
"byrne and byrdu-scrūd bām gemǣne."
Wōd þā þurh þone wæl-rēc, wīg-heafolan bær
frēan on fultum, fēa worda cwæð:
"Lēofa Bīowulf, lǣst eall tela,
2665 "swā þū on geoguð-fēore geāra gecwǣde,
"þæt þū ne ālǣte be þē lifigendum
"dōm gedrēosan: scealt nū dǣdum rōf,
"æðeling ān-hȳdig, ealle mægene
"feorh ealgian; ic þē fullǣstu!"
2670 Æfter þām wordum wyrm yrre cwōm,
atol inwit-gæst ōðre sīðe,
fȳr-wylmum fāh fīonda nīosan,
lāðra manna; līg-ȳðum forborn
bord wið ronde: byrne ne meahte
2675 geongum gār-wigan gēoce gefremman:
ac se maga geonga under his mǣges scyld
elne geēode, þā his āgen wæs
glēdum forgrunden. Þā gēn gūð-cyning
mǣrða gemunde, mægen-strengo,
2680 slōh hilde-bille, þæt hyt on heafolan stōd
nīðe genȳded: Nægling forbærst,
geswāc æt sæcce sweord Bīowulfes
gomol and grǣg-mǣl. Him þæt gifeðe ne wæs,
þæt him īrenna ecge mihton
2685 helpan æt hilde; wæs sīo hond tō strong,
sē þe mēca gehwane mīne gefrǣge
swenge ofersōhte, þonne hē tō sæcce bær
wǣpen wundrum heard, næs him wihte þē sēl.
Þā wæs þēod-sceaða þriddan sīðe,
2690 frēcne fȳr-draca fǣhða gemyndig,
rǣsde on þone rōfan, þā him rūm āgeald,
hāt and heaðo-grim, heals ealne ymbefēng
biteran bānum; hē geblōdegod wearð
sāwul-drīore; swāt ȳðum wēoll.

XXXVII. BĒOWULF WOUNDED TO DEATH.

2695 Þā ic æt þearfe gefrægn þēod-cyninges
and-longne eorl ellen cȳðan,
cræft and cēnðu, swā him gecynde wæs;
ne hēdde hē þæs heafolan, ac sīo hand gebarn
mōdiges mannes, þǣr hē his mǣges healp,
2700 þæt hē þone nīð-gæst nioðor hwēne slōh,
secg on searwum, þæt þæt sweord gedēaf
fāh and fǣted, þæt þæt fȳr ongon
sweðrian syððan. Þā gēn sylf cyning
gewēold his gewitte, wæll-seaxe gebrǣ,
2705 biter and beadu-scearp, þæt hē on byrnan wæg:
forwrāt Wedra helm wyrm on middan.
Fēond gefyldan (ferh ellen wræc),
and hī hyne þā bēgen ābroten hæfdon,
sib-æðelingas: swylc sceolde secg wesan,
2710 þegn æt þearfe. Þæt þām þēodne wæs
sīðast sīge-hwīle sylfes dǣdum,
worlde geweorces. Þā sīo wund ongon,
þē him se eorð-draca ǣr geworhte,
swelan and swellan. Hē þæt sōna onfand,
2715 þæt him on brēostum bealo-nīð wēoll,
attor on innan. Þā se æðeling gīong,
þæt hē bī wealle, wīs-hycgende,
gesæt on sesse; seah on enta geweorc,
hū þā stān-bogan stapulum fæste
2720 ēce eorð-reced innan hēoldon.
Hyne þā mid handa heoro-drēorigne
þēoden mǣrne þegn ungemete till,
wine-dryhten his wætere gelafede,
hilde-sædne and his helm onspēon.
2725 Bīowulf maðelode, hē ofer benne spræc,
wunde wæl-blēate (wisse hē gearwe,
þæt hē dæg-hwīla gedrogen hæfde
eorðan wynne; þā wæs eall sceacen
dōgor-gerīmes, dēað ungemete nēah):
2730 "Nū ic suna mīnum syllan wolde
"gūð-gewǣdu, þǣr mē gifeðe swā
"ǣnig yrfe-weard æfter wurde,
"līce gelenge. Ic þās lēode hēold
"fīftig wintra: næs se folc-cyning
2735 "ymbe-sittendra ǣnig þāra,
"þē mec gūð-winum grētan dorste,
"egesan þēon. Ic on earde bād
"mǣl-gesceafta, hēold mīn tela,
"ne sōhte searo-nīðas, nē mē swōr fela
2740 "āða on unriht. Ic þæs ealles mæg,
"feorh-bennum sēoc, gefēan habban:
"forþām mē wītan ne þearf waldend fīra
"morðor-bealo māga, þonne mīn sceaceð
"līf of līce. Nū þū lungre
2745 "geong, hord scēawian under hārne stān,
"Wīglāf lēofa, nū se wyrm ligeð,
"swefeð sāre wund, since berēafod.
"Bīo nū on ofoste, þæt ic ǣr-welan,
"gold-ǣht ongite, gearo scēawige
2750 "swegle searo-gimmas, þæt ic þȳ sēft mǣge
"æfter māððum-welan mīn ālǣtan
"līf and lēod-scipe, þone ic longe hēold."

