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Beowulf by James A. Harrison and Robert Sharp, eds.

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store was set by good table-talk: cf. Lachmann's Nibelunge, 1612; Rīgsmāl,
29, 7, in Möbius, p. 79b, 22.)

þrym, st. m.: 1) _power, might, force_: nom. sg. ȳða þrym, 1919; instr.
pl. = adv. þrymmum (_powerfully_), 235.--2) _glory, renown_: acc. sg. þrym,
2.--Comp. hyge-þrym.

þrym-līc, adj., _powerful, mighty_: nom. sg. þrec-wudu þrym-līc (_the
mighty spear_), 1247.

þū, pron., _thou_, 366, 407, 445, etc.; acc. sg. þec (poetic), 948, 2152,
etc.; þē, 417, 426, 517, etc.; after compar. sēlran þē (_a better one than
thee_), 1851. See gē.

þunca, w. m. See æf-þunca.

ge-þungen. See ge-þingan, st. v.

þurfan, pret.-pres. v., _to need_: pres. sg. II. nō þū ne þearft ...
sorgian (_needest not care_), 450; so, 445, 1675; III. ne þearf ...
onsittan (_need not fear_), 596; so, 2007, 2742; pres. subj. þæt hē ...
sēcean þurfe, 2496; pret. sg. þorfte, 157, 1027, 1072, 2875, 2996; pl.
nealles Hetware hrēmge þorfton (i.e. wesan) fēðe-wīges (_needed not boast
of their foot-fight_), 2365.

ge-þuren. See þweran.

þurh, prep. w. acc. signifying motion through, hence: I. local, _through,
throughout_: wōd þā þurh þone wæl-rēc (_went then through the
battle-reek_), 2662.--II. causal: l) _on account of, for the sake of, owing
to_: þurh slīðne nīð (_through fierce hostility, heathenism_), 184; þurh
holdne hige (_from friendliness_), 267; so, þurh rūmne sefan, 278; þurh
sīdne sefan, 1727; ēoweð þurh egsan uncūðne nīð (_shows unheard-of
hostility by the terror he causes_), 276; so, 1102, 1336, 2046. 2) _by
means of, through_: heaðo-rǣs for-nam mihtig mere-dēor þurh mīne hand, 558;
þurh ānes cræft, 700; so, 941, 1694, 1696, 1980, 2406, 3069.

þus, adv., _so, thus_, 238, 337, 430.

þunian, w. v., _to din, sound forth_: pret. sg. sund-wudu þunede, 1907.

þūsend, num., _thousand_: 1) fem. acc. ic þē þūsenda þegna bringe tō helpe,
1830.--2) neut. with measure of value (sceat) omitted: acc. seofan þūsendo,
2196; gen. hund-þūsenda landes and locenra bēaga (100,000 _sceattas' worth
of land and rings_), 2995.--3) uninflected: acc. þūsend wintra, 3051.

þwǣre, adj., _affable, mild_: in comp. man-þwǣre.

ge-þwǣre, adj., _gentle, mild_: nom. pl. ge-þwǣre, 1231.

ge-þweran, st. v., _to forge, strike_: pret. part. heoru ... hamere
ge-þuren (for ge-þworen) (_hammer-forged sword_), 1286.

þȳhtig. See þīhtig.

ge-þyld (see þolian), st. f.: 1) _patience, endurance_: acc. sg. ge-þyld,
1396.--2) _steadfastness_: instr. pl. = adv.: ge-þyldum (_steadfastly,
patiently_), 1706.

þyle, st. m., _spokesman, leader of the conversation at court_: nom. sg.,
1166, 1457.

þyncan, þincean, w. v. w. dat. of pers., _to seem, appear_: pres. sg. III.
þinceð him tō lȳtel (_it seems to him too little_), 1749; ne þynceð mē
gerysne, þæt wē _(it seemeth to me not fit that we_ ...), 2654; pres. pl.
hȳ ... wyrðe þinceað eorla ge-æhtlan (_they seem worthy contenders with_
(?) _earls_; or, _worthy warriors_), 368; pres. subj. swā him ge-met þince,
688; inf. þincean, 1342; pret. sg. þūhte, 2462, 3058; nō his līf-gedāl
sār-līc þūhte secga ǣnigum (_his death seemed painful to none of men_),
843; pret. pl. þǣr him fold-wegas fægere þūhton, 867.

of-þincan, _to displease, offend_: inf. mæg þæs þonne of-þyncan þēoden
(dat.) Heaðo-beardna and þegna gehwām þāra lēoda, 2033.

þyrs, st. m., _giant_: dat. sg. wið þyrse (Grendel), 426.

þys-līc, adj., _such, of such a nature_: nom. sg. fem. þys-līcu þearf,
2638.

þȳ. See þæt.

þȳwan (M.H.G. diuhen, O.H.G. duhan), w. v., _to crush, oppress_: inf. gif
þec ymb-sittend egesan þȳwað (_if thy neighbors oppress thee with dread_),
1828.

þȳstru, st. f., _darkness_: dat. pl. in þȳstrum, 87.

ge-þȳwe, adj., _customary, usual_: nom. sg. swā him ge-þȳwe ne wæs (_as
was not his custom_), 2333.

U

ufan, _adv., from above_, 1501; _above_, 330.

ufera (prop. _higher_), adj., _later_: dat. pl. ufaran dōgrum, 2201, 2393.

ufor, adv., _higher_, 2952.

umbor, st. n., _child, infant_: acc. sg., 46; dat. sg., 1188.

un-blīðe, adv.(?), _unblithely, sorrowfully_, 130, 2269; (adj., nom. pl.?),
3032.

un-byrnende, pres. part., _unburning, without burning_, 2549.

unc, dat. and acc. of the dual wit, _us two, to us two_, 1784, 2138, 2527;
gen. hwæðer ... uncer twēga (_which of us two_), 2533; uncer Grendles (_of
us two, G. and me_), 2003.

uncer, poss. pron., _of us two_: nom. sg. [uncer], 2002(?); dat. pl. uncran
eaferan, 1186.

un-cūð, adj.: 1) _unknown_: nom. sg. stīg ... eldum uncūð, 2215; acc. sg.
neut. uncūð ge-lād (_unknown ways_), 1411.--2) _unheard-of, barbarous,
evil_: acc. sg. un-cūðne nīð, 276; gen. sg. un-cūðes (_of the foe_,
Grendel), 961.

under, I. prep. w. dat. and acc.: 1) w. dat., answering question where? =
_under_ (of rest), contrasted with _over_: bāt (wæs) under beorge, 211; þā
cwōm Wealhþēo forð gān under gyldnum bēage (_W. walked forth under a golden
circlet_, i.e. decked with), 1164; siððan hē under segne sine ealgode
(_under his banner_), 1205; hē under rande ge-cranc (_sank under his
shield_), 1210; under wolcnum, 8, 1632; under heofenum, 52, 505; under
roderum, 310; under helme, 342, 404; under here-grīman, 396, 2050, 2606;
so, 711, 1198, 1303, 1929, 2204, 2416, 3061, 3104.--2) w. acc.: a)
answering question whither? = _under_ (of motion): þā secg wīsode under
Heorotes hrōf, 403; siððan ǣfen-lēoht under heofenes hādor be-holen
weorðeð, 414; under sceadu bregdan, 708; flēon under fen-hleoðu, 821; hond
ālegde ... under gēapne hrōf, 837; tēon in under eoderas, 1038; so, 1361,
1746, 2129, 2541, 2554, 2676, 2745; so, hæfde þā for-sīðod sunu Ecg-þēowes
under gynne grund, 1552 (for-sīðian requires acc.). b) after verbs of
venturing and fighting, with acc. of object had in view: hē under hārne
stān ...āna ge-nēðde frēcne dǣde, 888; ne dorste under ȳða ge-win aldre
ge-nēðan, 1470. c) indicating extent, with acc. after expressions of limit,
etc.: under swegles begong (_as far as the sky extends_), 861, 1774; under
heofenes hwealf (_as far as heaven's vault reaches_), 2016.

II. Adv., _beneath, below_: stīg under læg (_a path lay beneath_, i.e. the
rock), 2214.

undern-mǣl, st. n., _midday_: acc. sg., 1429.

un-dyrne, un-derne, adj., _without concealment, plain, clear_: nom. sg.,
127, 2001; un-derne, 2912.

un-dyrne, adv., _plainly, evidently_; un-dyrne cūð, 150, 410.

un-fǣger, adj., _unlovely, hideous_: nom. sg. lēoht un-fǣger, 728.

un-fǣcne, adj., _without malice, sincere_: nom. sg., 2069.

un-fǣge, adj., _not death-doomed_ or "_fey_": nom. sg., 2292; acc. sg.
un-fǣgne eorl, 573.

un-flitme, adv., _solemnly, incontestably_: Finn Hengeste elne unflitme
āðum benemde (_F. swore solemnly to H. with oaths_) [if an adj., elne un-f.
= _unconquerable in valor_], 1098.

un-forht, adj., _fearless, bold_: nom. sg., 287; acc. pl. unforhte (adv.?),
444. See Note.

un-from, adj., _unfit, unwarlike_: nom. sg., 2189.

un-frōd, adj., _not aged, young_: dat sg. guman un-frōdum, 2822.

un-gedēfelīce, adv., _unjustly, contrary to right and custom_, 2436.

un-gemete, adv., _immeasurably, exceedingly_, 2421, 2722, 2729.

un-gemetes, adv. gen. sg., the same, 1793.

un-geāra, adv., (_not old_), _recently, lately_, 933; _soon_, 603.

un-gifeðe, adj., _not to be granted; refused_: nom. sg., 2922.

un-glēaw, adj., _regardless, reckless_: acc. sg. sweord ... ecgum unglēaw
(of a sharp-edged sword), 2565.

un-hār, adj., _very gray_: nom. sg., 357; (_bald_?).

un-hǣlo, st. f., _mischief, destruction_: gen. sg. wiht un-hǣlo (_the demon
of destruction_, Grendel), 120.

un-hēore, un-hȳre, adj., _monstrous, horrible_: nom. sg. m., weard
un-hīore (the dragon), 2414; neut. wīf un-hȳre (Grendel's mother), 2121;
nom. pl. neut. hand-sporu ... unhēoru (of Grendel's claws), 988.

un-hlytme, un-hlitme, adv. (cf. A.S. hlytm = _lot_; O.N. hluti = _part
division_), _undivided, unseparated_, _united_, 1130 [unless = un-flitme,
1098]. See Note.

un-lēof, adj., _hated_: acc. pl. seah on un-lēofe, 2864.

un-lifigende, pres. part., _unliving, lifeless_: nom. sg. un-lifigende,
468; acc. sg. un-lyfigendne, 1309; dat. sg. un-lifgendum, 1390; gen. sg.
un-lyfigendes, 745.

un-lȳtel, adj., _not little, very large_: nom. sg. duguð un-lȳtel (_a
great band of warriors_? or _great joy_?), 498; dōm un-lȳtel (_no little
glory_), 886; acc. sg. torn un-lȳtel (_very great shame, misery_), 834.

un-murnlīce, adv., _unpityingly, without sorrowing_, 449, 1757.

unnan, pret.-pres. v., _to grant, give; wish, will_: pret.-pres. sg. I. ic
þē an tela sinc-gestrēona, 1226; weak pret. sg. I. ūðe ic swīðor þæt þū
hine selfne ge-sēon mōste, 961; III. hē ne ūðe þæt ...(_he granted not that
..._), 503; him god ūðe þæt ... hē hyne sylfne ge-wræc (_God granted to him
that he avenged himself_), 2875; þēah hē ūðe wēl (_though he well would_),
2856.

ge-unnan, _to grant, permit_: inf. gif hē ūs ge-unnan wile þæt wē hine ...
grētan mōton, 346; mē ge-ūðe ylda waldend, þæt ic ... ge-seah hangian (_the
Ruler of men permitted me to see hanging ..._), 1662.

un-nyt, adj., _useless_: nom. sg., 413, 3170.

un-riht, st. n., _unright, injustice, wrong_: acc. sg. unriht, 1255, 2740;
instr. sg. un-rihte (_unjustly, wrongly_), 3060.

un-rīm, st. n., _immense number_: nom. sg., 1239, 3136; acc. sg., 2625.

un-rīme, adj., _countless, measureless_: nom. sg. gold un-rīme, 3013.

un-rōt, adj., _sorrowing_: nom. pl. un-rōte, 3149.

un-snyttru, st. f., _lack of wisdom_: dat. pl. for his un-snyttrum (_for
his unwisdom_), 1735.

un-softe, adv., _unsoftly, with violence_ (_hardly_?), 2141; _scarcely_,
1656.

un-swȳðe, adv., _not strongly_ or _powerfully_: compar. (ecg) bāt unswīðor
þonne his þīod-cyning þearfe hæfde (_the sword bit less sharply than the
prince of the people needed_), 2579; fȳr unswīðor wēoll, 2882.

un-synnig, adj., _guiltless, sinless_: acc. sg. un-synnigne, 2090.

un-synnum, adv. instr. pl., _guiltlessly_, 1073.

un-tǣle, adj., _blameless_: acc. pl. un-tǣle, 1866.

un-tȳder, st. m., _evil race, monster_: nom. pl. un-tȳdras, 111. [Cf.
Ger. un-mensch.]

un-wāclīc, adj., _that cannot be shaken; firm, strong_: acc. sg. ād ...
un-wāclīcne, 3139.

un-wearnum, adv. instr. pl., _unawares, suddenly_; (_unresistingly_?), 742.

un-wrecen, pret. part., _unavenged_, 2444.

up, adv., _up, upward_, 224, 519, 1374, 1620, 1913, 1921, 2894; (of the
voice), þā wæs ... wōp up āhafen, 128; so, 783.

up-lang, adj., _upright, erect_: nom. sg., 760.

uppe (adj., ūfe, ūffe), adv., _above_, 566.

up-riht, adj., _upright, erect_: nom. sg., 2093.

uton. See wuton.

Ū

ūð-genge, adj., _transitory, evanescent, ready to depart_, (_fled_?): þǣr
wæs Æsc-here ... feorh ūð-genge, 2124.

ūhte, w. f., _twilight_ or _dawn_: dat. or acc. on ūhtan, 126.

ūht-floga, w. m., _twilight-flier, dawn-flier_ (epithet of the dragon):
gen. sg. ūht-flogan, 2761.

ūht-hlem, st. m., _twilight-cry, dawn-cry_: acc. sg., 2008.

ūht-sceaða, w. m., _twilight-_ or _dawn-foe_: nom. sg., 2272.

ūs, pers. pron. dat. and acc. of wē (see wē), _us, to us_, 1822, 2636,
2643, 2921, 3002, 3079; acc. (poetic), ūsic, 2639, 2641, 2642;--gen. ūre:
ūre ǣg-hwylc (_each of us_), 1387; ūser, 2075.

