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Beowulf by James A. Harrison and Robert Sharp, eds.

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the bounteous repast_, 1015; ˛eÛdnes gefÍgon, _rejoiced at_ (the return of)
_the ruler_, 1628.--b) w. instr.: niht-weorce gefeh, ellen-mÊrum, 828;
secg weorce gefeh, 1570; sÊl‚ce gefeah, m‰gen-byrenne ˛‚ra ˛e he him mid
h‰fde, _rejoiced at the gift of the sea, and at the great burden of that_
(Grendel's head and the sword-hilt) _which he had with him_, 1625.

feoh-gift, -gyft, st. f., _bestowing of gifts_ or _treasures_: gen. sg.
˛Êre feoh-gyfte, 1026; dat. pl. ‰t feohgyftum, 1090; fromum feohgiftum,
_with rich gifts_, 21.

feoh-le·s, adj., _that cannot be atoned for through gifts_: nom. sg. ˛‰t
w‰s feoh-le·s gefeoht, _a deed of arms that cannot be expiated_ (the
killing of his brother by HÊcyn), 2442.

ge-feoht, st. n., _combat; warlike deed_: nom. sg. (the killing of his
brother by HÊcyn), 2442; dat. sg. mÍce ˛one ˛Ón fader tÙ gefeohte b‰r,
_the sword which thy father bore to the combat_, 2049.

ge-feohtan, st. v., _to fight_: inf. w. acc. ne mehte ... wÓg Hengeste wiht
gefeohtan (_could by no means offer Hengest battle_), 1084.

feohte, w. f., _combat_: acc. sg. feohtan, 576, 960. See were-fyhte.

feor, adj., _far, remote_: nom. sg. nis ˛‰t feor heonon, 1362; n‰s him feor
˛anon tÙ gesÍcanne sinces bryttan, 1922; acc. sg. feor eal (_all that is
far, past_), 1702.

feor, adv., _far, far away_: a) of space, 42, 109, 809, 1806, 1917; feor
and (oe) ne·h, _far and (or) near_, 1222, 2871; feorr, 2267.--b) of time:
ge feor hafa fÊhe gestÊled (_has placed us under her enmity henceforth_),

Comparative, fyr, feorr, and feor: fyr and f‰stor, 143; fyr, 252; feorr,
1989; feor, 542.

feor-b˚end, pt., _dwelling far away_: nom. pl. ge feor-b˚end, 254.

feor-c˝, st. f., _home of those living far away, distant land_: nom, pl.
feor-c˝e beÛ sÍlran gesÙhte ˛‰m ˛e him selfa de·h, _foreign lands are
better sought by him who trusts to his own ability_, 1839.

feorh, ferh (Goth. fairhvu-s, _world_), st. m. and n., _life, principle of
life, soul_: nom. sg. feorh, 2124; nÙ ˛on lange w‰s feorh ‰elinges flÊsce
bewunden, _not for much longer was the soul of the prince enveloped in the
body_ (he was near death), 2425; ferh ellen wr‰c, _life expelled the
strength_ (i.e. with the departing life the strength disappeared also),
2707; acc. sg. feorh ealgian, 797, 2656, 2669; feorh gehealdan, _preserve
his life_, 2857; feorh ‚legde, _gave up his life_, 852; similarly, Êr he
feorh sele, 1371; feorh oferede, _tore away her life_, 2142; Ù ˛‰t hie
forlÊddan tÙ ˛am lindplegan swÊse gesÓas ond hyra sylfra feorh, _till in
an evil hour they carried into battle their dear companions and their
lives_ (i.e. led them to their death), 2041; gif ˛u ˛Ón feorh hafast, 1850;
ymb feorh sacan (_to fight for life_), 439; w‰s in feorh dropen, _was
wounded into his life_, i.e. mortally, 2982; wÓdan feorh, as temporal acc.,
_through a wide life_, i.e. always, 2015; dat. sg. feore, 1294, 1549; tÙ
wÓdan feore, _for a wide life_, i.e. at all times, 934; on sw‚ geongum
feore (_at a so youthful age_), 1844; as instr., 578, 3014; gen. sg.
feores, 1434, 1943; dat. pl. b˚ton ... feorum gumena, 73; freÛnda feorum,
1307.--Also, _body, corpse_: ˛‚ w‰s heal hroden feÛnda feorum (_the hall
was covered with the slain of the enemy_), 1153; gehwearf ˛‚ in Francna
f‰m feorh cyninges, _then the body of the king_ (Hygel‚c) _fell into the
power of the Franks_, 1211. --Comp. geogo-feorh.

feorh-bana, w. m., _(life-slayer), man-slayer, murderer_: dat. sg.
feorh-bonan, 2466.

feorh-ben, st. f., _wound that takes away life, mortal wound_: dat.
(instr.) pl. feorh-bennum seÛc, 2741.

feorh-bealu, st. n., _evil destroying life, violent death_: nom. sg., 2078,
2251, 2538; acc. sg., 156.

feorh-cyn, st. n., _race of the living, mankind_: gen. pl. fela
feorh-cynna, 2267.

feorh-genÓla, w. m., _he who seeks life, life's enemy_ (N.H.G. Tod-feind),
_mortal enemy_: acc. sg. -genÓlan, 1541; dat. sg. -genÓlan, 970; acc. sg.
brÊgd feorh-genÓlan, 1541; acc. pl. folgode feorh-genÓlan, (Ongen˛eÛw)
_pursued his mortal enemies_, 2934.

feorh-lagu, st. f., _the life allotted to anyone, life determined by fate_:
acc. sg. on m‚ma hord mine (mÓnne, MS.) bebohte frÙde feorh-lege, _for the
treasure-hoard I sold my old life_, 2801.

feorh-l‚st, st. m., _trace of (vanishing) life, sign of death _: acc. pl.
feorh-l‚stas b‰r, 847.

feorh-seÛc, adj., _mortally wounded_: nom. sg., 821.

feorh-sweng, st. m., _(stroke robbing of life), fatal blow_: acc. sg.,

feorh-wund, st. f., _mortal wound, fatal injury_: acc. sg. feorh-wunde
hle·t, 2386.

feorm, st. f., _subsistence, entertainment_: acc. sg. nÙ ˛u ymb mÓnes ne
˛earft lÓces feorme leng sorgian, _thou needest no longer have care for the
sustenance of my body_, 451.--2) _banquet_: dat. on feorme (or feorme,
MS.), 2386.

feormend-le·s, adj., _wanting the. cleanser_: acc. pl. geseah ...
fyrn-manna fatu feormend-le·se, 2762.

feormian, w. v., _to clean, to cleanse, to polish_: pres. part. nom pl.
feormiend swefa (feormynd, MS.), 2257.

ge-feormian, w. v., _to feast, to eat_; pret. part. sÙna h‰fde unlyfigendes
eal gefeormod fÍt and folma, 745.

feorran, w. v., w. acc., _to remove_: inf. sibbe ne wolde wi manna hwone
m‰genes Deniga feorh-bealo feorran, feÛ ˛ingian, (Grendel) _would not from
friendship free any one of the men of the Danes of life's evil, nor allay
it for tribute_, 156.

feorran, adv., _from afar_: a) of space, 361, 430, 826, 1371, 1820, etc.;
sian ‰elingas feorran gefricgean fle·m eÛwerne, _when noble men afar
learn of your flight_ (when the news of your flight reaches distant lands),
2890; fÍrdon folctogan feorran and ne·n, _from far and from near_, 840;
similarly, ne·n and feorran ˛u nu [friu] hafast, 1175; w‰s ˛‰s wyrmes wÓg
wÓde ges˝ne ... ne·n and feorran, _visible from afar, far and near_,
2318.--b) temporal: se ˛e c˚e frumsceaft fira feorran reccan (_since
remote antiquity_), 91; similarly, feorran rehte, 2107.

feorran-cund, adj., _foreign-born_: dat. sg. feorran-cundum, 1796.

feor-weg, st. m., _far way_: dat. pl. m‚dma fela of feorwegum, _many
precious things from distant paths_ (from foreign lands), 37.

ge-feÛn. See feohan.

feÛnd, st. m., _enemy_: nom. sg., 164, 726, 749; feÛnd on helle (Grendel),
101; acc. sg., 279, 1865, 2707; dat. sg. feÛnde, 143, 439; gen. sg.
feÛndes, 985, 2129, 2290; acc, pl. feÛnd, 699; dat. pl. feÛndum, 420, 1670;
gen. pl. feonda 294, 809, 904.

feÛnd-gr‚p, st. f., _foe's clutch_: dat. (instr.) pl. feÛnd-gr‚pum f‰st,

feÛnd-sceaa, w. m., _one who is an enemy and a robber_: nom. sg. f‚h
feÛnd-scaa (_a hostile sea-monster_), 554.

feÛnd-scipe, st. m., _hostility_: nom. sg., 3000.

feÛwer, num., _four_: nom. feÛwer bearn, 59; feÛwer mearas, 2164; feÛwer,
as substantive, 1638; acc. feÛwer m‚mas, 1028.

feÛwer-tyne, num., _fourteen_: nom. with following gen. pl. feÛwertyne
Ge·ta, 1642.

findan, st. v., _to find, to invent, to attain_: a) with simple object in
acc.: inf. ˛‚ra ˛e he cÍnoste findan mihte, 207; swylce hie at Finnes-h‚m
findan meahton sigla searo-gimma, 1157; similarly, 2871; m‰g ˛Êr fela
freÛnda findan, 1839; wolde guman findan, 2295; sw‚ hyt weorlÓcost
fore-snotre men findan mihton, _so splendidly as only very wise men could
devise it_, 3164; pret. sg. heal˛egnas fand, 720; word Ùer fand, _found
other words_, i.e. went on to another narrative, 871; grimne gryrelÓcne
grund-hyrde fond, 2137; ˛‰t ic gÙdne funde be·ga bryttan, 1487; pret. part.
syan Êrest wear fe·sceaft funden (_discovered_), 7.--b) with acc. and
pred. adj.: pret. sg. dryhten sÓnne driÛrigne fand, 2790.--c) with acc. and
inf.: pret. fand ˛‚ ˛Êr inne ‰elinga gedriht swefan, 118; fand w‰ccendne
wer wÓges bÓdan, 1268; hord-wynne fond opene standan, 2271; Ù ˛‰t he
fyrgen-be·mas ... hleonian funde, 1416; pret. pl. fundon ˛‚ s‚wulle·sne
hlim-bed healdan, 3034.--d) with dependent clause: inf. nÙ ˛˝ Êr fe·sceafte
findan meahton ‰t ˛am ‰elinge ˛‰t he HeardrÍde hl‚ford wÊre (_could by no
means obtain it from the prince_), 2374.

on-findan, _to be sensible of, to perceive, to notice_: a) w. acc.: pret.
sg. landweard onfand eftsÓ eorla, _the coast-guard observed the return of
the earls_, 1892; pret. part. ˛‚ heÛ onfunden w‰s (_was discovered_),
1294.--b) w. depend, clause: pret. sg. ˛‚ se gist onfand ˛‰t se beado-leÛma
bÓtan nolde, _the stranger_ (BeÛwulf) _perceived that the sword would not
cut_, 1523; sÙna ˛‰t onfunde, ˛‰t ..., _immediately perceived that_...,
751; similarly, 810, 1498.

finger, st. m., _finger_: nom. pl. fingras, 761; acc. pl. fingras, 985;
dat. (instr.) pl. fingrum, 1506; gen. pl. fingra, 765.

firas, fyras (O.H.G. firahÓ, i.e. _the living_; cf. feorh), st. m., only in
pl., _men_: gen. pl. fira, 91, 2742; monegum fira, 2002; fyra gehwylcne
leÛda mÓnra, 2251; fira fyrngeweorc, 2287.

firen, fyren, st. f., _cunning waylaying, insidious hostility, malice,
outrage_: nom. sg. fyren, 916; acc. sg. fyrene and fÊhe, 153; fÊhe and
fyrene, 880, 2481; firen' ondrysne, 1933; dat. sg. fore fÊhe and fyrene,
137; gen. pl. fyrena, 164, 629; and fyrene, 812; fyrena hyrde (of Grendel),
751. The dat. pl., fyrenum, is used adverbially in the sense of
_maliciously_, 1745, or _fallaciously_, with reference to HÊcyn's killing
Herebeald, which was done unintentionally, 2442.

firen-dÊd, st. f., _wicked deed_: acc. pl. fyren-dÊda, 1670; instr. pl.
fyren-dÊdum, 1002; both times of Grendel and his mother, with reference to
their nocturnal inroads.

firen-˛earf, st. f., _misery through the malignity of enemies_: acc. sg.
fyren-˛earfe, 14.

firgen-be·m, st. m., _tree of a mountain-forest_: acc. pl. fyrgen-be·mas,

firgen-holt, st. m., _mountain-wood, mountain-forest_: acc. sg. on
fyrgen-holt, 1394.

firgen-stre·m, st. m., _mountain-stream_: nom. sg. fyrgen-stre·m, 1360;
acc. sg. under fyrgen-stre·m (marks the place where the mountain-stream,
according to 1360, empties into Grendel's sea), 2129.

fisc, st. m., _fish_: in comp. hron-, mere-fisc.

fÓf, num., _five_: uninflect. gen. fÓf nihta fyrst, 545; acc. fÓfe (?),

fÓfel-cyn (O.N. fÓfl, stultus and gigas), st. n., _giant-race_: gen. sg.
fÓfelcynnes eard, 104.

fÓf-tene, fÓf-tyne, num., _fifteen_: acc. f˝ftyne, 1583; gen. fÓftena sum,

fÓf-tig, num., _fifty_: 1) as substantive with gen. following; acc. fÓftig
wintra, 2734; gen. se w‰s fÓftiges fÙt-gemearces lang, 3043.--2) as
adjective: acc. fÓftig wintru, 2210.

fl‚n, st. m., _arrow_: dat. sg. fl‚ne, 3120; as instr., 2439.

fl‚n-boga, w. m., _bow which shoots the fl‚n, bow_: dat. sg. of fl‚n-bogan,
1434, 1745.

flÊsc, st. n., _flesh, body in contrast with soul_: instr. sg. nÙ ˛on lange
w‰s feorh ‰elinges flÊsce bewunden, _not much longer was the son of the
prince contained in his body_, 2425.

flÊsc-hama, w. m., _clothing of flesh_, i.e. the body: acc. sg.
flÊsc-homan, 1569.

flet, st. n.: 1) _ground, floor of a hall_: acc. sg. heÛ on flet gebe·h,
_fell to the ground_, 1541; similarly, 1569.--2) _hall, mansion_: nom. sg.
1977; acc. sg. flet, 1037, 1648, 1950, 2018, etc.; flett, 2035; ˛‰t hie him
Ùer flet eal ger˝mdon, _that they should give up entirely to them another
hall_, 1087; dat. sg. on flette, 1026.

flet-r‰st, st. f., _resting-place in the hall_: acc. sg. flet-r‰ste gebe·g,
_reclined upon the couch in the hall_, 1242.

flet-sittend, pres. part., _sitting in the hall_: acc. pl -sittende, 2023;
dat. pl. -sittendum, 1789.

flet-werod, st. n., _troop from the hall_: nom. sg., 476.

fle·m, st. m., _flight_: acc. sg. on fle·m gewand, _had turned to flight_,
1002; fle·m eÛwerne, 2890.