XXXVIII. THE JEWEL-HOARD. THE PASSING OF BEOWULF.

Þā ic snūde gefrægn sunu Wīhstānes
æfter word-cwydum wundum dryhtne
2755 hȳran heaðo-sīocum, hring-net beran,
brogdne beadu-sercean under beorges hrōf.
Geseah þā sige-hrēðig, þā hē bī sesse gēong,
mago-þegn mōdig māððum-sigla fela,
gold glitinian grunde getenge,
2760 wundur on wealle and þæs wyrmes denn,
ealdes ūht-flogan, orcas stondan,
fyrn-manna fatu feormend-lēase,
hyrstum behrorene: þǣr wæs helm monig,
eald and ōmig, earm-bēaga fela,
2765 searwum gesǣled. Sinc ēaðe mæg,
gold on grunde, gumena cynnes
gehwone ofer-hīgian, hȳde sē þe wylle!
Swylce hē siomian geseah segn eall-gylden
hēah ofer horde, hond-wundra mǣst,
2770 gelocen leoðo-cræftum: of þām lēoma stōd,
þæt hē þone grund-wong ongitan meahte,
wrǣte giond-wlītan. Næs þæs wyrmes þǣr
onsȳn ǣnig, ac hyne ecg fornam.
Þā ic on hlǣwe gefrægn hord rēafian,
2775 eald enta geweorc ānne mannan,
him on bearm hladan bunan and discas
sylfes dōme, segn ēac genom,
bēacna beorhtost; bill ǣr-gescōd
(ecg wæs īren) eald-hlāfordes
2780 þām þāra māðma mund-bora wæs
longe hwīle, līg-egesan wæg
hātne for horde, hioro-weallende,
middel-nihtum, oð þæt hē morðre swealt.
Ār wæs on ofoste eft-sīðes georn,
2785 frætwum gefyrðred: hyne fyrwet bræc,
hwæðer collen-ferð cwicne gemētte
in þām wong-stede Wedra þēoden,
ellen-sīocne, þǣr hē hine ǣr forlēt.
Hē þā mid þām māðmum mǣrne þīoden,
2790 dryhten sīnne drīorigne fand
ealdres æt ende: hē hine eft ongon
wæteres weorpan, oð þæt wordes ord
brēost-hord þurhbræc. Bēowulf maðelode,
gomel on giohðe (gold scēawode):
2795 "Ic þāra frætwa frēan ealles þanc
"wuldur-cyninge wordum secge,
"ēcum dryhtne, þē ic hēr on starie,
"þæs þe ic mōste mīnum lēodum
"ǣr swylt-dæge swylc gestrȳnan.
2800 "Nū ic on māðma hord mīne bebohte
"frōde feorh-lege, fremmað gē nū
"lēoda þearfe; ne mæg ic hēr leng wesan.
"Hātað heaðo-mǣre hlǣw gewyrcean,
"beorhtne æfter bǣle æt brimes nosan;
2805 "se scel tō gemyndum mīnum lēodum
"hēah hlīfian on Hrones næsse,
"þæt hit sǣ-līðend syððan hātan
"Bīowulfes biorh, þā þe brentingas
"ofer flōda genipu feorran drīfað."
2810 Dyde him of healse hring gyldenne
þīoden þrīst-hȳdig, þegne gesealde,
geongum gār-wigan, gold-fāhne helm,
bēah and byrnan, hēt hyne brūcan well:
"Þū eart ende-lāf ūsses cynnes,
2815 "Wǣgmundinga; ealle Wyrd forswēof,
"mīne māgas tō metod-sceafte,
"eorlas on elne: ic him æfter sceal."
Þæt wæs þām gomelan gingeste word
brēost-gehygdum, ǣr hē bǣl cure,
2820 hāte heaðo-wylmas: him of hreðre gewāt
sāwol sēcean sōð-fæstra dōm.