ūser, possess, pron.: nom. sg. ūre man-drihten, 2648; dat. sg. ūssum
hlāforde, 2635; gen. sg. neut. ūsses cynnes, 2814; dat. pl. ūrum ... bām
(_to us both, two_) (for unc bām), 2660.

ūt, adv., _out_, 215, 537, 664, 1293, 1584, 2082, 2558, 3131.

ūtan, adv., _from without, without_, 775, 1032, 1504, 2335.

ūt-fūs, adj., _ready to go_: nom. sg. hringed-stefna īsig and ūt-fūs, 33.

ūt-weard, adj., _outward, outside, free_: nom. sg. eoten (Grendel) wæs
ūt-weard, 762.

ūtan-weard, adj., _without, outward, from without_: acc. sg. hlǣw ... ealne
ūtan-weardne, 2298.

W

wacian, w. v., _to watch_: imper. sg. waca wið wrāðum! 661.

wadan, st. v., (cf. wade, waddle) _to traverse; stride, go_: pret. sg. wōd
þurh þone wæl-rēc, 2662; wōd under wolcnum (_stalked beneath the clouds_),
715.

ge-wadan, _to attain by moving, come to, reach_: pret. part. oð þæt ...
wunden-stefna ge-waden hæfde, þæt þā līðende land ge-sāwon (_till the ship
had gone so far that the sailors saw land_), 220.

on-wadan, w. acc., _to invade, befall_: pret. sg. hine fyren on-wōd(?),
916.

þurh-wadan, _to penetrate, pierce_: pret. sg. þæt swurd þurh-wōd wrǣt-līcne
wyrm, 891; so, 1568.

wāg, st. m., _wall_: dat. sg. on wāge, 1663; dat. pl. æfter wāgum (_along
the walls_), 996.

wala, w. m., _boss_: nom. pl. walan, 1032 (cf. Bouterwek in Haupt XI., 85
seqq.).

walda, w. m., _wielder, ruler_: in comp. an-, eal-walda.

wald-swaðu, st. f., _forest-path_: dat. pl. æfter wald-swaðum (_along the
wood-paths_), 1404.

wam, wom, st. m., _spot, blot, sin_: acc. sg. him be-beorgan ne con wom
(_cannot protect himself from evil_ or _from the evil strange orders_,
etc.; wom = wogum? = _crooked_?), 1748; instr. pl. wommum, 3074.

wan, won, adj., _wan, lurid, dark_: nom. sg, ȳð-geblond ... won (_the dark
waves_), 1375; se wonna hrefn (_the black raven_), 3025; wonna lēg (_lurid
flame_), 3116; dat. sg. f. on wanre niht, 703; nom. pl. neut. scadu-helma
ge-sceapu ... wan, 652.

wang, st. m., _mead, field; place_: acc. sg. wang, 93, 225; wong, 1414,
2410, 3074; dat. sg. wange, 2004; wonge, 2243, 3040; acc. pl. wongas,
2463.--Comp.: freoðo-, grund-, medo-, sǣ-wang.

wang-stede, st. m., (locus campestris), _spot, place_: dat. sg. wong-stede,
2787.

wan-hȳd (for hygd), st. f., _heedlessness, recklessness_: dat. pl. for his
won-hȳdum, 434.

wanian, w. v.: 1) intrans., _to decrease, wane_: inf. þā þæt sweord ongan
... wanian, 1608.--2) w. acc., _to cause to wane_ or _lessen_: pret. sg. hē
tō lange lēode mīne wanode, 1338.

ge-wanian, _to decrease, diminish_: pret. part. is mīn flet-werod ...
ge-wanod, 477.

wan-sǣlig, adj., _unhappy, wretched_: nom. sg. won-sǣlig wer (Grendel),
105.

wan-sceaft, st. f., _misery, want_: acc. sg. won-sceaft, 120.

warian, w. v. w. acc., _to occupy, guard, possess_: pres. sg. III. þǣr hē
hǣðen gold warað (_where he guards heathen gold_), 2278; pl. III. hīe
(Grendel and his mother) dȳgel land warigeað, 1359; pret. sg. (Grendel)
goldsele warode, 1254; (Cain) wēsten warode, 1266.

waroð, st. m., _shore_: dat. sg. tō waroðe, 234; acc. pl. wide waroðas,
1966.

waru, st. f., _inhabitants_, (collective) _population_: in comp. land-waru.

wā, interj., _woe!_ wā bið þǣm þe... (_woe to him that..._), 183.

wāðu, st. f., _way, journey_: in comp. gamen-wāðu.

wānian, w. v., _to weep, whine, howl_, w. acc.: inf. gehȳrdon ... sār
wānigean helle hæftan (_they heard the hell-fastened one lamenting his
pain_), 788; pret. sg. [wānode], 3152(?).

wāt. See witan.

wæcean, w. v., _to watch_: pret. part wæccende, 709, 2842; acc. sg. m.
wæccendne wer, 1269. See wacian.

wæcnan, w. v., _to be awake, come forth_: inf., 85.

wæcnan, st. v., _to awake, arise, originate_: pret. sg. þanon (from Cain)
wōc fela geō-sceaft-gāsta, 1266; so, 1961; pl. þām fēower bearn ... in
worold wōcun, 60.

on-wæcnan: 1) _to awake_ (intrans.): pret. sg. þā se wyrm on-wōc (_when the
drake awoke_), 2288.--2) _to be born_: pret. sg. him on-wōc hēah Healfdene,
56; pl. on-wōcon, 111.

wæd, st. n., (the moving) _sea, ocean_: nom. wado weallende, 546; wadu
weallendu, 581; gen. pl. wada 508.

wǣfre, adj., _wavering_ (like flame), _ghostlike, without distinct bodily
form_: nom. sg. wæl-gǣst wǣfre (of Grendel's mother), 1332;--_flickering,
expiring_: nom. sg. wǣfre mōd, 1151; him wæs geōmor sefa, wǣfre and
wæl-fūs, 2421.

be-wægnan, w. v., _to offer_: pret part, him wæs ... frēond-laðu wordum
be-wægned, 1194.

wæl, st. n., _battle, slaughter, the slain in battle_: acc. sg. wæl, 1213,
3028, blōdig wæl, 448; oððe on wæl crunge (_or in battle, among the slain,
fall_), 636; dat. sg. sume on wæle crungon (_some fell in the slaughter_),
1114; dat. sg. in Fr...es wæle (proper name in MS. destroyed), 1071; nom.
pl. walu, 1043.

wæl-bed, st. n., _slaughter-bed, deathbed_: dat. sg. on wæl-bedde, 965.

wæl-bend, st. f., _death-bond_: acc. sg. or pl. wæl-bende ...
hand-gewriðene, 1937.

wæl-blēat, adj., _deadly, mortal, cruel_: acc. sg. wunde wæl-blēate, 2726.

wæl-dēað, st. m., _death in battle_: nom. sg., 696.

wæl-drēor, st. m., _battle-gore_: instr. sg. wæl-drēore, 1632.

wæl-fāh, adj., _slaughter-stained, blood-stained_: acc. sg. wæl-fāgne
winter, 1129.

wæl-fæhð, st. f., _deadly feud_: gen. pl. wæl-fǣhða, 2029.

wæl-feall, st. m., _(fall of the slain), death, destruction_: dat. sg. tō
wæl-fealle, 1712.

wæl-fūs, adj., _ready for death, foreboding death_: nom. sg., 2421.

wæl-fyllo, st. f., _fill of slaughter_: dat. sg. mid þǣre wæl-fulle (i.e.
the thirty men nightly slaughtered at Heorot by Grendel), 125; wæl-fylla?
3155.

wæl-fȳr, st. n.: 1) _deadly fire_: instr. sg. wæl-fȳre (of the
fire-spewing dragon), 2583.--2) _corpse-consuming fire, funeral pyre_: gen.
pl. wæl-fȳra mǣst, 1120.

wæl-gǣst, st. m., _deadly sprite_ (of Grendel and his mother): nom. sg.
wæl-gǣst, 1332; acc. sg. þone wæl-gǣst, 1996.

wæl-hlem, st. m., _death-stroke_: acc. sg. wæl-hlem þone, 1996.

wælm, st. m., _flood, whelming water_: nom. sg. þǣre burnan wælm, 2547;
gen. sg. þæs wælmes (_of the surf_), 2136.--Comp. cear-wælm.

wæl-nīð, st. m., _deadly hostility_: nom. sg., 3001; dat. sg. æfter
wæl-nīðe, 85; nom. pl. wæl-nīðas, 2066.

wæl-rāp, st. m., _flood-fetter, i.e. ice_: acc. pl. wæl-rāpas, 1611; (cf.
wæll, wel, wyll = _well, flood_: leax sceal on wæle mid scēote scrīðan,
Gnom. Cott. 39).

wæl-rǣs, st. m., _deadly onslaught_: nom. sg., 2948; dat. sg. wæl-rǣse,
825, 2532.

wæl-rest, st. f., _death-bed_, acc. sg. wæl-reste, 2903.

wæl-rēc, st. m., _deadly reek_ or _smoke_: acc. sg. wōd þā þurh þone
wæl-rēc, 2662.

wæl-rēaf, st, n., _booty of the slain, battle-plunder_: acc. sg., 1206.

wæl-rēow, adj., _bold in battle_: nom. sg., 630.

wæl-sceaft, st. m., _deadly shaft, spear_: acc. pl. wæl-sceaftas, 398.

wæl-seax, st. n., _deadly knife, war-knife_: instr. sg. wæll-seaxe, 2704.

wæl-stenge, st. m., _battle-spear_: dat. sg. on þām wæl-stenge, 1639.

wæl-stōw, st. f., _battle-field_: dat. sg. wæl-stōwe, 2052, 2985.

wæstm, st. m., _growth, form, figure_: dat. sg. on weres wæstmum (_in man's
form_), 1353.

wæter, st. n., _water_: nom. sg., 93, 1417, 1515, 1632; acc. sg. wæter,
1365, 1620; dēop wæter (_the deep_), 509, 1905; ofer wīd wæter (_over the
high sea]_, 2474; dat. sg. æfter wætere _(along the Grendel-sea_), 1426;
under wætere (_at the bottom of the sea_), 1657; instr. wætere, 2723;
wætre, 2855; gen. sg. ofer wæteres hrycg (_over the surface of the sea_),
471; on wæteres ǣht, 516; þurh wæteres wylm (_through the sea-wave_), 1694;
gen. = instr. wæteres weorpan (_to sprinkle with water_), 2792.

wæter-egesa, st. m., _water-terror_, i.e. _the fearful sea_: acc. sg., 1261

wæter-ȳð, st. f., _water-wave, billow_: dat. pl. wæter-ȳðum, 2243.

wǣd, st. f., _(weeds), garment_: in comp. here-, hilde-wǣd.

ge-wǣde, st. n., _clothing_, especially _battle-equipments_: acc. pl.
gewǣdu, 292.--Comp. eorl-gewǣde.

wǣg, st. m., _wave_: acc. sg. wǣg, 3133.

wǣg-bora, w. m., _wave-bearer, swimmer_ (bearing or propelling the waves
before him): nom. sg. wundorlīc wǣg-bora (of a sea-monster), 1441.

wǣg-flota, w. m., _sea-sailer, ship_: acc. sg. wēg-flotan, 1908.

wǣg-holm, st. m., _the wave-filled sea_: acc. sg. ofer wǣg-holm, 217.

wǣge, st. n., _cup, can_: acc. sg. fǣted wǣge, 2254, 2283.--Comp.: ealo-,
līð-wǣge.

wǣg-līðend, pres. part., _sea-farer_: dat. pl. wǣg-līðendum (et līðendum,
MS.), 3160.

wǣg-sweord, st. n., _heavy sword_: acc. sg., 1490.

wǣn, st. m., _wain, wagon_: acc. sg. on wǣn, 3135.

wǣpen, st. n., _weapon; sword_: nom. sg., 1661; acc. sg. wǣpen, 686, 1574,
2520, 2688; instr. wǣpne, 1665, 2966; gen. wǣpnes, 1468; acc. pl. wǣpen,
292; dat. pl. wǣpnum, 250, 331, 2039, 2396. --Comp.: hilde-, sige-wǣpen.

wǣpned-man, st. m., _warrior, man_: dat. sg. wǣpned-men, 1285.

wǣr, st. f., _covenant, treaty_: acc. sg. wǣre, 1101;--_protection, care_:
dat. sg. on frēan (on þæs waldendes) wǣre (_into God's protection_), 27,
3110.--Comp.: frioðo-wǣr.

wǣsma, w. m., _fierce strength, war-strength_: in comp. here-wǣsma, 678.

wē, pers. pron., _we_, 942, 959, 1327, 1653, 1819, 1820, etc.

web, st. n., _woven work, tapestry_:, nom. pl. web, 996.

webbe, w. f., _webster, female weaver_: in comp. freoðu-webbe.

weccan, weccean, w. v. w. acc., _to wake, rouse; recall_: inf. wīg-bealu
weccan (_to stir up strife_), 2047; nalles hearpan swēg (sceal) wīgend
weccean (_the sound of the harp shall not wake up the warriors_), 3025;
ongunnon þā ... bǣl-fȳra mǣst wīgend weccan (_the warriors then began to
start the mightiest of funeral pyres_), 3145; pret. sg. wehte hine wætre
(_roused him with water_, i.e. Wīglāf recalled Bēowulf to consciousness),
2855.

tō-weccan, _to stir up, rouse_: pret, pl. hū þā folc mid him (_with one
another_), fǣhðe tō-wehton, 2949.

wed, st. n., (cf. wed-ding), _pledge_: dat. sg. hyldo tō wedde (_as a
pledge of his favor_), 2999.

weder, st. n., _weather_: acc. pl. wuldor-torhtan weder, 1137; gen. pl.
wedera cealdost, 546.

ge-wef, st. n., _woof, weaving_: acc. pl. wīg-spēda ge-wiofu (_the woof of
war-speed_: the battle-woof woven for weal or woe by the Walkyries; cf.
Njals-saga, 158), 698.

weg, st. m., _way_: acc. sg. on weg (_away, off_), 264, 764, 845, 1431,
2097; gyf þū on weg cymest (_if thou comest off safe_, i.e. from the battle
with Grendel's mother), 1383.--Comp.: feor-, fold-, forð-, wīd-weg.

wegan, st. v. w. acc., _to bear, wear, bring, possess_: subj. pres. nāh hwā
sweord wege (_I have none that may bear the sword_), 2253; inf. nalles
(sceal) eorl wegan māððum tō ge-myndum (_no earl shall wear a memorial
jewel_), 3016; pret. ind. hē þā frætwe wæg ... ofer ȳða ful (_bore the
jewels over the goblet of the waves_), 1208; wæl-seaxe ... þæt hē on byrnan
wæg, 2705; heortan sorge wæg (_bore heart's sorrow_); so, 152, 1778, 1932,
2781.