fleÛgan, st. v., _to fly_: prs. sg. III. fleÛge, 2274.

fleÛn, st. v., _to flee_: inf. on heolster fleÛn, 756; fleÛn on fenhopu,
765; fleÛn under fen-hleou, 821; pret. hete-swengeas fle·h, 2226.

be-fleÛn, w. acc., _to avoid, to escape_: gerund nÙ ˛‰t ˝e by tÙ
befleÛnne, _that is not easy_ (i.e. not at all) _to be avoided_, 1004.

ofer-fleÛn, w. acc., _to flee from one, to yield_: inf. nelle ic beorges
weard oferfleÛn fÙtes trem, _will not yield to the warder of the mountain_
(the drake) _a foot's breadth_, 2526.

fleÛtan, st. v., _to float upon the water, to swim_: inf. nÙ he wiht fram
me flÙd-˝um feor fleÛtan meahte. hraor on helme, _no whit, could he swim
from me farther on the waves_ (regarded as instrumental, so that the waves
marked the distance), _more swiftly in the sea_, 542; pret. sÊgenga fle·t
f‚migheals for ofer ˝e, _floated away over the waves_, 1910.

fliht. See flyht.

flitme. See un-flitme.

flÓtan, st. v., _to exert one's self, to strive, to emulate_: pres. part.
flÓtende fealwe strÊte mearum mÊton (_rode a race_), 917; pret. sg. II.
eart ˛u se BeÛwulf, se ˛e wi Brecan ... ymb sund flite, _art thou the
BeÛwulf who once contended with Breca for the prize in swimming?_ 507.

ofer-flÓtan, _to surpass one in a contest, to conquer, to overcome_: pret.
w. acc. he ˛e ‰t sunde oferfl‚t (_overcome thee in a swimming-wager_), 517.

ge-flÓt, st. n., _emulation_: acc. sg. lÍton on geflÓt faran fealwe mearas,
_let the fallow horses go in emulation_, 866.

floga, w. m., _flyer_; in the compounds: g˚-, lyft-, uht-, wÓ-floga.

flota (see fleÛtan), w. m., _float, ship, boat_: nom. sg., 210, 218, 301;
acc. sg. flotan eÛwerne, 294.--Comp. wÊg-flota.

flot-here, st. m., _fleet_: instr. sg. cwom faran flotherge on Fresna land,

flÙd, st. m., _flood, stream, sea-current_: nom. sg., 545, 580, 1362, etc.;
acc. sg. flÙd, 3134; ofer fealone flÙd, 1951; dat. sg. tÙ flÙde, 1889; gen.
pl. flÙda begong, _the region of floods_, i.e. the sea, 1498, 1827; flÙda
genipu, 2809.

flÙd-˝, st. f., _flood-wave_: instr. pl. flÙd-˝um, 542.

flÙr, st. m., _floor, stone-floor_: acc. sg. on f‚gne flÙr (the floor was
probably a kind of mosaic, made of colored flags), 726; dat. sg. gang ˛‚
‰fter flÙre, _along the floor_ (i.e. along the hall), 1317.

flyht, fliht, st. m., _flight_: nom. sg. g‚res fliht, _flight of the
spear_, 1766.

ge-fl˝man, w. v., _to put to flight_: pret. part. gefl˝med, 847, 1371.

folc, st. n., _troop, band of warriors; folk_, in the sense of the whole
body of the fighting men of a nation: acc. sg. folc, 522, 694, 912; S˚dene
folc, 464; folc and rÓce, 1180; dat. sg. folce, 14, 2596; folce Deninga,
465; as instr. folce gestepte ofer sÊ sÓde, _went with a band of warriors
over the wide sea_, 2394; gen. sg. folces, 1125; folces Denigea, 1583.--The
king is called folces hyrde, 611, 1833, 2645, 2982; fre·wine folces, 2358;
or folces weard, 2514. The queen, folces cwÍn, 1933.--The pl., in the sense
of _warriors, fighting men_: nom. pl. folc, 1423, 2949; dat. pl. folcum,
55, 262, 1856; gen. pl. freÛ- (fre·-) wine folca, _of the king_, 430, 2430;
friu-sibb folca, _of the queen_, 2018.--Comp. sige-folc.

folc-‚gend, pres. part., _leader of a band of warriors_: nom. pl.
folc-‚gende, 3114.

folc-beorn, st. m., _man of the multitude, a common man_: nom. sg.
folc-beorn, 2222.

folc-cwÍn, st. f., _queen of a warlike host_: nom. sg., of Wealh˛eÛw, 642.

folc-cyning, st. m., _king of a warlike host_: nom. sg., 2734, 2874.

folc-rÊd, st. m, _what best serves a warlike host_: acc. sg., 3007.

folc-riht, st. n., _the rights of the fighting men of a nation_: gen. pl.
him Êr forgeaf ... folcrihta gehwylc, sw‚ his f‰der ‚hte, 2609.

folc-scearu, st. f., _part of a host of warriors, nation_: dat. sg.
folc-scare, 73.

folc-stede, st. m., _position of a band of warriors, place where a band of
warriors is quartered_: acc. sg. folcstede, of the hall, Heorot, 76;
folcstede f‚ra (_the battle-field_), 1464.

folc-toga, w. m., _leader of a body of warriors, duke_: nom. pl., powerful
liege-men of HrÙg‚r are called folc-togan, 840.

fold-bold, st. n., _earth-house_ (i.e. a house on earth in contrast with a
dwelling in heaven): nom. sg. f‰ger fold-bold, of the hall, Heorot, 774.

fold-b˚end, pres. part. _dweller on earth, man_: nom. pl. fold-b˚end, 2275;
fold-b˚ende, 1356; dat. pl. fold-b˚endum, 309.

folde, w. f., _earth, ground_: acc. sg. under foldan, 1362; feÛll on
foldan, 2976; gen. sg. foldan bearm, _the bosom of the earth_, 1138; foldan
sce·tas, 96; foldan f‰m, 1394.--Also, _earth, world_: dat. sg. on foldan,

fold-weg, st. m., _field-way, road through the country_: acc. sg. fold-weg,
1634; acc. pl. fold-wegas, 867.

folgian, w. v.: 1) _to perform vassal-duty, to serve, to follow_: pret. pl.
˛e·h hie hira be·ggyfan banan folgedon, _although they followed the
murderer of their prince_, 1103.--2) _to pursue, to follow after_: folgode
feorh-genÓlan (acc. pl.) 2934.

folm, st. f, _hand_: acc. sg. folme, 971, 1304; dat. sg. mid folme, 743;
acc. pl. fÍt and folma, _feet and hands_, 746; dat. pl. tÙ banan folmum,
158; folmum (instr.), 723, 993.--Comp.: beado-, gearo-folm.

for, prep. w. dat., instr., and acc.: 1) w. dat. local, _before_, ante: ˛‰t
he for eaxlum gestÙd Deniga fre·n, 358; for hl‚we, 1121.--b) _before_,
coram, in conspectu: no he ˛Êre feohgyfte for sceÛtendum scamigan ˛orfte,
_had no need to be ashamed of the gift before the warriors_, 1027; for ˛‰m
werede, 1216; for eorlum, 1650; for dugue, _before the noble band of
warriors_, 2021.--Causal, a) to denote a subjective motive, _on account of,
through, from_: for wlenco, _from bravery, through warlike courage_, 338,
1207; for wlence, 508; for his wonh˝dum, 434; for onmÍdlan, 2927, etc.--b)
objective, partly denoting a cause, _through, from, by reason of_: for
metode, _for the creator, on account of the creator_, 169; for ˛re·n˝dum,
833; for ˛re·nÍdlan, 2225; for dolgilpe, _on account of, in accordance with
the promise of bold deeds_ (because you claimed bold deeds for yourself),
509; him for hrÙfsele hrÓnan ne mehte fÊr-gripe flÙdes, _on account of the
roofed hall the malicious grasp of the flood could not reach him_, 1516;
lÓg-egesan w‰g for horde, _on account of_ (the robbing of) _the treasure_,
2782; for mundgripe mÓnum, _on account of, through the gripe of my hand_,
966; for ˛‰s hildfruman hondgeweorce, 2836; for swenge, _through the
stroke_, 2967; ne meahte ... deÛp ged˝gan for dracan lÍge, _could not hold
out in the deep on account of the heat of the drake_, 2550. Here may be
added such passages as ic ˛‰m gÙdan sceal for his mÙd˛r‰ce m‚mas beÛdan,
_will offer him treasures on account of his boldness of character, for his
high courage_, 385; ful-oft for l‰ssan le·n teohhode, _gave often reward
for what was inferior_, 952; nalles for ealdre mearn, _was not uneasy about
his life_, 1443; similarly, 1538. Also denoting purpose: for ‚rstafum, _to
the assistance_, 382, 458.--2) w. instr. causal, _because of, for_: he hine
feor forwr‰c for ˛˝ mane, 110.--3) w. acc., _for, as, instead of_: for sunu
freÛgan, _love as a son_, 948; for sunu habban, 1176; ne him ˛‰s wyrmes wÓg
for wiht dyde, _held the drake's fighting as nothing_, 2349.

foran, adv., _before, among the first, forward_: sian ... sce·wedon
feÛndes fingras, foran Êghwylc (_each before himself_), 985; ˛‰t w‰s ‚n
foran ealdgestreÛna, _that was one among the first of the old treasures_,
i.e. a splendid old treasure, 1459; ˛e him foran onge·n linde bÊron, _bore
their shields forward against him_ (went out to fight against him), 2365.

be-foran: 1) adv., local, _before_: he ... beforan gengde, _went before_,
1413; temporal, _before, earlier_, 2498.--2) prep. w. acc. _before_, in
conspectu: mÊre m‚um-sweord manige ges‚won beforan beorn beran, 1025.

ford, st. m., _ford, water-way_: acc. sg. ymb brontne ford, 568.

for: 1) local, _forth, hither, near_: for near ‰tstÙp, _approached
nearer_, 746; ˛‚ cwom Wealh˛eÛ for g‚n, 1163; similarly, 613; him sele˛egn
for wÓsade, _led him_ (BeÛwulf) _forth_ (to the couch that had been
prepared for him in Heorot), 1796; ˛‰t him sw‚t sprong for under fexe,
_forth under the hair of his head_, 2968. _Forward, further_: gewÓta for
beran wÊpen and gewÊdu, 291; he tÙ for gestÙp, 2290; freoo-wong ˛one for
ofereodon, 2960. _Away, forth_, 45, 904; fyrst for gew‚t, _the time_ (of
the way to the ship) _was out_, i.e. they had arrived at the ship, 210; me
... for-gewitenum, _to me the departed_, 1480; fÍrdon for, _went forth_
(from Grendel's sea), 1633; ˛onne he for scile, _when he must (go) forth_,
i.e. die, 3178; hine mihtig god ... ofer ealle men for gefremede, _carried
him forth, over all men_, 1719.--2) temporal, _forth, from now on_: heald
for tela niwe sibbe, 949; ic sceal for sprecan gen ymbe Grendel, _shall
from now on speak again of Grendel_, 2070. See furum and furor.

for-gerÓmed, pres. part., _in unbroken succession_, 59.

for-gesceaft, st. f., _that which is determined for farther on, future
destiny_: acc. sg. he ˛‚ for-gesceaft forgyte and forg˝me, 1751.

for-weg, st. m., _road that leads away, journey_: he of ealdre gew‚t frÙd
on for-weg (_upon the way to the next world_), 2626.

fore, prep. w. dat., local, _before_, coram, in conspectu: heÛ fore ˛‰m
werede spr‰c, 1216. Causal, _through, for, because of_: nÙ mearn fore fÊhe
and fyrene, 136; fore f‰der dÊdum, _because of the father's deeds_,
2060,--Allied to this is the meaning, _about_, de, super: ˛Êr w‰s sang and
swÍg samod ‰tg‰dere fore Healfdenes hildewÓsan, _song and music about
Healfdene's general_ (the song of Hn‰f), 1065.

fore-mÊre, adj., _renowned beyond (others)_, prÊclarus: superl. ˛‰t w‰s
fore-mÊrost foldb˚endum receda under roderum, 309.

fore-mihtig, adj., _able beyond (others)_, prÊpotens: nom. sg. w‰s tÙ
foremihtig feÛnd on fÍe, _the enemy was too strong in going_ (could flee
too rapidly), 970.

fore-snotor, adj., _wise beyond (others)_, sapientissimus: nom. pl.
foresnotre men, 3164.

fore-˛anc, st. m., _forethought, consideration, deliberation_: nom. sg.,

forht, adj., _fearful, cowardly_: nom. sg. forht, 2968; he on mÙde wear
forht on ferhe, 755.--Comp. unforht.

forma, adj., _foremost, first_: nom. sg. forma sÓ (_the first time_), 717,
1464, 1528, 2626; instr. sg. forman sÓe, 741, 2287; forman dÙgore, 2574.

fyrmest, adv. superl., _first of all, in the first place_: he fyrmest l‰g,

forst, st. m., _frost, cold_: gen. sg. forstes bend, 1610.

for-˛am, for-˛an, for-˛on, adv. and conj., _therefore, on that account,
then_: for˛am, 149; for˛an, 418, 680, 1060; for˛on ˛e, _because_, 503.

fÙn, st. v., _to catch, to grasp, to take hold, to take_: prs. sg. III.
fÍh Ùer tÙ, _another lays hold_ (takes possession), 1756; inf. ic mid
gr‚pe sceal fÙn wi feÛnde, 439; pret. sg. him tÙge·nes fÍng, _caught at
him, grasped at him_, 1543; w. dat. he ˛‚m fr‰twum fÍng, _received the rich
adornments_ (Ongen˛eÛw's equipment), 2990.

be-fÙn, _to surround, to ensnare, to encompass, to embrace_: pret. part.
hyne s‚r hafa ... nearwe befongen balwon bendum, 977; heÛ ‰elinga ‚nne
h‰fde f‰ste befangen (_had seized him firmly_), 1296; helm ... befongen
fre·wr‚snum (_encircled by an ornament like a diadem_), 1452; fenne
bifongen, _surrounded by the fen_, 2010; (draca) f˝re befongen, _encircled
by fire_, 2275, 2596; h‰fde landwara lÓge befangen, _encompassed by fire_,

ge-fÙn, w. acc., _to seize, to grasp_: pret. he gefÍng slÊpendne rinc, 741;
g˚rinc gefÍng atolan clommum, 1502; gefÍng ˛‚ be eaxle ... G˚ge·ta leÛd
Grendles mÙdor, 1538; gefÍng ˛‚ fetelhilt, 1564; hond rond gefÍng, geolwe
linde, 2610; ic on Ùfoste gefÍng micle mid mundum m‰gen-byrenne, _hastily
I seized with my hands the enormous burden_, 3091.

on-fÙn, w. dat., _to receive, to accept, to take_: pres. imp. sg. onfÙh
˛issum fulle, _accept this cup_, 1170; inf. ˛‰t ˛‰t ˛eÛdnes bearn ...
scolde f‰der-‰elum onfÙn, _receive the paternal rank_, 912; pret. sg. hw‚
˛‰m hl‰ste onfÍng, _who received the ship's lading_, 52; hleÛr-bolster
onfÍng eorles andwlitan, _the pillow received the nobleman's face_, 689;
similarly, 853, 1495; heal swÍge onfÍng, _the hall received the loud
noise_, 1215; he onfÍng hrae inwit-˛ancum, _he_ (BeÛwulf) _at once
clutched him_ (Grendel) _devising malice_, 749.