XXXIX. THE COWARD-THANES.

Þā wæs gegongen guman unfrōdum
earfoðlīce, þæt hē on eorðan geseah
þone lēofestan līfes æt ende
2825 blēate gebǣran. Bona swylce læg,
egeslīc eorð-draca, ealdre berēafod,
bealwe gebǣded: bēah-hordum leng
wyrm wōh-bogen wealdan ne mōste,
ac him īrenna ecga fornāmon,
2830 hearde heaðo-scearpe homera lāfe,
þæt se wīd-floga wundum stille
hrēas on hrūsan hord-ærne nēah,
nalles æfter lyfte lācende hwearf
middel-nihtum, māðm-ǣhta wlonc
2835 ansȳn ȳwde: ac hē eorðan gefēoll
for þæs hild-fruman hond-geweorce.
Hūru þæt on lande lȳt manna þāh
mægen-āgendra mīne gefrǣge,
þēah þe hē dǣda gehwæs dyrstig wǣre,
2840 þæt hē wið attor-sceaðan oreðe gerǣsde,
oððe hring-sele hondum styrede,
gif hē wæccende weard onfunde
būan on beorge. Bīowulfe wearð
dryht-māðma dǣl dēaðe forgolden;
2845 hæfde ǣghwæðer ende gefēred
lǣnan līfes. Næs þā lang tō þon,
þæt þā hild-latan holt ofgēfan,
tȳdre trēow-logan tȳne ætsomne,
þā ne dorston ǣr dareðum lācan
2850 on hyra man-dryhtnes miclan þearfe;
ac hȳ scamiende scyldas bǣran,
gūð-gewǣdu, þǣr se gomela læg:
wlitan on Wīglāf. Hē gewērgad sæt,
fēðe-cempa frēan eaxlum nēah,
2855 wehte hyne wætre; him wiht ne spēow;
ne meahte hē on eorðan, þēah hē ūðe wēl,
on þām frum-gāre feorh gehealdan,
nē þæs wealdendes willan wiht oncirran;
wolde dōm godes dǣdum rǣdan
2860 gumena gehwylcum, swā hē nū gēn dēð.
Þā wæs æt þām geongan grim andswaru
ēð-begēte þām þe ǣr his elne forlēas.
Wīglāf maðelode, Wēohstānes sunu,
secg sārig-ferð seah on unlēofe:
2865 "Þæt lā mæg secgan, sē þe wyle sōð sprecan,
"þæt se mon-dryhten, se ēow þā māðmas geaf,
"ēored-geatwe, þē gē þǣr on standað,
"þonne hē on ealu-bence oft gesealde
"heal-sittendum helm and byrnan,
2870 "þēoden his þegnum, swylce hē þrȳðlīcost
"ōhwǣr feor oððe nēah findan meahte,
"þæt hē gēnunga gūð-gewǣdu
"wrāðe forwurpe. Þā hyne wīg beget,
"nealles folc-cyning fyrd-gesteallum
2875 "gylpan þorfte; hwæðre him god ūðe,
"sigora waldend, þæt hē hyne sylfne gewræc
"āna mid ecge, þā him wæs elnes þearf,
"Ic him līf-wraðe lȳtle meahte
"ætgifan æt gūðe and ongan swā þēah
2880 "ofer mīn gemet mǣges helpan:
"symle wæs þȳ sǣmra, þonne ic sweorde drep
"ferhð-genīðlan, fȳr unswīðor
"wēoll of gewitte. Wergendra tō lȳt
"þrong ymbe þēoden, þā hyne sīo þrāg becwōm.
2885 "Nū sceal sinc-þego and swyrd-gifu
"eall ēðel-wyn ēowrum cynne,
"lufen ālicgean: lond-rihtes mōt
"þǣre mǣg-burge monna ǣghwylc
"īdel hweorfan, syððan æðelingas
2890 "feorran gefricgean flēam ēowerne,
"dōm-lēasan dǣd. Dēað bið sēlla
"eorla gehwylcum þonne edwīt-līf!"

XL. THE SOLDIER'S DIRGE AND PROPHECY.

Heht þā þæt heaðo-weorc tō hagan bīodan
up ofer ēg-clif, þǣr þæt eorl-weorod
2895 morgen-longne dæg mōd-giōmor sæt,
bord-hæbbende, bēga on wēnum
ende-dōgores and eft-cymes
lēofes monnes. Lȳt swīgode
nīwra spella, sē þe næs gerād,
2900 ac hē sōðlīce sægde ofer ealle;
"Nū is wil-geofa Wedra lēoda,
"dryhten Gēata dēað-bedde fæst,
"wunað wæl-reste wyrmes dǣdum;
"him on efn ligeð ealdor-gewinna,
2905 "siex-bennum sēoc: sweorde ne meahte
"on þām āglǣcean ǣnige þinga
"wunde gewyrcean. Wīglāf siteð
"ofer Bīowulfe, byre Wīhstānes,
"eorl ofer ōðrum unlifigendum,
2910 "healdeð hige-mēðum hēafod-wearde
"lēofes and lāðes. Nū ys lēodum wēn
"orleg-hwīle, syððan underne
"Froncum and Frȳsum fyll cyninges
"wīde weorðeð. Wæs sīo wrōht scepen
2915 "heard wið Hūgas, syððan Higelāc cwōm
"faran flot-herge on Frēsna land,
"þǣr hyne Hetware hilde gehnǣgdon,
"elne geēodon mid ofer-mægene,
"þæt se byrn-wiga būgan sceolde,
2920 "fēoll on fēðan: nalles frætwe geaf
"ealdor dugoðe; ūs wæs ā syððan
"Merewīoinga milts ungyfeðe.
"Nē ic tō Swēo-þēode sibbe oððe trēowe
"wihte ne wēne; ac wæs wīde cūð,
2925 "þætte Ongenþīo ealdre besnyðede
"Hæðcyn Hrēðling wið Hrefna-wudu,
"þā for on-mēdlan ǣrest gesōhton
"Gēata lēode Gūð-scilfingas.
"Sōna him se frōda fæder Ōhtheres,
2930 "eald and eges-full ond-slyht āgeaf,
"ābrēot brim-wīsan, brȳd āhēorde,
"gomela īo-meowlan golde berofene,
"Onelan mōdor and Ōhtheres,
"and þā folgode feorh-genīðlan
2935 "oð þæt hī oðēodon earfoðlīce
"in Hrefnes-holt hlāford-lēase.
"Besæt þā sin-herge sweorda lāfe
"wundum wērge, wēan oft gehēt
"earmre teohhe andlonge niht:
2940 "cwæð hē on mergenne mēces ecgum
"gētan wolde, sume on galg-trēowum
"fuglum tō gamene. Frōfor eft gelamp
"sārig-mōdum somod ǣr-dæge,
"syððan hīe Hygelāces horn and bȳman
2945 "gealdor ongeāton. Þā se gōda cōm
"lēoda dugoðe on lāst faran.