æt-wegan = _auferre, to carry off_: syððan Hāma æt-wæg tō þǣre byrhtan
byrig Brōsinga mene (_since H. bore from the bright city the
Brōsing-collar_), 1199.

ge-wegan (O.N. wega), _to fight_: inf. þē hē wið þām wyrme ge-wegan
sceolde, 2401.

wēl, well, adv.: 1) _well_: wēl bið þǣm þe ... (_well for him that ...!_),
186; sē þe wēl þenceð (_he that well thinketh, judgeth_), 289; so, 640,
1046, 1822, 1834, 1952, 2602; well, 2163, 2813.--2) _very, very much_: Gēat
ungemetes wēl ... restan lyste (_the Geat longed sorely to rest_),
1793.--3) _indeed, to be sure_, 2571, 2856.

wela, w. m., _wealth, goods, possessions_: in comp. ǣr-, burg-, hord-,
māððum-wela.

wēl-hwylc, indef. pron., = quivis, _any you please, any_ (each, all): gen.
pl. wēl-hwylcra wilna, 1345; w. partitive gen.: nom. sg. witena wēl-hwylc,
266;--substantively: acc. neut. wēl-hwylc, 875.

welig, adj., _wealthy, rich_: acc. sg. wīc-stede weligne Wǣgmundinga, 2608.

wēl-þungen, pres. part., _well-thriven_ (in mind), _mature, high-minded_:
nom. sg. Hygd (wæs) swīðe geong, wīs, wēl-þungen, 1928.

wenian, w. v., _to accustom, attract, honor_: subj. pret. þæt ...
Folcwaldan sunu ... Hengestes hēap hringum wenede (_sh. honor_), 1092.

be-(bi-)wenian, _entertain, care for, attend_: pret. sg. mæg þæs þonne
of-þyncan þēoden Heaðo-beardna ... þonne hē mid fǣmnan on flet gǣð,
dryht-bearn Dena duguða bi-wenede (_may well displease the prince of the
H.... when he with the woman goes into the hall, that a noble scion of the
Danes should entertain, bear wine to, the knights_, cf. 494 seqq.; or, _a
noble scion of the Danes should attend on her?_), 2036; pret. part. nom.
pl. wǣron hēr tela willum be-wenede, 1822.

wendan, w. v., _to turn_: pres. sg. III. him eal worold wendeð on willan
(_all the world turns at his will_), 1740.

ge-wendan, w. acc.: l) _to turn, turn round_: pret. sg. wicg gewende
(_turned his horse_), 315.--2) _to turn_ (intrans.), _change_: inf. wā bið
þǣm þe sceal ... frōfre ne wēnan, wihte ge-wendan (_woe to him that shall
have no hope, shall not change at all_), 186.

on-wendan, _to avert, set aside_: 1) w. acc.: inf. ne mihte snotor hæleð
wēan on-wendan, 191.--2) intrans.: sibb ǣfre ne mæg wiht on-wendan þām þe
wēl þenceð (_in, to, him that is well thinking friendship can not be set
aside_), 2602.

wer, st. m., _man, hero_: nom. sg. (Grendel), 105; acc. sg. wer (Bēowulf),
1269, 3174; gen. sg. on weres wæstmum (_in man's form_), 1353; nom. pl.
weras, 216, 1223, 1234, 1441, 1651; dat. pl. werum, 1257; gen. pl. wera,
120, 994, 1732, 3001; (MS. weora), 2948.

wered, st. n., (as adj. = _sweet_), _a sort of beer_ (probably without hops
or such ingredients): acc. sg. scīr wered, 496.

were-feohte, f., _defensive fight, fight in self-defence_: dat. pl. for
were-fyhtum (fere fyhtum, MS.), 457.

werhðo, st. f., _curse, outlawry, condemnation_: acc. sg. þū in helle
scealt werhðo drēogan, 590.

werian, _to defend, protect_: w. vb., pres. sg. III. beaduscrūda ... þæt
mīne brēost wereð, 453; inf. wit unc wið hron-fixas werian þōhton, 541;
pres. part. w. gen. pl. wergendra tō lȳt (_too few defenders_), 2883;
pret. ind. wæl-rēaf werede (_guarded the battle-spoil_), 1206; se hwīta
helm hafelan werede (_the shining helm protected his head_), 1449; pl.
hafelan weredon, 1328; pret. part. nom. pl. gē ... byrnum werede (_ye_ ...
_corselet-clad_), 238, 2530.

be-werian, _to protect, defend_: pret. pl. þæt hīe ... lēoda land-geweorc
lāðum be-weredon scuccum and scinnum (_that they the people's land-work
from foes, from monsters and demons, might defend_), 939

werig, adj., _accursed, outlawed_: gen. sg. wergan gāstes (Grendel), 133;
(of the devil), 1748.

werod, weorod, st. n., _band of men, warrior-troop_: nom. sg. werod, 652;
weorod, 290, 2015, 3031; acc. sg. werod, 319; dat. instr. sg. weorode,
1012, 2347; werede, 1216; gen. sg. werodes, 259; gen. pl. wereda, 2187;
weoroda, 60.--Comp.: eorl-, flet-werod.

wer-þēod, st. f., _people, humanity_: dat. sg. ofer wer-þēode, 900.

wesan, v., _to be_: pres. sg. I. ic eom, 335, 407; II. þū eart, 352, 506;
III. is, 256, 272, 316, 343, 375, 473, etc.; nū is þīnes mægenes blǣd āne
hwīle (_the prime [fame?] of thy powers lasteth now for a while_), 1762;
ys, 2911, 3000, 3085; pl. I. wē synt, 260, 342; II. syndon, 237, 393; III.
syndon, 257, 361, 1231; synt, 364; sint, 388; subj. pres. sīe, 435, 683,
etc.; sȳ, 1832, etc.; sig, 1779, etc.; imper. sg. II. wes, 269 (cf.
wassail, wes hǣl), 407, 1171, 1220, 1225, etc.; inf. wesan, 272, 1329,
1860, 2709, etc. The inf. wesan must sometimes be supplied: nealles Hetware
hrēmge þorfton (i.e. wesan) fēðe-wīges, 2364; so, 2498, 2660, 618, 1858;
pres. part. wesende, 46; dat. sg. wesendum, 1188; pret. sg. I., III. wæs,
11, 12, 18, 36, 49, 53, etc.; wæs on sunde (_was a-swimming_), 1619; so,
848, 850(?), 970, 981, 1293; progressive, wæs secgende (for sǣde), 3029;
II. wǣre, 1479, etc.; pl. wǣron, 233, 536, 544, etc.; wǣran (w. reflex,
him), 2476; pret. subj. wǣre, 173, 203, 594, 946, etc.; progressive,
myndgiend wǣre (for myndgie), 1106.--Contracted neg. forms: , nis = ne +
is, 249, 1373, etc.; næs = ne + wæs, 134, 1300, 1922, 2193, etc. (cf.
uncontracted: ne wæs, 890, 1472); nǣron = ne + wǣron, 2658; nǣre = ne +
wǣre, 861, 1168. See cniht-wesende.

wēg. See wǣg.

wēn, st. f., _expectation, hope_: nom. sg., 735, 1874, 2324; nū is lēodum
wēn orleg-hwīle (gen.) (_now the people have weening of a time of strife_),
2911; acc. sg. þæs ic wēn hæbbe (_as I hope, expect_), 383; so, þæs þe ic
[wēn] hafo, 3001; wēn ic talige, 1846; dat. pl. bēga on wēnum _(in
expectation of both_, i.e. the death and the return of Bēowulf), 2896. See
or-wēna.

wēnan, w. v., _to ween, expect, hope_: 1) absolutely; pres. sg. I. þæs ic
wēne (_as I hope_), 272; swā ic þē wēne tō _(as I hope thou wilt_: Bēowulf
hopes Hrōðgār will now suffer no more pain), 1397.--2) w. gen. or acc.
pres. sg. I. þonne wēne ic tō þē wyrsan ge-þinges, 525; ic þǣr heaðu-fȳres
hātes wēne, 2523; III. secce ne wēneð to Gār Denum (_weeneth not of contest
with the Gar-Danes_), 601; inf. (beorhtre bōte) wēnan (_to expect, count
on, a brilliant_ [? _a lighter penalty_] _atonement_), 157; pret. pl. þæs
ne wēndon ǣr witan Scyldinga þæt ... _the wise men of the Scyldings weened
not of this before, that_...), 779; þæt hig þæs æðelinges eft ne wēndon þæt
hē ... sēcean cōme _(that they looked not for the atheling again that he_
... _would come to seek_ ...), 1598.--3) w. acc. inf.: pret. sg. wēnde,
934.--4) w. depend, clause: pres. sg. I. wēne ic þæt..., 1185; wēn' ic
þæt..., 338, 442; pret. sg. wēnde, 2330; pl. wēndon, 938, 1605.

wēpan, st. v., _to weep_: pret. sg. [wēop], 3152 (?).

werig, adj., _weary, exhausted_, w. gen.: nom. sg. siðes wērig (_weary from
the journey, way-weary_), 579; dat. sg. siðes wērgum, 1795;--w. instr.:
acc. pl. wundum wērge _(wound-weary_), 2938.--Comp.: dēað-, fyl-,
gūð-wērig.

ge-werigean, w. v., _to weary, exhaust_: pret. part. ge-wērgad, 2853.

wērig-mōd, adj., _weary-minded (animo defessus)_: nom. sg., 845, 1544.

wēste, adj., _waste, uninhabited_: acc. sg. win-sele wēstne, 2457.

wēsten, st. n., _waste, wilderness_: acc. sg. wēsten, 1266.

wēsten, st. f., _waste, wilderness_: dat. sg. on þǣre wēstenne, 2299.

weal, st. m.: 1 _wall, rampart_: dat. instr. sg. wealle, 786, 892, 3163;
gen. sg. wealles, 2308.--2) _elevated sea-shore_: dat. sg. of wealle, 229;
acc. pl. windige weallas, 572, 1225.--3) _wall of a building_: acc, sg. wið
þæs recedes weal, 326; dat. sg. be wealle, 1574; hence, the inner and outer
rock-walls of the dragon's lair (cf. Heyne's essay: Halle Heorot, p. 59):
dat. sg., 2308, 2527, 2717, 2760, 3061, 3104; gen. sg. wealles,
2324.--Comp.: bord-, eorð-, sǣ-, scyld-weal.

ge-wealc, st. n., _rolling_: acc. sg. ofer ȳða ge-wealc, 464.

ge-weald, st. n., _power, might_: acc. sg. on fēonda ge-weald _(into the
power of his foes_), 809, 904; so, 1685; geweald āgan, hæbban, ā-bēodan (w.
gen. of object = _to present) = to have power over_, 79, 655, 765, 951,
1088, 1611, 1728. See on-weald.

wealdan, st. v., _to wield, govern, rule over, prevail_: 1) absolutely or
with depend, clause: inf. gif hē wealdan mōt (_if he may prevail_), 442;
þǣr hē ... wealdan mōste swā him Wyrd ne ge-scrāf (_if [where?] he was to
prevail, as Weird had not destined for him_), 2575; pres. part. waldend
(_God_), 1694; dat. wealdende, 2330; gen. waldendes, 2293, 2858, 3110.--2)
with instr. or dat.: inf. þām wǣpnum wealdan (_to wield, prevail with, the
weapons_), 2039; Gēatum wealdan (_to rule the Gēatas_), 2391; þēah-hordum
wealdan (_to rule over, control, the treasure of rings_), 2828; wæl-stōwe
wealdan (_to hold the field of battle_), 2985; pret. sg. wēold, 465, 1058,
2380, 2596; þenden wordum wēold wine Scyldinga (_while the friend of the S.
ruled the G._), 30; pl. wēoldon, 2052.--3) with gen.: pres. sg. I. þenden
ic wealde wīdan rīces, 1860; pres. part. wuldres wealdend(waldend), 17,
183, 1753; weard, 2514; the _'dragon_ is called ylda waldend, 1662; waldend
fīra, 2742; sigora waldend, 2876 (designations of God); pret. sg. wēold,
703, 1771.

ge-wealdan, _to wield, have power over, arrange_: 1) w. acc.: pret. sg.
hālig god ge-wēold wīg-sigor, 1555.--2) w. dat.: pret. cyning ge-wēold his
ge-witte (_the king possessed his senses_), 2704.--3) w. gen.: inf. hē ne
mihte nō ... wǣpna ge-wealdan, 1510.

ge-wealden, pret. part., _subject, subjected_: acc. pl. gedēð him swā
gewealdene worolde dǣlas, 1733.

weallan, st. v.: 1) _to toss, be agitated_ (of the sea): pres. part. nom.
pl. wadu weallende (weallendu), 546, 581; nom. sg. brim weallende, 848;
pret. ind. wēol, 515, 850, 1132; wēoll, 2139.--2) figuratively (of
emotions), _to be agitated_: pres. pl. III. syððan Ingelde weallað
wæl-nīðas (_deadly hate thus agitates Ingeld_), 2066; pres. part.
weallende, 2465; pret. sg. hreðer inne wēoll (_his heart was moved within
him_), 2114; hreðer ǣðme wēoll (_his breast_ [the dragon's] _swelled from
breathing, snorting_), 2594; brēost innan wēoll þēostrum ge-þoncum, 2332;
so, wēoll, 2600, 2715, 2883.

weall-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff_: acc. sg. ofer weall-clif, 3133.

weallian, w. v., _to wander, rove about_: pres. part. in comp.
heoro-weallende, 2782.

weard, st. m., _warden, guardian; owner_: nom. sg. weard Scyldinga (_the
Scyldings' warden of the march_), 229; weard, 286, 2240; se weard, sāwele
hyrde, 1742; the _king_ is called bēah-horda weard, 922; rīces weard, 1391;
folces weard, 2514; the _dragon_ is called weard, 3061; weard un-hīore,
2414; beorges weard, 2581; acc. sg, weard, 669; (dragon), 2842; beorges
weard (dragon), 2525, 3067.--Comp.: bāt-, ēðel-, gold-, hēafod-, hord-,
hȳð-, land-, rēn-, sele-, yrfe-weard.

weard, st. m., _possession_ (Dietrich in Haupt XI., 415): in comp.
eorð-weard, 2335.

weard, st. f., _watch, ward_: acc. sg. wearde healdan, 319; wearde hēold,
305.--Comp. ǣg-weard.

weard, adj., _-ward_: in comp. and-, innan-, ūt-weard, 1288, etc.