˛urh-fÙn, w. acc., _to break through with grasping, to destroy by
grasping_: inf. ˛‰t heÛ ˛one fyrd-hom ˛urh-fÙn ne mihte, 1505.

wi-fÙn, w. dat., _(to grasp at), to seize, to lay hold of_: pret. sg. him
f‰ste wi-fÍng, 761.

ymbe-fÙn, w. acc., _to encircle_: pret. heals ealne ymbefÍng biteran b‚num,
_encircled his_ (BeÛwulf's) _whole neck with sharp bones_ (teeth), 2692.

fÙt, st. m., _foot_: gen. sg. fÙtes trem (_the measure of a foot, a foot
broad_), 2526; acc. pl. fÍt, 746; dat. pl. ‰t fÙtum, _at the feet_, 500,

fÙt-gemearc, st. n., _measure, determining by feet, number of feet_: gen.
sg. se w‰s fÓftiges fÙtgemearces lang (_fifty feet long_), 3043.

fÙt-l‚st, st. m., _foot-print_: acc. sg. (draca) onfand feÛndes fÙt-l‚st,

fracod, adj., _objectionable, useless_. nom. sg. n‰s seÛ ecg fracod
hilde-rince, 1576.

fram, from, I. prep. w. dat. loc. _away from something_: ˛Êr fram sylle
‚be·g medubenc monig, 776, 1716; ˛anon eft gewiton ealdgesÓas ... fram
mere, 856; cyning-balde men from ˛‰m holmclife hafelan bÊron, 1636;
similarly, 541, 543, 2367. Standing after the dat.: he hine feor forwr‰c
... mancynne fram, 110; similarly, 1716. Also, _hither from something_: ˛‚
ic cwom ... from feÛndum, 420; Êghw‰rum w‰s ... brÙga fram Ùrum,
2566.--Causal with verbs of saying and hearing, _of, about, concerning_:
s‰gdest from his sÓe, 532; nÙ ic wiht fram ˛e swylcra searo-nÓa secgan
h˝rde, 581; ˛‰t he fram Sigemunde secgan hyrde, 876. II adv., _away,
thence_: nÙ ˛˝ Êr fram meahte, 755; _forth, out_: from Êrest cwom oru
aglÊcean ˚t of st‚ne, _the breath of the dragon came forth first from the
rock_ 2557.

fram, from, adj.: 1) _directed forwards, striving forwards_; in comp.
sÓ-fram.--2) _excellent, splendid_, of a man with reference to his warlike
qualities: nom. sg. ic eom on mÙde from, 2528; nom. pl. frome fyrd-hwate,
1642, 2477. Of things: instr. pl. fromum feoh-giftum, 21.--Comp. un-from;
see freme, forma.

ge-fr‰gen. See frignan.

fr‰twe, st. f. pl., _ornament, anything costly_, originally _carved
objects_ (cf. Dietrich in Hpts. Ztschr. X. 216 ff.), afterwards of any
costly and artistic work: acc. pl. fr‰twe, 2920; beorhte fr‰twe, 214;
beorhte fr‰twa, 897; fr‰twe.. eorclan-st‚nas, 1208; fr‰twe,...
breÛst-weorunge, 2504, both times of Hygel‚c's collar; fr‰twe and
f‰t-gold, 1922; fr‰twe (Eanmund's sword and armor), 2621; dat. instr. pl.
˛‚m fr‰twum, 2164; on fr‰tewum, 963; fr‰twum (Heaobeard sword) hrÍmig,
2055; fr‰twum, of the drake's treasures, 2785; fr‰twum (Ongen˛eÛw's armor),
2990; gen. pl. fela ... fr‰twa, 37; ˛‚ra fr‰twa (drake's treasure), 2795;
fr‰twa hyrde (drake), 3134.

fr‰twan, w. v., _to supply with ornaments, to adorn_: inf. folc-stede
fr‰twan, 76.

ge-fr‰twian, w. v., _to adorn_: pret. sg. gefr‰twade foldan sce·tas leomum
and le·fum, 96; pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s h‚ten Heort innanweard folmum gefr‰twod,

ge-frÊge, adj., _known by reputation, renowned_: nom. sg. leÛd-cyning ...
folcum gefrÊge, 55; sw‚ hyt gefrÊge w‰s, 2481.

ge-frÊge, st. n., _information through hearsay_: instr. sg. mine gefrÊge
(_as I learned through the narrative of others_), 777, 838, 1956, etc.

ge-frÊgnian, w. v., _to become known through hearsay_: pret. part. fylle
gefrÊgnod (of Grendel's mother, who had become known through the carrying
off of ƒschere), 1334?

freca, w. m., properly _a wolf_, as one that breaks in, robs; here a
designation of heroes: nom. sg. freca Scildinga, of BeÛwulf, 1564.--Comp.:
g˚-, hilde-, scyld-, sweord-, wÓg-freca; fer-frec (adj.).

fremde, adj., properly _distant, foreign_; then _estranged, hostile_: nom
sg. ˛‰t w‰s fremde ˛eÛd Ícean dryhtne, of the giants, 1692.

freme, adj., _excellent, splendid_: nom. sg. fem. fremu folces cwÍn, of
firyo, 1933(?).

fremman, w. v., _to press forward, to further_, hence: 1) in general, _to
perform, to accomplish, to do, to make_: pres. subj. without an object,
fremme se ˛e wille, _let him do (it) whoever will_, 1004. With acc.: imp.
pl. fremma ge nu leÛda ˛earfe, 2801; inf. fyrene fremman, 101; s‰cce
fremman, 2500; fÊhe ... mÊrum fremman, 2515, etc.; pret. sg. folcrÊd
fremede (_did what was best for his men_, i.e. ruled wisely), 3007; pl. h˚
˛‚ ‰elingas ellen fremedon, 3; feohtan fremedon, 960; nalles f‚censtafas
... ˛enden fremedon, 1020; pret. subj. ˛‰t ic ... mÊro fremede, 2135. --2)
_to help on, to support_: inf. ˛‰t he mec fremman wile wordum and worcum
(to an expedition), 1833.

ge-fremman, w. acc., _to do, to make, to render_: inf. gefremman eorlÓc
ellen, 637; helpan gefremman, _to give help_, 2450; ‰fter we·spelle wyrpe
gefremman, _to work a change after sorrow_ (to give joy after sorrow),
1316; gerund, tÙ gefremmanne, 174, 2645; pret. sg. gefremede, 135, 165,
551, 585, etc.; ˛e·h ˛e hine mihtig god ... ofer ealle men for gefremede,
_placed him away, above all men_, i.e. raised him, 1719; pret. pl.
gefremedon, 1188, 2479; pret. subj. gefremede, 177; pret. part. gefremed,
476; fem, nu scealc hafa ... dÊd gefremede, 941; absolutely, ˛u ˛e self
hafast dÊdum gefremed, ˛‰t ..., _hast brought it about by thy deeds that_,

fretan, st. v., _to devour, to consume_: inf. ˛‚ (the precious things)
sceal brond fretan, 3015; nu sceal glÍd fretan wÓgena strengel, 3115; pret.
sg. (Grendel) slÊpende fr‰t folces Denigea f˝ftyne men, 1582.

frÍcne, adj., _dangerous, bold_: nom. sg. frÍcne f˝r-draca, 2690;
feorh-bealo frÍcne, 2251, 2538; acc. sg. frÍcne dÊde, 890; frÍcne fengel‚d,
1360; frÍcne stÙwe, 1379; instr. sg. frÍcnan sprÊce (_through provoking
words_), 1105.

frÍcne, adv., _boldly, audaciously_, 960, 1033, 1692.

fre·, w. m., _ruler, lord_, of a temporal ruler: nom. sg. fre·, 2286; acc.
sg. fre·n, 351, 1320, 2538, 3003, 3108; gen. sg. fre·n, 359, 500, 1167,
1681; dat. sg. fre·n, 271, 291, 2663. Of a husband: dat. sg. eode ... tÙ
hire fre·n sittan, 642. Of God: dat. sg. fre·n ealles, _the Lord of all_,
2795; gen. sg. fre·n, 27.-- Comp.: ‚gend-, lÓf-, sin-fre·.

fre·-dryhten, st. m., _lord, ruling lord_: gen. sg. fre·-drihtnes, 797.

fre·-wine, st. m., _lord and friend, friendly ruler_: nom. sg. fre·-wine
folces (folca), 2358, 2430; acc. sg. his fre·-wine, 2439.

fre·-wr‚sn, st. f., _encircling ornament like a diadem_: instr. pl. helm
... befongen fre·wr‚snum, 1452; see wr‚sn.

freou, friu, f., _protection, asylum, peace_: acc. sg. wel bi ˛‰m ˛e mÙt
... tÙ f‰der f‰mum freoo wilnian, _who may obtain an asylum in God's
arms_, 188; ne·n and feorran ˛u nu [friu] hafast, 1175.--Comp. fen-freoo.

freoo-burh, st. f., _castle, city affording protection_: acc. sg.
freooburh f‰gere, 522.

freoo-wong, st. m., _field of peace, field of protection_: acc. sg., 2960;
seems to have been the proper name of a field.

freoo-wÊr, st. f., _peace-alliance, security of peace_: acc. sg. ˛‚ hie
getr˚wedon on tw‚ healfa f‰ste friou-wÊre, 1097; gen. sg. frioowÊre b‰d
hl‚ford sÓnne, _entreated his lord for the protection of peace_ (i.e. full
pardon for his delinquency), 2283.

freoo-webbe, w. f., _peace-weaver_, designation of the royal consort
(often one given in marriage as a confirmation of a peace between two
nations): nom. sg., 1943.

freÛ-burh, st. f., = fre·-burg (?), _ruler's castle_ (?) (according to
Grein, arx ingenua): acc. sg. freÛburh, 694.

freÛd, st. f., _friendship_: acc. sg. freÛde ne woldon ofer heafo healdan,
2477; gen. sg. n‰s ˛Êr m‚ra fyrst freÛde tÙ friclan, _was no longer time to
seek for friendship_, 2557; --_favor, acknowledgement_: acc. sg. ic ˛e
sceal mÓne gelÊstan freÛde (_will show myself grateful_, with reference to
1381 ff.), 1708.

freÛ-dryhten (= fre·-dryhten), st. m., _lord, ruler_; according to Grein,
dominus ingenuus vel nobilis: nom. sg. as voc. freÛ-drihten min! 1170; dat.
sg. mid his freÛ-dryhtne, 2628.

freÛgan, w. v., _to love; to think of lovingly_: pres. subj. ˛‰t mon his
wine-dryhten ... ferhum freÛge, 3178; inf. nu ic ˛ec ... me for sunu wylle
freÛgan on ferhe, 949.

freÛ-lÓc, adj., _free, free-born_ (here of the lawful wife in contrast with
the bond concubine): nom. sg. freÛlÓc wÓf, 616; freÛlÓcu folc-cwÍn, 642.

freÛnd, st. m., _friend_: acc. sg. freÛnd, 1386, 1865; dat. pl. freÛndum,
916, 1019, 1127; gen. pl. freÛnda, 1307, 1839.

freÛnd-lau, st. f., _friendly invitation_: nom. sg. him w‰s ful boren and
freÛnd-lau (_friendly invitation to drink_) wordum bew‰gned, 1193.

freÛnd-l‚r, st. f., _friendly counsel_: dat. (instr.) pl. freÛnd-l‚rum,

freÛnd-lÓce, adv., _in a friendly manner, kindly_: compar. freÛnd-lÓcor,

freÛnd-scipe, st. m., _friendship_: acc. sg. freÛnd-scipe f‰stne, 2070.

freÛ-wine, st. m. (see fre·wine), _lord and friend, friendly ruler_;
according to Grein, amicus nobilis, princeps amicus: nom. sg. as voc.
freÛ-wine folca! 430.

fricgean, w. v., _to ask, to inquire into_: inf. ongan sÓnne geseldan f‰gre
fricgean hwylce SÊ-Ge·ta sÓas wÊron, 1986; pres. part, gomela Scilding
fela fricgende feorran rehte, _the old Scilding, asking many questions_
(having many things related to him), _told of old times_ (the conversation
was alternate), 2107.

ge-fricgean, _to learn, to learn by inquiry_: pres. pl. syan hie
ge-fricgea fre·n ˚serne ealdorle·sne, _when they learn that our lord is
dead_, 3003; pres. subj. gif ic ˛‰t gefricge, ˛‰t..., 1827; pl. syan
‰elingas feorran gefricgean fle·m eÛwerne, 2890.

friclan (see freca), w. v. w. gen., _to seek, to desire, to strive for_:
inf. n‰s ˛Êr m‚ra fyrst freÛde tÙ friclan, 2557.

frio-sib, st. f., _kin for the confirming of peace_, designation of the
queen (see freoo--webbe), _peace-bringer_: nom. sg. friu-sibb folca,

frignan, fringan, frinan, st. v., _to ask, to inquire_: imp. ne frin ˛u
‰fter sÊlum, _ask not after the well-being!_ 1323; inf. ic ˛‰s wine Deniga
frinan wille ... ymb ˛Ónne sÓ, 351; pret. sg. fr‰gn, 236, 332; fr‰gn gif
..., _asked whether_ ..., 1320.

ge-frignan, ge-fringan, ge-frinan, _to find out by inquiry, to learn by
narration._ pret. sg. (w. acc.) ˛‰t fram h‚m gefr‰gn Higel‚ces ˛egn
Grendles dÊda, 194; nÙ ic gefr‰gn heardran feohtan, 575; (w. acc. and inf.)
˛‚ ic wÓde gefr‰gn weorc gebannan, 74; similarly, 2485, 2753, 2774; ne
gefr‰gen ic ˛‚ mÊge m‚ran weorode ymb hyra sincgyfan sÍl gebÊran, _I never
heard that any people, richer in warriors, conducted itself better about
its chief_, 1012; similarly, 1028; pret. pl. (w. acc.) we ˛eÛdcyninga ˛rym
gefrunon, 2; (w. acc. and inf.) geongne g˚cyning gÙdne gefrunon hringas
dÊlan, 1970; (parenthetical) sw‚ guman gefrungon, 667, (after ˛onne)
medo-‰rn micel (_greater_) ... ˛one yldo bearn Êfre gefrunon, 70; pret.
part. h‰fde Higel‚ces hilde gefrunen, 2953; h‰fdon gefrunen ˛‰t..., _had
learned that_ ..., 695; h‰fde gefrunen hwanan siÛ fÊh ‚r‚s, 2404;
healsbe·ga mÊst ˛‚ra ˛e ic on foldan gefr‰gen h‰bbe, 1197.

from, See fram.

frÙd, adj.: 1) Êtate provectus, _old, gray_: nom. sg. frÙd, 2626, 2951;
frÙd cyning, 1307, 2210; frÙd folces weard, 2514; wintrum frÙd, 1725, 2115,
2278; se frÙda, 2929; ac. sg. frÙde feorhlege (_the laying down of my old
life_), 2801; dat. sg. frÙdan fyrnwitan (may also, from its meaning, belong
under No. 2), 2124.--2) mente excellentior, _intelligent, experienced,
wise_: nom. sg. frÙd, 1367; frÙd and gÙd, 279; on mÙde frÙd, 1845.--Comp.:
in-, un-frÙd.

frÙfor, st. f., _consolation, compensation, help_: nom. sg. frÙfor, 2942;
acc. sg. frÙfre, 7, 974; fyrena frÙfre, 629; frÙfre and fultum, 1274;
frÙfor and fultum, 699; dat. sg. tÙ frÙfre, 14, 1708; gen. sg. frÙfre, 185.

fruma (see forma), w. m., _the foremost_, hence: l) _beginning_: nom. sg.
w‰s se fruma egeslÓc leÛdum on lande, sw‚ hyt lungre wear on hyra
sincgifan s‚re geendod (_the beginning of the dragon-combat was terrible,
its end distressing through the death of BeÛwulf_), 2310.--2) _he who
stands first, prince_; in comp. dÊd-, hild-, land-, leÛd-, ord-, wÓg-fruma.

frum-cyn, st. n., (genus primitivum), _descent, origin_: acc. sg. nu ic
eÛwer sceal frumcyn witan, 252.

frum-g‚r, st. m., primipilus, _duke, prince_: dat. sg. frumg‚re (of
BeÛwulf), 2857.

frum-sceaft, st. f., prima creatio, _beginning_: acc. sg. se ˛e c˚e
frumsceaft fira feorran reccan, _who could tell of the beginning of mankind
in old times_, 91; dat. sg. frum-sceafte, _in the beginning_, i.e at his
birth, 45.

fugol, st. m., _bird_: dat. sg. fugle gelÓcost, 218; dat. pl. [fuglum] tÙ
gamene, 2942.

ful, adj., _full, filled_: nom. sg. w. gen. pl. se w‰s innan full wr‰tta
and wÓra, 2413.--Comp.: eges-, sorh-, weor-ful.

ful, adv., plene, _very_: ful oft, 480; ful-oft, 952.

ful, st. n., _cup, beaker_: nom. sg., 1193; acc. sg. ful, 616, 629, 1026;
ofer ˝a ful, _over the cup of the waves_ (the basin of the sea filled with
waves), 1209; dat. sg. onfÙh ˛issum fulle, 1170.--Comp.: medo-, sele-full.

fullÊstian, w. v. w. dat, _to give help_: pres. sg. ic ˛e fullÊstu, 2669.

fultum, st. m., _help, support, protection_: acc. sg. frÙfor (frÙfre) and
fultum, 699, 1274; m‰genes fultum, 1836; on fultum, 2663.--Comp.

fundian, w. v., _to strive, to have in view_: pres. pl. we fundia Higel‚c
sÍcan, 1820; pret. sg. fundode of geardum, 1138.

furum, adv., primo, _just, exactly; then first_: ˛‚ ic furum weÛld folce
Deninga, _then first governed the people of the Danes_ (had just assumed
the government), 465; ˛‚ hie tÙ sele furum ... gangan cwÙmon, 323; ic ˛Êr
furum cwom tÙ ˛am hringsele, 2010;--_before, previously_: ic ˛e sceal mÓne
gelÊstan freÛde, sw‚ wit furum sprÊcon, 1708.

furur, adv., _further, forward, more distant_, 254, 762, 3007.

f˚s, adj., _inclined to, favorable, ready_: nom. sg. nu ic eom sÓes f˚s,
1476; leÛfra manna f˚s, _prepared for the dear men_, i.e. expecting them,
1917; sigel s˚an f˚s, _the sun inclined from the south_ (midday sun),
1967; se wonna hrefn f˚s ofer fÊgum, _eager over the slain_, 3026; sceft
... feer-gearwum f˚s, 3120; nom. pl. wÊron ... eft to leÛdum f˚se tÙ
farenne, 1806.--Sometimes f˚s means _ready for death_, moribundus: f˚s and
fÊge, 1242.--Comp.: hin-, ˚t-f˚s.

f˚s-lÓc, adj., _prepared, ready_: acc. sg. f˚s-lÓc f[yrd]-leÛ, 1425;
fyrd-searo f˚s-lÓc, 2619; acc. pl. fyrd-searu f˚s-lÓcu, 232.

fyl, st. m., _fall_: nom. sg. fyll cyninges, _the fall of the king_ (in the
dragon-fight), 2913; dat. sg. ˛‰t he on fylle wear, _that he came to a
fall, fell_, 1545.--Comp. hr‚-fyl.

fylce (collective form from folc), st. n., _troop, band of warriors_: in
comp. ‰l-fylce.

ge-fyllan (see feal), w. v., _to fell, to slay in battle_: inf. f‚ne
gefyllan, _to slay the enemy_, 2656; pret. pl. feÛnd gefyldan, _they had
slain the enemy_, 2707.

‚-fyllan (see ful), w. v., _to fill_: pret. part. Heorot innan w‰s freÛndum
‚fylled (_was filled with trusted men_), 1019.

fyllo, st. f. (_plenty, abundant meal_: dat. (instr.) sg. fylle gefrÊgnod,
1334; gen. sg. n‰s hie ˛Êre fylle gefe·n h‰fdon, 562; fylle gefÊgon,
1015.--Comp.: w‰l-, wist-fyllo.

fyl-wÍrig, adj., _weary enough to fall, faint to death_, moribundus: acc.
sg. fyl-wÍrigne, 963.

fyr. See feor.

fyrian, w. v. w. acc. (= ferian) _to bear, to bring, carry_: pret. pl. ˛‚
˛e gif-sceattas Ge·ta fyredon ˛yder tÙ ˛ance, 378.

fyras. See firas.

fyren. See firen.

fyrde, adj., _movable, that can be moved_.--Comp. hard-fyrde.--Leo.

fyrd-gestealla, w. m., _comrade on an expedition, companion in battle_:
dat. pl. fyrd-gesteallum, 2874

fyrd-ham, st. m., _war-dress, coat of mail_: acc. sg. ˛one fyrd-hom, 1505.

fyrd-hr‰gl, st. n., _coat of mail, war-dress_: acc. sg. fyrd-hr‰gl, 1528.

fyrd-hw‰t, adj., _sharp, good in war, warlike_: nom. pl. frome fyrd-hwate,
1642, 2477.

fyrd-leÛ, st. n., _war-song, warlike music_: acc. sg. horn stundum song
f˚slÓc f[yrd]leo, 1425.

fyrd-searu, st. n., _equipment for an expedition_: acc. sg. fyrd-searu
f˚slÓc, 2619; acc. pl. fyrd-searu f˚slÓcu, 232.

fyrd-wyre, adj., _of worth in war, excellent in battle_: nom. sg.
fyrd-wyre man (BeÛwulf), 1317.

ge-fyrran (see for), w. v., _to bring forward, to further_: pret. part.
‚r w‰s on Ùfoste, eftsÓes georn, fr‰twum gefyrred, _he was hurried
forward by the treasure_ (i.e. after he had gathered up the treasure, he
hasted to return, so as to be able to show it to the mortally-wounded
BeÛwulf), 2785.

fyrmest. See forma.

fyrn-dagas, st. m. pl., _by-gone days_: dat. pl. fyrndagum (_in old
times_), 1452.

fyrn-geweorc, st. n., _work, something done in old times_: acc. sg. fira
fyrn-geweorc (the drinking-cup mentioned in 2283), 2287.

fyrn-gewin, st. n., _combat in ancient times_: gen. sg. Ùr fyrn-gewinnes
(_the origin of the battles of the giants_), 1690.

fyrn-man, st. m., _man of ancient times_: gen. pl. fyrn-manna fatu, 2762.

fyrn-wita, w. m., _counsellor ever since ancient times, adviser for many
years_: dat. sg. frÙdan fyrnwitan, of ƒschere, 2124.

fyrst, st. m., _portion of time, definite time, time_: nom. sg. n‰s hit
lengra fyrst, ac ymb ‚ne niht ..., 134; fyrst for gew‚t, _the time_ (of
going to the harbor) _was past_, 210; n‰s ˛Êr m‚ra fyrst freÛde tÙ friclan,
2556; acc. sg. niht-longne fyrst, 528; fÓf nihta fyrst, 545; instr. sg. ˛˝
fyrste, 2574; dat. sg. him on fyrste gelomp ..., _within the fixed time_,

fyr-wit, -wet, -wyt, st. n., _prying spirit, curiosity_: nom. sg. fyrwyt,
232; fyrwet, 1986, 2785.

ge-f˝san (f˚s), w. v., _to make ready, to prepare_: part. winde gef˝sed
flota, _the ship provided with wind_ (for the voyage), 217; (wyrm) f˝re
gef˝sed, _provided with fire_, 2310; ˛‚ w‰s hringbogan (of the drake)
heorte gef˝sed s‰cce tÙ sÍceanne, 2562; with gen., in answer to the
question, for what? g˚e gef˝sed, _ready for battle, determined to fight_,

f˝r, st. n., _fire_: nom. sg., 1367, 2702, 2882; dat. sg. f˝re, 2220; as
instr. f˝re, 2275, 2596; gen. sg. f˝res f‰m, 185; f˝res feng, 1765.--
Comp.: ‚d-, bÊl-, heau-, w‰l-f˝r.

f˝r-bend, st. m., _band forged in fire_: dat. pl. duru ... f˝r-bendum f‰st,

f˝r-draca, w. m., _fire-drake, fire-spewing dragon_: nom. sg., 2690.

f˝r-heard, adj., _hard through fire, hardened in fire_: nom. pl. (eoforlÓc)
f‚h and f˝r-heard, 305.

f˝r-leÛht, st. n., _fire-light_: acc. sg., 1517.

f˝r-wylm, st. m., _wave of fire, flame-wave_: dat. pl. wyrm ... f˝rwylmum
f‚h, 2672.


galan, st. v., _to sing, to sound_: pres. sg. sorh-leÛ g‰le, 2461; inf.
gryre-leÛ galan, 787; bearhtm onge‚ton, g˚horn galan, _heard the clang,
the battle-trumpet sound_, 1433.

‚-galan, _to sing, to sound_: pret. sg. ˛‰t hire on hafelan hringmÊl ‚gÙl
grÊdig g˚leÛ, _that the sword caused a greedy battle-song to sound upon
her head_, 1522.

gamban, or, according to Bout., gambe, w. f., _tribute, interest_: acc. sg.
gomban gyldan, 11.

gamen, st. n., _social pleasure, rejoicing, joyous doings_: nom. sg. gamen,
1161; gomen, 2460; gomen gleÛbe·mes, _the pleasure of the harp_, 2264; acc.
sg. gamen and gleÛdre·m, 3022; dat. sg. gamene, 2942; gomene, 1776.--Comp.

gamen-w‚, st. f., _way offering social enjoyment, journey in joyous
society_: dat. sg. of gomen-w‚e, 855.

gamen-wudu, st. m., _wood of social enjoyment_, i.e. harp: nom. sg. ˛Êr w‰s
... gomenwudu grÍted, 1066; acc. sg. gomenwudu grÍtte, 2109.

gamol, gomol, gomel, adj., _old_; of persons, _having lived many years,
gray_: gamol, 58, 265; gomol, 3096; gomel, 2113, 2794; se gomela, 1398;
gamela (gomela) Scylding, 1793, 2106; gomela, 2932; acc. sg. ˛one gomelan,
2422; dat. sg. gamelum rince, 1678; gomelum ceorle, 2445; ˛am gomelan,
2818; nom. pl. blondenfeaxe gomele, 1596.--Also, _late, belonging to former
time_: gen. pl. gomelra l‚fe (_legacy_), 2037.--Of things, _old, from old
times_: nom. sg. sweord ... gomol, 2683; acc. sg. gomele l‚fe, 2564; gomel
swyrd, 2611; gamol is a more respectful word than eald.

gamol-feax, adj., _with gray hair_: nom. sg., 609.

gang, st. m.: 1) _gait, way_: dat. sg. on gange, 1885; gen. sg. ic hine ne
mihte ... ganges ge-twÊman, _could not keep him from going_, 969.--2)
_step, foot-step_: nom. sg. gang (the foot-print of the mother of Grendel),
1405; acc. sg. uton hrae fÍran Grendles m‚gan gang sce·wigan, 1392.--Comp.

be-gang, bi-gang, st. m., (_so far as something goes_), _extent_: acc. sg.
ofer geofenes begang, _over the extent of the sea_, 362; ofer flÙda begang,
1827; under swegles begong, 861, 1774; flÙda begong, 1498; siolea bigong,

gangan. See under g‚n.

ganot, st. m., _diver_, fulica marina: gen. sg. ofer ganotes b‰ (i.e. the
sea), 1862.

g‚d, st. n., _lack_: nom. sg. ne bi ˛e wilna g‚d (_thou shalt have no lack
of desirable_ [valuable] _things_), 661; similarly, 950.

g‚n, _expanded =_ gangan, st. v., _to go_: pres. sg. III. gÊ ‚ Wyrd sw‚
hiÛ scel, 455; gÊ eft ... tÙ medo, 605; ˛onne he ... on flett gÊ, 2035;
similarly, 2055; pres. subj. III. sg. g‚ ˛Êr he wille, _let him go whither
he will_, 1395; imp. sg. II. g‚ nu tÙ setle, 1783; nu ˛u lungre geong, hord
sce·wian, under h‚rne st‚n, 2744; inf. in g‚n, _to go in_, 386, 1645 'for
g‚n, _to go forth, to go thither_, 1164; ˛at hie him tÙ mihton gegnum
gangan, _to go towards, to go to_, 314; tÙ sele ... gangan cwÙmon, 324; in
a similar construction, gongan, 1643; nu ge mÙton gangan ... HrÙg‚r
geseÛn, 395; ˛‚ com of mÙre ... Grendel gongan, _there came Grendel (going)
from the fen_, 712; onge·n gramum gangan, _to go to meet the enemy, to go
to the war_, 1035; cwom ... tÙ hofe gongan, 1975; wutun gangan tÙ, _let us
go thither_, 2649.--As preterite, serve, 1) geÛng or giÛng: he tÙ healle
geÛng, 926; similarly, 2019; se ˛e on orde geÛng, _who went at the head,
went in front, _3126; on innan giÛng, _went in_, 2215; he ... giÛng tÙ ˛‰s
˛e he eorsele ‚nne wisse, _went thither, where he knew of that earth-hall,
_2410; ˛‚ se ‰eling, giÛng, ˛‰t he bÓ wealle ges‰t, _then went the prince_
(BeÛwulf) _that he might sit down by the wall_, 2716.--2) gang: tÙ healle
gang Healfdenes sunu, 1010; similarly, 1296; gang ˛‚ ‰fter flÙre, _went
along the floor, along the hall_, 1317.--3) gengde (Goth. gaggida): he ...
beforan gengde ..., wong sce·wian, _went in front to inspect the fields_,
1413; gengde, also of riding, 1402.--4) from another stem, eode (Goth.
iddja): eode ellenrÙf, ˛‰t he for eaxlum gestÙd Deniga fre·n, 358;
similarly, 403; [wi duru healle Wulfg‚r eode], _went towards the door of
the hall_, 390; eode Wealh˛eÛw for, _went forth_, 613; eode tÙ hire fre·n
sittan, 641; eode yrremÙd, _went with angry feeling_, 727; eode ... tÙ
sele, 919; similarly, 1233; eode ... ˛Êr se snottra b‚d, 1313; eode weor
Denum ‰eling tÙ yppan, _the prince_ (BeÛwulf), _honored by the Danes, went
to the high seat_, 1815; eode ... under inwit-hrÙf, 3124; pl. ˛Êr
swÓferhe sittan eodon, 493; eodon him ˛‚ tÙge·nes, _went to meet him_,
1627; eodon under Earna n‰s, 3032.

‚-gangan, _to go out, to go forth, to befall_: pret. part. sw‚ bit ‚gangen
wear eorla manegum (_as it befell many a one of the earls_), 1235.

full-gangan, _to emulate, to follow after_: pret. sg. ˛onne ... sceft nytte
heÛld, feer-gearwum f˚s fl‚ne full-eode, _when the shaft had employment,
furnished with feathers it followed the arrow, did as the arrow_, 3120.

ge-g‚n, ge-gangan: 1) _to go, to approach_: inf. (w. acc.) his mÙdor ...
geg‚n wolde sorhfulne sÓ, 1278; se ˛e gryre-sÓas geg‚n dorste, _who dared
to go the ways of terror_ (to go into the combat), 1463; pret. sg. se maga
geonga under his mÊges scyld elne geeode, _went quickly under his kinsman's
shield_, 2677; pl. elne geeodon tÙ ˛‰s ˛e ..., _went quickly thither where_
..., 1968; pret. part. syan hie tÙ-g‰dre geg‚n h‰fdon, _when they_
(WÓgl‚f and the drake) _had come together_, 2631; ˛‰t his aldres w‰s ende
gegongen, _that the end of his life had come_, 823; ˛‚ w‰s ended‰g gÙdum
gegongen, ˛‰t se g˚cyning ... swealt, 3037.--2) _to obtain, to reach_:
inf. (w. acc.) ˛onne he ‰t g˚e geg‚n ˛ence longsumne lof, 1536; ic mid
elne sceall gold gegangan, 2537; gerund, n‰s ˛‰t ˝e ce·p tÙ gegangenne
gumena Ênigum, 2417; pret. pl. elne geeodon ... ˛‰t se byrnwÓga b˚gan
sceolde, 2918; pret. part. h‰fde ... gegongen ˛‰t, _had attained it, that_
..., 894; hord ys gesce·wod, grimme gegongen, 3086.--3) _to occur, to
happen_: pres. sg. III. gif ˛‰t gegange ˛‰t ..., _if that happen, that_
..., 1847; pret. sg. ˛‰t geiode ufaran dÙgrum hilde-hl‰mmum, _it happened
in later times to the warriors_ (the Ge·tas), 2201; pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s
gegongen guman unfrÙdum earfolÓce ˛‰t, _then it had happened to the young
man in sorrowful wise that_ ..., 2822.

Ù-gangan, _to-go thither_: pret. pl. o ˛‰t hi Ùeodon ... in Hrefnesholt,

ofer-gangan, w. acc., _to go over_: pret. sg. ofereode ˛‚ ‰elinga bearn
ste·p st‚n-hlio, _went over steep, rocky precipices_, 1409; pl.
freoo-wong ˛one for ofereodon, 2960.

ymb-gangan, w. acc., _to go around_: pret. ymb-eode ˛‚ ides Helminga dugue
and geogoe dÊl Êghwylcne, _went around in every part, among the superior
and the inferior warriors_, 621.

g‚r, st. m., _spear, javelin, missile_: nom. sg., 1847, 3022; instr. sg.
g‚re, 1076; blÙdigan g‚re, 2441; gen. sg. g‚res fliht, 1766; nom. pl.
g‚ras, 328; gen. pl., 161(?).--Comp.: bon-, frum-g‚r.

g‚r-cÍne, adj., _spear-bold_: nom. sg., 1959.

g‚r-cwealm, st. m., _murder, death by the spear_: acc. sg. g‚r-cwealm
gumena, 2044.

g‚r-holt, st. n., _forest of spears_, i.e. crowd of spears: acc. sg., 1835.

g‚r-secg, st. m. (cf. Grimm, in Haupt l. 578), _sea, ocean_: acc. sg. on
g‚r-secg, 49, 537; ofer g‚r-secg, 515.

g‚r-wÓga, w. m., _one who fights with the spear_: dat. sg. geongum
g‚r-wÓgan, of WÓgl‚f, 2675, 2812.

g‚r-wÓgend, pres. part., _fighting with spear, spear-fighter_: acc. pl.
g‚r-wÓgend, 2642.

g‚st, gÊst, st. m., _ghost, demon_: acc. sg. helle g‚st (Grendel), 1275;
gen. sg. wergan g‚stes (of Grendel), 133; (of the tempter), 1748; gen. pl.
dyrnra g‚sta (Grendel's race), 1358; gÊsta gÓfrost (_flames consuming
corpses_), 1124.--Comp.: ellor-, geÛ-sceaft-g‚st; ellen-, w‰l-gÊst.

g‚st-bana, w. m., _slayer of the spirit_, i.e. the devil: nom. sg.
g‚st-bona, 177.

g‰deling, st. m., _he who is connected with another, relation, companion_:
gen. sg. g‰delinges, 2618; dat. pl. mid his g‰delingum, 2950.

‰t-g‰dere, adv., _together, united_: 321, 1165, 1191; samod ‰tg‰dere, 329,
387, 730, 1064.

tÙ-gadere, adv., _together_, 2631.

g‰st, gist, gyst, st. m., _stranger, guest_: nom. sg. g‰st, 1801; se g‰st
(the drake), 2313; se grimma g‰st (Grendel), 102; gist, 1139, 1523; acc.
sg. gryre-lÓcne gist (the nixy slain by BeÛwulf), 1442; dat. sg. gyste,
2229; nom. pl. gistas, 1603; acc. pl. g‰s[tas], 1894.--Comp.: fÍe-,
gryre-, inwit-, nÓ-, sele-g‰st (-gyst).

g‰st-sele, st. m., _hall in which the guests spend their time, guest-hall_:
acc. sg., 995.

ge, conj., _and_, 1341; ge ... ge ..., _as well ... as ..._, 1865; ge ...
ge ..., ge ..., 1249; ge swylce, _and likewise, and moreover_, 2259.

ge, pron., _ye, you_, plur. of ˛u, 237, 245, etc.

gegn-cwide, st. m., _reply_: gen. pl. ˛Ónra gegn-cwida, 367.

gegnum, adv., _thither, towards, away_, with the prep, tÙ, ofer, giving the
direction: ˛‰t hie him tÙ mihton gegnum gangan (_that they might go
thither_), 314; gegnum fÙr [˛‚] ofer myrcan mÙr, _away over the dark moor_,

gehu, geohu, st. f., _sorrow, care_: instr. sg. gioho mÊnde, 2268; dat.
sg. on geho, 3096; on giohe, 2794.

gen (from gegn), adv., _yet, again_. ne w‰s hit lenge ˛‚ gen, ˛‰t ..., _it
was not then long before_ ..., 83; ic sceal for sprecan gen ymb Grendel,
_shall from now on speak again of Grendel_, 2071; nÙ ˛˝ Êr ˚t ˛‚ gen ...
gongan wolde (_still he would not yet go out_), 2082; gen is eall ‰t ˛e
lissa gelong (_yet all my favor belongs to thee_), 2150; ˛‚ gen, _then
again_, 2678, 2703; sw‚ he nu gen dÍ, _as he still does_, 2860; furur
gen, _further still, besides_, 3007; nu gen, _now again_, 3169; ne gen, _no
more, no farther_: ne w‰s ˛‰t wyrd ˛‚ gen, _that was no more fate_ (fate no
longer willed that), 735.

gena, _still_: cwico w‰s ˛‚ gena, _was still living_, 3094.

genga, w. m., _goer_; in comp. in-, sÊ-, sceadu-genga.

gengde. See g‚n(3).

genge. See ˚-genge.

genunga (from gegnunga), adv., _precisely, completely_, 2872.

gerwan, gyrwan, w. v.: 1) _to prepare, to make ready, to put in condition_:
pret. pl. gestsele gyredon, 995.--2) _to equip, to arm for battle_: pret.
sg. gyrede hine BeÛwulf eorl-gewÊdum (_dressed himself in the armor_),

ge-gyrwan: 1) _to make, to prepare_: pret. pl. him ˛‚ gegiredan Ge·ta leÛde
‚d ... unw‚clÓcne, 3138; pret. part. glÙf ... eall gegyrwed deÛfles cr‰ftum
and dracan fellum, 2088.--2) _to fit out, to make ready_: inf. ceÛl
gegyrwan hilde-wÊpnum and heaowÊdum, 38; hÍt him ˝lidan gÙdne gegyrwan,
_had (his) good ship fitted up for him_, 199. Also, _to provide warlike
equipment_: pret. part. syan he hine tÙ g˚e gegyred h‰fde, 1473.--3) _to
endow, to provide, to adorn_: pret. part. nom. sg. beado-hr‰gl ... golde
gegyrwed, 553; acc. sg. l‚fe ... golde gegyrede, 2193; acc. pl. m‚dmas ...
golde gegyrede, 1029.

getan, w. v., _to injure, to slay_: inf., 2941.

be-gÍte, adj., _attainable_; in comp. Í-begÍte.

geador, adv., _unitedly, together, jointly_, 836; geador ‰tsomne, 491.

on-geador, adv., _unitedly, together_, 1596.

gealdor, st. n.: 1) _sound_: acc. sg. b˝man gealdor, 2944.--2) _magic song,
incantation, spell_: instr. sg. ˛onne w‰s ˛‰t yrfe ... galdre bewunden
(_placed under a spell_), 3053.

gealga, w. m., _gallows_: dat. sg. ˛‰t his byre rÓde giong on galgan, 2447.

gealg-mÙd, adj., _gloomy_: nom. sg. gÓfre and galgmÙd, 1278.

gealg-treÛw, st. n., _gallows_: dat. pl. on galg-treÛwu[m], 2941.

geard, st. m., _residence_; in BeÛwulf corresponding to the house-complex
of a prince's residence, used only in the plur.: acc. in geardas (_in
Finn's castle_), 1135; dat. in geardum, 13, 2460; of geardum, 1139; Êr he
on weg hwurfe ... of geardum, _before he went away from his
dwelling-place_, i.e. died, 265.--Comp. middan-geard.

gearo, adj., properly, _made, prepared_; hence, _ready, finished,
equipped_: nom. sg. ˛‰t hit wear eal gearo, heal-‰rna mÊst, 77; wiht
unhÊlo ... gearo sÙna w‰s, _the demon of destruction was quickly ready, did
not delay long_, 121; Here-Scyldinga betst beadorinca w‰s on bÊl gearu,
_was ready for the funeral-pile_ (for the solemn burning), 1110; ˛eÛd (is)
eal gearo, _the warriors are altogether ready, always prepared_, 1231;
hrae w‰s ‰t holme h˝-weard gearo (geara, MS.), 1915; gearo g˚-freca,
2415; sÓe siÛ bÊr gearo ‰dre ge‰fned, _let the bier be made ready at once_,
3106. With gen.: gearo gyrnwr‰ce, _ready for revenge for harm done_, 2119,
acc. sg. gearwe stÙwe, 1007; nom. pl. beornas gearwe, 211; similarly, 1814.

gearwe, gearo, geare, adv., _completely, entirely_: ne ge ... gearwe ne
wisson, _you do not know at all_ ..., 246; similarly, 879; hine gearwe
geman witena welhwyle (_remembers him very well_), 265; wisse he gearwe ˛‰t
..., _he knew very well that_ ..., 2340, 2726; ˛‰t ic ... gearo sce·wige
swegle searogimmas (_that I may see the treasures altogether, as many as
they are_), 2749; ic w‚t geare ˛‰t ..., 2657.--Comp. gearwor, _more
readily, rather_, 3077.--Superl. gearwost, 716.

gearo-folm, adj., _with ready hand_, 2086.

gearwe, st. f., _equipment, dress_; in comp. feer-gearwe.

geat, st. n., _opening, door_; in comp. ben-, hilde-geat.

geato-lÓc, adj., _well prepared, handsome, splendid_: of sword and armor,
215, 1563, 2155; of Heorot, 308. Adv.: wÓsa fengel geatolÓc gengde, _passed
on in a stately manner_, 1402.

geatwe, st. f. pl., _equipment, adornment_: acc. recedes geatwa, _the
ornaments of the dragon's cave_ (its treasures), 3089.--Comp.: eÛred-,
gryre-, g˚-, hilde-, wÓg-geatwe.

ge·n (from gegn), adv. in

on-ge·n, adv. and prep., _against, towards_: ˛‰t he me onge·n sle·, 682;
rÊhte onge·n feÛnd mid folme, 748; foran onge·n, _forward towards_, 2365.
With dat.: onge·n gramum, _against the enemy_, 1035.

tÙ-ge·nes, tÙ-genes, prep, _against, towards_: Grendle tÙge·nes, _towards
Grendel, against Grendel_, 667; gr‚p ˛‚ tÙge·nes, _she grasped at_
(BeÛwulf), 1502; similarly, him tÙge·nes fÍng, 1543; eodon him ˛‚ tÙge·nes,
_went towards him_, 1627; hÍt ˛‚ gebeÛdan ... ˛‰t hie bÊl-wudu feorran
feredon gÙdum tÙgÍnes, _had it ordered that they should bring the wood from
far for the funeral-pyre towards the good man_ (i.e. to the place where the
dead BeÛwulf lay), 3115.

ge·p, adj., _roomy, extensive, wide_: nom. sg. reced ... ge·p, _the roomy
hall_, 1801; acc. sg. under ge·pne hrÙf, 837.--Comp.: horn-, sÊ-ge·p.

ge‚r, st. n., _year_: nom. sg., 1135; gen. pl. ge‚ra, in adverbial sense,
olim, _in former times_, 2665. See un-ge‚ra.

ge‚r-dagas, st. m. pl., _former days_: dat. pl. in (on) ge‚r-dagum, 1,

geofe. See gifu.

geofon, gifen, gyfen (see Kuhn Zeitschr. I. 137), st. n., _sea, flood_:
nom. sg. geofon, 515; gifen geÛtende, _the streaming flood_, 1691; gen. sg.
geofenes begang, 362; gyfenes, 1395.

geogo, st. f.: 1) _youth, time of youth_: dat. sg. on geogoe, 409, 466,
2513; on giogoe, 2427; gen. giogue, 2113.--2) contrasted with dugu, _the
younger warriors of lower rank_ (about as in the Middle Ages, the squires
with the knights): nom. sg. geogo, 66; giogo, 1191; acc. sg. geogoe,
1182; gen. dugue and geogoe, 160; dugue and iogoe (geogoe), 1675, 622.

geogu-feorh, st. n., _age of youth_, i.e. age in which one still belongs
in the ranks of the geogo: on geogo- (geogu-) feore, 537, 2665.

geoho. See geho.

geolo, adj., _yellow_: acc. sg. geolwe linde (_the shield of yellow linden
bark_), 2611.

geolo-rand, st. m., _yellow shield_ (shield with a covering of interlaced
yellow linden bark): acc. sg., 438.

geond, prep. w. acc., _through, throughout, along, over_: geond ˛isne
middangeard, _through the earth, over the earth_, 75; wide geond eoran,
266, 3100; fÍrdon folctogan ... geond wÓd-wegas, _went along the ways
coming from afar_, 841; similarly, 1705; geond ˛‰t s‰ld, _through the hall,
through the extent of the hall_, 1281; similarly, 1982, 2265.

geong, adj., _young, youthful_: nom. sg., 13, 20, 855, etc.; giong, 2447;
w. m. se maga geonga, 2676; acc. sg. geongne g˚cyning, 1970; dat. sg.
geongum, 1949, 2045, 2675, etc.; on sw‚ geongum feore, _at a so youthful
age_, 1844; geongan cempan, 2627; acc. pl. geonge, 2019; dat. pl. geongum
and ealdum, 72.--Superl. gingest, _the last_: nom. sg. w. f. gingeste word,

georn, adj., _striving, eager_, w. gen. of the thing striven for: eft sÓes
georn, 2784.--Comp. lof-georn.

georne, adv., _readily, willingly_: ˛‰t him wine-m‚gas georne h˝rdon, 66;
georne tr˚wode, 670.--_zealously, eagerly_: sÙhte georne ‰fter grunde,
_eagerly searched over the ground_, 2295.--_carefully, industriously_: nÙ
ic him ˛‰s georne ‰tfealh (_held him not fast enough_), 969.--_completely,
exactly_: comp. wiste ˛Í geornor, 822.

geÛ, i˙, adv., _once, formerly, earlier_, 1477; giÛ, 2522; i˙, 2460.

geÛc, st. f., _help, support_: acc. sg. geÛce gefremman, 2675; ˛‰t him
g‚st-bona geÛce gefremede wi ˛eÛd-˛re·um, 177; geÛce gel˝fde, _believed in
the help_ (of BeÛwulf), 609; dat. sg. tÙ geÛce, 1835.

geÛcor, adj., _ill, bad_: nom. sg., 766.--See Haupt's Zeitschrift 8, p. 7.

geÛ-man, i˙-man, st. m., _man of former times_: gen. pl. i˙-manna, 3053.

geÛ-meowle, w. f., (_formerly a virgin), wife_: acc. sg. iÛ-meowlan, 2932.

geÙmor, adj., _with depressed feelings, sad, troubled_: nom. sg. him w‰s
geÙmor sefa, 49, 2420, 2633, 2951; mÙdes geÙmor, 2101; fem. ˛‰t w‰s geÙmuru
ides, 1076.

geÙmore, adv., _sadly_, 151.

geÙmor-gid, st. n., _dirge_: acc. sg. giÙmor-gyd, 3151.

geÙmor-lÓc, adj., _sad, painful_: sw‚ bi geÙmorlÓc gomelum ceorle tÙ
gebÓdanne ˛‰t..., _it is painful to an old man to experience it, that ..._,

geÙmor-mÙd, adj., _sad, sorrowful_: nom. sg., 2045, 3019; giÙmor-mÙd, 2268.

geÙmrian, w. v., _to complain, to lament_: pret. sg. geÙmrode giddum, 1119.

geÛ-sceaft, st. f., (_fixed in past times), fate_: acc. sg. geÛsceaft
grimme, 1235.

geÛsceaft-g‚st, st. m., _demon sent by fate_: gen. pl. fela
geÛsceaft-g‚sta, of Grendel and his race, 1267.

geÛtan, st. v. intrans., _to pour, to flow, to stream_: pres. part. gifen
geÛtende, 1691.

gicel, st. m., _icicle_: in comp. hilde-gicel.

gid, gyd, st. n., _speech, solemn alliterative song_: nom. sg. ˛Êr w‰s ...
gid oft wrecen, 1066; leÛ w‰s ‚sungen, gleÛmannes gyd, _the song was sung,
the gleeman's lay_, 1161; ˛Êr w‰s gidd and gleÛ, 2106; acc. sg. ic ˛is gid
‚wr‰c, 1724; gyd ‚wr‰c, 2109; gyd ‰fter wr‰c, 2155; ˛onne he gyd wrece,
2447; dat. pl. giddum, 151, 1119; gen. pl. gidda gemyndig, 869.--Comp.:
geÙmor-, word-gid.

giddian, w. v., _to speak, to speak in alliteration_: pret. gyddode, 631.

gif, conj.: 1) _if_, w. ind., 442, 447, 527, 662, etc.; gyf, 945, etc. With
subj., 452, 594, 1482, etc.; gyf, 280, 1105, etc.--2) _whether_, w. ind.,
272; w. subj., 1141, 1320.

gifa, geofa, w. m., _giver_; in comp. gold-, sinc-, wil-gifa (-geofa).

gifan, st. v., _to give_: inf. giofan, 2973; pret. sg. nallas be·gas geaf
Denum, 1720; he me [m‚mas] geaf, 2147; and similarly, 2174, 2432, 2624,
etc.; pret. pl. ge‚fon (hyne) on g‚rsecg, 49; pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s HrÙg‚re
here-spÍd gyfen, 64; ˛‚ w‰s gylden hilt gamelum rince ... on hand gyfen,
1679; syan Êrest wear gyfen ... geongum cempan (_given in marriage_),

‚-gifan, _to give, to impart_: inf. andsware ... ‚gifan, _to give an
answer_, 355; pret. sg. sÙna him se frÙda f‰der ‘htheres ... ondslyht ‚geaf
(_gave him a counter-blow_), (_hand-blow_?), 2930.

for-gyfan, _to give, to grant_: pret. sg. him ˛‰s lÓf-fre· ... worold-‚re
forgeaf, 17; ˛‰m tÙ h‚m forgeaf HrÍel Ge·ta ‚ngan dÙhtor (_gave in
marriage_), 374; similarly, 2998; he me lond forgeaf, _granted me land_,
2493; similarly, 697, 1021, 2607, 2617; m‰gen-rÊs forgeaf hilde-bille, _he
gave with his battle-sword a mighty blow_, i.e. he struck with full force,

of-gifan, (_to give up_), _to leave_: inf. ˛‰t se mÊra maga Ecg˛eÛwes
grund-wong ˛one ofgyfan wolde (_was fated to leave the earth-plain_), 2589;
pret. sg. ˛‚s worold ofgeaf gromheort guma, 1682; similarly, gumdre·m
ofgeaf, 2470; Dena land ofgeaf, 1905; pret. pl. n‰s ofge‚fon hwate
Scyldingas, _left the promontory_, 1601; ˛‰t ˛‚ hildlatan holt ofgÍfan,
_that the cowards left the wood_ (into which they had fled), 2847; sg.
pret. for pl. ˛‚ra ˛e ˛is [lÓf] ofgeaf, 2252.

gifee, adj., _given, granted_: G˚fremmendra swylcum gifee bi ˛‰t...,
_to such a warrior is it granted that_..., 299; similarly, 2682; sw‚ me
gifee w‰s, 2492; ˛Êr me gifee sw‚ Ênig yrfeweard ‰fter wurde, _if an
heir_, (living) _after me, had been given me_, 2731.--Neut. as subst.: w‰s
˛‰t gifee tÙ swÓ, ˛e ˛one [˛eÛden] ˛yder ontyhte, _the fate was too harsh
that has drawn hither the king_, 3086; gyfee, 555, 820.--Comp. un-gifee.

gif-heal, st. f., _hall in which fiefs were bestowed, throne-hall_: acc.
sg. ymb ˛‚ gifhealle, 839.

gif-sceat, st. m., _gift of value_: acc. pl. gif-sceattas, 378.

gif-stÙl, st. m., _seat from which fiefs are granted, throne_: nom. sg.,
2328; acc. sg., 168.

gift, st. f., _gift, present_: in comp. feoh-gift.

gifu, geofu, st. f., _gift, present, grant; fief_: nom. sg. gifu, 1885 acc.
sg. gimf‰ste gife ˛e him god sealde, _the great gift that God had granted
him_ (i.e. the enormous strength), 1272; ginf‰stan gife ˛e him god sealde,
2183; dat. pl. (as instr.) geofum, 1959; gen. pl. gifa, 1931; geofena,
1174.--Comp.: m‚um-, sinc-gifu.

gigant, st. m., _giant_: nom. pl. gigantas, 113; gen. pl. giganta, 1563,

gild, gyld, st. n., _reparation_: in comp. wier-gyld(?).

gildan, gyldan, st. v., _to do something in return, to repay, to reward, to
pay_: inf. gomban gyldan, _pay tribute_, 11; he mid gÙde gyldan wille
uncran eaferan, 1185; we him ˛‚ g˚geatwa gyldan woldon, 2637; pret. sg.
heaorÊsas geald mearum and m‚mum, _repaid the battles with horses and
treasures_, 1048; similarly, 2492; geald ˛one g˚rÊs ... Jofore and Wulfe
mid oferm‚mum, _repaid Eofor and Wulf the battle with exceedingly great
treasures_, 2992.

an-gildan, _to pay for_: pret. sg. sum s‚re angeald Êfenr‰ste, _one_
(ƒschere) _paid for the evening-rest with death's pain_, 1252.

‚-gildan, _to offer one's self_: pret. sg. ˛‚ me sÊl ‚geald, _when the
favorable opportunity offered itself_, 1666; similarly, ˛‚ him r˚m ‚geald,

for-gildan, _to repay, to do something in return, to reward_: pres. subj.
sg. III. alwalda ˛ec gÙde forgylde, _may the ruler of all reward thee with
good_, 957; inf. ˛one Ênne hÍht golde forgyldan, _he ordered that the one_
(killed by Grendel) _be paid for_ (atoned for) _with gold_, 1055; he ...
wolde Grendle for-gyldan g˚rÊsa fela, _wished to pay Grendel for many
attacks_, 1578; wolde se l‚a lÓge forgyldan drinc-f‰t d˝re, _the enemy
wished to repay with fire the costly drinking vessel_ (the theft of it),
2306; pret. sg. he him ˛‰s le·n forgeald, _he gave them the reward
therefore_, 114; similarly, 1542, 1585, 2095; forgeald hrae wyrsan wrixle
w‰lhlem ˛one, _repaid the murderous blow with a worse exchange_, 2969.

gilp, gylp, st. m., _speech in which one promises great things for himself
in a coming combat, defiant speech, boasting speech_: acc. sg. h‰fde ...
Ge·t-mecga leÛd gilp gelÊsted (_had fulfilled what he had claimed for
himself before the battle_), 830; nallas on gylp sele f‰tte be·gas, _gives
no chased gold rings for a boastful speech_, 1750; ˛‰t ic wi ˛one
g˚flogan gylp ofersitte, _restrain myself from the speech of defiance_,
2529; dat. sg. gylpe wigrÓpan (_fulfil my promise of battle_),
2522.--Comp. dol-gilp.

gilpan, gylpan, st. v. w. gen., acc., and dat., _to make a defiant speech,
to boast, to exult insolently_: pres. sg. I. nÙ ic ˛‰s gilpe (after a break
in the text), 587; sg. III. morres gylpe, _boasts of the murder_, 2056;
inf. sw‚ ne gylpan ˛earf Grendles maga Ênig ... uhthlem ˛one, 2007; nealles
folc-cyning fyrdgesteallum gylpan ˛orfte, _had no need to boast of his
fellow-warrior_, 2875; pret. sg. hrÍsigora ne gealp goldwine Ge·ta, _did
not exult at the glorious victory_ (could not gain the victory over the
drake), 2584.

gilp-cwide, st. m., _speech in which a man promises much for himself for a
coming combat, speech of defiance_: nom. sg., 641.

gilp-hl‰den, pret. part., _laden with boasts of defiance_ (i.e. he who has
made many such boasts, and consequently has been victorious in many
combats), _covered with glory_: nom. sg. guma gilp-hl‰den, 869.

gilp-sprÊc, same as gilp-cwide, _speech of defiance, boastful speech_: dat.
sg. on gylp-sprÊce, 982.

gilp-word, st. n., _defiant word before the coming combat, vaunting word_:
gen. pl. gespr‰c ... gylp-worda sum, 676.

gim, st. m., _gem, precious stone, jewel_: nom. sg. heofones gim, _heaven's
jewel_, i.e. the sun, 2073. Comp. searo-gim.

gimme-rÓce, adj., _rich in jewels_: acc. sg. gimme-rÓce hord-burh h‰lea,

gin (according to Bout., ginne), adj., properly _gaping_, hence, _wide,
extended_: acc. sg. gynne grund (_the bottom of the sea_), 1552.

gin-f‰st, adj., _extensive, rich_: acc. sg. gim-f‰ste gife (gim-, on
account of the following _f_), 1272; in weak form, gin-f‰stan gife, 2183.

ginnan, st. v., original meaning, _to be open, ready_; in

on-ginnan, _to begin, to undertake_: pret. Ù ˛‰t ‚n ongan fyrene fremman
feÛnd on helle, 100; secg eft ongan sÓ BeÛwulfes snyttrum styrian, 872; ˛‚
˛‰t sweord ongan ... wanian, _the sword began to diminish_, 1606; Higel‚c
ongan sÓnne geseldan ... f‰gre fricgean, _began with propriety to question
his companion_, 1984, etc.; ongon, 2791; pret. pl. nÙ her c˚lÓcor cuman
ongunnon lindh‰bbende, _no shield-bearing men e'er undertook more openly to
come hither_, 244; pret. part. h‰bbe ic mÊra fela ongunnen on geogoe,
_have in my youth undertaken many deeds of renown_, 409.

gist. See g‰st.

gistran, adv., _yesterday_: gystran niht, _yesterday night_, 1335.

git, pron., _ye two_, dual of ˛u, 508, 512, 513, etc.

git, gyt, adv., _yet; then still_, 536, 1128, 1165, 2142; _hitherto_, 957;
nÊfre git, _never yet_, 583; _still_, 945, 1059, 1135; _once more_, 2513;
_moreover_, 47, 1051, 1867.

gitan (original meaning, _to take hold of, to seize, to attain_), in

be-gitan, w. acc., _to grasp, to seize, to reach_: pret. sg. begeat, 1147,
2231; ˛‚ hine wÓg beget, _when war seized him, came upon him_, 2873;
similarly, begeat, 1069; pret. pl. hit Êr on ˛e gÙde be-ge‚ton, _good men
received it formerly from thee_, 2250; subj. sg. for pl. ˛‰t w‰s HrÙg‚re
hreÛwa tornost ˛‚ra ˛e leÛdfruman lange bege‚te, _the bitterest of the
troubles that for a long time had befallen the people's chief_, 2131.

for-gitan, w. acc., _to forget_: pres. sg. III. he ˛‚ forgesceaft forgyte
and forg˝me, 1752.

an-gitan, on-gitan, w. acc.: 1) _to take hold of, to grasp_: imp. sg.
gumcyste ongit, _lay hold of manly virtue, of what becomes the man_, 1724;
pret. sg. ˛e hine se brÙga angeat, _whom terror seized_, 1292.--2) _to
grasp intellectually, to comprehend, to perceive, to distinguish, to
behold_: pres. subj. I. ˛‰t ic Êrwelan ... ongite, _that I may behold the
ancient wealth_ (the treasures of the drake's cave), 2749; inf. s‰l timbred
... ongytan, 308, 1497; Ge·ta clifu ongitan, 1912; pret. sg. fyren-˛earfe
ongeat, _had perceived their distress from hostile snares_, 14; ongeat ...
grund-wyrgenne, _beheld the she-wolf of the bottom_, 1519; pret. pl.
bearhtm onge‚ton, g˚horn galan, _perceived the noise_, (heard) _the
battle-trumpet sound_, 1432; syan hie Hygel‚ces horn and b˝man gealdor
onge‚ton, 2945.

gÓfre, adj., _greedy, eager_: nom. sg. gÓfre and galgmÙd, of Grendel's
mother, 1278.--Superl.: lÓg..., gÊsta gÓfrost, 1124.--Comp. heoro-gÓfre.

gÓtsian, w. v., _to be greedy_: pres. sg. III. g˝tsa, 1750.

gio-, giÛ-. See geo-, geÛ-.

gladian, w. v., _to gleam, to shimmer_: pres. pl. III. on him gladia
gomelra l‚fe, _upon him gleams the legacy of the men of ancient times_
(armor), 2037.

gl‰d, adj., _gracious, friendly_ (as a form of address for princes): nom.
sg. beÛ wi Ge·tas gl‰d, 1174; acc. sg. gl‰dne HrÙg‚r, 864; gl‰dne
HrÙulf, 1182; dat. sg. gladum suna FrÙdan, 2026.

gl‰de, adv., _in a gracious, friendly way_, 58.

gl‰dnian, w. v., _to rejoice_: inf. w. gen., 367.

gl‰d-mÙd, adj., _joyous, glad_, 1786.

glÍd, st. f., _fire, flame_: nom. sg., 2653, 3115; dat. (instr.) pl.
glÍdum, 2313, 2336, 2678, 3042.

glÍd-egesa, w. m., _terror on account of fire, fire-terror_: nom. sg.
glÍd-egesa grim (_the fire-spewing of the drake_), 2651.

gle·w (Goth, glaggwu-s), adj., _considerate, well-bred_, of social conduct;
in comp. un-gle·w.

gleÛ, st. n., _social entertainment_, (especially by music, play, and
jest): nom. sg. ˛Êr w‰s gidd and gleÛ, 2106.

gleÛ-be·m, st. m., _(tree of social entertainment, of music), harp._ gen.
sg. gleÛ-be·mes, 2264.

gleÛ-dre·m, st. _m., joyous carrying-on in social entertainment, mirth,
social gaiety_: acc. sg. gamen and gleÛ-dre·m, 3022.

gleÛ-man, m., _(gleeman, who enlivens the social entertainment, especially
with music), harper_: gen. sg. gleÛmannes gyd, 1161.

glitinian (O.H.G. glizinÙn), w. v., _to gleam, to light, to glitter_: inf.
geseah ˛‚ ... gold glitinian, 2759.

glÓdan, st. v., _to glide_: pret. sg. syan heofones gim gl‚d ofer
grundas, _after heaven's gem had glided over the fields_ (after the sun had
set), 2074; pret. pl. glidon ofer g‚rsecg, _you glided over the ocean_
(swimming), 515.

tÙ-glÓdan _(to glide asunder), to separate, to fall asunder_: pret.
g˚-helm tÙ-gl‚d (Ongen˛eÛw's helmet was split asunder by the blow of
Eofor), 2488.

glÙf, st. f., _glove_: nom. sg. glÙf hangode, (on Grendel) _a glove hung_,

gne·, adj., _niggardly_: nom. sg. f. n‰s hiÛ ... tÙ gne· gifa Ge·ta
leÛdum, _was not too niggardly with gifts to the people of the Ge·tas_,

gnorn, st. m., _sorrow, sadness_: acc. sg. gnorn ˛rowian, 2659.

gnornian, w. v., _to be sad, to complain_: pret. sg. earme ... ides
gnornode, 1118.

be-gnornian, w. acc., _to bemoan, to mourn for_: pret. pl. begnornodon ...
hl‚fordes [hry]re, _bemoaned their lord's fall_, 3180.

god, st. m., _god_: nom. sg., 13, 72, 478, etc.; h‚lig god, 381, 1554;
witig god, 686; mihtig god, 702; acc. sg. god, 812; ne wiston hie drihten
god, _did not know the Lord God_, 181; dat. sg. gode, 113, 227, 626, etc.;
gen. sg. godes, 570, 712, 787, etc.

gold, st. n., _gold_: nom. sg., 3013, 3053; icge gold, 1108; wunden gold,
_wound gold, gold in ring-form_, 1194, 3136; acc. sg. gold, 2537, 2759,
2794, 3169; hÊen gold, _heathen gold_ (that from the drake's cave), 2277;
br‚d gold, _massive gold_, 3106; dat. instr. sg. golde, 1055, 2932, 3019;
f‰ttan golde, _with chased gold, with gold in plate-form_, 2103; gehroden
golde, _covered with gold, gilded_, 304; golde gegyrwed (gegyrede),
_provided with, ornamented with gold_, 553, 1029, 2193; golde geregnad,
_adorned with gold_, 778; golde f‚hne (hrÙf), _the roof shining with gold_,
928; bunden golde, _bound with gold_ (see under bindan), 1901; hyrsted
golde (helm), _the helmet ornamented with, mounted with gold_, 2256; gen.
sg. goldes, 2302; f‰ttan goldes, 1094, 2247; scÓran goldes, _of pure gold_,
1695. --Comp. f‰t-gold.

gold-Êht, st. f., _possessions in gold, treasure_: acc. sg., 2749.

gold-f‚h, adj., _variegated with gold, shining with gold_: nom. sg. reced
... gold-f‚h, 1801; acc. sg. gold-f‚hne helm, 2812; nom. pl. gold-f‚g
scinon web ‰fter wagum, _variegated with gold, the tapestry gleamed along
the walls_, 995.

gold-gifa, w. m., _gold-giver_, designation of the prince: acc. sg. mid
mÓnne goldgyfan, 2653.

gold-hroden, pret. part., _(covered with gold), ornamented with gold_: nom.
sg., 615, 641, 1949, 2026; epithet of women of princely rank.

gold-hw‰t, adj., _striving after gold, greedy for gold_: n‰s he goldhw‰t,
_he_ (BeÛwulf) _was not greedy for gold_ (he did not fight against the
drake for his treasure, cf. 3067 ff.) 3075.

gold-m‚m, st. m., _jewel of gold_: acc. pl. gold-m‚mas (the treasures of
the drake's cave), 2415.

gold-sele, st. m., _gold-hall_, i.e. the hall in which the gold was
distributed, ruler's hall: acc. sg., 716, 1254; dat. sg. gold-sele, 1640,

gold-weard, st. m., _gold-ward, defender of the gold_: acc. sg. (of the
drake), 3082.

gold-wine, st. m., _friend who distributes gold_, i.e. ruler, prince: nom.
sg. (partly as voc.) goldwine gumena, 1172, 1477, 1603; goldwine Ge·ta,
2420, 2585.

gold-wlanc, adj., _proud of gold_: nom. sg. g˚rinc goldwlanc (BeÛwulf
rewarded with gold by HrÙg‚r on account of his victory), 1882.

gomban, gomel, gomen. See gamban, gamal, gamen.

gong, gongan. See gang, gangan.

gÙd, adj., _good, fit_, of persons and things: nom. sg., 11, 195, 864,
2264, 2391, etc.; frÙd and gÙd, 279; w. dat. cyning ‰elum gÙd, _the king
noble in birth_, 1871; gumcystum gÙd, 2544; w. gen. wes ˛u ˚s l‚rena gÙd,
_be good to us with teaching_ (help us thereto through thy instruction),
269; in weak form, se gÙda, 205, 355, 676, 1191, etc.; acc. sg. gÙdne, 199,
347, 1596, 1970, etc.; gumcystum gÙdne, 1487; neut. gÙd, 1563; dat. sg.
gÙdum, 3037, 3115; ˛‰m gÙdan, 384, 2328; nom. pl. gÙde, 2250; ˛‚ gÙdan,
1164; acc. pl. gÙde, 2642; dat. pl. gÙdum dÊdum, 2179; gen. pl. gÙdra
g˚rinca, 2649.--Comp. Êr-gÙd.

gÙd, st. n.: 1) _good that is done, benefit, gift_: instr. sg. gÙde, 20,
957, 1185; gÙde mÊre, _renowned on account of her gifts_ (firyo), 1953;
instr. pl. gÙdum, 1862.--2) _ability_, especially in fight: gen. pl. n‚t he
˛‚ra gÙda, 682.

gram, adj., _hostile_: gen. sg. on grames gr‚pum, _in the gripe of the
enemy_ (BeÛwulf), 766; nom. pl. ˛‚ graman, 778; dat. pl. gramum, 424, 1035.

gram-heort, adj., _of a hostile heart, hostile_: nom. sg. grom-heort guma,

gram-hydig, adj., _with hostile feeling, maliciously inclined_: nom. sg.
gromhydig, 1750.

gr‚p, st. f., _the hand ready to grasp, hand, claw_: dat. sg. mid gr‚pe,
438; on gr‚pe, 555; gen. sg. eal ... Grendles gr‚pe, _all of Grendel's
claw, the whole claw_, 837; dat. pl. on grames gr‚pum, 766; (as instr.)
grimman gr‚pum, _with grim claws_, 1543.--Comp.: feÛnd-, hilde-gr‚p.

gr‚pian, w. v., _to grasp, to lay hold of, to seize_: pret. sg. ˛‰t hire
wi halse heard gr‚pode, _that_ (the sword) _griped hard at her neck_,
1567; he ... gr‚pode gearofolm, _he took hold with ready hand_, 2086.

gr‰s-molde, w. f., _grass-plot_: acc. sg. gr‰smoldan tr‰d, _went over the
grass-plot_, 1882.

grÊdig, adj., _greedy, hungry, voracious_: nom. sg. grim and grÊdig, 121,
1500; acc. sg. grÊdig g˚leÛ, 1523.

grÊg, adj., _gray_: nom. pl. ‰sc-holt ufan grÊg, _the ashen wood, gray
above_ (the spears with iron points) 330; acc. pl. grÊge syrcan, _gray_
(i.e. iron) _shirts of mail_, 334.

grÊg-mÊl, adj., _having a gray color_, here = _iron_: nom. sg. sweord
BeÛwulfes gomol and grÊgmÊl, 2683.

grÊpe. See ‰t-grÊpe.

grÍtan, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to greet, to salute_: inf. hine sw‚ gÙdne
grÍtan, 347; HrÙg‚r grÍtan, 1647, 2011; eÛwic grÍtan hÍt (_bade me bring
you his last greeting_), 3096; pret. sg. grÍtte Ge·ta leÛd, 626; grÍtte ˛‚
guma Ùerne, 653; HrÙg‚r grÍtte, 1817.-- 2) _to come on, to come near, to
seek out; to touch; to take hold of_: inf. gifstÙl grÍtan, _take possession
of the throne, mount it as ruler_, 168; n‰s se folccyning Ênig ... ˛e mec
g˚winum grÍtan dorste (_attack with swords_), 2736; Wyrd ... se ˛one
gomelan grÍtan sceolde, 2422; ˛‰t ˛one sin-scaan g˚billa n‚n grÍtan
nolde, _that no sword would take hold upon the irreconcilable enemy_, 804;
pret. sg. grÍtte goldhroden guman on healle, _the gold-adorned_ (queen)
_greeted the men in the hall_, 615; nÙ he mid hearme ... g‰stas grÍtte,
_did not approach the strangers with insults_, 1894; gomenwudu grÍtte,
_touched the wood of joy, played the harp_, 2109; pret. subj. II. sg. ˛‰t
˛u ˛one w‰lgÊst wihte ne grÍtte, _that thou shouldst by no means seek out
the murderous spirit_ (Grendel), 1996; similarly, sg. III. ˛‰t he ne grÍtte
goldweard ˛one, 3082; pret. part. ˛Êr w‰s ... gomenwudu grÍted, 1066.

ge-grÍtan, w. acc.: 1) _to greet, to salute, to address_: pret. sg. holdne
gegrÍtte meaglum wordum, _greeted the dear man with formal words_, 1981;
gegrÍtte ˛‚ gumena gehwylcne ... hindeman sie, _spoke then the last time
to each of the men_, 2517.--2) _to approach, to come near, to seek out_:
inf. sceal ... manig Ùerne gÙdum gegrÍtan ofer ganotes b‰, _many a one
will seek another across the sea with gifts_, 1862.

greÛt, st. m., _grit, sand, earth_: dat. sg. on greÛte, 3169.

greÛtan, st. v., _to weep, to mourn, to lament_: pres. sg. III. se ˛e ‰fter
sincgyfan on sefan greÛte, _who laments in his heart for the
treasure-giver_, 1343.

grim, adj., _grim, angry, wild, hostile_: nom. sg., 121, 555, 1500, etc.;
weak form, se grimma g‰st, 102; acc. sg. m. grimne, 1149, 2137; fem,
grimme, 1235; gen. sg. grimre g˚e, 527; instr. pl. grimman gr‚pum,
1543.--Comp.: beado-, heao-, heoro-, searo-grim.

grimme, adv., _grimly, in a hostile manner, bitterly_, 3013, 3086.

grim-lÓc, adj., _grim, terrible_: nom. sg. grimlÓc gry[re-g‰st], 3042.

grimman, st. v., (properly _to snort_), _to go forward hastily, to hasten_:
pret. pl. grummon, 306.

grindan, st. v., _to grind_, in

for-grindan, _to destroy, to ruin_: pret. sg. w. dat. forgrand gramum,
_destroyed the enemy, killed them_ (?), 424; pret. part. w. acc. h‰fde
lÓgdraca leÛda f‰sten ... glÍdum forgrunden, _had with flames destroyed the
people's feasts_, 2336; ˛‚ his ‚gen (scyld) w‰s glÍdum forgrunden, _since
his own (shield) had been destroyed by the fire_, 2678.

gripe, st. m., _gripe, attack_: nom. sg. gripe mÍces, 1766; acc. sg. grimne
gripe, 1149.--Comp.: fÊr-, mund-, nÓ-gripe.

grÓma, w. m., _mask, visor_: in comp. beado-, here-grÓma.

grÓm-helm, st. m., _mask-helmet, helmet with visor_: acc. pl. grÓm-helmas,

grÓpan, st. v., _to gripe, to seize, to grasp_: pret. sg. gr‚p ˛‚ tÙge·nes,
_then she caught at_, 1502.

for-grÓpan _(to gripe vehemently), to gripe so as to kill, to kill by the
grasp_, w. dat.: pret. sg. ‰t g˚e forgr‚p Grendeles mÊgum, 2354.
wi-grÓpan, w. dat., _(to seize at), to maintain, to hold erect_: inf. h˚
wi ˛am aglÊcean elles meahte gylpe wi-grÓpan, _how else I might maintain
my boast of battle against the monster_, 2522.

grÙwan, st. v., _to grow, to sprout_: pret. sg. him on ferhe greÛw
breÛsthord blÙdreÛw, 1719.

grund, st. m.: 1) _ground, plain, fields_ in contrast with highlands;
_earth_ in contrast with heaven: dat. sg. sÙhte ... ‰fter grunde, _sought
along the ground_, 2295; acc. pl. ofer grundas, 1405, 2074.--2) _bottom,
the lowest part_: acc. sg. grund (of the sea of Grendel), 1368; on gyfenes
grund, 1395; under gynne grund (_bottom of the sea_) 1552; dat. sg. tÙ
grunde (of the sea), 553; grunde (of the drake's cave) getenge, 2759; so,
on grunde, 2766.--Comp.: eormen-, mere-, sÊ-grund.

grund-b˚end, pres. part., _inhabitant of the earth_: gen. pl.
grund-b˚endra, 1007.

grund-hyrde, st. m., _warder of the bottom_ (of the sea): acc. sg. (of
Grendel's mother), 2137.

grund-sele, st. m., _hall at the bottom_ (of the sea): dat sg. in ˛am
[grund]sele, 2140.

grund-wang, st. m., _ground surface, lowest surface_: acc. sg. ˛one
grund-wong (_bottom of the sea_), 1497; (bottom of the drake's cave), 2772,

grund-wyrgen, st. f., _she-wolf of the bottom_ (of the sea): acc. sg.
grund-wyrgenne (Grendel's mother), 1519.

gryn (cf. Gloss. Aldh. "retinaculum, rete grin," Hpts. Ztschr. IX. 429),
st. n., _net, noose, snare_: gen. pl. fela ... grynna, 931. See gyrn.

gryre, st. m., _horror, terror, anything causing terror_: nom. sg., 1283;
acc. sg. wi Grendles gryre, 384; hie Wyrd forsweÛp on Grendles gryre,
_snatched them away into the horror of Grendel, to the horrible Grendel_,
478; dat. pl. mid gryrum ecga, 483; gen. pl. sw‚ fela gryra, 592.--Comp.:
fÊr-, wÓg-gryre.

gryre-brÙga, w. m., _terror and horror, amazement_: nom. sg.
[gryre-]br[Ù]g[a], 2229.

gryre-f‚h, adj., _gleaming terribly_: acc. sg. gryre-f‚hne (_the
fire-spewing drake_, cf. also [draca] f˝rwylmum f‚h, 2672), 2577.

gryre-g‰st, st. m., _terror-guest, stranger causing terror_: nom. sg.
grimlÓc gry[reg‰st], 3042; dat. sg. wi ˛am gryregieste (the dragon), 2561.

gryre-geatwe, st. f. pl., _terror-armor, warlike equipment_: dat. pl. in
hyra gryre-geatwum, 324.

gryre-leÛ, st. n., _terror-song, fearful song_: acc. sg. geh˝rdon
gryreleÛ galan godes and-sacan (_heard Grendel's cry of agony_), 787.

gryre-lÓc, adj., _terrible, horrible_: acc. sg. gryre-lÓcne, 1442, 2137.

gryre-sÓ, st. m., _way of terror, way causing terror_, i.e. warlike
expedition: acc. pl. se ˛e gryre-sÓas geg‚n dorste, 1463.

guma, w. m., _man, human being_: nom. sg., 653, 869, etc.; acc. sg. guman,
1844, 2295; dat. sg. guman (gumum, MS.), 2822; nom pl. guman, 215, 306,
667, etc.; acc. pl. guman, 615; dat. pl. gumum, 127, 321; gen. pl. gumena,
73, 328, 474, 716, etc.--Comp.: driht-, seld-guma.

gum-cyn, st. n., _race of men, people, nation_: gen. sg. we synt gumcynnes
Ge·ta leÛde, _people from the nation of the Ge·tas_, 260; dat. pl. ‰fter
gum-cynnum, _along the nations, among the nations_, 945.

gum-cyst, st. f., _man's excellence, man's virtue_: acc. sg. (or pl.)
gumcyste, 1724; dat. pl. as adv., _excellently, preeminently_: gumcystum
gÙdne be·ga bryttan, 1487; gumcystum gÙd ... hilde-hlemma (BeÛwulf), 2544.

gum-dre·m, st. m., _joyous doings of men_: acc. sg. gum-dre·m ofgeaf
(died), 2470.

gum-dryhten, st. m., _lord of men_: nom. sg. 1643.

gum-fÍa, w. m., _troop of men going on foot_: nom. sg., 1402.

gum-man, st. m., _man_: gen. pl. gum-manna fela, 1029.

gum-stÙl, st. m., _man's seat_ [Greek: kat'ezochÊn] _ruler's seat, throne_:
dat. sg. in gumstÙle, 1953.

g˚, st. f., _combat, battle_: nom. sg., 1124, 1659, 2484, 2537; acc. sg.
g˚e, 604; instr. sg. g˚e, 1998; dat. sg. tÙ (‰t) g˚e, 438, 1473. 1536,
2354, etc.; gen. sg. g˚e, 483, 527, 631, etc.; dat. pl. g˚um, 1959, 2179;
gen. pl. g˚a, 2513, 2544.

g˚-beorn, st. m., _warrior_: gen. pl. g˚-beorna sum (_the strand-guard on
the Danish coast_), 314.

g˚-bil, st. n., _battle-bill_: nom. sg. g˚bill, 2585; gen. pl. g˚-billa
n‚n, 804.

g˚-byrne, w. f., _battle-corselet_: nom. sg., 321.

g˚-cearu, st. f., _sorrow which the combat brings_: dat. sg. ‰fter
g˚-ceare, 1259.

g˚-cr‰ft, st. m., _warlike strength, power in battle_: nom. sg. Grendles
g˚-cr‰ft, 127.

g˚-cyning, st. m., _king in battle, king directing a battle_: nom. sg.,
199, 1970, 2336, etc.

g˚-de·, st. m., _death in battle_: nom. sg., 2250.

g˚-floga, w. m., _flying warrior_: acc. sg. wi ˛one g˚flogan (the
drake), 2529.

g˚-freca, w. m., _hero in battle, warrior_ (see freca): nom. sg. gearo
g˚-freca, of the drake, 2415.

g˚-fremmend, pres. part., _fighting a battle, warrior_: gen. pl.
g˚-fremmendra, 246; g˚- (gÙd-, MS.) fremmendra swylcum, _such a warrior_
(meaning BeÛwulf), 299.

g˚-gewÊde, st. n., _battle-dress, armor_: nom. pl. g˚-gewÊdo, 227; acc.
pl. -gewÊdu, 2618, 2631(?), 2852, 2872; gen. pl. -gewÊda, 2624.

g˚-geweorc, st. n., _battle-work warlike deed_: gen. pl., -geweorca, 679,
982, 1826.

g˚-geatwe, st. f. pl., _equipment for combat_: acc. ˛‚ g˚-geatwa
(-getawa, MS.), 2637; dat. in eÛwrum g˚-geatawum, 395.

g˚-helm, st. m., _battle-helmet_: nom. sg., 2488.

g˚-horn, st. n., _battle-horn_: acc. sg., 1433.

g˚-hrÍ, st. f., _battle-fame_: nom. sg., 820.

g˚-leÛ, st. n., _battle-song_: acc., sg., 1523.

g˚-mÙd, adj., _disposed to battle, having an inclination to battle_. nom.
pl. g˚-mÙde, 306.

g˚-rÊs, st. m., _storm of battle, attack_: acc. sg., 2992; gen. pl.
g˚-rÊsa, 1578, 2427.

g˚-reÛw, adj., _fierce in battle_: nom. sg., 58.

g˚-rinc, st. m., _man of battle, fighter, warrior_: nom. sg., 839, 1119,
1882; acc. sg., 1502; gen. pl. g˚-rinca, 2649.

g˚-rÙf, adj., _renowned in battle_: nom. sg., 609.

g˚-sceaa, w. m., _battle-foe, enemy in combat_: nom. sg., of the drake,

g˚-scearu, st. f., _decision of the battle_: dat. sg. ‰fter g˚-sceare,

g˚-sele, st. m., _battle-hall, hall in which a battle takes place_: dat
sg. in ˛‰m g˚sele (in Heorot), 443.

g˚-searo, st. n. pl., _battle-equipment, armor_; acc., 215, 328.

g˚-sweord, st. n., _battle-sword_: acc. sg., 2155.

g˚-wÍrig, adj., _wearied by battle dead_: acc. sg. g˚-wÍrigne Grendel,

g˚-wine, st. m., _battle-friend, comrade in battle_ designation of the
sword: acc. sg., 1811; instr. pl. ˛e mec g˚-winum grÍtan dorste, _who
dared to attack me with his war-friends_, 2736.

g˚-wÓga, w. m., _fighter of battles, warrior_: nom. sg., 2112.

gyd. See gid.

gyfan. See gifan.

gyldan. See gildan.

gylden, adj., _golden_: nom. sg. gylden hilt, 1678; acc. sg. segen
gyldenne, 47, 1022; bring gyldenne, 2810; dat. sg. under gyldnum be·ge,
1164.--Comp. eal-gylden.

gylp. See gilp.

gyrdan, w. v., _to gird, to lace_: pret. part. gyrded cempa, _the (sword-)
girt warrior_, 2079.

gyrn, st. n., _sorrow, harm_: nom. sg., 1776.

gyrn-wracu, st. f., _revenge for harm_: dat. sg. tÙ gyrn-wr‰ce, 1139; gen.
sg. ˛‚ w‰s eft hrae gearo gyrn-wr‰ce Grendeles mÙdor, _then was Grendel's
mother in turn immediately ready for revenge for the injury_, 2119.

gyrwan. See gerwan.

gystran. See gistran.

g˝man, w. v. w. gen., _to take care of, to be careful about_: pres. III.
g˝me, 1758, 2452; imp. sg. oferhyda ne g˝m! _do not study arrogance_
(despise it), 1761.

for-g˝man, w. acc., _to neglect, to slight_: pres. sg. III. he ˛‚
for-gesceaft forgyte and forg˝me, 1752.

g˝tsian. See gÓtsian.

gyt. See git.


habban, w. v., _to have_: 1) w. acc.: pres. sg. I. ˛‰s ic wÍn h‰bbe (_as I
hope_), 383; ˛e ic geweald h‰bbe, 951; ic me on hafu bord and byrnan, _have
on me shield and coat of mail_, 2525; hafo, 3001; sg. II. ˛u nu [friu]
hafast, 1175; pl. I. habba we ... micel Êrende, 270; pres. subj. sg. III.
˛‰t he ˛rittiges manna m‰gencr‰ft on his mundgripe h‰bbe, 381. Blended with
the negative: pl. III. ˛‰t be SÊ-Ge·tas sÍlran n‰bben tÙ geceÛsenne cyning
Ênigne, _that the Sea-Ge·tas will have no better king than you to choose_,
1851; imp. hafa nu and geheald h˚sa sÍlest, 659; inf. habban, 446, 462,
3018; pret. sg. h‰fde, 79, 518, 554; pl. h‰fdon, 539.--2) used as an
auxiliary with the pret. part.: pres. sg. I. h‰bbe ic ... ongunnen, 408;
h‰bbe ic ... ge‚hsod, 433; II. hafast, 954, 1856; III. hafa, 474, 596;
pret. sg. h‰fde, 106, 220, 666, 2322, 2334, 2953, etc.; pl. h‰fdon, 117,
695, 884, 2382, etc. Pret. part. inflected: nu scealc hafa dÊd gefremede,
940; h‰fde se gÙda ... cempan gecorone, 205. With the pres. part. are
formed the compounds: bord-, rond-h‰bbend.

for-habban, _to hold back, to keep one's self_: inf. ne meahte w‰fre mÙd
forhabban in hrere, _the expiring life could not hold itself back in the
breast_, 1152; ne mihte ˛‚ for-habban, _could not restrain himself_, 2610.

wi-habban, _to resist, to offer resistance_: pret. ˛‰t se wÓnsele
wi-h‰fde heao-deÛrum, _that the hall resisted them furious in fight_,

hafela, heafola, w. m., _head_: acc. sg. hafelan, 1373, 1422, 1615, 1636,
1781; n‚ ˛u mÓnne ˛earft hafalan h˝dan, 446; ˛onne we on orlege hafelan
weredon, _protected our heads, defended ourselves_, 1328; se hwÓta helm
hafelan werede, 1449; dat. sg. hafelan, 673, 1522; heafolan, 2680; gen. sg.
heafolan, 2698; nom. pl. hafelan, 1121.--Comp. wÓg-heafola.

hafenian, w. v., _to raise, to uplift_: pret. sg. wÊpen hafenade heard be
hiltum, _raised the weapon, the strong man, by the hilt_, 1574.

hafoc, st. m., _hawk_: nom. sg., 2264.

haga, w. m., _enclosed piece of ground, hedge, farm-enclosure_: dat. sg. tÙ
hagan, 2893, 2961.

haga, w. m. See ‚n-haga.

hama, homa, w. m., _dress_: in the comp. flÊsc-, fyrd-, lÓc-hama, scÓr-ham

hamer, st. m., _hammer_: instr. sg. hamere, 1286; gen. pl. homera l‚fe
(swords), 2830.

hand, hond, st. f., _hand_: nom. sg. 2138; siÛ swÓre ... hand, _the right
hand_, 2100; hond, 1521, 2489, 2510; acc. sg. hand, 558, 984; hond, 657,
687, 835, 928, etc.; dat. sg. on handa, 495, 540; mid handa, 747, 2721; be
honda, 815; dat. pl. (as instr.) hondum, 1444, 2841.

hand-bana, w. m., _murderer with the hand_, or _in hand-to-hand combat_:
dat. sg. tÙ hand-bonan (-banan), 460, 1331.

hand-gemÙt, st. n., _hand-to-hand conflict, battle_: gen. pl. (ecg) ˛olode
Êr fela hand-gemÙta, 1527; nÙ ˛‰t l‰sest w‰s hond-gemÙta, 2356.

hand-gesella, w. m., _hand-companion, man of the retinue_: dat. pl.
hond-gesellum, 1482.

hand-gestealla, w. m., _(one whose position is near at hand), comrade,
companion, attendant_: dat. sg. hond-gesteallan, 2170; nom. pl.
hand-gesteallan, 2597.

hand-geweorc, st. n., _work done with the hands_, i.e. achievement in
battle: dat. sg. for ˛‰s hild-fruman hondgeweorce, 2836.

hand-gewrien, pret. part. _hand-wreathed, bound with the hand._ acc. pl.
w‰lbende ... hand-gewriene, 1938.

hand-locen, pret. part., _joined, united by hand_: nom. sg. (g˚-byrne,
lÓc-syrce) hondlocen (because the shirts of mail consisted of interlaced
rings), 322, 551.

hand-rÊs, st. m., _hand-battle_, i.e. combat with the hands: nom. sg.
hond-rÊs, 2073.

hand-scalu, st. f., _hand-attendance, retinue_: dat. sg. mid his hand-scale
(hond-scole), 1318, 1964.

hand-sporu, st. f., _finger_ (on Grendel's hand), under the figure of a
spear: nom. pl. hand-sporu, 987.

hand-wundor, st. n., _wonder done by the hand, wonderful handwork_: gen.
pl. hond-wundra mÊst, 2769.

hangan. See hÙn.

hangian, w. v., _to hang_: pres. sg. III. ˛onne his sunu hanga hrefne to
hrÙre, _when his son hangs, a joy to the ravens_, 2448; pl. III. ofer ˛‰m
(mere) hongia hrÓmge bearwas, _over which frosty forests hang_, 1364; inf.
hangian, 1663; pret. hangode, _hung down_, 2086.

hatian, w. v. w. acc., _to hate, to be an enemy to, to hurt_: inf. he ˛one

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