XLI. HE TELLS OF THE SWEDES AND THE GEATAS

"Wæs sīo swāt-swaðu Swēona and Gēata,
"wæl-rǣs wera wīde gesȳne,
"hū þā folc mid him fǣhðe tōwehton.
2950 "Gewāt him þā se gōda mid his gædelingum,
"frōd fela geōmor fæsten sēcean,
"eorl Ongenþīo ufor oncirde;
"hæfde Higelāces hilde gefrūnen,
"wlonces wīg-cræft, wiðres ne truwode,
2955 "þæt hē sǣ-mannum onsacan mihte,
"hēaðo-līðendum hord forstandan,
"bearn and brȳde; bēah eft þonan
"eald under eorð-weall. Þā wæs ǣht boden
"Swēona lēodum, segn Higelāce.
2960 "Freoðo-wong þone forð oferēodon,
"syððan Hrēðlingas tō hagan þrungon.
"Þǣr wearð Ongenþīo ecgum sweorda,
"blonden-fexa on bīd wrecen,
"þæt se þēod-cyning þafian sceolde
2965 "Eofores ānne dōm: hyne yrringa
"Wulf Wonrēding wǣpne gerǣhte,
"þæt him for swenge swāt ǣdrum sprong
"forð under fexe. Næs hē forht swā þēh,
"gomela Scilfing, ac forgeald hraðe
2970 "wyrsan wrixle wæl-hlem þone,
"syððan þēod-cyning þyder oncirde:
"ne meahte se snella sunu Wonrēdes
"ealdum ceorle ond-slyht giofan,
"ac hē him on hēafde helm ǣr gescer,
2975 "þæt hē blōde fāh būgan sceolde,
"fēoll on foldan; næs hē fǣge þā gīt,
"ac hē hyne gewyrpte, þēah þe him wund hrīne,
"Lēt se hearda Higelāces þegn
"brādne mēce, þā his brōðor læg,
2980 "eald sweord eotonisc, entiscne helm,
"brecan ofer bord-weal: þā gebēah cyning,
"folces hyrde, wæs in feorh dropen.
"Þā wǣron monige, þē his mǣg wriðon,
"ricone ārǣrdon, þā him gerȳmed wearð,
2985 "þæt hīe wæl-stōwe wealdan mōston.
"Þenden rēafode rinc ōðerne,
"nam on Ongenþīo īren-byrnan,
"heard swyrd hilted and his helm somod;
"hāres hyrste Higelāce bær.
2990 "Hē þām frætwum fēng and him fægre gehēt
"lēana fore lēodum and gelǣste swā:
"geald þone gūð-rǣs Gēata dryhten,
"Hrēðles eafora, þā hē tō hām becōm,
"Jofore and Wulfe mid ofer-māðmum,
2995 "sealde hiora gehwæðrum hund þūsenda
"landes and locenra bēaga; ne þorfte him þā lēan oðwītan
"mon on middan-gearde, syððan hīe þā mǣrða geslōgon;
"and þā Jofore forgeaf āngan dōhtor,
"hām-weorðunge, hyldo tō wedde.
3000 "Þæt ys sīo fǣhðo and se fēond-scipe,
"wæl-nīð wera, þæs þe ic wēn hafo,
"þē ūs sēceað tō Swēona lēode,
"syððan hīe gefricgeað frēan ūserne
"ealdor-lēasne, þone þe ǣr gehēold
3005 "wið hettendum hord and rīce,
"æfter hæleða hryre hwate Scylfingas,
"folc-rǣd fremede oððe furður gēn
"eorl-scipe efnde. Nū is ofost betost,
"þæt wē þēod-cyning þǣr scēawian
3010 "and þone gebringan, þē ūs bēagas geaf,
"on ād-fære. Ne scel ānes hwæt
"meltan mid þām mōdigan, ac þǣr is māðma hord.
"gold unrīme grimme gecēapod
"and nū æt sīðestan sylfes fēore
3015 "bēagas gebohte; þā sceal brond fretan,
"ǣled þeccean, nalles eorl wegan
"māððum tō gemyndum, nē mægð scȳne
"habban on healse hring-weorðunge,
"ac sceall geōmor-mōd golde berēafod
3020 "oft nalles ǣne el-land tredan,
"nū se here-wīsa hleahtor ālegde,
"gamen and glēo-drēam. Forþon sceall gār wesan
"monig morgen-ceald mundum bewunden,
"hæfen on handa, nalles hearpan swēg
3025 "wīgend weccean, ac se wonna hrefn
"fūs ofer fǣgum, fela reordian,
"earne secgan, hū him æt ǣte spēow,
"þenden hē wið wulf wæl rēafode."
Swā se secg hwata secgende wæs
3030 lāðra spella; hē ne lēag fela
wyrda nē worda. Weorod eall ārās,
ēodon unblīðe under Earna næs
wollen-tēare wundur scēawian.
Fundon þā on sande sāwul-lēasne
3035 hlim-bed healdan, þone þe him hringas geaf
ǣrran mǣlum: þā wæs ende-dæg
gōdum gegongen, þæt se gūð-cyning,
Wedra þēoden, wundor-dēaðe swealt.
Ǣr hī gesēgan syllīcran wiht,
3040 wyrm on wonge wiðer-ræhtes þǣr
lāðne licgean: wæs se lēg-draca,
grimlīc gryre-gæst, glēdum beswǣled,
sē wæs fīftiges fōt-gemearces.
lang on legere, lyft-wynne hēold
3045 nihtes hwīlum, nyðer eft gewāt
dennes nīosian; wæs þā dēaðe fæst,
hæfde eorð-scrafa ende genyttod.
Him big stōdan bunan and orcas,
discas lāgon and dȳre swyrd,
3050 ōmige þurh-etone, swā hīe wið eorðan fæðm
þūsend wintra þǣr eardodon:
þonne wæs þæt yrfe ēacen-cræftig,
iū-monna gold galdre bewunden,
þæt þām hring-sele hrīnan ne mōste
3055 gumena ǣnig, nefne god sylfa,
sigora sōð-cyning, sealde þām þe hē wolde
(hē is manna gehyld) hord openian,
efne swā hwylcum manna, swā him gemet þūhte.