weardian, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to watch, guard, keep_: inf. hē his folme
forlēt tō līf-wraðe, lāst weardian (_Grendel left his hand behind as a
life-saver, to guard his track_ [Kemble]), 972; pret. sg. him sīo swīðre
swaðe weardade hand on Hiorte (_his right hand kept guard for him in H._,
i.e. showed that he had been there), 2099; sg. for pl. hȳrde ic þæt þām
frætwum fēower mēaras lungre gelīce last weardode (_I heard that four
horses, quite alike, followed in the traces of the armor_), 2165.--2) _to
hold, possess, inhabit_: pret. sg. fīfel-cynnes eard ... weardode (_dwelt
in the abode of the sea-fiends_), 105; reced weardode un-rīm eorla (_an
immense number of earls held the hall_), 1238; pl. þǣr wē gesunde sæl
weardodon, 2076.

wearh, st. m., _the accursed one; wolf_: in comp. heoro-wearg, 1268.

wearn, st. f.: 1) _resistance, refusal_, 366.--2) _warning?, resistance?_
See un-wearnum, 742.

weaxan, st. v., _to wax, grow_: pres. sg. III. oð þæt him on innan
ofer-hygda dǣl weaxeð (_till within him pride waxeth_), 1742; inf. weaxan,
3116; pret. sg. wēox, 8.

ge-weaxan, _to grow up_: pret. sg. oft þæt sēo geogoð ge-wēox, 66.

ge-weaxan to, _to grow to_ or _for something_: pret. sg. ne ge-wēox hē him
to willan (_grew not for their benefit_), 1712.

wēa, w. m., _woe, evil, misfortune_: nom. sg., 937; acc. sg. wean, 191,
423, 1207, 1992, 2293, 2938; gen. pl. wēana, 148, 934, 1151, 1397.

wēa-lāf, st. f., _wretched remnant_: acc. pl. þā wēa-lāfe (_the wretched
remnant_, i.e. Finn's almost annihilated band), 1085, 1099.

wēa-spel, st. n., _woe-spell, evil tidings_: dat. sg. wēa-spelle, 1316.

ge-weoldum. See ge-wild.

weorc, st. n.: 1) _work, labor, deed_: acc. sg., 74; (_war-deed_), 1657;
instr. sg. weorce, 1570; dat. pl. weorcum, 2097; wordum ne (and) worcum,
1101, 1834; gen. pl. worda and worca, 289.--2) _work, trouble, suffering_:
acc. sg. þæs gewinnes weorc (_misery on account of this strife_), 1722;
dat. pl. adv. weorcum (_with labor_), 1639.--Comp.: bǣdo-, ellen-, heaðo-,
niht-weorc.

ge-weorc, st. n.: 1) _work, deed, labor_: nom. acc. sg., 455, 1563, 1682,
2718, 2775; gen. sg. ge-weorces, 2712. Comp.: ǣr-, fyrn-, gūð-, hond-,
nīð-ge-weorc.--2) _fortification, rampart_: in comp. land-geweorc, 939.

weorce, adj., _painful, bitter_: nom. sg., 1419.

weorð, st. n., _precious object, valuable_: dat. sg. weorðe, 2497.

weorð, adj., _dear, precious_: nom. sg. weorð Denum æðeling (_the atheling
dear to the Danes_, Bēowulf), 1815; compar. nom. sg. þæt hē syððan wæs ...
māðme þȳ weorðra (_more honored from the jewel_), 1903; cf. wyrðe.

weorðan, st. v.: 1) _to become_: pres. sg. III. beholen weorðeð (_is
concealed_), 414; underne weorðeð (_becomes known_), 2914; so, pl. III.
weorðað, 2067; wurðað, 282; inf. weorðan, 3179; wurðan, 808; pret. sg. I.,
III. wearð, 6, 77, 149, 409, 555, 754, 768, 819, 824, etc.; pl. wurdon,
228; subj. pret. wurde, 2732.--2) inf. to frōfre weorðan (_to become a
help_), 1708; pret. sg. wearð hē Heaðolāfe tō hand-bonan, 460; so, wearð,
906, 1262; ne wearð Heremōd swā (i.e. to frōfre) eaforum Ecgwelan, 1710;
pl. wurdon, 2204; subj. pret. sg. II. wurde, 588.--3) pret. sg. þæt hē on
fylle wearð (_that he came to a fall_), 1545.--4) _to happen, befall_: inf.
unc sceal weorðan ... swā unc Wyrd ge-tēoð (_it shall befall us two as Fate
decrees_), 2527; þurh hwæt his worulde gedāl weorðan sceolde, 3069; pret.
sg. þā þǣr sōna wearð ed-hwyrft eorlum (_there was soon a renewal to the
earls_, i.e. of the former perils), 1281.

ge-weorðan: 1) _to become_: pret. sg. ge-wearð, 3062; pret. part. cearu wæs
genīwod ge-worden (_care was renewed_), 1305; swā us ge-worden is,
3079.--2) _to finish; complete?_: inf. þæt þū ... lēte Sūð-Dene sylfe
ge-weorðan gūðe wið Grendel (_that thou wouldst let the S. D. put an end to
their war with Grendel_), 1997.--3) impersonally with acc., _to agree,
decide_: pret. sg. þā þæs monige ge-wearð þæt ... (_since many agreed that_
...), 1599; pret. part. hafað þæs ge-worden wine Scyldinga, rīces hyrde,
and þæt rǣd talað þæt hē ... (_therefore hath it so appeared(?) advisable
to the friend of the S., the guardian of the realm, and he counts it a gain
that_ ...), 2027.

weorð-ful, adj., _glorious, full of worth_: nom. sg. weorð-fullost, 3100.

weorðian, w. v., _to honor, adorn_: pret. sg. þǣr ic ... þīne lēode
weorðode weorcum (_there honored I thy people by my deeds_), 2097; subj.
pret. (þæt hē) æt feoh-gyftum ... Dene weorðode (_that he would honor the
Danes at, by, treasure-giving_), 1091.

ge-weorðian, ge-wurðian, _to deck, ornament_: pret. part. hire syððan wæs
æfter bēah-þege brēost ge-weorðod, 2177; wǣpnum ge-weorðad, 250; since
ge-weorðad, 1451; so, ge-wurðad, 331, 1039, 1646; wide ge-weorðad (_known,
honored, afar_), 1960.

weorð-līce, adv., _worthily, nobly_: superl. weorð-līcost, 3163.

weorð-mynd, st. f. n., _dignity, honor, glory_: nom. sg., 65; acc. sg.
geseah þā eald sweord ..., wigena weorðmynd (_saw an ancient sword there,
the glory of warriors_), 1560; dat. instr. pl. weorð-myndum, 8; tō
worð-myndum, 1187; gen. pl. weorð-mynda dǣl, 1753.

weorðung, st. f., _ornament_: in comp. brēost-, hām-, heorft-, hring-,
wīg-weorðung.

weorod. See werod.

weorpan, st. v.: 1) _to throw, cast away_, w. acc.: pret. sg. wearp þā
wunden-mǣl wrǣttum gebunden yrre ōretta, þæt hit on eorðan læg (_the
wrathful warrior threw the ornamented sword, that it lay on the earth_),
1532.--2) _to throw around_ or _about_, w. instr.: pret. sg. beorges weard
. .. wearp wæl-fȳre (_threw death-fire around_), 2583.--3) _to throw
upon_: inf. hē hine eft ongan wæteres (instr. gen.) weorpan (_began to cast
water upon him again_), 2792.

for-weorpan, w. acc., _to cast away, squander_: subj. pret. þæt hē gēnunga
gūð-gewǣdu wrāðe for-wurpe (_that he squandered uselessly the
battle-weeds_, i.e. gave them to the unworthy), 2873.

ofer-weorpan, _to stumble_: pret. sg. ofer-wearp þā ... wigena strengest,
1544.

weotian, w. v., _to provide with, adjust_(?): pret. part. acc. pl.
wæl-bende weotode, 1937.

be-weotian, be-witian, w. v. w. acc., _to regard, observe, care for_: pres.
pl. III. be-witiað, 1136; pret. sg. þegn ... sē þe ... ealle be-weotede
þegnes þearfe (_who would attend to all the needs of a thane_), 1797; draca
sē þe ... hord be-weotode (_the drake that guarded a treasure_), 2213;--_to
carry out, undertake_: pres. pl. III. þā ... oft be-witigað sorh-fulne sīð
on segl-rāde, 1429.

wicg, st. n., _steed, riding-horse_: nom. sg., 1401; acc. sg. wicg, 315;
dat. instr. sg. wicge, 234; on wicge, 286; acc. pl. wicg, 2175; gen. pl.
wicga, 1046.

ge-widor, st. n., _storm, tempest_: acc. pl. lāð ge-widru (_loathly
weather_), 1376.

wið prep. w. dat. and acc., with fundamental meanings of division and
opposition: 1) w. dat., _against, with_ (in hostile sense), _from_: þā wið
gode wunnon, 113; āna (wan) wið eallum, 145; ymb feorh sacan, lāð wið
lāðum, 440; so, 426, 439, 550, 2372, 2521, 2522, 2561, 2840, 3005; þæt him
holt-wudu ... helpan ne meahte, lind wið līge, 2342; hwæt ... sēlest wǣre
wið fǣr-gryrum tō ge-fremmanne, 174; þæt him gāst-bona gēoce gefremede wið
þēod-þrēaum, 178; wið rihte wan (_strove against right_), 144; hæfde ...
sele Hrōðgāres ge-nered wið nīðe (_had saved H.'s hall from strife_), 828;
(him dyrne langað ...) beorn wið blōde (_the hero longeth secretly contrary
to his blood_, i.e. H. feels a secret longing for the non-related Bēowulf),
1881; sundur ge-dǣlan līf wið līce (_to sunder soul from body_), 2424;
strēamas wundon sund wið sande (_the currents rolled the sea against the
sand_), 213; līg-ȳðum forborn bord wið ronde (rond, MS.) (_with waves of
flame burnt the shield against, as far as, the rim_), 2674; holm storme
wēol, won wið winde (_the sea surged, wrestled with the wind_), 1133; so,
hiora in ānum wēoll sefa wið sorgum (_in one of them surged the soul with
sorrow_ [_against_?, Heyne]), 2601; þæt hire wið healse heard grāpode
(_that the sharp sword bit against her neck_), 1567.--2) w. acc.: a)
_against, towards_: wan wið Hrōðgār (_fought against H._), 152; wið fēonda
gehwone, 294; wið wrāð werod, 319; so, 540, 1998, 2535; hine hālig god ūs
on-sende wið Grendles gryre, 384; þæt ic wið þone gūð-flogan gylp
ofer-sitte (_that I refrain from boastful speech against the
battle-flier_), 2529; ne wolde wið manna ge-hwone ... feorh-bealo feorran
(_would not cease his life-plotting against any of the men_; or, _withdraw
life-bale from_, etc.? or, _peace would not have with any man..., mortal
bale withdraw_?, Kemble), 155; ic þā lēode wāt gē wið fēond gē wið frēond
fæste geworhte (_towards foe and friend_), 1865; hēold hēah-lufan wið
hæleða brego (_cherished high love towards the prince of heroes_), 1955;
wið ord and wið ecge ingang forstōd (_prevented entrance to spear-point and
sword-edge_), 1550. b) _against, on, upon, in_: setton sīde scyldas ... wið
þæs recedes weal (_against the wall of the hall_), 326; wið eorðan fæðm
(eardodon) (_in the bosom of the earth_), 3050; wið earm ge-sæt (_sat on,
against, his arm_), 750; so, stīð-mōd ge-stōd wið stēapne rond, 2567; [wið
duru healle ēode] (_went to the door of the hall_), 389; wið Hrefna-wudu
(_over against, near, H._), 2926; wið his sylfes sunu setl ge-tǣhte
(_showed me to a seat with, near, beside, his own son_), 2014. c) _towards,
with_ (of contracting parties): þæt hīe healfre ge-weald wið Eotena bearn
āgan mōston (_that they power over half the hall with the Eotens' sons were
to possess_), 1089; þenden hē wið wulf wæl rēafode (_whilst with the wolf
he was robbing the slain_), 3028.--3) Alternately with dat. and acc.,
_against_: nū wið Grendel sceal, wið þām āglǣcan, āna gehegan þing wið
þyrse, 424-426;--_with, beside_: ge-sæt þā wið sylfne..., mǣg wið mǣge,
1978-79.

wiðer-gyld, st. n., _compensation_: nom. sg., 2052, [proper name?].

wiðer-ræhtes, adv., _opposite, in front of_, 3040.

wiðre, st. n., _resistance_: gen. sg. wiðres ne truwode, 2954.

wiht, st. f.: 1) _wight, creature, demon_: nom. sg. wiht unhǣlo (_the demon
of destruction_, Grendel), 120; acc. sg. syllīcran wiht (the dragon),
3039.--2) _thing, something, aught_: nom. sg. w. negative, nē hine wiht
dweleð (_nor does aught check him_), 1736; him wiht ne spēow (_it helped
him naught_), 2855; acc. sg. nē him þæs wyrmes wīg for wiht dyde (_nor did
he count the worm's warring for aught_), 2349; ne meahte ic ... wiht
gewyrcan _(I could not do aught_ ...), 1661;--w. partitive gen.: nō ...
wiht swylcra searo-niða, 581;--the acc. sg. = adv. like Germ. _nicht_: nē
hīe hūru wine-drihten wiht ne lōgon (_did not blame their friendly lord
aught_), 863; so, ne wiht = _naught, in no wise_, 1084, 2602, 2858; nō
wiht, 541; instr. sg. wihte (_in aught, in any way_), 1992; ne ... wihte
(_by no means_), 186, 2278, 2688; wihte ne, 1515, 1996, 2465, 2924.--Comp.:
ā-wiht (āht = _aught_), æl-wiht, ō-wiht.

wil-cuma, w. m., _one welcome_ (qui gratus advenit): nom. pl. wil-cuman
Denigea lēodum (_welcome to the people of the Danes_), 388; so, him (the
lord of the Danes) wil-cuman, 394; wil-cuman Wedera lēodum (_welcome to the
Gēatas_), 1895.

ge-wild, st. f., _free-will_? dat. pl. nealles mid ge-weoldum (_sponte,
voluntarily_, Bugge), 2223.

wil-dēor (for wild-dēor), st. n., _wild beast_: acc. pl. wil-dēor, 1431.

wil-gesīð, st. m., _chosen_ or _willing companion_: nom. pl. -ge-sīðas, 23.

wil-geofa, w. m., _ready giver_ (= voti largitor: princely designation),
_joy-giver_?: nom. sg. wil-geofa Wedra lēoda, 2901.

willa, w. m.: 1) _will, wish, desire, sake_: nom. sg. 627, 825; acc. sg.
willan, 636, 1740, 2308, 2410; instr. sg. ānes willan (_for the sake of
one_), 3078; so, 2590; dat. sg. tō willan, 1187, 1712; instr. pl. willum
(_according to wish_), 1822; sylfes willum, 2224, 2640; gen. pl. wilna,
1345.--2) _desirable thing, valuable_: gen. pl. wilna, 661, 951.

willan, aux. v., _will_: in pres. also _shall_ (when the future action is
depend. on one's free will): pres. sg. I. wille ic ā-secgan (_I will set
forth, tell out_), 344; so, 351, 427; ic tō sǣ wille (_I will to sea_),
318; wylle, 948, 2149, 2513; sg. II. þū wylt, 1853; sg. III. hē wile, 346,
446, 1050, 1182, 1833; wyle, 2865; wille, 442, 1004, 1185, 1395; ǣr hē in
wille (_ere he will in_, i.e. go or flee into the fearful sea), 1372;
wylle, 2767; pl. I. wē ... wyllað, 1819; pret. sg. I., III. wolde, 68, 154,
200, 646, 665, 739, 756, 797, 881, etc.; nō ic fram him wolde (i.e.
flēotan), 543; so, swā hē hira mā wolde (i.e. ā-cwellan), 1056; pret. pl.
woldon, 482, 2637, 3173; subj. pret., 2730.--Forms contracted w. negative:
pres. sg. I. nelle (= ne + wille, _I will not_, nolo), 680, 2525(?); pret.
sg. III. nolde (= ne + wolde), 792, 804, 813, 1524; w. omitted inf. þā
metod nolde, 707, 968; pret. subj. nolde, 2519.

wilnian, w. v., _to long for, beseech_: inf. wēl bið þǣm þe mōt ... tō
fæder fæðmum freoðo wilnian (_well for him that may beseech protection in
the Father's arms_), 188.

wil-sīð, st. m., _chosen journey_: acc. sg. wil-sīð, 216.

ge-win, st. n.: 1) _strife, struggle, enmity, conflict_: acc. sg., 878; þā
hīe ge-win drugon (_endured strife_), 799; under ȳða ge-win (_under the
tumult of the waves_), 1470; gen. sg. þæs ge-winnes weorc (_misery for this
strife_), 1722.--2) _suffering, oppression_: nom. sg., 133, 191; acc. sg.
eald ge-win, 1782.--Comp.: fyrn-, ȳð-ge-win.

wīn-ærn, st. n., _hall of hospitality, hall, wine-hall_: gen. sg.
wīn-ærnes, 655.

wind, st. m., _wind, storm_: nom. sg., 547, 1375, 1908; dat. instr. sg.
winde, 217; wið winde, 1133.

windan, st. v.: 1) intrans., _to wind, whirl_: pret. sg. wand tō wolcnum
wæl-fȳra mǣst, 1120.--2) w. acc., _to twist, wind, curl_: pret. pl.
strēamas wundon sund wið sande, 212; pret. part. wunden gold (_twisted,
spirally-twined, gold_), 1194, 3135; instr. pl. wundnum (wundum, MS.)
golde, 1383.

æt-windan, _to wrest one's self from, escape_: pret. sg. sē þǣm fēonde
æt-wand, 143.

be-windan, _to wind with_ or _round, clasp, surround, envelop_ (involvere):
pret. sg. þē hit (the sword) mundum be-wand, 1462; pret. part. wīrum
be-wunden (_wound with wires_) 1032; feorh ... flǣsce be-wunden
(_flesh-enclosed_), 2425; gār ... mundum be-wunden (_a spear grasped with
the hands_), 3023; iū-manna gold galdre be-wunden (_spell-encircled gold_),
3053; (āstāh ...) lēg wōpe be-wunden (_uprose the flame mingled with a
lament_), 3147.

ge-windan, _to writhe, get loose, escape_: inf. wīdre ge-windan (_to flee
further_), 764; pret. sg. on flēam ge-wand, 1002.

on-windan, _to unwind, loosen_: pres. sg. (þonne fæder) on-windeð
wæl-rāpas, 1611.

win-dæg, st. m., _day of struggle_ or _suffering_: dat. pl. on þyssum
win-dagum (_in these days of sorrow_, i.e. of earthly existence), 1063.

wind-bland (blond), st. n., _wind-roar_: nom. sg., 3147.

wind-gereste, f., _resting-place of the winds_: acc. sg., 2457.

windig, adj., _windy_: acc. pl. windige (weallas, næssas), 572, 1359;
windige weallas (wind geard weallas, MS.), 1225.

wine, st. m., _friend, protector_, especially the _beloved ruler_: nom. sg.
wine Scyldinga, lēof land-fruma (Scyld), 30; wine Scyldinga (Hrōðgār), 148,
1184. As vocative: mīn wine, 2048; wine mīn, Bēowulf (Hunferð), 457, 530,
1705; acc. sg. holdne wine (Hrōðgār), 376; wine Deniga, Scyldinga, 350,
2027; dat. sg. wine Scyldinga, 170; gen. sg. wines (Bēowulf), 3097; acc.
pl. wine, 21; dat. pl. Denum eallum, winum Scyldinga, 1419; gen. pl.
winigea lēasum, 1665; winia bealdor, 2568.--Comp.: frēa-, frēo-, gold-,
gūð-, mǣg-wine.

wine-dryhten, st. m., (dominus amicus), _friendly lord, lord and friend_:
acc. sg. wine-drihten, 863, 1605; wine-dryhten, 2723, 3177; dat. sg.
wine-drihtne, 360.

wine-geōmor, adj., _friend-mourning_: nom. sg., 2240.

wine-lēas, adj., _friendless_: dat. sg. wine-lēasum, 2614.

wine-mǣg, st. m., _dear kinsman_: nom. pl. wine-māgas, 65.

ge-winna, w. m., _striver, struggler, foe_: comp. eald-, ealdor-gewinna.

winnan, st. v., _to struggle, fight_: pret. sg. III. wan āna wið eallum,
144; Grendel wan ... wið Hrōðgār, 151; holm ... won wið winde (_the sea
fought with the wind_: cf. wan wind endi water, Heliand, 2244), 1133; II.
eart þū se Bēowulf, sē þe wið Brecan wunne, 506; pl. wið gode wunnon, 113;
þǣr þā graman wunnon (_where the foes fought_), 778.

wīn-reced, st. n., _wine-hall, guest-hall, house for entertaining guests_:
acc. sg., 715, 994.

wīn-sele, st. m., the same, _wine-hall_: nom. sg., 772; dat. sg. wīn-sele,
696 (cf. Heliand Glossary, 369 [364]).

winter, st. m. n.: 1) _winter_: nom. sg., 1133, 1137; acc. sg. winter,
1129; gen. sg. wintres, 516.--2) _year_ (counted by winters): acc. pl.
fīftig wintru (neut.), 2210; instr. pl. wintrum, 1725, 2115, 2278; gen. pl.
wintra, 147, 264, 1928, 2279, 2734, 3051.

wintre, adj., _so many winters_ (old): in comp. syfan-wintre.

ge-wislīce, adv., _certainly, undoubtedly_: superl. gewislīcost, 1351.

wist, st. f., fundamental meaning = _existentia_, hence: 1) _good
condition, happiness, abundance_: dat. sg. wunað hē on wiste, 1736.--2)
_food, subsistence, booty_: dat. sg. þā wæs æfter wiste wōp up ā-hafen (_a
cry was then uplifted after the meal_, i.e. Grendel's meal of thirty men),
128.

wist-fyllo, st. f., _fulness_ or _fill of food, rich meal_: gen. sg.
wist-fylle, 735.

wit, st. n., (wit), _understanding_: nom. sg., 590.--Comp.: fyr-, in-wit.

ge-wit, st. n.: 1) _consciousness_. dat. sg. ge-wēold his ge-witte,
2704.--2) _heart, breast_: dat. sg. fȳr unswīðor wēoll (_the fire surged
less strongly from the dragon's breast_), 2883.

wit, pers. pron. dual of wē, _we two_, 535, 537, 539, 540, 544, 1187, etc.
See unc, uncer.

wita, weota, w. m., _counsellor, royal adviser_; pl., _the king's council
of nobles_: nom. pl. witan, 779: gen. pl. witena, 157, 266, 937 weotena,
1099.--Comp.: fyrn-, rūn-wita.

witan, pret.-pres. v., _to wot, know_. 1) w. depend, clause: pres. sg. I.,
III. wāt, 1332, 2657; ic on Higelāce wāt þæt hē ... (_I know as to H., that
he_ ...), 1831; so, god wāt on mec þæt ...(_God knows of me, that_ ...),
2651; sg. II. þū wāst, 272; weak pret. sg. I., III. wiste, 822; wisse,
2340, 2726; pl. wiston, 799, 1605; subj. pres. I. gif ic wiste, 2520.--2)
w. acc. and inf.: pres. sg. I. ic wāt, 1864.--3) w. object, predicative
part, or adj.: pret. sg. III. tō þæs hē win-reced ... gearwost wisse,
fǣttum fāhne, 716; so, 1310; wiste þǣm āhlǣcan hilde ge-binged, 647.--4) w.
acc., _to know_: inf. witan, 252, 288; pret. sg. wisse, 169; wiste his
fingra ge-weald on grames grāpum, 765; pl. II. wisson, 246; wiston, 181.

nāt = ne + wāt, _I know not_: 1) elliptically with hwylc, indef. pronoun =
_some or other_: sceaða ic nāt hwylc.--2) w. gen. and depend. clause: nāt
hē þāra gōda, þæt hē mē on-gēan slēa, 682.

ge-witan, _to know, perceive_: inf. þæs þe hīe gewis-līcost ge-witan
meahton, 1351.

be-witian. See be-weotian.

wītig, adj., _wise, sagacious_: nom. sg. wītig god, 686, 1057; wītig
drihten (God), 1555; wittig drihten, 1842.

ge-wittig, adj., _conscious_: nom. sg. 3095.

ge-wītnian, w. v., _to chastise, punish_: wommum gewītnad (_punished with
plagues_), 3074.

wīc, st. n., _dwelling, house_: acc. sg. wīc, 822, 2590;--often in pl.
because houses of nobles were complex: dat. wīcum, 1305, 1613, 3084; gen.
wīca, 125, 1126.

ge-wīcan, st. v., _to soften, give way, yield_ (here chiefly of swords):
pret. sg. ge-wāc, 2578, 2630.

wīc-stede, st. m., _dwelling-place_: nom. sg. 2463; acc. sg. wīc-stede,
2608.

wīd, adj., _wide, extended_: 1) space: acc. sg. neut. ofer wīd wæter, 2474;
gen. sg. wīdan rīces, 1860; acc. pl. wīde sīðas, waroðas, 878, 1966.--2)
temporal: acc. sg. wīdan feorh (acc. of time), 2015; dat. sg. tō wīdan
feore, 934.

wīde, adv., _widely, afar_, 18, 74, 79, 266, 1404, 1589, 1960, etc.; wīde
cūð (_widely, universally, known_), 2136, 2924; so, underne wīde, 2914;
wīde geond eorðan (_over the whole earth, widely_), 3100;--modifier of
superl.: wreccena wīde mǣrost (_the most famous of wanderers, exiles_),
899.--Compar. wīdre, 764.

wīd-cūð, adj., _widely known, very celebrated_: nom. sg. neut., 1257; acc.
sg. m. wīd-cūðne man (Bēowulf), 1490; wīd-cūðne wēan, 1992; wīd-cūðes
(Hrōðgār), 1043.

wīde-ferhð, st. m. n., (_long life_), _great length of time_: acc. sg. as
acc. of time: wīde-ferhð (_down to distant times, always_), 703, 938; ealne
wīde-ferhð, 1223.

wīd-floga, w. m., _wide-flier_ (of the dragon): nom. sg., 2831; acc. sg.
wīd-flogan, 2347.

wīd-scofen, pret. part., _wide-spread_? _causing fear far and wide_? 937.

wīd-weg, st. m., _wide way, long journey_: acc. pl. wīd-wegas, 841, 1705.

wīf, st. n., _woman, lady, wife_: nom. sg. frēo-līc wīf (Queen Wealhþēow),
616; wīf un-hȳre (Grendel's mother), 2121; acc. sg. drihtlīce wīf (Finn's
wife), 1159; instr. sg. mid þȳ wīfe (Hrōðgār's daughter, Frēawaru), 2029;
dat. sg. þām wīfe (Wealhþēow), 640; gen. sg. wīfes (as opposed to _man_),
1285; gen. pl. wera and wīfa, 994.--Comp.: āglǣc-, mere-wīf.

wīf-lufe, w. f., _wife-love, love for a wife, woman's love_: nom. pl.
wīf-lufan, 2066.

wīg, st. m.: 1) _war, battle_: nom. sg., 23, 1081, 2317, 2873; acc. sg.,
686, 1084, 1248; dat. sg. wīge, wigge, 1338, 2630, 1657, 1771; as instr.,
1085; ; gen. sg. wīges, 65, 887, 1269.--2) _valor, warlike prowess_: nom.
sg. wæs his mōd-sefa manegum ge-cȳðed, wīg and wīsdōm, 350; wīg, 1043; wīg
... eafoð and ellen, 2349; gen. sg. wīges, 2324.--Comp. fēðe-wīg.

wiga, w. m., _warrior, fighter_: nom. sg., 630; dat. pl. wigum, 2396; gen.
pl. wigena, 1544, 1560, 3116.--Comp.: æsc-, byrn-, gār-, gūð-, lind-,
rand-, scyld-wiga.

wīgan, st. v., _to fight_: pres. sg. III. wīgeð, 600; inf., 2510.

wīgend, pres. part., _fighter, warrior_: nom. sg., 3100; nom. pl. wīgend,
1126, 1815, 3145; acc. pl. wīgend, 3025; gen. pl. wīgendra, 429, 900, 1973,
2338.--Comp. gārwīgend.

wīg-bealu, st. n., _war-bale, evil contest_: acc. sg., 2047.

wīg-bil, st. n., _war-bill, battle-sword_: nom. sg., 1608.

wīg-bord, st. n., _war-board_ or _shield_: acc. sg., 2340.

wīg-cræft, st. m., _war-power_: acc. sg., 2954.

wīg-cræftig, adj., _vigorous in fight, strong in war_: acc. sg.
wīg-cræftigne (of the sword Hrunting), 1812.

wīg-freca, w. m., _war-wolf, war-hero_: acc. sg. wīg-frecan, 2497; nom. pl.
wīg-frecan, 1213.

wīg-fruma, w. m., _war-chief_ or _king_: nom. sg., 665; acc. sg.
wīg-fruman, 2262.