XLII. WĪGLAF SPEAKS. THE BUILDING OF THE BALE-FIRE.

Þā wæs gesȳne, þæt se sīð ne þāh
3060 þām þe unrihte inne gehȳdde
wrǣte under wealle. Weard ǣr ofslōh
fēara sumne; þā sīo fǣhð gewearð
gewrecen wrāðlīce. Wundur hwār, þonne
eorl ellen-rōf ende gefēre
3065 līf-gesceafta, þonne leng ne mæg
mon mid his māgum medu-seld būan.
Swā wæs Bīowulfe, þā hē biorges weard
sōhte, searo-nīðas: seolfa ne cūðe,
þurh hwæt his worulde gedāl weorðan sceolde;
3070 swā hit oð dōmes dæg dīope benemdon
þēodnas mǣre, þā þæt þǣr dydon,
þæt se secg wǣre synnum scildig,
hergum geheaðerod, hell-bendum fæst,
wommum gewītnad, sē þone wong strāde.
3075 Næs hē gold-hwæt: gearwor hæfde
āgendes ēst ǣr gescēawod.
Wīglāf maðelode, Wīhstānes sunu:
"Oft sceall eorl monig ānes willan
"wrǣc ādrēogan, swā ūs geworden is.
3080 "Ne meahton wē gelǣran lēofne þēoden,
"rīces hyrde rǣd ǣnigne,
"þæt hē ne grētte gold-weard þone,
"lēte hyne licgean, þǣr hē longe wæs,
"wīcum wunian oð woruld-ende.
3085 "Hēoldon hēah gesceap: hord ys gescēawod,
"grimme gegongen; wæs þæt gifeðe tō swīð,
"þē þone þēoden þyder ontyhte.
"Ic wæs þǣr inne and þæt eall geond-seh,
"recedes geatwa, þā mē gerȳmed wæs,
3090 "nealles swǣslīce sīð ālȳfed
"inn under eorð-weall. Ic on ofoste gefēng
"micle mid mundum mægen-byrðenne
"hord-gestrēona, hider ūt ætbær
"cyninge mīnum: cwico wæs þā gēna,
3095 "wīs and gewittig; worn eall gespræc
"gomol on gehðo and ēowic grētan hēt,
"bæd þæt gē geworhton æfter wines dǣdum
"in bǣl-stede beorh þone hēan
"micelne and mǣrne, swā hē manna wæs
3100 "wīgend weorð-fullost wīde geond eorðan,
"þenden hē burh-welan brūcan mōste.
"Uton nū efstan ōðre sīðe
"sēon and sēcean searo-geþræc,
"wundur under wealle! ic ēow wīsige,
3105 "þæt gē genōge nēan scēawiað
"bēagas and brād gold. Sīe sīo bǣr gearo
"ǣdre geæfned, þonne wē ūt cymen,
"and þonne geferian frēan ūserne,
"lēofne mannan, þǣr hē longe sceal
3110 "on þæs waldendes wǣre geþolian."
Hēt þā gebēodan byre Wīhstānes,
hæle hilde-dīor, hæleða monegum
bold-āgendra, þæt hīe bǣl-wudu
feorran feredon, folc-āgende
3115 gōdum tōgēnes: "Nū sceal glēd fretan
"(weaxan wonna lēg) wigena strengel,
"þone þe oft gebād īsern-scūre,
"þonne strǣla storm, strengum gebǣded,
"scōc ofer scild-weall, sceft nytte hēold,
3120 "feðer-gearwum fūs flāne full-ēode."
Hūru se snotra sunu Wīhstānes
ācīgde of corðre cyninges þegnas
syfone tōsomne þā sēlestan,
ēode eahta sum under inwit-hrōf;
3125 hilde-rinc sum on handa bær
ǣled-lēoman, sē þe on orde gēong.
Næs þā on hlytme, hwā þæt hord strude,
syððan or-wearde ǣnigne dǣl
secgas gesēgon on sele wunian,
3130 lǣne licgan: lȳt ǣnig mearn,
þæt hī ofostlice ūt geferedon
dȳre māðmas; dracan ēc scufun,
wyrm ofer weall-clif, lēton wǣg niman,
flōd fæðmian frætwa hyrde.
3135 Þǣr wæs wunden gold on wǣn hladen,
ǣghwæs unrīm, æðeling boren,
hār hilde-rinc tō Hrones næsse.

XLIII. BĒOWULF'S FUNERAL PYRE.

Him þā gegiredan Gēata lēode
ād on eorðan un-wāclīcne,
3140 helmum behongen, hilde-bordum,
beorhtum byrnum, swā hē bēna wæs;
ālegdon þā tō-middes mǣrne þēoden
hæleð hīofende, hlāford lēofne.
Ongunnon þā on beorge bǣl-fȳra mǣst
3145 wīgend weccan: wudu-rēc āstāh
sweart ofer swioðole, swōgende lēg,
wōpe bewunden (wind-blond gelæg)
oð þæt hē þā bān-hūs gebrocen hæfde,
hāt on hreðre. Higum unrōte
3150 mōd-ceare mǣndon mon-dryhtnes cwealm;
swylce giōmor-gyd lat . con meowle
. . . . . wunden heorde . . .
serg (?) cearig sǣlde geneahhe
þæt hīo hyre . . . . gas hearde
3155 . . . . . ede wælfylla wonn . .
hildes egesan hyðo
haf mid heofon rēce swealh (?)
Geworhton þā Wedra lēode
hlǣw on hlīðe, sē wæs hēah and brād,
3160 wǣg-līðendum wīde gesȳne,
and betimbredon on tȳn dagum
beadu-rōfes bēcn: bronda betost
wealle beworhton, swā hyt weorðlīcost
fore-snotre men findan mihton.
3165 Hī on beorg dydon bēg and siglu,
eall swylce hyrsta, swylce on horde ǣr
nīð-hȳdige men genumen hæfdon;
forlēton eorla gestrēon eorðan healdan,
gold on grēote, þǣr hit nū gēn lifað
3170 eldum swā unnyt, swā hit ǣror wæs.
Þā ymbe hlǣw riodan hilde-dēore,
æðelinga bearn ealra twelfa,
woldon ceare cwīðan, kyning mǣnan,
word-gyd wrecan and ymb wer sprecan,
3175 eahtodan eorl-scipe and his ellen-weorc
duguðum dēmdon, swā hit ge-dēfe bið,
þæt mon his wine-dryhten wordum herge,
ferhðum frēoge, þonne hē forð scile
of līc-haman lǣne weorðan.
3180 Swā begnornodon Gēata lēode
hlāfordes hryre, heorð-genēatas,
cwǣdon þæt hē wǣre woruld-cyning
mannum mildust and mon-þwǣrust,
lēodum līðost and lof-geornost.

APPENDIX

THE ATTACK IN FINNSBURG.

". . . . . . . . . . . næs byrnað nǣfre."
Hleoðrode þā heaðo-geong cyning:
"Ne þis ne dagað ēastan, ne hēr draca ne flēogeð,
"ne hēr þisse healle hornas ne byrnað,
5 "ac fēr forð berað fugelas singað,
"gylleð grǣg-hama, gūð-wudu hlynneð,
"scyld scefte oncwyð. Nū scȳneð þes mōna
"waðol under wolcnum; nū ārīsað wēa-dǣda,
"þē þisne folces nīð fremman willað.
10 "Ac onwacnigeað nū, wīgend mīne,
"hebbað ēowre handa, hicgeað on ellen,
"winnað on orde, wesað on mōde!"
Þā ārās monig gold-hladen þegn, gyrde hine his swurde;
þā tō dura ēodon drihtlīce cempan,
15 Sigeferð and Eaha, hyra sweord getugon,
and æt ōðrum durum Ordlāf and Gūðlāf,
and Hengest sylf; hwearf him on lāste.
Þā gīt Gārulf Gūðere styrode,
þæt hīe swā frēolīc feorh forman sīðe
20 tō þǣre healle durum hyrsta ne bǣran,
nū hyt nīða heard ānyman wolde:
ac hē frægn ofer eal undearninga,
dēor-mōd hæleð, hwā þā duru hēolde.
"Sigeferð is mīn nama (cwæð hē), ic eom Secgena lēod,
25 "wrecca wīde cūð. Fela ic wēana gebād,
"heardra hilda; þē is gȳt hēr witod,
"swæðer þū sylf tō mē sēcean wylle."
Þā wæs on wealle wæl-slihta gehlyn,
sceolde cēlod bord cēnum on handa
30 bān-helm berstan. Buruh-þelu dynede,
oð þæt æt þǣre gūðe Gārulf gecrang,
ealra ǣrest eorð-būendra,
Gūðlāfes sunu; ymbe hine gōdra fela.
Hwearf flacra hrǣw hræfn, wandrode
35 sweart and sealo-brūn; swurd-lēoma stōd
swylce eal Finns-buruh fȳrenu wǣre.
Ne gefrægn ic nǣfre wurðlīcor æt wera hilde
sixtig sige-beorna sēl gebǣran,
ne nǣfre swānas swētne medo sēl forgyldan,
40 þonne Hnæfe guldon his hæg-stealdas.
Hig fuhton fīf dagas, swā hyra nān ne fēol
driht-gesīða, ac hig þā duru hēoldon.
Þā gewāt him wund hæleð on wæg gangan,
sǣde þæt his byrne ābrocen wǣre,
45 here-sceorpum hrōr, and ēac wæs his helm þyrl.
Þā hine sōna frægn folces hyrde,
hū þā wīgend hyra wunda genǣson
oððe hwæðer þǣra hyssa . . . . . . .