wīg-geatwe, st. f. pl., _war-ornaments, war-gear_: dat. pl. on wīg-geatwum
(-getawum, MS.), 368.

wīg-ge-weorðad, pret. part., _war-honored, distinguished in war_, 1784? See
Note.

wīg-gryre, st. m., _war-horror_ or _terror_: nom. sg., 1285.

wīg-hete, st. m., _war-hate, hostility_: nom. sg., 2121.

wīg-heafola, w. m., _war head-piece, helmet_: acc. sg. wīg-heafolan,
2662.--Leo.

wīg-hēap, st. m., _war-band_: nom sg., 447.

wīg-hryre, st. m., _war-ruin, slaughter, carnage_: acc. sg., 1620.

wīg-sigor, st. m., _war-victory_: acc. sg., 1555.

wīg-sped, st. f.?, _war-speed, success in war_: gen. pl. wīg-spēda, 698.

wīg-weorðung, st. f., _idol-worship, idolatry, sacrifice to idols_: acc.
pl. -weorðunga, 176.

wīn, st. n., _wine_: acc. sg., 1163, 1234; instr. wīne, 1468.

wīr, st. n., _wire, spiral ornament of wire_: instr. pl. wīrum, 1032; gen.
pl. wīra, 2414.

wīs, adj., _wise, experienced, discreet_: nom. sg. m. wīs (_in his mind,
conscious_), 3095; f. wīs, 1928; in w. form, se wīsa, 1401, 1699, 2330;
acc. sg. þone wīsan, 1319; gen. pl. wīsra, 1414; w. gen. nom. sg. wīs
wordcwida (_wise of speech_), 1846.

wīsa, w. m., _guide, leader_: nom. sg. werodes wīsa, 259.--Comp.: brim-,
here-, hilde-wīsa.

wīscte. See wȳscan.

wīs-dōm, st. m., _wisdom, experience_: nom. sg., 350; instr. sg. wīs-dōme,
1960.

wīse, w. f., _fashion, wise, custom_: acc. sg. (instr.) ealde wīsan (_after
ancient custom_), 1866.

wīs-fæst, adj., _wise, sagacious_ (sapientiā firmus): nom. sg. f., 627.

wīs-hycgende, pres. part. _wise-thinking, wise_, 2717.

wīsian, w. v., _to guide_ or _lead to, direct, point out_: 1) w. acc.: inf.
hēan wong wīsian, 2410; pret. sg. secg wīsade land-gemyrcu, 208.--2) w.
dat.: pres. sg. I. ic ēow wīsige (_I shall guide you_), 292, 3104; pret.
sg. sē þǣm heaðo-rincum hider wīsade, 370; sōna him sele-þegn ... forð
wīsade _(the hall-thane led him thither forthwith_, i.e. to his couch),
1796; stīg wīsode gumum æt-gædere, 320; so, 1664.--3) w. prep.?: pret. sg.
þā secg wīsode under Heorotes hrōf (_when the warrior showed them the way
under Heorot's roof_, [but under H.'s hrōf depends rather on snyredon
ætsomne]), 402.

wītan, st. v., properly _to look at; to look at with censure, to blame,
reproach, accuse_, w. dat. of pers. and acc. of thing: inf. for-þām mē
wītan ne þearf waldend fīra morðor-bealo māga, 2742.

æt-wītan, _to blame, censure_ (cf. 'twit), w. acc. of thing: pret. pl.
æt-witon wēana dǣl, 1151.

ge-wītan, properly _spectare aliquo; to go_ (most general verb of motion):
1) with inf. after verbs of motion: pret. sg. þanon eft ge-wāt ... tō hām
faran, 123; so, 2570; pl. þanon eft gewiton ... mēarum rīdan, 854.
Sometimes with reflex, dat.: pres. sg. him þā Scyld ge-wāt ... fēran on
frēan wǣre, 26; gewāt him ... rīdan, 234; so, 1964; pl. ge-witon, 301.--2)
associated with general infinitives of motion and aim: imper. pl. ge-wītað
forð beran wǣpen and gewǣdu, 291; pret. sg. ge-wāt þā nēosian hēan hūses,
115; hē þā fāg ge-wāt ... man-drēam flēon, 1264; nyðer eft gewāt dennes
nīosian, 3045; so, 1275, 2402, 2820. So, with reflex, dat.: him eft gewāt
... hāmes nīosan, 2388; so, 2950; pl. ge-witon, 1126.--3) without inf. and
with prep, or adv.: pres. sg. III. þǣr firgen-strēam under næssa genipu
niðer ge-wīteð, 1361; ge-wīteð on sealman, 2461; inf. on flōdes ǣht feor
ge-wītan, 42; pret. sg. ge-wāt, 217; him ge-wāt, 1237, 1904; of līfe,
ealdre ge-wāt (_died_), 2472, 2625; fyrst forð ge-wāt (_time went on_),
210; him ge-wāt ūt of healle, 663; ge-wāt him hām, 1602; pret. part. dat.
sg. mē forð-ge-witenum (_me defuncto, I dead_), 1480.

oð-wītan, _to blame, censure, reproach_: inf. ne þorfte him þā lēan
oð-wītan mon on middan-gearde, 2997.

wlanc, wlonc, adj., _proud, exulting_: nom. sg. wlanc, 341; w. instr. ǣse
wlanc (_proud of, exulting in, her prey, meal_), 1333; wlonc, 331; w. gen.
māðm-ǣhta wlonc (_proud of the treasures_), 2834; gen. sg. wlonces,
2954.--Comp. gold-wlanc.

wlātian, w. v., _to look_ or _gaze out, forth_: pret. sg. sē þe ǣr ... feor
wlātode, 1917.

wlenco, st. f., _pride, heroism_: dat. sg. wlenco, 338, 1207; wlence, 508.

wlite, st. m. _form, noble form, look, beauty_: nom. sg., 250.

wlite-beorht, adj., _beauteous, brilliant in aspect_: acc. sg.
wlite-beorhtne wang, 93.

wlite-sēon, st. n. f., _sight, spectacle_: acc. sg., 1651.

wlitig, adj., _beautiful, glorious, fair in form_: acc. sg. wlitig
(sweord), 1663.

wlītan, st. v., _to see, look, gaze_: pret. sg. hē æfter recede wlāt
(_looked along the hall_), 1573; pret. pl. on holm wliton (_looked on the
sea_), 1593; wlitan on Wīglāf, 2853.

geond-wlītan, w. acc., _to examine, look through, scan_: inf. wrǣte
giond-wlītan, 2772.

wōh-bogen, pret. part., (_bent crooked), crooked, twisted_: nom. sg. wyrm
wōh-bogen, 2828.

wolcen, st. n. m., _cloud_ (cf. welkin): dat. pl. under wolcnum (_under the
clouds, on earth_), 8, 652, 715, 1771; tō wolcnum, 1120, 1375.

wollen-tēar, adj., _tear-flowing, with flowing tears_: nom. pl.
wollen-tēare, 3033.

wom. See wam.

won. See wan.

worc. See weorc.

word, st. n.: 1) _word, speech_: nom. sg., 2818; acc. sg. þæt word, 655,
2047; word, 315, 341, 390, 871, 2552; instr. sg. worde, 2157; gen. sg.
wordes, 2792; nom. pl. þā word, 640; word, 613; acc. pl. word (of an
alliterative song), 871; instr. pl, wordum, 176, 366, 627, 875, 1101, 1173,
1194, 1319, 1812, etc.; ge-saga him wordum (_tell them in words,
expressly_), 388. The instr. wordum accompanies biddan, þancian, be-wægnan,
secgan, hērgan, to emphasize the verb, 176, 627, 1194, 2796, 3177; gen. pl.
worda, 289, 398, 2247, 2263(?), 3031.--2) _command, order_: gen. sg. his
wordes geweald habban (_to rule, reign_), 79; so, instr. pl. wordum wēold,
30.--Comp.: bēot-, gylp-, meðel-, þrȳð-word.

word-cwide, st. m., (_word-utterance_), _speech_: acc. pl. word-cwydas,
1842; dat. pl. word-cwydum, 2754; gen. pl. word-cwida, 1846.

word-gid, st. m, _speech, saying_: acc. sg. word-gyd, 3174.

word-hord, st. n., _word-hoard, treasury of speech, mouth_: acc. sg.
word-hord on-lēac (_unlocked his word-hoard_, opened his mouth, spoke),
259.

word-riht, st. n., _right speech, suitable word_: gen. pl. Wīglāf maðelode
word-rihta fela, 2632.

worð-mynd. See weorð-mynd.

worðig (for weorðig), st. m., _palace, estate, court_: acc. sg. on worðig
(_into the palace_), 1973.

worn, st. n., _multitude, number_: acc. sg. worn eall (_very many_), 3095;
wintra worn (_many years_), 264; þonne hē wintrum frōd worn ge-munde (_when
he old in years thought of their number_), 2115. Used with fela to
strengthen the meaning: nom. acc. sg. worn fela, 1784; hwæt þū worn fela
... sprǣce (_how very much thou hast spoken!_), 530; so, eal-fela
eald-gesegena worn, 871; gen. pl. worna fela, 2004, 2543.

woruld, worold, st. f., _humanity, world, earth_: nom. sg. eal worold,
1739; acc. sg. in worold (wacan) (_to be born, come into the world_), 60;
worold oflǣtan, of-gifan (_die_), 1184, 1682; gen. sg. worolde, 951, 1081,
1388, 1733; worulde, 2344; his worulde ge-dāl (_his separation from the
world, death_), 3069; worolde brūcan (_to enjoy life, live_), 1063; worlde,
2712.

worold-ār, st. f., _worldly honor_ or _dignity_: acc. sg. worold-āre, 17.

woruld-candel, st. f., _world-candle, sun_: nom. sg., 1966.

worold-cyning, st. m., _world king, mighty king_: nom. sg., 3182; gen. pl.
worold-cyninga, 1685.

woruld-ende, st. m., _world's end_: acc. sg., 3084.

worold-rǣden, st. f., _usual course, fate of the world, customary fate_:
dat. sg. worold-rǣdenne, 1143?

wōp, st. m., (_whoop_), _cry of grief, lament_: nom. sg., 128; acc. sg.
wōp, 786; instr. sg. wōpe, 3147.

wracu, st. f., _persecution, vengeance, revenge_: nom. sg. wracu (MS,
uncertain), 2614; acc. sg. wræce, 2337.--Comp.: gyrn-, nȳd-wracu.

wraðu, st. f., _protection, safety_: in comp. līf-wraðu.

wrāð, adj., _wroth, furious, hostile_: acc. sg. neut. wrāð, 319; dat. sg.
wrāðum, 661, 709; gen. pl. wrāðra, 1620.

wrāðe, adv., _contemptibly, disgracefully_, 2873.

wrāð-līce, adv., _wrathfully, hostilely_ (in battle), 3063.

wrāsn, st. f., _circlet of gold for the head, diadem, crown_: in comp.
frēa-wrāsn.

wræc-lāst, st. m., _exile-step, exile, banishment_: acc. sg. wræc-lāstas
træd (_trod exile-steps, wandered in exile_), 1353.

wræc-mæcg, st. m., _exile, outcast_: nom. pl. wræc-mæcgas, 2380.

wræc-sīð, st. m., _exile-journey, banishment, exile, persecution_: acc.
sg., 2293; dat. sg. -sīðum, 338.

wrǣt, st. f., _ornament, jewel_: acc. pl. wrǣte (wrǣce, MS.), 2772, 3061;
instr. pl. wrǣttum, 1532; gen. pl. wrǣtta, 2414.

wrǣt-līc, adj.: 1) _artistic, ornamental; valuable_: acc. sg. wrǣt-līcne
wundur-māððum, 2174; wrǣt-līc wǣg-sweord, 1490; wīg-bord wrǣt-līc,
2340.--2) _wondrous, strange_: acc. sg. wrǣt-līcne wyrm [from its rings or
spots?], 892; wlite-sēon wrǣt-līc, 1651.

wrǣc, st. f., _persecution_; hence, _wretchedness, misery_: nom. sg., 170;
acc. sg. wrǣc, 3079.

wrecan, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to press, force_: pret. part. þǣr wæs Ongenþēo
... on bīd wrecen, 2963.--2) _to drive out, expel_: pret. sg. ferh ellen
wræc, 2707.--3) _to wreak_ or _utter_: gid, spel wrecan (_to utter words or
songs_); subj. pres. sg. III. hē gyd wrece, 2447; inf. wrecan spel ge-rāde,
874; word-gyd wrecan, 3174; pret. sg. gyd æfter wræc, 2155; pres. part. þǣr
wæs ... gid wrecen, 1066.--4) _to avenge, punish_: subj. pres. þæt hē his
frēond wrece, 1386; inf. wolde hire mǣg wrecan, 1340; so, 1279, 1547; pres.
part. wrecend (_an avenger_), 1257; pret. sg. wræc Wedera nīð, 423; so,
1334, 1670.

ā-wrecan, _to tell, recount_: pret. sg. ic þis gid be þē ā-wræc (_I have
told this tale for thee_), 1725; so, 2109.

for-wrecan, w. acc., _to drive away, expel; carry away_: inf. þȳ lǣs him
ȳða þrym wudu wyn-suman for-wrecan meahte (_lest the force of the waves
might carry away the winsome ship_), 1920; pret. sg. hē hine feor for-wræc
... man-cynne fram, 109.

ge-wrecan, w. acc., _to avenge, wreak vengeance upon, punish_: pret. sg.
ge-wræc, 107, 2006; hē ge-wræc (i.e. hit, _this_) cealdum cear-sīðum, 2396;
hē hine sylfne ge-wræc (_avenged himself_), 2876; pl. ge-wrǣcan, 2480;
pret. part. ge-wrecen, 3063.

wrecca, w. m., (_wretch_), _exile, adventurer, wandering soldier, hero_:
nom. sg. wrecca (Hengest), 1138; gen. pl. wreccena wīde mǣrost (Sigemund),
899.

wreoðen-hilt, adj., _wreathen-hilted, with twisted hilt_: nom. sg., 1699.

wridian, w. v., _to flourish, spring up_: pret. sg. III. wridað, 1742.

wriða, w. m., _band_: in comp. bēag-wriða (_bracelet_), 2019.

wrixl, st. n., _exchange, change_: instr. sg. wyrsan wrixle (_in a worse
way, with a worse exchange_), 2970.

ge-wrixle, st. n., _exchange, arrangement, bargain_: nom. sg. ne wæs þæt
ge-wrixle til (_it was not a good arrangement, trade_), 1305.

wrixlan, w. v., _to exchange_: inf. wordum wrixlan (_to exchange words,
converse_), 366; 875 (_tell_).

wrīðan, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to bind, fasten, wreathe together_: inf. ic
hine (him, MS.) ... on wæl-bedde wrīðan þōhte, 965.--2) _to bind up_ (a
wounded person, a wound): pret. pl. þā wǣron monige þē his mǣg wriðon,
2983. See hand-gewriðen.

wrītan, st. v., _to incise, engrave_: pret. part. on þǣm (hilte) wæs ōr
writen fyrn-gewinnes (_on which was engraved the origin of an ancient
struggle_), 1689.

for-wrītan, _to cut to pieces_ or _in two_: pret. sg. for-wrāt Wedra helm
wyrm on middan, 2706.

wrōht, st. m. f., _blame, accusation, crime_; here _strife, contest,
hostility_: nom. sg., 2288, 2474, 2914.

wudu, st. m., _wood_: 1) _material, timber_: nom. pl. wudu, 1365; hence,
_the wooden spear_: acc. pl. wudu, 398.--2) _forest, wood_: acc. sg. wudu,
1417.--3) _wooden ship_: nom. sg. 298; acc. sg. wudu, 216, 1920.--Comp.:
bǣl-, bord-, gamen-, heal-, holt-, mægen-, sǣ-, sund-, þrec-wudu.

wudu-rēc, st. m., _wood-reek_ or _smoke_: nom. sg., 3145.

wuldor, st. n., _glory_: nom. sg. kyninga wuldor (_God_), 666; gen. sg.
wuldres wealdend, 17, 183, 1753; wuldres hyrde, 932, (designations of God).

wuldor-cyning, st. m., _king of glory, God_. dat. sg. wuldur-cyninge, 2796

wuldor-torht, adj., _glory-bright, brilliant, clear_: acc. pl.
wuldor-torhtan weder, 1137.

wulf, st. m., _wolf_: acc. sg., 3028.

wulf-hlið, st. n., _wolf-slope, wolf's retreat, slope whereunder wolves
house_: acc. pl. wulf-hleoðu, 1359.

wund, st. f., _wound_: nom. sg., 2712, 2977; acc. sg. wunde, 2532, 2907;
acc. sg. wunde, 2726; instr. pl. wundum, 1114, 2831, 2938.--Comp.
feorh-wund.

wund, adj., _wounded, sore_: nom. sg., 2747; dat. sg. wundum, 2754; nom.
pl. wunde, 565, 1076.

wunden-feax, adj., _curly-haired_ (of a horse's mane): nom. sg., 1401.

wunden-heals, adj., _with twisted_ or _curved neck_ or _prow_: nom. sg.
wudu wunden-hals (_the ship_), 298.

wunden-heorde?, _curly-haired_?: nom. sg. f., 3153.

wunden-mǣl, adj., _damascened, etched, with wavy ornaments_(?): nom. sg.
neut., 1532 (of a sword).

wunden-stefna, w. m. _curved prow, ship_: nom. sg., 220.

wundor, st. n.: 1) _wonder, wonderwork_: nom. sg., 772, 1725; wundur, 3063;
acc. sg. wundor, 841; wunder, 932; wundur, 2760, 3033, 3104; dat. sg.
wundre, 932; instr. pl. wundrum (_wondrously_), 1453, 2688; gen. pl.
wundra, 1608.--2) _portent, monster_: gen. pl. wundra, 1510.--Comp.: hand-,
nīð-, searo-wundor.

wundor-bebod, st. n., _wondrous command, strange order_: instr. pl.
-bebodum, 1748.

wundor-dēað, st. m., _wonder-death, strange death_: instr. sg. wundor
dēaðe, 3038.

wundor-fæt, st. n., _wonder-vat, strange vessel_: dat. pl. of wundor-fatum
(_from wondrous vessels_), 1163.

wundor-līc, adj., _wonder like, remarkable_: nom. sg., 1441.

wundor-māððum, st. m., _wonder-jewel, wonderful treasure_: acc. sg., 2174.

wundor-smið, st. m., _wonder-smith, skilled smith, worker of marvellous
things_: gen. pl. wundor-smiða geweorc (the ancient giant's sword), 1682.

wundor-sēon, st. f., _wondrous sight_: gen. pl. wunder-sīona, 996.

wunian, w. v.: 1) _to stand, exist, remain_: pres. sg. III. þenden þǣr
wunað on hēah-stede hūsa sēlest (_as long as the best of houses stands
there on the high place_), 284; wunað hē on wiste (_lives in plenty_),
1736; inf. on sele wunian (_to remain in the hall_), 3129; pret. sg. wunode
mid Finne (_remained with F._), 1129.--2) w. acc. or dat., _to dwell in, to
inhabit, to possess_: pres. sg. III. wunað wæl-reste (_holds his
death-bed_), 2903; inf. wæter-egesan wunian scolde..., strēamas, 1261;
wīcum wunian, 3084; w. prep.: pres. sg. Higelāc þǣr æt hām wunað, 1924.

ge-wunian, w. acc.: 1) _to inhabit_: inf. ge-[wunian], 2276.--2) _to remain
with, stand by_: subj. pres. þæt hine on ylde eft ge-wunigen wil-ge-sīðas,
22.

wurðan. See weorðan.

wuton, v. from wītan, used as interj., _let us go! up!_ w. inf.: wutun
gangan tō (_let us go to him!_), 2649; uton hraðe fēran! 1391; uton nū
efstan, 3102.

wylf, st. f., _she-wolf_: in comp. brim-wylf.

wylm, st. m., _surge, surf, billow_: num. sg. flōdes wylm, 1765; dat.
wintres wylme (_with winter's flood_), 516; acc. sg. þurh wæteres wylm,
1694; acc. pl. heortan wylmas, 2508.--Comp.: brēost-, brim-, byrne-, cear-,
fȳr-, heaðo-, holm-, sǣ-, sorh-wylm. See wælm.

wyn, st. f., _pleasantness, pleasure, joy, enjoyment_: acc. sg. mǣste ...
worolde wynne (_the highest earthly joy_), 1081; eorðan wynne (_earth-joy,
the delightful earth_), 1731; heofenes wynne (_heaven's joy_, the rising
sun), 1802; hearpan wynne (_harp-joy, the pleasant harp_), 2108; þæt hē ...
ge-drogen hæfde eorðan wynne (_that he had had his earthly joy_), 2728;
dat. sg. weorod wæs on wynne, 2015; instr. pl. mægenes wynnum (_in joy of
strength_), 1717; so, 1888.--Comp.: ēðel-, hord-, līf-, lyft-, symbel-wyn.

wyn-lēas, adj., _joyless_: acc. sg. wyn-lēasne wudu, 1417; wyn-lēas wīc,
822.

wyn-sum, adj., _winsome, pleasant_: acc. sg. wudu wyn-suman (_the ship_),
1920; nom. pl. word wǣron wyn-sume, 613.

wyrcan, v. irreg.: 1) _to do, effect_, w. acc.: inf. (wundor) wyrcan,
931.--2) _to make, create_, w. acc.: pret. sg. þæt se æl-mihtiga eorðan
worh[te], 92; swā hine _(the helmet_) worhte wǣpna smið, 1453.--3) _to
gain, win, acquire_, w. gen.: subj. pres. wyrce, sē þe mōte, dōmes ǣr
dēaðe, 1388.

be-wyrcan, _to gird, surround_: pret. pl. bronda betost wealle be-worhton,
3163.

ge-wyrcan: 1) intrans., _to act, behave_: inf. swā sceal geong guma gōde
gewyrcean ... on fæder wine þæt ... (_a young man shall so act with
benefits towards his father's friends that_ ...), 20.--2) w. acc., _to do,
make, effect, perform_: inf. ne meahte ic æt hilde mid Hruntinge wiht
ge-wyrcan, 1661; sweorde ne meahte on þām āglǣcan ... wunde ge-wyrcean,
2907; pret. sg. ge-worhte, 636, 1579, 2713; pret. part. acc. ic þā lēode
wāt ... fæste ge-worhte. 1865.--3) _to make, construct_: inf. (medo-ærn)
ge-wyrcean, 69; (wīg-bord) ge-wyrcean, 2338; (hlǣw) ge-wyrcean, 2803; pret.
pl. II. ge-worhton, 3097; III. ge-worhton, 3158; pret. part. ge-worht,
1697.--4) _to win, acquire_: pres. sg. ic mē mid Hruntinge dōm ge-wyrce,
1492.

Wyrd, st. f., _Weird_ (one of the Norns, guide of human destiny; mostly
weakened down = _fate, providence_): nom. sg., 455, 477, 572, 735, 1206,
2421, 2527, 2575, 2815; acc. sg. wyrd, 1057, 1234; gen. pl. wyrda, 3031.
(Cf. Weird Sisters of Macbeth.)

wyrdan, w. v., _to ruin, kill, destroy_: pret. sg. hē tō lange lēode mine
wanode and wyrde, 1338.

ā-wyrdan, w. v., _to destroy, kill_: pret. part.: æðeling monig wundum
ā-wyrded, 1114.

wyrðe, adj., _noble; worthy, honored, valued_: acc. sg. m. wyrðne (ge-dōn)
(_to esteem worthy_), 2186; nom. pl. wyrðe, 368; compar. nom. sg. rīces
wyrðra (_worthier of rule_), 862.--Comp. fyrd-wyrðe. See weorð.

wyrgen, st, f., _throttler_ [cf. sphinx], _she-wolf_; in comp.
grund-wyrgen.

ge-wyrht, st. n., _work; desert_; in comp. eald-gewyrht, 2658.

wyrm, st. m., _worm, dragon, drake_: nom. sg., 898, 2288, 2344, 2568, 2630,
2670, 2746, 2828; acc. sg. wyrm, 887, 892, 2706, 3040, 3133; dat. sg.
wyrme, 2308, 2520; gen. wyrmes, 2317, 2349, 2760, 2772, 2903; acc. pl.
wyrmas, 1431.

wyrm-cyn, st. m., _worm-kin, race of reptiles, dragons_: gen. sg.
wyrm-cynnes fela, 1426.

wyrm-fāh, adj., _dragon-ornamented, snake-adorned_ (ornamented with figures
of dragons, snakes, etc.: cf. Dietrich in Germania X., 278): nom. sg.
sweord ... wreoðen-hilt and wyrm-fāh, 1699.

wyrm-hord, st. n., _dragon-hoard_: gen. pl. wyrm-horda, 2223.

for-wyrnan, w. v., _to refuse, reject_: subj. pres. II. þæt þū mē nō
for-wyrne, þæt... (_that thou refuse me not that_...), 429; pret. sg. hē ne
for-wyrnde worold-rǣdenne, 1143.

ge-wyrpan, w. v. reflex., _to refresh one's self, recover_: pret. sg. hē
hyne ge-wyrpte, 2977.

wyrpe, st. m., _change_: acc. sg. æfter wēa-spelle wyrpe ge-fremman (_after
the woe-spell to bring about a change of things_), 1316.

wyrsa, compar. adj., _worse_: acc. sg. neut. þæt wyrse, 1740; instr. sg.
wyrsan wrixle, 2970; gen. sg. wyrsan geþinges, 525; nom. acc. pl. wyrsan
wīg-frecan, 1213, 2497.

wyrt, st. f., [_-wort_], _root_: instr. pl. wudu wyrtum fæst, 1365.

wȳscan, w. v., _to wish, desire_: pret. sg. wīscte (rihde, MS.) þæs yldan
(_wished to delay that_ or _for this reason_, 2440, 1605(?). See Note.

Y

yfel, st n., _evil_: gen. pl. yfla, 2095.

yldan, w. v., _to delay, put off_: inf. nē þæt se āglǣca yldan þōhte, 740;
weard wine-geōmor wīscte þæs yldan, þæt hē lȳtel fæc long-gestrēona brūcan
mōste, 2240.

ylde, st. m. pl., _men_: dat. pl. yldum, 77, 706, 2118; gen. pl. ylda, 150,
606, 1662. See elde.

yldest. See eald.

yldo, st. f., _age (senectus), old age_: nom. sg., 1737, 1887; atol yldo,
1767; dat. sg. on ylde, 22.--2) _age (ǣtas), time, era_: gen. sg. yldo
bearn, 70. See eldo.

yldra. See eald.

ylf, st. f., _elf (incubus, alp_): nom. pl. ylfe, 112.

ymb, prep. w. acc.: 1) local, _around, about, at, upon_: ymb hine (_around,
with, him_), 399. With prep, postponed: hine ymb, 690; ymb brontne ford
(_around the seas, on the high sea_), 568; ymb þā gif-healle (_around the
gift-hall, throne-hall_), 839; ymb þæs helmes hrōf (_around the helm's
roof, crown_), 1031.--2) temporal, _about, after_: ymb ān-tīd ōðres dōgores
(_about the same time the next day_), 219; ymb āne niht (_after a night_),
135.--3) causal, _about, on account of, for, owing to_: (frīnan) ymb þīnne
sīð (_on account of, concerning?, thy journey_), 353; hwæt þū ... ymb
Brecan sprǣce (_hast spoken about B._), 531; so, 1596, 3174; nā ymb his līf
cearað (_careth not for his life_), 1537; so, 450; ymb feorh sacan, 439;
sundor-nytte behēold ymb aldor Dena, 669; ymb sund (_about the swimming,
the prize for swimming_), 507.

ymbe, I. prep. w. acc. = ymb: 1) local, 2884, 3171; hlǣw oft ymbe hwearf
(prep, postponed), 2297. 2) causal, 2071, 2619.--II. adv., _around_: him
... ymbe, 2598.

ymb-sittend, pres. part., _neighbor_ gen. pl. ymb-sittendra, 9.

ymbe-sittend, the same: nom. pl. ymbe-sittend, 1828; gen. pl.
ymbe-sittendra, 2735.

yppe, w. f., _high seat, dais, throne_: dat. sg. ēode ... tō yppan, 1816.

yrfe, st. n., _bequest, legacy_: nom. sg., 3052.

yrfe-lāf, st. f., _sword left as a bequest_: acc. sg. yrfe-lāfe, 1054;
instr. sg. yrfe-lāfe, 1904.

yrfe-weard, st. m., _heir, son_: nom. sg., 2732; gen. sg. yrfe-weardes,
2454. (-as, MS.)

yrmðo, st. f., _misery, shame, wretchedness_: acc. sg. yrmðe, 1260, 2006.

yrre, st. n., _anger, ire, excitement_: acc. sg. godes yrre, 712; dat. sg,
on yrre, 2093.

yrre, adj., _angry, irate, furious_: nom. sg. yrre ōretta (Bēowulf), 1533;
þegn yrre (the same), 1576; gæst yrre (Grendel), 2074; nom. pl. yrre, 770.
See eorre.

yrringa, adv., _angrily, fiercely_, 1566, 2965.

yrre-mōd, adj., _wrathful-minded, wild_: nom. sg., 727.

ys, _he is_. See wesan.

ȳð (O.H.G. unda), st. f., _wave; sea_: nom. pl. ȳða, 548; acc. pl. ȳðe,
46, 1133, 1910; dat. pl. ȳðum, 210, 421, 534, 1438, 1908; ȳðum weallan
(_to surge with waves_), 515, 2694; gen. pl. ȳða, 464, 849, 1209, 1470,
1919.--Comp: flōd-, līg-, wæter-ȳð.

ȳðan, w. v., _to ravage, devastate, destroy_: pret. sg. ȳðde eotena cyn,
421 (cf. īðende = _depopulating_, Bosworth, from AElfric's Glossary; pret.
ȳðde, Wanderer, 85).

ȳðe. See ēaðe.

ȳðe-līce, adv., _easily_: ȳðe-līce hē eft ā-stōd (_he easily arose
afterwards_), 1557.

ȳð-gebland, st. n., _mingling_ or _surging waters, water-tumult_: nom. sg.
-geblond, 1374, 1594; nom. pl. -gebland, 1621.

ȳð-gewin, st. n., _strife with the sea, wave-struggle, rushing of water_:
dat. sg. ȳð-gewinne, 2413; gen. sg. -gewinnes, 1435.

ȳð-lād, st. f., _water-journey, sea-voyage_: nom. pl. ȳð-lāde, 228.

ȳð-lāf, st. f., _water-leaving, what is left by the water (undarum
reliquiae), shore_: dat. sg. be ȳð-lāfe, 566.

ȳð-lida, w. m., _wave-traverser, ship_: acc. sg. ȳð-lidan, 198.

ȳð-naca, w. m., _sea-boat_: acc. sg. [ȳð-]nacan, 1904.

ȳð-gesēne. See ēð-gesȳne.

ȳwan, w. v. w. acc., _to show_: pret. sg. an-sȳn ȳwde (_showed itself,
appeared_), 2835. See ēawan, ēowan.

ge-ȳwan, w. acc. of thing, dat. of pers., _to lay before, offer_: inf.,
2150.

GLOSSARY TO FINNSBURH.

ābrecan, st. v., _to shatter_: part. his byrne ābrocen wǣre (_his byrnie
was shattered_).

ānyman, st. v., _to take, take away_.

bān-helm, st. m., _bone-helmet; skull_, [_shield_, Bosw.].

buruh-þelu, st. f., _castle-floor_.

cēlod, part, (adj.?), _keeled_, i.e. boat-shaped or hollow.

dagian, w. v., _to dawn_: nē þis nē dagiað ēastan (_this is not dawning
from the east_).

dēor-mōd, adj., _brave in mood_: dēor-mōd hæleð.

driht-gesīð, st m., _companion, associate_.

ēastan, adv., _from the east_.

eorð-būend, st. m., _earth-dweller, man_.

fēr, st. m. _fear, terror_.

fȳren, adj., _flaming, afire_: nom. f. swylce eal Finns-buruh fȳrenu wǣre
(_as if all Finnsburh were afire_).

gehlyn, st. n., _noise, tumult_.

gellan, st. v., _to sing_ (i.e. ring or resound): pres. sg. gylleð
grǣg-hama (_the gray garment_ [byrnie] _rings_); (_the gray wolf
yelleth_?).

genesan, st. v., _to survive, recover from_: pret. pl. þā wīgend hyra wunda
genǣson (_the warriors were recovering from their wounds_).

gold-hladen, adj., _laden with gold_ (wearing heavy gold ornaments).

grǣg-hama, w. m., _gray garment, mail-coat_; (_wolf_?--Brooke).

gūð-wudu, st. m., _war-wood, spear_.

hæg-steald, st. m., _one who lives in his lord's house, a house-carl._

heaðo-geong, adj., _young in war._

here-sceorp, st. n., _war-dress, coat of mail_.

hleoðrian, w. v., _to speak, exclaim_: pret. sg. hleoðrode ... cyning (_the
prince exclaimed_).

hrǣw, st. n., _corpse_.

hrōr, adj., _strong_: here-sceorpum hrōr (_strong_ [though it was] _as
armor_, Bosw.).

lac (lað?)? for flacor, _fluttering?_

oncweðan, st. v., _to answer_: pres. sg. scyld scefte oncwyð (_the shield
answers the spear_).

onwacnian, w. v., _to awake, arouse one's self_: imper. pl. onwacnigeað
..., wīgend mine (_awake, my warriors!_).

sceft (sceaft), st. m., _spear, shaft_.

sealo-brūn, adj., _dusky-brown_.

sige-beorn, st. m., _victorious hero, valiant warrior_.

swæðer (swā hwæðer), pron., _which of two, which_.

swān, st. m., _swain, youth; warrior_.

sweart, adj., _swart, black_.

swēt, adj., _sweet_: acc. m. swētne medo ... forgyldan (_requite the sweet
mead_, i.e. repay, by prowess in battle, the bounty of their chief).

swurd-lēoma, w. m., _sword-flame, flashing of swords_.

þyrl, adj., _pierced, cloven_.

undearninga, adv., _without concealment, openly_.

wandrian, w. v., _to fly about, hover_: pret. sg. hræfn wandrode (_the
raven hovered_).

waðol, st. m., _the full moon_ [Grein]; [adj., _wandering_, Bosw.].

wæl-sliht (-sleaht), st. m., _combat, deadly struggle_: gen. pl. wæl-slihta
gehlyn (_the din of combats_)

weā-dǣd, st. f., _deed of woe_: nom. pl. ārisað weā-dǣda.

witian (weotian), w. v., _to appoint, determine_: part. þē is ... witod.

wurðlīce (weorðlīce), adv., _worthily, gallantly_: compar. wurð-līcor.

wæg, weg, st. m., _way_.

CORRECTIONS MADE TO THE SOURCE TEXT:

ARGUMENT, recals = recalls ll. 131, 737 þryð-swyð = þrȳð-sw̄ð l. 256 ōfest
= ōfost l. 303 scīonon = scionon l. 706 buton = būton l. 1115 āt = æt l.
1133 wīð = wið ll. 1304, 1560, 1616 missing caesuras supplied l. 1436
here-stræl = here-strǣl l. 1642 feōwer- = fēower l. 1747 stræle = strǣle l.
1828 þywað = þȳwað l. 1926 betlic = betlīc l. 2224 gescēod = gesceōd ll.
2288, 3036 wās = wæs l. 2453 to = tō l. 2503 Huga = Hūga (marked long,
correctly, in the list of names, but not elsewhere) l. 2586 niðe = nīðe l.
2587 sið = sīð l. 2684 irenna = īrenna l. 2915 Hugas = Hūgas l. 2956
hēaðo-liðendum = heaðo-līðendum l. 3000 Þāt = Þæt; feōnd- = fēond- l. 3056
sóð = sōð l. 3137 Hrōnes = Hrones list of names, under: Dene, Scedenīgge =
Scedenigge Ēadgils, Ohthere = Ōhthere Frēawaru, Freawaru = Frēawaru
Hrōðgār, Hrōð-gāre = Hrōðgāre Hygelac, Hǣreð = Hæreð notes, for l. 31, of
l. 31 = of l. 30 l. 1441, wōð- = wǣg- l. 1916, leōfra = lēofra glossary,
under: æðele, Beowulf's = Bēowulf's ān, gehwilces = gehwylces ǣg-hwā,
ǣgh-wæs = ǣghwæs æt-beran, beadolāce = beadulāce beadu-lāc, beado- = beadu-
(twice) bēag, beages = bēages beorh, hēaford- = hēafod bēodan, leodum =
lēodum bēon, cwēnlic = cwēnlīc biddan, bliðne = blīðne bitter, stræle =
strǣle ge-bīdan, therefor = therefore on-bīdan, earfōðlīce = earfoðlīce
brecan, lētdse = lēt se burne, of of = of būtan, swīce = swice cempa, Huga
= Hūga ge-cēosan, usic = ūsic on-cirran, wealdendas = wealdendes corðer, þæ
= þā cūð, wīð- = wīd- cunnan, þēawe = þēaw dōgor, gehwam = gehwām dōn,
ymbsittend = ymbesittend; hettend = hetend; þywað = þȳwað drīfan, feoran =
feorran dryhten, frēah- = frēa- dryht-scipe, drihtscipe = drihtscype
ge-dȳgan, wræcsið = wræcsīð eal, oncyððe = oncȳððe ealdor, herestræl =
herestrǣl ēacen-cræftig, iūmanna = iūmonna eofor-sprēot, hocyhtum =
hōcyhtum eorlīc, eorlic [ellen] = eorlīc fāh, wāldrēore = wældrēore fela,
maððum- = māððum- oð-ferian, panon = þonan fēran, wære = wǣre fēond, feonda
= fēonda flēon, fenhōpu = fenhopu floga, wīð- = wīd- folc-toga, Hrōðgar =
Hrōðgār for, wonhydum = wonhȳdum; handgeweorc = hondgeweorc fōt-gemearc,
long = lang ge-frignan, þeodcyninga = þēodcyninga ge-fyrðran, fratwum =
frætwum ge-fȳsan, to sēcanne = tō sēceanne gān, swa = swā; [or] giong =
gīong; flore = flōre; sīttan = sittan ge-gan, Wīglaf = Wīglāf gār-wiga,
Wīglaf = Wīglāf gæst, fēde- = fēðe- gegn-cwide, þinra = þīnra ge-gyrwan,
yðlidan = ȳðlidan gēoc, gást = gāst geōmore-līc, [bið] geōmorlic =
geōmorlīc for-gildan, therefor = therefore gold-wlanc, guðrinc = gūðrinc
grētan, walgǣst = wælgǣst grim, searo-grimm = searo-grim habban, gecorene =
gecorone wið-habban, winsele = wīnsele hatan, sǣliðend = sǣlīðend hatian,
guð-sceaða = gūð-sceaða hār, heāre = hēare here-strǣl, -stræl = strǣl
heard, -stræl = -strǣl; regen- = regn- heorte, starc- = stearc heoro-drēor,
heoro-dreore (citation) = heoro-drēore hlið, hliðu = hliðo (twice) hōp, hōp
= hop (twice) hreow, þāt = þæt hrōf, gesēah = geseah hwīl, seo = sēo
hȳran, ǣghwilc = ǣghwylc inne, abēad = ābēad īren, drihtlīc = dryhtlīc
lāð, gewiðru = gewidru; scynnum = scinnum be-lēan, beleān = belēan mētan,
Aescheres = Æscheres mearcian, mōrhōpu = mōrhopu ge-mearian, hwam = hwām
morðor-bed, stred = strēd mōd, stið- = stīð nǣnig, horð-māðum = hord-māððum
on, hēaðe = heoðe; willen = willan rǣd, fǣst- = fæst reccan, hu = hū rīdan,
gealgan = galgan sang, -leasne = lēasne sceapan, Hugas = Hūgas (twice)
scānan, scīonon = scionon scīnan, scīnon = scinon secg, synnigne = sinnigne
ge-sēcan, -cyððe = cȳððe ge-sīgan, ætsæcce = æt sæcce ge-slēan, ge-slōgan
= ge-slōgon standan, stræl = strǣl stapan, furðor = furður ge-steppan,
Ohtheres = Ōhteres stincan, þæ = þā styrian, ge-wiðru = ge-widru sweord,
maððum- = māððum ge-swīcan, þeodne = þēodne tēon (w. v.), nalæs = nalas;
teodan = tēodan tō, hælum = hǣlum; sitte = site; Eofore = Jofore ge-trūwan,
-wære = wǣre ge-twǣfan, ōððe = oððe þǣr, snotera = snottra þē, gimfæstan =
ginfæstan of-þincan, gehwam = gehwām ge-þolian, þāt = þæt þū, sǣlran =
selran þūsend, sēofon = seofan un-hēore, -speru = -sporu ūs, ǣg-hwilc =
ǣg-hwylc wacan, wōcon = wōcun werian, beaduscrūd = beaduscrūda be-werian,
scynnum = scinnum wēn, orlēg = orleg; ōr-wena = or-wēna weorðian, leōde =
lēode willa, wyllum = willum wilnian, fæðer = fæder nāt, hwilc = hwylc
(twice) ge-wītan, wære = wǣre

Changes to Vowel Quantities in the Revised Edition: (_Revisions that were
mentioned in the source text have been siltently incorporated and aren't
listed here. Unless otherwise noted, changes are to all related forms of
the word._) Abel = Ābel aglǣc (æglǣc) = āglǣc (ǣglǣc) āttor = attor āwā =
āwa begen = bēgen gebræd = gebrǣd breme = brēme Brosinga = Brōsinga cōfa =
cofa cymlīcor = cȳlīcor drusian = drūsian ēfstan = efstan eode (-iode)
[pret. of gān] = ēode (-īode) [and in compounds] fæger = fǣ [in cpd. un-
and l. 774 only] fīftena = fīftȳna feor(-e/-es/-um) = fēor- [except ll.
73, 934, 1844] forþam = forþām Fresan/Frysan = Frēsan/Frȳsan frinan
(gefrunon) = frīnan (gefrūnon) (of)geāfon = (of)gēafon gen = gēn genunga =
gēnunga gēo/gīo = geō/gio [and in compounts] gigant = gīgant Hǣðcyn =
Hæðcyn hēht = heht her = hēr ofer-higian = ofer-hīgian hliðe/hliðes =
hlīðe/hlīðes [dat. and gen. of hlið] hlifian = hlīfian Hreosna- = Hrēosna
(H)ūnferð = (H)unferð hydig = hȳdig hyda = hȳda læs = lǣs lixan = līxan
lyt(el) = lȳt(el) [and in compounds] Merewioingas = Merewīoingas meagol =
mēagol mearh [oblique cases], mear- = mēar- missere = missēre ne = nē [as
conjunct/disjunct] niwe = nīwe geniwian = genīwian niw-tyrwed = nīw-tyrwed
ōfost = ofost onettan = ōnettan oret/oretta = ōret/ōretta ōð = oð [and as
verbal prefix] scōp = scop [n. only] scyran = scȳran se = sē [as
substantive and relative] singal = singāl sīoloð (sēoloð) = sioloð sleac =
slēac stæl = stǣl swēlan = swelan Sweon = Swēon (ge)trūwan = (ge)truwan tux
= tūx twegen = twēgen tydre = tȳdre (un)tyder = (un)tȳder tyn = tȳn þrag
= þrā þritig = þrītig þryð = þrȳð þihtig/þyhtig = þīhtig/þȳhtig wag = wāg
wæfre = wǣfre wel = wēl [and in compounds] weōx = wēox wīga = wiga Wihstān
(Weohstān) = Wīhstān (Wēohstān) witig = wītig ge-witnian = ge-wītnian wræt
= wrǣt uhte = ūhte [and in compounds]

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