LIST OF NAMES; NOTES; AND GLOSSARY.

ABBREVIATIONS

m.: masculine.
f.: feminine.
n.: neuter.
nom., gen.: nominative, genitive, etc.
w.: weak.
w. v.: weak verb.
st.: strong.
st. v.: strong verb.
I., II., III.: first, second, third person.
comp.: compound.
imper.: imperative.
w.: with.
instr.: instrumental.
G. and Goth.: Gothic.
O.N.: Old Norse.
O.S.: Old Saxon.
O.H.G.: Old High German.
M.H.G.: Middle High German.

The vowel æ = _a_ in _glad_ }
The diphthong ǣ = _a_ in _hair_ } approximately.

The names Leo, Bugge, Rieger, etc., refer to authors of emendations.

Words beginning with ge- will be found under their root-word.

Obvious abbreviations, like subj., etc., are not included in this list.

LIST OF NAMES.

Ābel, Cain's brother, 108.

Ælf-here (gen. Ælf-heres, 2605), a kinsman of Wīglāf's, 2605.

Æsc-here, confidential adviser of King Hrōðgār (1326), older brother of
Yrmenlāf (1325), killed by Grendel's mother, 1295, 1324, 2123.

Bān-stān, father of Breca, 524.

Bēo-wulf, son of Scyld, king of the Danes, 18, 19. After the death of his
father, he succeeds to the throne of the Scyldings, 53. His son is
Healfdene, 57.

Bēo-wulf (Bīowulf, 1988, 2390; gen. Bēowulfes, 857, etc., Bīowulfes, 2195,
2808, etc.; dat. Bēowulfe, 610, etc., Bīowulfe, 2325, 2843), of the race of
the Gēatas. His father is the Wǣgmunding Ecgþēow (263, etc.); his mother a
daughter of Hrēðel, king of the Gēatas (374), at whose court he is brought
up after his seventh year with Hrēðel's sons, Herebeald, Hæðcyn, and
Hygelāc, 2429 ff. In his youth lazy and unapt (2184 f., 2188 f.); as man he
attains in the gripe of his hand the strength of thirty men, 379. Hence his
victories in his combats with bare hands (711 ff., 2502 ff.), while fate
denies him the victory in the battle with swords, 2683 f. His
swimming-match with Breca in his youth, 506 ff. Goes with fourteen Gēatas
to the assistance of the Danish king, Hrōðgār, against Grendel, 198 ff. His
combat with Grendel, and his victory, 711 ff., 819 ff. He is, in
consequence, presented with rich gifts by Hrōðgār, 1021 ff. His combat with
Grendel's mother, 1442 ff. Having again received gifts, he leaves Hrōðgār
(1818-1888), and returns to Hygelāc, 1964 ff.--After Hygelāc's last battle
and death, he flees alone across the sea, 2360 f. In this battle he crushes
Dæghrefn, one of the Hūgas, to death, 2502 f. He rejects at the same time
Hygelāc's kingdom and the hand of his widow (2370 ff.), but carries on the
government as guardian of the young Heardrēd, son of Hygelāc, 2378 ff.
After Heardrēd's death, the kingdom falls to Bēowulf, 2208,
2390.--Afterwards, on an expedition to avenge the murdered Heardrēd, he
kills the Scylfing, Ēadgils (2397), and probably conquers his country.
--His fight with the drake, 2539 ff. His death, 2818. His burial, 3135 ff.

Breca (acc. Brecan, 506, 531), son of Bēanstān, 524. Chief of the
Brondings, 521. His swimming-match with Bēowulf, 506 ff.

Brondingas (gen. Brondinga, 521), Breca, their chief, 521.

Brōsinga mene, corrupted from, or according to Müllenhoff, written by
mistake for, Breosinga mene (O.N., Brisinga men, cf. Haupts Zeitschr. XII.
304), collar, which the Brisingas once possessed.

Cain (gen. Caines, 107): descended from him are Grendel and his kin, 107,
1262 ff.

Dæg-hrefn (dat. Dæghrefne, 2502), a warrior of the Hūgas, who, according to
2504-5, compared with 1203, and with 1208, seems to have been the slayer of
King Hygelāc, in his battle against the allied Franks, Frisians, and Hūgas.
Is crushed to death by Bēowulf in a hand-to-hand combat, 2502 ff.

Dene (gen. Dena, 242, etc., Denia, 2126, Deniga, 271, etc.; dat. Denum,
768, etc.), as subjects of Scyld and his descendants, they are also called
Scyldings; and after the first king of the East Danes, Ing (Runenlied, 22),
Ing-wine, 1045, 1320. They are also once called Hrēðmen, 445. On account of
their renowned warlike character, they bore the names Gār-Dene, 1, 1857,
Hring-Dene (Armor-Danes), 116, 1280, Beorht-Dene, 427, 610. The great
extent of this people is indicated by their names from the four quarters of
the heavens: Ēast-Dene, 392, 617, etc., West-Dene, 383, 1579, Sūð-Dene,
463, Norð-Dene, 784.--Their dwelling-place "in Scedelandum," 19, "on
Scedenigge," 1687, "be sǣm twēonum," 1686.

Ecg-lāf (gen. Ecglāfes, 499), Hunferð's father, 499.

Ecg-þēow (nom. Ecgþēow, 263, Ecgþēo, 373; gen. Ecgþēowes, 529, etc.,
Ecgþīowes, 2000), a far-famed hero of the Gēatas, of the house of the
Wǣgmundings. Bēowulf is the son of Ecgþēow, by the only daughter of Hrēðel,
king of the Gēatas, 262, etc. Among the Wylfings, he has slain Heaðolāf
(460), and in consequence he goes over the sea to the Danes (463), whose
king, Hrōðgār, by means of gold, finishes the strife for him, 470.

Ecg-wela (gen. Ecg-welan, 1711). The Scyldings are called his descendants,
1711. Grein considers him the founder of the older dynasty of Danish kings,
which closes with Heremōd. See Heremōd.

Elan, daughter of Healfdene, king of the Danes, (?) 62. According to the
restored text, she is the wife of Ongenþēow, the Scylfing, 62, 63.

Earna-næs, the Eagle Cape in the land of the Gēatas, where occurred
Bēowulf's fight with the drake, 3032.

Ēadgils (dat. Ēadgilse, 2393), son of Ōhthere, and grandson of Ongenþēow,
the Scylfing, 2393. His older brother is

Ēanmund (gen. Ēanmundes, 2612). What is said about both in our poem
(2201-2207, 2380-2397, 2612-2620) is obscure, but the following may be
conjectured:--

The sons of Ōhthere, Ēanmund and Ēadgils, have rebelled against their
father (2382), and must, in consequence, depart with their followers from
Swīorīce, 2205-6, 2380. They come into the country of the Gēatas to
Heardrēd (2380), but whether with friendly or hostile intent is not stated;
but, according to 2203 f., we are to presume that they came against
Heardrēd with designs of conquest. At a banquet (on feorme; or feorme, MS.)
Heardrēd falls, probably through treachery, by the hand of one of the
brothers, 2386, 2207. The murderer must have been Ēanmund, to whom,
according to 2613, "in battle the revenge of Wēohstān brings death."
Wēohstān takes revenge for his murdered king, and exercises upon Ēanmund's
body the booty-right, and robs it of helm, breastplate, and sword
(2616-17), which the slain man had received as gifts from his uncle, Onela,
2617-18. But Wēohstān does not speak willingly of this fight, although he
has slain Onela's brother's son, 2619-20.--After Heardrēd's and Ēanmund's
death, the descendant of Ongenþēow, Ēadgils, returns to his home, 2388. He
must give way before Bēowulf, who has, since Heardrēd's death, ascended the
throne of the Gēatas, 2390. But Bēowulf remembers it against him in after
days, and the old feud breaks out anew, 2392-94. Ēadgils makes an invasion
into the land of the Gēatas (2394-95), during which he falls at the hands
of Bēowulf, 2397. The latter must have then obtained the sovereignty over
the Swēonas (3005-6, where only the version, Scylfingas, can give a
satisfactory sense).

Eofor (gen. Eofores, 2487, 2965; dat. Jofore, 2994, 2998), one of the
Gēatas, son of Wonrēd and brother of Wulf (2965, 2979), kills the Swedish
king, Ongenþēow (2487 ff., 2978-82), for which he receives from King
Hygelāc, along with other gifts, his only daughter in marriage, 2994-99.

Eormen-rīc (gen. Eormenrīces, 1202), king of the Goths (cf. about him, W.
Grimm, Deutsche Heldensage, p. 2, ff.). Hāma has wrested the Brōsinga mene
from him, 1202.

Eomǣr, son of Offa and Þrȳðo (cf. Þrȳðo), 1961.

Eotenas (gen. pl. Eotena, 1073, 1089, 1142; dat. Eotenum, 1146), the
subjects of Finn, the North Frisians: distinguished from eoton, _giant_.
Vid eoton. Cf. Bugge, Beit., xii. 37; Earle, Beowulf in Prose, pp. 146,
198.

Finn (gen. Finnes, 1069, etc.; dat. Finne, 1129), son of Folcwalda (1090),
king of the North Frisians, i.e. of the Eotenas, husband of Hildeburg, a
daughter of Hōc, 1072, 1077. He is the hero of the inserted poem on the
Attack in Finnsburg, the obscure incidents of which are, perhaps, as
follows: In Finn's castle, Finnsburg, situated in Jutland (1126-28), the
Hōcing, Hnæf, a relative--perhaps a brother--of Hildeburg is spending some
time as guest. Hnæf, who is a liegeman of the Danish king, Healfdene, has
sixty men with him (Finnsburg, 38). These are treacherously attacked one
night by Finn's men, 1073. For five days they hold the doors of their
lodging-place without losing one of their number (Finnsburg, 41, 42). Then,
however, Hnæf is slain (1071), and the Dane, Hengest, who was among Hnæf's
followers, assumes the command of the beleaguered band. But on the
attacking side the fight has brought terrible losses to Finn's men. Their
numbers are diminished (1081 f.), and Hildeburg bemoans a son and a brother
among the fallen (1074 f., cf. 1116, 1119). Therefore the Frisians offer
the Danes peace (1086) under the conditions mentioned (1087-1095), and it
is confirmed with oaths (1097), and money is given by Finn in propitiation
(1108). Now all who have survived the battle go together to Friesland, the

Book of the day: