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Beowulf by James A. Harrison and Robert Sharp, eds.

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l. 2210. MS. has the more correct wintra.

l. 2211. Cf. similar language about the dragon at l. 100. Beowulf's
"jubilee" is fitly solemnized by his third and last dragon-fight.

l. 2213. B. proposes sÍ ˛e on hearge hÊen hord beweotode; cf. Ha., p. 75.

l. 2215. "The dragon lies round the treasures in a cave, as Fafnir, like a
Python, lay coiled over his hoard. So constant was this habit among the
dragons that gold is called Worms' bed, Fafnir's couch, Worms' bed-fire.
Even in India, the cobras ... are guardians of treasure."--Br., p. 50.

l. 2216. neÛde. E. translates _deftly_; Ha., _with ardor_. H.-So. reads
neÛde, = _with desire, greedily_, instr. of neÛd.

l. 2223. E. begins his "Part Third" at this point as he begins "Part
Second" at l. 1252, each dragon-fight forming part of a trilogy.

ll. 2224, 2225. B. proposes: nealles mid gewealdum wyrmes weard g‰st sylfes
willum.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 211; _Beit._ xii. 100.

l. 2225. For ˛eÛw read ˛egn.--K. and Z.

l. 2225. ˛eÛw, st. m., _slave, serf_ (not in H.-So.).

l. 2227. For ofer-˛earfe read Êrnes ˛earfa.--Z.

ll. 2229-2231. B. proposes:

secg synbysig sÙna onwl‚tode,
˛e·h ˛‚m gyste gryrebrÙga stÙd,
hw‰re earmsceapen innganges ˛earfa
. . . . . . . . . .
fe·sceapen, ˛‚ hyne se fÊr begeat.
--_Beit._ xii. 101. Cf. Ha., p. 69.

l. 2232. W. suggests seah or seÓr for geseah, and Gr. suggests searolÓc.

l. 2233. Z. surmises eor-h˚se (for -scr‰fe).

l. 2241. B. proposes lÊn-gestreÛna, = _transitory_, etc.; Th., R. propose
leng (= _longer_) gestreÛna; S. accepts the text but translates "the
long accumulating treasure."

l. 2246. B. proposed (1) hard-fyndne, = _hard to find_; (2) hord-wynne
dÊl,--_a deal of treasure-joy_ (cf. l. 2271).--_Zachers Zeitschr._
iv. 211; _Beit._ xii. 102.

l. 2247. fecword = _banning words_ (?) MS. has fec.

l. 2254. Others read feor-[mie], = _furbish_, for fetige: _I own not one
who may_, etc.

l. 2261. The Danes themselves were sometimes called the "Ring-Danes,"
= clad in ringed (or a ring of) armor, or possessing rings. Cf.
ll. 116, 1280.

l. 2264. Note the early reference to hawking. Minstrelsy (hearpan
wyn), saga-telling, racing, swimming, harpooning of sea-animals, feasting,
and the bestowal of jewels, swords, and rings, are the other amusements
most frequent in _BeÛwulf_.

l. 2264. Cf. _Maldon_, ll. 8, 9, for a reference to hawking.

l. 2276. Z. suggests sw˝e ondrÊda; Ho. puts gesÍcean for Gr.'s

l. 2277. Z. and K. read: hord on hr˚san. "Three hundred winters,"
at l. 2279, is probably conventional for "a long time," like hund
missera, l. 1499; hund ˛˚senda, l. 2995; ˛ritig (of Beowulf's strength), l.
379; ˛ritig (of the men slain by Grendel), l. 123; seofan ˛˚sendo, l. 2196,

l. 2285. B. objects to hord as repeated in ll. 2284, 2285; but cf. Ha., p.
77. C. prefers sum to hord. onboren = _inminutus_; cf. B., _Beit._ xii.

l. 2285. onberan is found also at line 991, = _carry off_, with on- = E.
_un--(un-bind, -loose, -tie_, etc.), G. _ent-_. The negro still pronounces
_on-do_, etc.

l. 2299. Cf. H.-So., p. 112, for a defense of the text as it stands. B.
proposes "nor was there any man in that desert who rejoiced in conflict,"
etc. So ten Br.

l. 2326. B. and ten Br,. propose h‚m, = _home_, for him.--_Beit._ xii. 103.

l. 2335. E. translates e·lond utan by _the sea-board front, the
water-washed land on the (its) outside_. See B., _Beit._ xii. 1, 5.

l. 2346. Cf. l. 425, where Beowulf resolves to fight the dragon
single-handed. E. compares _Guy of Warwick_, ll. 49, 376.

l. 2355. Ten Br. proposes laan cynne as apposition to mÊgum.

l. 2360. Cf. Beowulf's other swimming-feat with Breca, ll. 506 _seq._

l. 2362. Gr. inserts ‚na, = _lone-going_, before xxx.: approved by B.; and
Kr¸ger, _Beit._ ix. 575. Cf. l. 379.

l. 2362. "Beowulf has the strength of thirty men in the original tale.
Here, then, the new inventor makes him carry off thirty coats of
mail."--Br., p. 48.

l. 2364. Hetware = Chattuarii, a nation allied against Hygel‚c in his
Frisian expedition; cf. ll. 1208 _seq._, 2917, etc.

l. 2368. B. proposes _quiet sea_ as trans, of siÛlea bigong, and compares
Goth. _anasilan_, to be still; Swed. dial, _sil_, still water between
waterfalls.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 214.

l. 2380. hyne--HeardrÍd; so him, l. 2358.

l. 2384. E. calls attention to SwiÛ-rÓce as identical with the modern
_Sverige_ = Sweden; cf. l. 2496.

l. 2386. Gr. reads on feorme, = _at the banquet_; cf. Mˆller, _Alteng.
Volksepos_, 111, who reads (f)or feorme. The MS. has or.

l. 2391. Cf. l. 11.

l. 2394. B., Gr., and M˚llenh. understand ll. 2393-2397 to mean that
E·dgils, ‘hthere's son, driven from Sweden, returns later, supported by
Beowulf, takes the life of his uncle Onela, and probably becomes himself
O.'s successor and king of Sweden. For another view see H.-So., p. 115. MS.
has freond (l. 2394), which Leo, etc., change to feÛnd. G. translates
_friend_.--_Beit._ xii. 13; _Anzeiger f. d. Altert_. iii. 177.

l. 2395. E·dgils is ‘hthere's son; cf. l. 2381; Onela is ‘hthere's brother;
cf. ll. 2933, 2617.

l. 2402. "Twelfsome"; cf. "fifteensome" at l. 207, etc. As _BeÛwulf_ is
essentially _the_ Epic of Philanthropy, of the true love of man, as
distinguished from the ordinary love-epic, the number twelve in this
passage may be reminiscent of another Friend of Man and another Twelve. In
each case all but one desert the hero.

l. 2437. R. proposes st˝red, = _ordered, decreed_, for strÍd.--_Zachers
Zeitschr._ iii. 409.

l. 2439. B. corrects to freÛ-wine = _noble friend_, asking, "How can
Herebeald be called HÊcyn's fre·-wine [MS.], _lord?_"

l. 2442. feohle·s gefeoht, "a homicide which cannot be atoned for by
money--in this case an unintentional fratricide."--Sw.

l. 2445. See Ha., pp. 82, 83, for a discussion of ll. 2445-2463. Cf. G., p.

l. 2447. MS. reads wrece, justified by B. (_Tidskr_. viii. 56). W.
conceives wrece as optative or hortative, and places a colon before ˛onne.

l. 2449. For helpan read helpe.--K., Th., S. (_Zeitschr. f. D. Phil._ xxi.
3, 357).

ll. 2454-2455. (1) M¸llenh. (_Haupts Zeitschr._ xiv. 232) proposes:

˛onne se ‚n hafa
˛urh dÊda n˝d de·es gefandod.

(2) B. proposes:

˛urh dÊda nÓ de·es gefondad.
--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 215.

l. 2458. Cf. sceÛtend, pl., ll. 704, 1155, like rÓdend. Cf. _Judith_, l.
305, etc.

l. 2474. Th. considers the "wide water" here as the M‰lar lake, the
boundary between Swedes and Goths.

l. 2477. On o˛˛e = _and_, cf. B., _Tidskr_. viii. 57. See Ha., p. 83.

l. 2489. B. proposes hre·-bl‚c for Gr.'s heoro-.--_Tikskr_. viii. 297.

l. 2494. S. suggests Íel-wynne.

l. 2502. E. translates for dugeum, _of my prowess_; so Ettm¸ller.

ll. 2520-2522. Gr. and S. translate, "if I knew how else I might combat the
monster's boastfulness."--Ha., p. 85.

l. 2524. and-h‚ttres is H.'s invention. Gr. reads orees and ‚ttres, _blast
and venom_. Cf. oru, l. 2558, and l. 2840 (where ‚ttor- also occurs).

l. 2526. E. quotes fleÛn fÙtes trym from _Maldon_, l. 247.

l. 2546. Gr., H.-So., and Ho. read standan st‚n-bogan (for stÙd on
st‚n-bogan) depending on geseah.

l. 2550. Grundt. and B. propose deÛr, _brave one_, i.e. Beowulf, for deÛp.

L. 2565. MS. has ungleaw (K., Th.), unglaw (Grundt.). B. proposes unsl‚w, =
_sharp_.--_Beit._ xii. 104. So H.-So., Ha., p. 86.

ll. 2570, 2571. (1) May not gescÓfe (MS. to gscipe) = German _schief_,
"crooked," "bent," "aslant," and hence be a parallel to gebogen, _bent,
coiled?_ cf. l. 2568, ˛‚ se wyrm gebe·h sn˚de tÙsomne, and l. 2828. Coiled
serpents spring more powerfully for the coiling. (2) Or perhaps destroy
comma after tÙ and read gesc‰pe, = _his fate_; cf. l. 26: him ˛‚ Scyld
gew‚t tÙ gesc‰p-hwÓle. G. appar. adopts this reading, p. 78.

l. 2589. grund-wong = _the field_, not _the earth_ (so B.); H.-So., _cave_,
as at l. 2771. So Ha., p. 87.

l. 2595. S. proposes colon after stefne.--_Beit._ ix. 141.

l. 2604. M¸llenh. explains leÛd Scylfinga in _Anzeiger f. d. Altert._ iii.

l. 2607. ‚re = _possessions, holding_ (Kl., _Beit._ ix. 192; Ha., p. 88).

l. 2609. folcrihta. Add "folk-right" to the meanings in the Gloss.; and cf.
Íel-, land-riht, word-riht.

l. 2614. H.-So. reads with Gr. wrÊccan winele·sum Weohst‚n bana, = _whom, a
friendless exile, W. had slain_.

ll. 2635-61. E. quotes Tacitus, _Germania_, xiv.: "turpe comitatui virtutem
principis non adaequare." Beowulf had been deserted by his _comitatus_.

l. 2643. B. proposes ˚ser.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 216.

l. 2649. wutun; l. 3102, uton = pres. subj. pl. 1st person of wÓtan, _to
go_, used like Mod. Eng. _let us_ + inf., Lat. _eamus_, Ital. _andiamo_,
Fr. _allons_; M. E. (_Layamon_) _uten_. Cf. Psa. ii. 3, etc. March, _A.-S.
Gram._, pp. 104, 196.

l. 2650. B. suggests h‚t for hyt,.--_Beit._ xii. 105.

l. 2656. f‚ne = f‚h-ne; cf. f‚ra = f‚h-ra, l. 578; so he·nne (MS.) =
he·h-ne, etc., l. 984. See Cook's Sievers' Gram.

ll. 2660, 2661. Why not read beadu-scr˚d, as at l. 453, = _battle-shirt?_
B. and R. suppose two half-verses omitted between byrdu-scr˚d and b‚m
gemÊne. B. reads b˝wdu, = _handsome_, etc. Gr. suggests unc n˚, = _to us
two now_, for ˚rum; and K. and Grundt. read beÛn gemÊne for b‚m, etc. This
makes sense. Cf. Ha., p. 89.

l. 2666. Cf. the dat. absolute without preposition.

l. 2681. N‰gling; cf. Hrunting, L‚fing, and other famous wundor-smia
geweorc of the poem.

l. 2687. B. changes ˛onne into ˛one (rel. pro.) = _which_.--_Beit._ xii.

l. 2688. B. supports the MS. reading, wundum.

l. 2688. Cf. l. 2278 for similar language.

l. 2698. B. (_Beit._ xii. 105) renders: "he did not heed the head of the
dragon (which Beowulf with his sword had struck without effect), but he
struck the dragon somewhat further down." Cf. Saxo, vi. p. 272.

l. 2698. Cf. the language used at ll. 446 and 1373, where hafelan also
occurs; and h˝dan.

l. 2700. hwÍne; cf. Lowl. Sc. _wheen_, a number; Chaucer's _woon_, number.

l. 2702. S. proposes ˛‚ (for ˛‰t) ˛‰t f˝r, etc., = _when the fire began_,

l. 2704. "The (hup)-seax has often been found in Saxon graves on the hip of
the skeleton."--E.

l. 2707. Kl. proposes: feorh ealne wr‰c, = _drove out all the life_; cf.
_Gen._ l. 1385.--_Beit._ ix. 192. S. suggests gefylde,--_he felled the
foe_, etc.--_Ibid_. Parentheses seem unnecessary.

l. 2727. d‰g-hwÓl = _time allotted, lifetime_.

l. 2745, 2745. Ho. removes geong from the beginning of l. 2745 and places
it at the end of l. 2744.

l. 2750. R. proposes sigle searogimmas, as at l. 1158.

l. 2767. (1) B. proposes doubtfully oferhÓgean or oferhÓgan, = Goth,
_ufarhauhjan_, p. p. _ufarhauhids_ (Gr. [Greek: tuphwtheis]) = _exceed in
value_.--_Tidskr_. viii. 60. (2) Kl. proposes oferh˝dian, = _to make
arrogant, infatuate_; cf. oferh˝d.--_Beit._ ix. 192.

l. 2770. gelocen leoocr‰ftum = (1) _spell-bound_ (Th., Arnold, E.); (2)
_wrought with hand-craft_ (G.); (3) _meshed, linked together_ (H., Ho.);
cf. _Elene_, ll. 1251, 522.

l. 2778. B. considers bill ... ealdhl‚fordes as Beowulf's short sword, with
which he killed the dragon, l. 2704 (_Tidskr_. viii. 299). R. proposes
ealdhl‚forde. M¸llenh. understands ealdhl‚ford to mean the former possessor
of the hoard. W. agrees to this, but conceives ÊrgescÙd as a compd. = Êre
calceatus, _sheathed in brass_. Ha. translates ÊrgescÙd as vb. and adv.

l. 2791. Cf. l. 224, eoletes ‰t ende; landes ‰t ende, _Exod_. (Hunt).

l. 2792. MS. reads w‰teres weorpan, which R. would change to w‰tere

l. 2806. "Men saw from its height the whales tumbling in the waves, and
called it Whale's Ness (Hrones-nÊs)."--Br. p. 28. Cf. l. 3137.

l. 2815. WÓgl‚f was the next of kin, the last of the race, and hence the
recipient of Beowulf's kingly insignia. There is a possible play on the
word l‚f (WÓg-_l‚f_, ende-_l‚f_).

l. 2818. gingeste word; cf. _novissima verba_, and Ger. _j¸ngst_, lately.

l. 2837. E. translates on lande, _in the world_, comparing _on lÓfe, on

l. 2840. gerÊsde = pret. of gerÊsan (omitted from the Gloss.), same as
rÊsan; cf. l. 2691.

l. 2859. B. proposes de· ‚rÊdan, = _determine death_.--_Beit._ xii. 106.

l. 2861. Change geongum to geongan as a scribal error (?), but cf.
Lichtenheld, _Haupts Zeitschr._ xvi. 353-355.

l. 2871. S. and W. propose ÙwÍr.--_Beit._ ix. 142.

l. 2873. S. punctuates: wr‚e forwurpe, ˛‚, etc.

l. 2874. H.-So. begins a new sentence with nealles, ending the preceding
one with beget.

l. 2879. ‰tgifan = _to render, to afford_; omitted in Gloss.

ll. 2885-2892. "This passage ... equals the passage in Tacitus which
describes the tie of chief to companion and companion to chief among the
Germans, and which recounts the shame that fell on those who survived their
lord."--Br., p. 56.

l. 2886. cyn thus has the meaning of _gens_ or clan, just as in many
Oriental towns all are of one blood. E. compares Tacitus, _Germania_, 7;
and cf. "kith and kin."

l. 2892. Death is preferable to dishonor. Cf. Kemble, _Saxons_, i. 235.

l. 2901. The _[Greek: angelos]_ begins his _[Greek: angelia]_ here.

l. 2910. S. proposes higemÍe, _sad of soul;_ cf. ll. 2853 and 2864
(_Beit._ ix. 142). B. considers higemÍum a dat. or instr. pl. of an
abstract in -u (_Beit._ xii. 106). H. makes it a dat. pl. = _for the dead_.
For heafod-wearde, etc., cf. note on l. 446.

l. 2920-2921. B. explains "he could not this time, as usual, give jewels to
his followers."--_Beit._ xii. 106.

l. 2922. The Merovingian or Frankish race.

l. 2940 _seq._ B. conjectures:

cw‰ hÓe on mergenne mÍces ecgum
gÍtan wolde, sumon galgtreowu
‚he·wan on holte ond hÓe ‚hÙan on ˛‚
fuglum tÙ gamene.

--_Beit._ xii. 107, 372. Cf. S., _Beit._ ix. 143. gÍtan = _cause blood to
be shed._

l. 2950. B. proposes gomela for gÙda; "a surprising epithet for a Geat to
apply to the 'terrible' Ongentheow."--Ha. p. 99. But "good" does not
necessarily mean "morally excellent," as a "good" hater, a "good" fighter.

l. 2959. See H.-So. for an explanatory quotation from Paulus Diaconus, etc.
B., K., and Th. read segn Higel‚ces, = H.'s banner uplifted began to pursue
the Swede-men.--_Beit._ xii. 108. S. suggests sÊce, = _pursuit_.

l. 2977. gewyrpton: this vb. is also used reflexively in _Exod_. (Hunt), l.
130: wyrpton hie wÍrige.

l. 2989. b‰r is Grundt.'s reading, after the MS. "The surviving victor is
the heir of the slaughtered foe."--H.-So. Cf. _Hildebrands Lied_, ll. 61,

l. 2995. "A hundred of thousands in land and rings" (Ha., p. 100). Cf. ll.
2196, 3051. Cf. B., _Beit._ xii. 20, who quotes Saxo's _bis senas gentes_
and remarks: "Hrolf Kraki, who rewards his follower, for the slaying of the
foreign king, with jewels, rich lands, and his only daughter's hand,
answers to the Jutish king Hygel‚c, who rewards his liegeman, for the
slaying of OngentheÛw, with jewels, enormous estates, and _his_ only
daughter's hand."

l. 3006. H.-So. suggests Scilfingas for Scyldingas, because, at l. 2397,
Beowulf kills the Scylfing E·dgils and probably acquires his lands. Thus
ll. 3002, 3005, 3006, would indicate that, after Beowulf's death, the
Swedes desired to shake off his hated yoke. M¸llenh., however, regards l.
3006 as a thoughtless repetition of l. 2053.--_Haupts Zeitschr._ xiv. 239.

l. 3008. Cf. the same proverb at l. 256; and _Exod._ (Hunt.) l. 293.

l. 3022. E. quotes:

"Thai token an harp _gle and game_
And maked a lai and yaf it name."
--_Weber_, l. 358.

and from Percy, "The word _glee_, which peculiarly denoted their art (the
minstrels'), continues still in our own language ... it is to this day used
in a musical sense, and applied to a peculiar piece of composition."

l. 3025. "This is a finer use than usual of the common poetic attendants of
a battle, the wolf, the eagle, and the raven. The three are here like three
Valkyrie, talking of all that they have done."--Br., p. 57.

l. 3033. Cf. Hunt's _Dan._ l. 731, for similar language.

l. 3039. B. supplies a supposed gap here:

[banan e·c fundon bennum seÛcne
(nÍ) Êr hÓ ˛Êm gesÍgan syllÓcran wiht]
wyrm on wonge...
--_Beit._ xii. 372.

Cf. Ha., p. 102. W. and Ho. insert [˛Êr] before gesÍgan.

l. 3042. Cf. l. 2561, where gryre-giest occurs as an epithet of the dragon.
B. proposes gry[re-f‚h].

l. 3044. lyft-wynne, _in the pride of the air_, E.; _to rejoice in the
air_, Ha.

l. 3057. (1) He (God) is men's hope; (2) he is the heroes' hope; (3) gehyld
= the secret place of enchanters; cf. hÍlsmanna gehyld, Gr.'s reading,
after A.-S. hÊlsere, haruspex, augur.

l. 3060. B. suggests geh˝de, = _plundered_ (i.e. by the thief), for

ll. 3063-3066. (1) B. suggests wundur [de·e] hw‚r ˛onne eorl ellenrof ende
gefÍre = _let a brave man then somewhere meet his end by wondrous venture_,
etc.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 241; cf. l. 3038. (2) S. supposes an indirect
question introduced by hw‚r and dependent upon wundur, = _a mystery is it
when it happens that the hero is to die, if he is no longer to linger among
his people_.--_Beit._ ix. 143. (3) M¸llenh. suggests: _is it to be wondered
at that a man should die when he can no longer live?_--_Zachers Zeitschr._
xiv. 241. (4) Possibly thus:

Wundra hw‰t ˛onne,
eorl ellen-rÙf, ende gefÍre
lÓf-gesceafta, ˛onne leng ne m‰g (etc.),

in which hw‰t would = ˛urh hw‰t at l. 3069, and eorl would be subject of
the conjectural vb. wundra: "the valiant earl wondereth then through what
he shall attain his life's end, when he no longer may live.... So BeÛwulf
knew not (wondered how) through what _his_ end should come," etc. W. and
Ho. join ˛onne to the next line. Or, for hw‚r read wÊre: Wundur wÊre ˛onne
(= gif), etc., = "would it be any wonder if a brave man," etc., which is
virtually M¸llenhoff's.

l. 3053. galdre bewunden, _spell-bound_, throws light on l. 2770, gelocen
leoo-cr‰ftum. The "accursed" gold of legend is often dragon-guarded and
placed under a spell. Even human ashes (as Shakespeare's) are thus banned.
ll. 3047-3058 recall the so-called "Treasury of Atreus."

l. 3073. herh, hearh, _temple_, is conjectured by E. to survive in _Harrow.
Temple, barrow_, etc., have thus been raised to proper names. Cf. BiÛwulfes
biorh of l. 2808.

l. 3074. H.-So. has strude, = _ravage_, and compares l. 3127. MS. has
strade. S. suggests stride, = _tread_.

l. 3074. H.-So. omits str‚dan, = _tread, stride over_, from the Gloss.,
referring ll. 3174 and 3074 to str˚dan, q. v.

l. 3075. S. proposes: n‰s hÍ goldhw‰tes gearwor h‰fde, etc., = _Beowulf had
not before seen the greedy possessor's favor_.--_Beit._ ix. 143. B. reads,
goldhw‰te gearwor h‰fde, etc., making goldhw‰te modify Íst, = _golden
favor_; but see _Beit._ xii. 373, for B.'s later view.

l. 3086-3087. B. translates, "that which (i.e. the treasure) drew the king
thither was granted indeed, but it overwhelmed us."--_Beit._ xii. 109.

l. 3097. B. and S. propose ‰fter wine de·dum, = _in memory of the dead
friend_.--_Beit._ ix. 144.

l. 3106. The br‚d gold here possibly includes the i˙-monna gold of l. 3053
and the wunden gold of l. 3135. E. translates br‚d by _bullion_.

l. 3114. B. supposes folc-‚gende to be dat. sg. to gÙdum, referring to

l. 3116. C. considers weaxan, = Lat. _vescor_, to devour, as a parallel to
fretan, and discards parentheses.--_Beit._ viii. 573.

l. 3120. f˚s = _furnished with_; a meaning which must be added to those in
the Gloss.

ll. 3124-3125. S. proposes:

eÛde eahta sum under inwit-hrÙf
hilderinca: sum on handa b‰r, etc.
--_Beit._ ix. 144.

l. 3136. H.-So. corrects (after B.) to ‰eling_c_, the MS. having _e_.

l. 3145. "It was their [the Icelanders'] belief that the higher the smoke
rose in the air the more glorious would the burnt man be in heaven."--
_Ynglinga Saga_, 10 (quoted by E.). Cf. the funeral pyre of Herakles.

l. 3146-3147. B. conjectures:

... swÙgende lÍc
wÙpe bewunden windblonda lÍg

(lÍc from l‚can, see Gloss.).--_Beit._ xii. 110. Why not windblonda l‚c?

l. 3147. M¸llenhoff rejected wind-blond gel‰g because a great fire raises
rather than "lays" the wind; hence B., as above, = "swoughing sported the
flame wound with the howling of wind-currents."

l. 3151 _seq._ B. restores conjecturally:

swylce giÙmor-gyd sio geÛ-meowle
[‰fter BeÛwulfe] bunden-heorde
[song] sorg-cearig, sÊde geneahhe,
˛‰t hiÛ hyre [hearm-]dagas hearde on [dr]Íde,
w‰lfylla worn, [w]Ógendes egesan,
h˝[n]o ond h‰ftn˝d, heÛf on rÓce wealg.
--_Beit._ xii. 100.

Here geÛ-meowle = _old woman_ or _widow;_ bunden-heorde = _with bound
locks;_ heÛf = _lamentation;_ cf. l. 3143. on rÓce wealg is less preferable
than the MS. reading, heofon rÍce swealg = _heaven swallowed the smoke_.--
H.-So. B. thinks Beowulf's widow (geÛmeowle) was probably Hygd; cf. ll.
2370, 3017-3021.

l. 3162. H.-So. reads (with MS.) bronda be l‚fe, for betost, and omits
colon after bÍcn. So B., _Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 224.

l. 3171. E. quotes Gibbon's accounts of the burial of Attila when the
"chosen squadrons of the Hun, wheeling round in measured evolutions,
chanted a funeral song to the memory of a hero."

ll. 3173-3174. B. proposes:

woldon gÍn cwÓan [ond] kyning
wordgyd wrecan ond ymb wel sprecan.
--_Beit._ xii. 112.

l. 3183. Z., K., Th. read manna for mannum.

l. 3184. "It is the English ideal of a hero as it was conceived by an
Englishman some twelve hundred years ago."--Br., p. 18.


The original MS. of this fragment has vanished, but a copy had been made
and printed by Hickes in his _Thesaurus Linguarum Septentrionalium_, i.
192. The original was written on a single sheet attached to a codex of
homilies in the Lambeth Library. Mˆller, _Alteng. Epos_, p. 65, places the
fragment in the Finn episode, between ll. 1146 and 1147. Bugge (_Beit._
xii. 20) makes it illustrate the conflict in which Hn‰f fell, _i.e._ as
described in _BeÛwulf_ as antecedent to the events there given. Heinzel
(_Anzeiger f. d. Altert_.), however, calls attention to the fact that
Hengest in the fragment is called cyning, whereas in _BeÛwulf_, l. 1086, he
is called ˛egn. See H.-So., p. 125.

"The _Fight at Finnsburg_ and the lays from which our _BeÛwulf_ was
composed were, as it seems to me, sung among the English who dwelt in the
north of Denmark and the south of Sweden, and whose tribal name was the
Jutes or Goths."--Br., p. 101.

l. 1. R. supposes [hor]nas, and conjectures such an introductory
conversation as follows: "Is it dawning in the east, or is a fiery dragon
flying about, or are the turrets of some castle burning?" questions which
the king negatives in the same order. Then comes the positive declaration,
"rather they are warriors marching whose armor gleams in the moonlight."
--_Alt- und Angels. Lesebuch_, 1861. Heinzel and B. conjecture, [beorhtor
hor]nas byrna nÊfre. So. G.--_Beit._ xii. 22; _Anzeiger f. d. Altert._ x.

l. 5. B. conjectures fugelas to mean _arrows_, and supplies:

ac hÍr for bera [fyrdsearu rincas,
flacre fl‚nbogan], fugelas singa.

He compares Saxo, p. 95, _cristatis galeis hastisque sonantibus instant_,
as explanatory of l. 6.--_Beit._ xii. 22. But see Brooke, _Early Eng.
Literature_, who supposes fugelas = _raven_ and _eagle_, while grÊg-hama is
= _wulf_ (the "grey-coated one"), the ordinary accompaniers of battle.

l. 11. hicgea, etc.: cf. _Maldon_, l. 5; _Exod_. l. 218.

l. 15. Cf. B. (_Beit._ xii. 25), etc., and Saxo, p. 101, for l. 13.

ll. 18-21. H.-So. remarks: "If, according to Mˆller and Bugge, G‚rulf is
one of the attackers, one of Finn's men, this does not harmonize with his
character as G˚l‚f's son (l. 33), who (l. 16, and _BeÛwulf_, l. 1149) is a
Dane, therefore one of Finn's antagonists." B. (_Beit._ xii. 25)

˛‚ gyt G˚dene G‚rulf styrode,
˛‰t hÍ sw‚ freÛlÓc feorh forman sÓe
tÙ ˛Êre healle durum hyrsta ne bÊre,
n˚ hÓe nÓa heard ‚nyman wolde;

in which G˚dene is the same as Sigefer, l. 24; hÍ (l. 22) refers to
G‚rulf; and hÓe (l. 21) to hyrsta.

l. 27. sw‰er = _either_ (bad or good, life or death).--H.-So.

l. 29. cÍlod: meaning doubtful; cf. _Maldon_, l. 283. G. renders "curved
board"; Sw. suggests "round"? "hollow"?

l. 30. B. suggests b‚r-helm, = _boar-helm._ Cf. Saxo, p. 96.--_Beit._ xii.

l. 34. B. conjectures: (1) hwearf flacra hrÊw hr‰fen, wandrode; (2) hwearf
flacra hrÊw hr‰fen fram Ùrum = _flew from one corpse to another_.--_Beit._
xii. 27.

l. 43. B. supposes wund h‰le to be a Dane, folces hyrde to be Hn‰f, in
opposition to Holtzmann (_Germania_, viii. 494), who supposes the wounded
man to be a Frisian, and folces hyrde to be their king, Finn.--_Beit._ xii.

l. 45. B. adopts Th.'s reading heresceorp unhrÙr = _equipments
useless_.--_Beit._ xii. 28.

l. 47. "Though wounded, they had retained their strength and activity in
battle."--B., _Beit._ xii. 28.


ll. 105 and 218. MS. and Ho. read won-sÊli and f‚mi-heals.

ll. 143, 183, 186, etc. Read ˛Êm for ˛‰m.

l. 299. MS. reads gÙd-fremmendra. So H.-So.

l. 338. Ho. marks wr‰c- and its group long.

l. 530. Hw‰t should here probably be printed as an interj., hw‰t! Cf. ll.
1, 943, 2249.

l. 2263. Koeppel suggests nis for n‰s.

The editors are much indebted to E. Koeppel (in _Eng. Stud._ xiii. 3) for
numerous corrections in text and glossary.

l. 3070. H.-So. begins a new line with sw‚.



ac, conj. denoting contrariety: hence 1) _but_ (like N.H.G. sondern), 109,
135, 339, etc.--2) _but_ (N.H.G. aber), _nevertheless_, 602, 697, etc.--3)
in direct questions: nonne, numquid, 1991.

aglÊca, ahlÊca, ‰glÊca, -cea, w. m. (cf. Goth, aglo, _trouble_, O.N. agi,
_terror_, + l‚c, _gift, sport: = misery, vexation, = bringer of trouble_;
hence): 1) _evil spirit, demon, a demon-like being_; of Grendel, 159, 433,
593, etc.; of the drake, 2535, 2906, etc.--2) _great hero, mighty warrior_;
of Sigemund, 894; of BeÛwulf: gen. sg. aglÊcan(?), 1513; of BeÛwulf and the
drake: nom. pl. ˛‚ aglÊcean, 2593.

aglÊc-wÓf, st. n., _demon, devil, in the form of a woman_; of Grendel's
mother, 1260.

aldor. See ealdor.

al-wealda. See eal-w.

am-biht (from and-b., Goth, and-baht-s), st. m., _servant, man-servant_:
nom. sg. ombeht, of the coast-guard, 287; ombiht, of Wulfg‚r, 336.

ambiht-˛egn (from ambiht n. officium and ˛egn, which see), _servant,
man-servant_: dat. sg. ombiht-˛egne, of BeÛwulf's servant, 674.

an, prep, with the dat., _on, in, with respect to_, 678; _with, among, at,
upon_ (position after the governed word), 1936; with the acc., 1248.
Elsewhere on, which see.

ancor, st. m., _anchor_: dat. sg. ancre, 303, 1884.

ancor-bend, m. (?) f. (?), _anchor-cable_: dat. pl. oncer-bendum, 1919.

and, conj. (ond is usual form; for example, 601, 1149, 2041), and 33, 39,
40, etc. (See Appendix.)

anda, w. m., _excitement, vexation, horror_: dat. wr‚um on andan, 709,

and-git, st. n., _insight, understanding_: nom. sg., 1060. See gitan.

and-h‚tor, st. m. n., _heat coming against one_: gen. sg. rÍes
and-h‚ttres, 2524.

and-lang, -long, adj., _very long._ hence 1) _at whole length, raised up
high_: acc. andlongne eorl, 2696 (cf. Bugge upon this point, Zachers
Ztschr., 4, 217).--2) _continual, entire_; andlangne d‰g, 2116, _the whole
day_; andlonge niht, 2939.

and-le·n, st. n., _reward, payment in full_: acc. sg., 1542, 2095 (hand-,
hond-lean, MS.).

and-risno, st. f. (see rÓsan, surgere, decere), _that which is to be
observed, that which is proper, etiquette_: dat. pl. for andrysnum,
_according to etiquette_, 1797.

and-saca, w. m., _adversary_: godes andsaca (Grendel), 787, 1683.

and-slyht, st. m., _blow in return_: acc. sg., 2930, 2973 (MS. both times

and-swaru, st. f., _act of accosting_: 1) to persons coming up, _an
address_, 2861.--2) in reply to something said, _an answer_, 354, 1494,

and-weard, adj., _present, existing_: acc. sg. n. swÓn ofer helme and-weard
(_the image of the boar, which stands on his helm_), 1288.

and-wlita, w. m., _countenance_: acc. sg. -an, 690.

an-sund, adj., _entirely unharmed_: nom. sg. m., 1001.

an-s˝n, f., _the state of being seen_: hence 1) _the exterior, the form_,
251: ans˝n ˝wde, _showed his form_, i.e. appeared, 2835.--2) _aspect,
appearance_, 929; on-s˝n, 2773.

an-walda, w. m., _He who rules over all, God_, 1273. See Note.

atol, adj. (also eatol, 2075, etc.), _hostile, frightful, cruel_: of
Grendel, 159, 165, 593, 2075, etc.; of Grendel's mother's hands (dat. pl.
atolan), 1503; of the undulation of the waves, 849; of battle, 597,
2479.--cf. O.N. atall, fortis, strenuus.

atelÓc, adj., _terrible, dreadful_: atelÓc egesa, 785.


‚, adv. (Goth, ·iv, acc. from aiv-s aevum), _ever, always_, 455, 882, 931,
1479: ‚ syan, _ever afterwards, ever, ever after_, 283, 2921.--_ever_,
780.--Comp. n‚.

‚d st. m. _funeral pile_: acc. sg. ‚d, 3139; dat. sg. ‚de, 1111, 1115.

‚d-faru, st. f., _way to the funeral pile_, dat. sg. on ‚d-f‰re, 3011.

‚dl, st. f. _sickness_, 1737, 1764, 1849.

‚, st. m., _oath in general_, 2740; _oath of allegiance_, 472 (?); _oath
of reconciliation of two warring peoples_, 1098, 1108.

‚-sweord, st. n., _the solemn taking of an oath, the swearing of an oath_:
nom. pl., 2065. See sweord.

‚um-swerian, m. pl., _son-in-law and father-in-law_: dat. pl., 84.

‚gan, verb, pret. and pres., _to have, to possess_, w. acc.: III. prs. sg.
‚h, 1728; inf. ‚gan, 1089; prt. ‚hte, 487, 522, 533; with object, geweald,
to be supplied, 31. Form contracted with the negative: prs. sg. I. n‚h hw‚
sweord wege (_I have no one to wield the sword_), 2253.

‚gen, adj., _own, peculiar_, 2677.

‚gend (prs. part. of ‚gan), _possessor, owner, lord_: gen. sg. ‚gendes, _of
God_, 3076.--Compounds: blÊd-, bold-, folc-, m‰gen-‚gend.

‚gend-fre·, w. m., _owner, lord_: gen. sg. ‚gend-fre·n, 1884.

‚hsian, ge-‚hsian, w. v.: 1) _to examine, to find out by inquiring_: pret.
part. ge-‚hsod, 433.--2) _to experience, to endure_: pret. ‚hsode, 1207;
pl. ‚hsodon, 423.

‚ht, st. n. (contracted from ‚-wiht, which see), _something, anything_: ‚ht
cwices, 2315.

‚n, num. The meaning of this word betrays its apparent demonstrative
character: 1) _this, that_, 2411, of the hall in the earth mentioned
before; similarly, 100 (of Grendel; already mentioned), cf. also 2775.--2)
_one_, a particular one among many, a single one, in numerical sense: ymb
‚ne niht (_the next night_), 135; ˛urh ‚nes cr‰ft, 700; ˛‚ra ‚num, 1038; ‚n
‰fter ‚num, _one for the other_ (HrÍel for Herebeald), 2462: similarly, ‚n
‰fter eallum, 2269; ‚nes hw‰t, _some single thing, a part_, 3011; se ‚n
leÛda dugue, _the one of the heroes of the people_, 2238; ‚nes willan,
_for the sake of a single one_, 3078, etc.--Hence, again, 3) _alone,
distinguished_, 1459, 1886.--4) _a_, in the sense of an indefinite article:
‚n ... feÛnd, 100; gen. sg. ‚nre bÍne (or to No.2[?]), 428; ‚n ... draca,
221l--5) gen. pl. ‚nra, in connection with a pronoun, _single_; ‚nra
gehwylces, _every single one_, 733; ‚nra gehwylcum, 785. Similarly, the
dat. pl. in this sense: nemne fe·um ‚num, _except a few single ones_,
1082.--6) solus, _alone_: in the strong form, 1378, 2965; in the weak form,
145, 425, 431, 889, etc.; with the gen., ‚na Ge·ta dugue, _alone of the
warriors of the Ge·tas_, 2658.--7) solitarius, _alone, lonely_, see
Ên.--Comp. n‚n.

‚n-feald, adj., _simple, plain, without reserve_: acc. sg. ‚nfealdne
ge˛Ùht, _simple opinion_, 256.

‚n-genga, -gengea, w. m., _he who goes alone_, of Grendel, 165, 449.

‚n-haga, w. m., _he who stands alone_, solitarius, 2369.

‚n-hydig, adj. (like the O.N. ein-r‚d-r, _of one resolve_, i.e. of firm
resolve), _of one opinion_, i.e. firm, brave, decided, 2668.

‚nga, adj. (only in the weak form), _single, only_: acc. sg. ‚ngan dÙhtor,
375, 2998; ‚ngan eaferan, 1548; dat. sg. ‚ngan brÍer, 1263.

‚n-p‰, st. m., _lonely way, path_: acc. pl. ‚npaas, 1411.

‚n-rÊd, adj. (cf. under ‚n-hydig), _of firm resolution, resolved_, 1530,

‚n-tÓd, st. f., _one time_, i.e. the same time, ymb ‚n-tÓd Ùres dÙgores,
_about the same time the second day_ (they sailed twenty-four hours),
219.--‚n stands as in ‚n-mod, O.H.G. ein-muoti, _harmonious, of the same

‚nunga, adv., _throughout, entirely, wholly_, 635.

‚r, st. m., _ambassador, messenger_, 336, 2784.

‚r, st. f., 1) _honor, dignity_: ‚rum healdan, _to hold in honor_, 296;
similarly, 1100, 1183.--2) _favor, grace, support_: acc. sg. ‚re, 1273,
2607; dat. sg. ‚re, 2379; gen. pl. hw‰t ... ‚rna, 1188.--Comp. worold-‚r;
also written Êr.

‚r-f‰st, adj., _honorable, upright_, 1169; of H˚nfer (with reference to
588). See f‰st.

‚rian, w. v., (_to be gracious_), _to spare_: III. sg. prs. w. dat. nÊnegum
‚ra; of Grendel, 599.

‚r-st‰f, st. m.,(elementum honoris), _grace, favor_: dat. pl. mid ‚rstafum,
317.--_Help, support_: dat. pl. for ‚r-stafum, _to the assistance_, 382,
458. See st‰f.

‚ter-te·r, m., _poisonous drop_: dat. pl. Óren ‚ter-te·rum f‚h (steel which
is dipped in poison or in poisonous sap of plants), 1460.

‚ttor, st. n., _poison_, here of the poison of the dragon's bite: nom.,

‚ttor-sceaa, w. m., _poisonous enemy, of the poisonous dragon_: gen. sg.
-sceaan, 2840.

‚w‚, adv. (certainly not the dative, but a reduplicated form of ‚, which
see), _ever_: ‚w‚ tÙ aldre, _fÙr ever and ever_, 956.


‰dre, adv., _hastily, directly, immediately_, 77, 354, 3107. [Êdre.]

‰ele, adj., _noble_: nom. sg., of BeÛwulf, 198, 1313; of BeÛwulf's father,
263, where it can be understood as well in a moral as in a genealogical
sense; the latter prevails decidedly in the gen. sg. ‰elan cynnes, 2235.

‰eling, st. m., _nobleman, man of noble descent_, especially the
appellation of a man of royal birth; so of the kings of the Danes, 3; of
Scyld, 33; of HrÙg‚r, 130; of Sigemund, 889; of BeÛwulf, 1226, 1245, 1597,
1816, 2189, 2343, 2375, 2425, 2716, 3136; perhaps also of D‰ghrefn,
2507;--then, in a broader sense, also denoting other noble-born men:
ƒschere, 1295; HrÙg‚r's courtiers, 118, 983; HeremÙd's courtiers, 907;
Hengest's warriors, 1113; BeÛwulf's retinue, 1805, 1921, 3172; noble-born
in general, 2889. --Comp. sib-‰eling.

‰elu, st. n., only in the pl., _noble descent, nobility_, in the sense of
noble lineage: acc. pl. ‰elu, 392; dat. pl. cyning ‰elum gÙd, _the king,
of noble birth_, 1871; ‰elum diÛre, _worthy on account of noble lineage_,
1950; ‰elum (hÊle˛um, MS.), 332.--Comp. f‰der-‰elu.

‰fnan, w. v. w. acc., _to perform, to carry out, to accomplish_: inf.
ellen-weorc ‰fnan, _to do a heroic deed_, 1465; pret. unriht ‰fnde,
_perpetrated wrong_, 1255.

ge-‰fnan, 1) _to carry out, to do, to accomplish_: pret. pl. ˛‰t ge‰fndon
sw‚, _so carried that out_, 538; pret. part. ‚ w‰s ge‰fned, _the oath was
sworn_, 1108.--2) _get ready, prepare_: pret. part. ge‰fned, 3107. See

‰fter (comparative of af, Ags. of, which see; hence it expresses the idea
of _forth, away, from, back_), a) adv., _thereupon, afterwards_, 12, 341,
1390, 2155.--ic him ‰fter sceal, _I shall go after them_, 2817; in word
‰fter cw‰, 315, the sense seems to be, _spoke back, having turned_; b)
prep. w. dat., 1) (temporal) _after_, 119, 128, 187, 825, 1939, etc.; ‰fter
beorne, _after the_ (death of) _the hero_, 2261, so 2262; ‰fter
m‚um-welan, _after_ (obtaining) _the treasure_, 2751.--2) (causal) as
proceeding from something, denoting result and purpose, hence, _in
consequence of, conformably to_: ‰fter rihte, _in accordance with right_,
1050, 2111; ‰fter faroe, _with the current_, 580; so 1321, 1721, 1944,
2180, etc., ‰fter heao-sw‚te, _in consequence of the blood of battle_,
1607; ‰fter w‰lnÓe, _in consequence of mortal enmity_, 85; _in accordance
with, on account of, after, about_: ‰fter ‰elum (hÊle˛um, MS.)fr‰gn,
_asked about the descent_, 332; ne frin ˛u ‰fter sÊlum, _ask not after my
welfare_, 1323; ‰fter sincgyfan greÛte, _weeps for the giver of treasure_,
1343; him ‰fter deÛrum men dyrne langa, _longs in secret for the dear
man_, 1880; ‚n ‰fter ‚num, _one for the other_, 2462, etc.--3) (local),
_along_: ‰fter gumcynnum, _throughout the races of men, among men_, 945;
sÙhte bed ‰fter b˚rum, _sought a bed among the rooms of the castle_ (the
castle was fortified, the hall was not), 140; ‰fter recede wl‚t, _looked
along the hall_, 1573; stone ‰fter st‚ne, _smelt along the rocks_, 2289;
‰fter lyfte, _along the air through the air_, 2833; similarly, 996, 1068,
1317, etc.

‰f-˛unca, w. m., _anger, chagrin, vexatious affair_: nom., 502.

‰glÊcea. See aglÊcea.

‰led (Old Sax. eld, O.N. edl-r), st. m., _fire_, 3016. [Êled.]

‰led-leÛma, w. m., _(fire-light), torch_: acc. sg. leÛman, 3126. See leÛma.

‰l-fylce (from ‰l-, Goth. ali-s, [Greek: allos], and fylce, O.N. fylki,
collective form from folc), st. n., _other folk, hostile army_: dat. pl.
wi ‰lfylcum, 2372.

‰l-mihtig (for eal-m.), adj., _almighty_: nom. sg. m., of the weak form, se
‰l-mihtiga, 92.

‰l-wiht, st. m., _being of another species, monster_: gen. pl. ‰l-wihta
eard, of the dwelling-place of Grendel's kindred, 1501.

‰ppel-fealu, adj., _dappled sorrel_, or _apple-yellow_: nom. pl.
‰ppel-fealuwe mearas, _apple-yellow steeds_, 2166.

‰rn, st. n., _house_, in the compounds heal-, hord-, medo-, ˛ry-, win-‰rn.

‰sc, st. m., _ash_ (does not occur in BeÛwulf in this sense), _lance,
spear_, because the shaft consists of ash wood: dat. pl. (qu‚ instr.) ‰scum
and ecgum, _with spears and swords_, 1773.

‰sc-holt, st. n., _ash wood, ashen shaft_: nom. pl. ‰sc-holt ufan grÊg,
_the ashen shafts gray above_ (spears with iron points), 330.

‰sc-wÓga, w. m., _spear-fighter, warrior armed with the spear_: nom. sg.,

‰t, prep. w. dat., with the fundamental meaning of nearness to something,
hence 1) local, a) _with, near, at, on, in_ (rest): ‰t h˝e, in _harbor_,
32; ‰t symle, _at the meal_, 81, ‰t ‚de, _on the funeral-pile_, 1111, 1115;
‰t ˛e ‚num, _with thee alone_, 1378; ‰t wÓge, _in the fight_, 1338; ‰t
hilde, 1660, 2682; ‰t Ête, _in eating_, 3027, etc. b) _to, towards, at, on_
(motion to): de·es wylm hr‚n ‰t heortan, _seized upon the heart_, 2271;
gehÍton ‰t h‰rgtrafum, _vowed at_ (or _to_) _the temples of the gods_, 175.
c) with verbs of taking away, _away from_ (as starting from near an
object): ge˛eah ˛‰t ful ‰t Wealh˛eÛn, _took the cup from W_., 630; fela ic
geb‚d grynna ‰t Grendle, _from Grendel_, 931; ‰t mÓnum f‰der genam, _took
me from my father to himself_, 2430.--2) temporal, _at, in, at the time
of_: ‰t frumsceafte, _in the beginning_, 45; ‰t ende, _at an end_, 224;
fand sÓnne dryhten ealdres ‰t ende, _at the end of life, dying_, 2791;
similarly, 2823; ‰t feohgyftum, _in giving gifts_, 1090; ‰t sÓestan,
_finally_, 3014.

‰t-grÊpe, adj., _laying hold of_, prehendens, 1270.

‰t-rihte, adv., _almost_, 1658.

Êdre, Ídre, st. f., _aqueduct, canal_ (not in BeÛw.), _vein_ (not in
BeÛw.), _stream, violent pouring forth_: dat. pl. sw‚t Êdrum sprong, _the
blood sprang in streams_, 2967; blÙd Ídrum dranc, _drank the blood in
streams_(?), 743.

Êm, st. m., _breath, gasp, snort_: instr. sg. hreer Ême weÛll, _the
breast_ (of the drake) _heaved with snorting_, 2594.

Êfen, st. m., _evening_, 1236.

Êfen-gram, adj., _hostile at evening, night-enemy_: nom. sg. m. Êfen-grom,
of Grendel, 2075.

Êfen-leÛht, st. n., _evening-light_: nom. sg., 413.

Êfen-r‰st, st. f., _evening-rest_: acc. sg. -r‰ste, 647, 1253.

Êfen-sprÊc, st. f., _evening-talk_: acc. sg. gemunde ...Êfen-sprÊce,
_thought about what he had spoken in the evening_, 760.

Êfre, adv., _ever, at any time_, 70, 280, 504, 693, etc.: in negative
sentences, Êfre ne, _never_, 2601.--Comp. nÊfre.

Êg-hw‚ (O.H.G. Ío-ga-hwÎr), pron., _every, each_: dat. sg. ÊghwÊm, 1385.
The gen. sg. in adverbial sense, _in all, throughout, thoroughly_: Êghw‰s
untÊle, _thoroughly blameless_, 1866; Êghw‰s unrÓm, _entirely innumerable
quantity_, i.e. an enormous multitude, 2625, 3136.

Êg-hw‰er (O.H.G. Ío-ga-hwÎdar): 1) _each_ (of two): nom. sg. h‰fde
Êghw‰er ende gefÍred, _each of the two_ (BeÛwulf and the drake) _had
reached the end_, 2845; dat. sg. Êghw‰rum w‰s brÙga fram Ùrum, _to each
of the two_ (BeÛwulf and the drake) _was fear of the other_, 2565; gen. sg.
Êghw‰res ... worda and worca, 287.--2) _each_ (of several): dat. sg. heora
Êghw‰rum, 1637.

Êg-hwÊr, adv., _everywhere_, 1060.

Êg-hwilc (O.H.G. Ío-gi-hwÎlih), pron., unusquisque, _every_ (one): 1) used
as an adj.: acc. sg. m. dÊl Êghwylcne, 622.--2) as substantive, a) with the
partitive genitive: nom. sg. Êg-hwylc, 9, 2888; dat. sg. Êghwylcum, 1051.
b) without gen.: nom. sg. Êghwylc, 985, 988; (w‰s) Êghwylc Ùrum tr˝we,
_each one_ (of two) _true to the other_, 1166.

Êg-weard, st. f., _watch on the sea shore_: acc. sg. Êg-wearde, 241.

Êht (abstract form from ‚gan, denoting the state of possessing), st. f.: 1)
_possession, power_: acc. sg. on flÙdes Êht, 42; on w‰teres Êht, _into the
power of the water_, 516; on Êht gehwearf Denigea fre·n, _passed over into
the possession of a Danish master_, 1680.--2) _property, possessions,
goods_: acc. pl. Êhte, 2249.--Comp. m‚m-, gold-Êht.

Êht (O.H.G. ‚hta), st. f., _pursuit_: nom. ˛‚ w‰s Êht boden Sweona leÛdum,
segn Higel‚ce, _then was pursuit offered to the people of the Sweonas,
(their) banner to Hygel‚c_ (i.e. the banner of the Swedes, taken during
their flight, fell into the hands of Hygel‚c), 2958.

ge-Êhtan, w. v., _to prize, to speak in praise of_: pret. part. geÊhted,
1866. [ge‰htan.]

ge-Êhtla, w. m., or ge-Êhtle, w. f., _a speaking of with praise, high
esteem_: gen. sg. hy ... wyre ˛incea eorla geÊhtlan, _seem worthy of the
high esteem of the noble-born_, 369. [ge‰htla.]

Ên (oblique form of ‚n), num., _one_: acc. sg. m. ˛one Ênne ˛one..., _the
one whom_..., 1054; oftor micle ˛onne on Ênne sÓ, _much oftener than one
time_, 1580; for onsendon Ênne, _sent him forth alone_, 46.

Êne, adv., _once_: oft nalles Êne, 3020.

Ênig, pron., _one, any one_, 474, 503, 510, 534, etc.: instr. sg. nolde ...
0nige ˛inga, _would in no way, not at all_, 792; lyt Ênig mearn, _little
did any one sorrow_ (i.e. no one), 3130.--With the article: n‰s se
folccyning ... Ênig, _no people's king_, 2735.--Comp. nÊnig.

Ên-lÓc, adj., _alone, excellent, distinguished_: ÊnlÓc ans˝n,
_distinguished appearance_, 251; ˛e·h ˛e hiÛ ÊnlÓcu s˝, _though she be
beautiful_, 1942.

Êr (comparative form, from ‚): 1) adv., _sooner, before, beforehand_, 15,
656, 695, 758, etc., _for a long time_, 2596; eft sw‚ Êr, _again as
formerly_, 643; Êr ne sian, _neither sooner nor later_, 719; Êr and sÓ,
_sooner and later_ (all times), 2501; nÙ ˛˝ Êr (_not so much the sooner_),
_yet not_, 755, 1503, 2082, 2161, 2467.--2) conjunct., _before, ere_: a)
with the ind.: Êr hiÛ tÙ setle geÛng, 2020. b) w. subjunc.: Êr ge fyr
fÍran, _before you travel farther_, 252; Êr he on hwurfe 164, so 677, 2819;
Êr ˛on d‰g cwÙme, _ere the day break_, 732; Êr correlative to Êr adv.: Êr
he feorh sele, aldor an Ùfre, Êr he wille ..., _he will sooner_ (rather)
_leave his life upon the shore, before_ (than) _he will_ ..., 1372.--3)
prepos. with dat., _before_ Êr de·e, _before death_, 1389; Êr d‰ges hwÓle,
_before daybreak_, 2321; Êr swylt-d‰ge, _before the day of death_, 2799.

Êror, comp. adv., _sooner, before-hand_, 810; _formerly_, 2655.

Êrra, comp. adj., _earlier_; instr. pl., Êrran mÊlum, _in former times_,
908, 2238, 3036.

Êrest, superl.: 1) adv., _first of all, foremost_, 6, 617, 1698, etc.--2)
as subst. n., _relation to, the beginning_: acc. ˛‰t ic his Êrest ˛e eft
ges‰gde (_to tell thee in what relation it stood at first to the coat of
mail that has been presented_), 2158. See Note.

Êr-d‰g, st. m. (_before-day_), _morning-twilight, gray of morning_: dat.
sg. mid Êrd‰ge, 126; samod Êrd‰ge, 1312, 2943.

Êrende, st. n., _errand, trust_: acc. sg., 270, 345.

Êr-f‰der, st. m., _late father, deceased father_: nom sg. sw‚ his Êrf‰der,

Êr-gestreÛn, st. n., _old treasure, possessions dating from old times_: acc
sg., 1758; gen. sg. swylcra fela ÊrgestreÛna, _much of such old treasure_,
2233. See gestreÛn.

Êr-geweorc, st. n., _work dating from old times_: nom. sg. enta Êr-geweorc,
_the old work of the giants_ (of the golden sword-hilt from Grendel's
water-hall), 1680. See geweorc.

Êr-gÙd, adj., _good since old times, long invested with dignity_ or
_advantages_: ‰eling ÊrgÙd, 130; (eorl) ÊrgÙd, 1330; Óren ÊrgÙd
(_excellent sword_), 990, 2587.

Êr-wela, w. m., _old possessions, riches dating from old times_: acc. sg.
Êrwelan, 2748. See wela.

Ês, st. n., _carcass, carrion_: dat. (instr.) sg. Êse, of ƒschere's corpse,

Êt, st. m., _food, meat_: dat, sg., h˚ him ‰t Ête speÛw, _how he fared well
at meat_, 3027.

Êttren (see ‚ttor), adj., _poisonous_: w‰s ˛‰t blÙd tÙ ˛‰s h‚t, Êttren
ellorg‚st, se Êr inne swealt, _so hot was the blood, (and) poisonous the
demon_ (Grendel's mother) _who died therein_, 1618


bana, bona, w. m., _murderer_, 158, 588, 1103, etc.: acc. sg. bonan
Ongen˛eÛwes, of Hygel‚c, although in reality his men slew Ongen˛eÛw (2965
ff.), 1969. Figuratively of inanimate objects: ne w‰s ecg bona, 2507; wear
wracu Weohst‚nes bana, 2614.--Comp.: ecg-, feorh-, g‚st-, hand-, m˚-bana.

bon-g‚r, st. m. _murdering spear_, 2032.

ge-bannan, st. v. w. acc. of the thing and dat. of the person, _to command,
to bid_: inf., 74.

b‚d, st. f., _pledge_, only in comp.: n˝d-b‚d.

b‚n, st. n., _bone_: dat. sg. on b‚ne (on the bony skin of the drake),
2579; dat. pl. heals ealne ymbefÍng biteran b‚num (here of the teeth of the
drake), 2693.

b‚n-cÙfa, w. m., "cubile ossium" (Grimm) of the body: dat. sg. -cÙfan,

b‚n-f‚g, adj., _variegated with bones_, either with ornaments made of
bone-work, or adorned with bone, perhaps deer-antlers; of HrÙg‚r's hall,
781. The last meaning seems the more probable.

b‚n-f‰t, st. n., _bone-vessel_, i.e. the body: acc. pl. b‚n-fatu, 1117.

b‚n-hring, st. m., _the bone-structure, joint, bone-joint_: acc. pl. hire
wi halse ... b‚nhringas br‰c (_broke her neck-joint_), 1568.

b‚n-h˚s, st. n., _bone-house_, i.e. the body: acc. sg. b‚nh˚s gebr‰c, 2509;
similarly, 3148.

b‚n-loca, w. m., _the enclosure of the bones_, i.e. the body: acc. sg. b‚t
b‚nlocan, _bit the body_, 743; nom. pl. burston b‚nlocan, _the body burst_
(of Grendel, because his arm was torn out), 819.

b‚t, st. m., _boat, craft, ship_, 211.--Comp. sÊ-b‚t.

b‚t-weard, st. m., _boat-watcher, he who keeps watch over the craft._ dat.
sg. -wearde, 1901.

b‰, st. n., _bath_: acc. sg. ofer ganotes b‰, _over the diver's bath_
(i.e. the sea), 1862.

b‰rnan, w. v., _to cause to burn, to burn_: inf. hÍt ... b‚nfatu b‰rnan,
_bade that the bodies be burned_, 1117; ongan ... beorht hofu b‰rnan,
_began to consume the splendid country-seats_ (the dragon), 2314.

for-b‰rnan, w. v., _consume with fire_: inf. hy hine ne mÙston ...
brondefor-b‰rnan, _they_ (the Danes) _could not burn him_ (the dead
ƒschere) _upon the funeral-pile_, 2127.

bÊdan (Goth, baidjan, O.N. beia), _to incite, to encourage_: pret. bÊdde
byre geonge, _encouraged the youths_ (at the banquet), 2019.

ge-bÊdan, w. v., _to press hard_: pret. part. bysigum gebÊded, _distressed
by trouble, difficulty, danger_ (of battle), 2581; _to drive, to send
forth_: strÊla storm strengum gebÊded, _the storm of arrows sent with
strength_, 3118; _overcome_: draca ... bealwe gebÊded, _the dragon ...
overcome by the ills of battle_, 2827.

bÊl (O.N. b‚l), st. n., _fire, flames_: (wyrm) mid bÊle fÙr, _passed
(through the air) with fire_, 2309; h‰fde landwara lÓge befangan, bÊle and
bronde, _with fire and burning_, 2323.--Especially, _the fire of the
funeral-pile, the funeral-pile_, 1110, 1117, 2127; Êr he bÊl cure, _ere he
sought the burning_ (i.e. died), 2819; h‚ta ... hlÊw gewyrcean ... ‰fter
bÊle, _after I am burned, let a burial mound be thrown up_ (BeÛwulf's
words), 2804.

bÊl-f˝r, st. n., _bale-fire, fire of the funeral-pile_: gen. pl. bÊlf˝ra
mÊst, 3144.

bÊl-stede, st. m., _place for the funeral-pile_: dat. sg. in bÊl=stede,

bÊl-wudu, st. m., _wood for the funeral-pile_, 3113.

bÊr, st. f., _bier_, 3106.

ge-bÊran, w. v., _to conduct one's self, behave_: inf. w. adv., ne gefr‰gen
ic ˛‚ mÊge ... sÍl gebÊran, _I did not hear that a troop bore itself
better, maintained a nobler deportment_, 1013; he on eoran geseah ˛one
leÛfestan lÓfes ‰t ende ble·te gebÊran, _saw the best-beloved upon the
earth, at the end of his life, struggling miserably_ (i.e. in a helpless
situation), 2825.

ge-bÊtan (denominative from bÊte, _the bit_), w. v., _to place the bit in
the mouth of an animal, to bridle_: pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s HrÙg‚re hors
gebÊted, 1400.

be, prep. w. dat. (with the fundamental meaning _near_, "but not of one
direction, as ‰t, but more general"): 1) local, _near by, near, at, on_
(rest): be ˝dl‚fe uppe lÊgon, _lay above, upon the deposit of the waves_
(upon the strand, of the slain nixies), 566; h‰fde be honda, _held by the
hand_ (BeÛwulf held Grendel), 815; be sÊm tweonum, _in the circuit of both
the seas_, 859, 1686; be m‰ste, _on the mast_, 1906; by f˝re, _by the
fire_, 2220; be n‰sse, _at the promontory_, 2244; s‰t be ˛Êm gebrÙrum
twÊm, _sat by the two brothers_, 1192; w‰s se gryre l‰ssa efne sw‚ micle
sw‚ bi m‰ga cr‰ft be wÊpnedmen, _the terror was just so much less, as is
the strength of woman to the warrior_ (i.e. is valued by), 1285, etc.--2)
also local, but of motion from the subject in the direction of the object,
_on, upon, by_: gefÍng be eaxle, _seized by the shoulder_, 1538; ‚lÍdon
leÛfne ˛eÛden be m‰ste, _laid the dear lord near the mast_, 36; be healse
genam, _took him by the neck, fell upon his neck_, 1873; wÊpen hafenade be
hiltum, _grasped the weapon by the hilt_, 1757, etc.--3) with this is
connected the causal force, _on account of, for, according to_: ic ˛is gid
be ˛e ‚wr‰c, _I spake this solemn speech for thee, for thy sake_, 1724; ˛˚
˛e lÊr be ˛on, _learn according to this, from this_, 1723; be f‰der l‚re,
_according to her father's direction_, 1951.--4) temporal, _while, during_:
be ˛e lifigendum, _while thou livest, during thy life_, 2666. See bÓ.

bed, st. n., _bed, couch_: acc. sg. bed, 140, 677; gen. sg. beddes, 1792;
dat. pl. beddum, 1241.--Comp: dea-, hlin-, l‰ger-, moror-, w‰l-bed.

ge-bedde, w. f., _bed-fellow_: dat. sg. wolde sÍcan ewÍn tÙ gebeddan,
_wished to seek the queen as bed-fellow, to go to bed with her_,
666.--Comp. heals-gebedde.

begen, fem. b‚, _both_: nom. m., 536, 770, 2708; acc. fem. on b‚ healfa,
_on two sides_ (i.e. Grendel and his mother), 1306; dat. m. b‚m, 2197; and
in connection with the possessive instead of the personal pronoun, ˚rum
b‚m, 2661; gen. n. bega, 1874, 2896; bega gehw‰res, _each one of the two_,
1044; bega folces, of _both peoples_, 1125.

ge-belgan, st. v. (properly, _to cause to swell, to swell_), _to irritate_:
w. dat. (pret. subj.) ˛‰t he Ícean dryhtne bitre gebulge, _that he had
bitterly angered the eternal Lord_, 2332; pret. part. gebolgen, 1540;
(gebolge, MS.), 2222; pl. gebolgne, 1432; more according to the original
meaning in torne gebolgen, 2402.

‚-belgan, _to anger_: pret. sg. w. acc. Ù ˛‰t hyne ‚n ‚bealh mon on mÙde,
_till a man angered him in his heart_, 2281; pret. part. ‚bolgen, 724.

ben, st. f., _wound_: acc. sg. benne, 2725.--Comp.: feorh-, seax-ben.

benc, st. f., _bench_: nom. sg. benc, 492; dat. sg. bence, 327, 1014, 1189,
1244.--Comp.: ealu-, medu-benc.

benc-swÍg, st. m., (_bench-rejoicing_), _rejoicing which resounds from the
benches_, 1162.

benc-˛el, st. n., _bench-board, the wainscotted space where the benches
stand_: nom. pl. benc-˛elu, 486; acc. pl. benc˛elu beredon, _cleared the
bench-boards_ (i.e. by taking away the benches, so as to prepare couches),

bend, st. m. f., _bond, fetter_: acc. sg. forstes bend, _frost's bond_,
1610; dat. pl. bendum, 978.--Comp.: f˝r-, hell-, hyge-, Óren-, oncer-,
searo-, w‰l-bend.

ben-geat, st. n., (_wound-gate_), _wound-opening_: nom. pl. ben-geato,

bera (O.N. beri), w. m., _bearer_: in comp. hleor-bera.

beran, st. v. w. acc., _to carry_; III. sg. pres. byre, 296, 448; ˛one
m‚um byre, _carries the treasure_ (upon his person), 2056; pres. subj.
bere, 437; pl. beren, 2654; inf. beran, 48, 231, 291, etc.; hÍht ˛‚ se
hearda Hrunting beran, _to bring Hrunting_, 1808; up beran, 1921; in beran,
2153; pret. b‰r, 495, 712, 847, etc.; mandryhtne b‰r f‰ted wÊge, _brought
the lord the costly vessel_, 2282; pl. bÊron, 213, 1636, etc.; bÊran, 2851;
pret. part. boren, 1193, 1648, 3136.--The following expressions are poetic
paraphrases of the forms _go, come_: ˛‰t we rondas beren eft tÙ earde,
2654; gewÓta for beran wÊpen and gewÊdu, 291; ic gefr‰gn sunu Wihst‚nes
hringnet beran, 2755; wÓgheafolan b‰r, 2662; helmas bÊron, 240
(conjecture); scyldas bÊran, 2851: they lay stress upon the connection of
the man with his weapons.

‰t-beran, _to carry to_: inf. tÙ beadul‚ce (_battle_) ‰tberan, 1562; pret.
˛‚ hine on morgentÓd on HeaorÊmas holm up ‰tb‰r, _the sea bore him up to
the HeaorÊmas_, 519; hiÛ BeÛwulfe medoful ‰tb‰r _brought BeÛwulf the
mead-cup_, 625; m‰genbyrenne ... hider ˚t ‰tb‰r cyninge mÓnum, _bore the
great burden hither to my king_, 3093; pl. hÓ hyne ‰tbÊron tÙ brimes
faroe, 28.

for-beran, _to hold, to suppress_: inf. ˛‰t he ˛one breÛstwylm forberan ne
mehte, _that he could not suppress the emotions of his breast_, 1878.

ge-beran, _to bring forth, to bear_: pret. part. ˛‰t l‚ m‰g secgan se ˛e
sÙ and riht freme on folce ... ˛‰t ˛es eorl wÊre geboren betera (_that
may every just man of the people say, that this nobleman is better born_),

Ù-beran, _to bring hither_: pret. ˛‚ mec sÊ Ùb‰r on Finna land, 579.

on-beran (O.H.G. in bÎran, intpÎran, but in the sense of carere), auferre,
_to carry off, to take away_: inf. Óren ÊrgÙd ˛‰t ˛‰s ahlÊcan blÙdge
beadufolme onberan wolde, _excellent sword which would sweep off the bloody
hand of the demon_, 991; pret. part. (w‰s) onboren be·ga hord, _the
treasure of the rings had been carried off_, 2285.--Compounds with the
pres. part.: helm-, s‚wl-berend.

berian (denominative from b‰r, _naked_), w. v., _to make bare, to clear_:
pret. pl. benc˛elu beredon, _cleared the bench-place_ (by removing the
benches), 1240.

berstan, st. v., _to break, to burst_: pret. pl. burston b‚nlocan, 819;
bengeato burston, 1122.--_to crack, to make the noise of breaking_: fingras
burston, _the fingers cracked_ (from BeÛwulf's gripe), 761.

for-berstan, _break, to fly asunder_: pret. N‰gling forb‰rst, _N‰gling_
(BeÛwulf's sword) _broke in two_, 2681.

betera, adj. (comp.), _better_: nom. sg. m. betera, 469, 1704.

bet-lÓc, adj., _excellent, splendid_: nom. sg. n., of HrÙg‚r's hall, 781;
of Hygel‚c's residence, 1926.

betst, betost (superl.), _best, the best_: nom. sg. m. betst beadurinca,
1110; neut. nu is Ùfost betost, ˛‰t we ..., _now is haste the best, that
we..._, 3008; voc. m. secg betsta, 948; neut. acc. beaduscr˚da betst, 453;
acc. sg. m. ˛egn betstan, 1872.

bÍcn, st. n., _(beacon), token, mark, sign_: acc. sg. betimbredon
beadu-rÙfes bÍcn (of BeÛwulf's grave-mound), 3162. See beacen.

bÍg. See be·g.

bÍn, st. f., _entreaty_: gen. sg. bÍne, 428, 2285.

bÍna, w. m., _suppliant_, supplex: nom. sg. sw‚ ˛u bÍna eart (_as thou
entreatest_), 352; sw‚ he bÍna w‰s (_as he had asked_), 3141; nom. pl. hy
bÍnan synt, 364.

ge-betan: 1) _to make good, to remove_: pret. ac ˛u HrÙg‚re wÓdc˚ne we·n
wihte gebÍttest, _hast thou in any way relieved HrÙg‚r of the evil known
afar_, 1992; pret. part. acc. sg. swylce onc˝e ealle gebÍtte, _removed
all trouble_, 831. --2) _to avenge_: inf. wihte ne meahte on ˛am feorhbonan
fÊhe gebÍtan, _could in no way avenge the death upon the slayer_, 2466.

beadu, st. f., _battle, strife, combat_: dat. sg. (as instr.) beadwe, _in
combat_, 1540; gen. pl. b‚d beadwa ge-˛inges, _waited for the combats_
(with Grendel) _that were in store for him_, 710.

beadu-folm, st. f., _battle-hand_: acc. sg. -folme, of Grendel's hand, 991.

beado-grÓma, w. m., _(battle-mask), helmet_: acc. pl. -grÓman, 2258.

beado-hr‰gl, st. n., _(battle-garment), corselet, shirt of mail_, 552.

beadu-l‚c, st. n., (_exercise in arms, tilting_), _combat, battle_: dat.
sg. tÙ beadu-l‚ce, 1562.

beado-leÛma, w. m., (_battle-light_), _sword_: nom. sg., 1524.

beado-mÍce, st. m., _battle-sword_: nom. pl. beado-mÍcas, 1455.

beado-rinc, st. m., _battle-hero, warrior_: gen. pl. betst beadorinca,

beadu-rÙf, adj., _strong in battle_: gen. sg. -rÙfes, of BeÛwulf, 3162.

beadu-r˚n, st. f., _mystery of battle_: acc. sg. onband beadu-r˚ne, _solved
the mystery of the combat_, i.e. gave battle, commenced the fight, 501.

beadu-scearp, adj., _battle-sharp, sharp for the battle_, 2705.

beadu-scr˚d, st. n., (_battle-dress_), _corselet, shirt of mail_: gen. pl.
beaduscr˚da betst, 453.

beadu-serce, w. f., (_battle-garment_), _corselet, shirt of mail_: acc. sg.
brogdne beadu-sercean (because it consists of interlaced metal rings),

beado-weorc, st. n., (_battle-work_), _battle_: gen. sg. gefeh
beado-weorces, _rejoiced at the battle_, 2300.

beald, adj., _bold, brave_: in comp. cyning-beald.

bealdian, w. v., _to show one's self brave_: pret. bealdode gÙdum dÊdum
(_through brave deeds_), 2178.

bealdor, st. m., _lord, prince_: nom. sg. sinca baldor, 2429; winia
bealdor, 2568.

bealu, st. n., _evil, ruin, destruction_: instr. sg. bealwe, 2827; gen. pl.
bealuwa, 281; bealewa, 2083; bealwa, 910.--Comp.: cwealm-, ealdor-,
hreer-, leÛd-, moror-, niht-, sweord-, wÓg-bealu.

bealu, adj., _deadly, dangerous, bad_: instr. sg. hyne s‚r hafa befongen
balwon bendum, _pain has entwined him in deadly bands_, 978.

bealo-cwealm, st. m., _violent death, death by the sword_(?), 2266.

bealo-hycgende, pres. part., _thinking of death, meditating destruction_:
gen. pl. Êghw‰rum bealo-hycgendra, 2566.

bealo-hydig, adj., _thinking of death, meditating destruction_: of Grendel,

bealo-nÓ, st. m., (_zeal for destruction_), _deadly enmity_: nom. sg.,
2405; _destructive struggle_: acc. sg. bebeorh ˛e ˛one bealonÓ, _beware of
destructive striving_, 1759; _death-bringing rage_: nom. sg. him on
breÛstum bealo-nÓ weÛll, _in his breast raged deadly fury_ (of the
dragon's poison), 2715.

bearhtm (see beorht): 1) st. m., _splendor, brightness, clearness_: nom.
sg. e·gena bearhtm, 1767.--2) _sound, tone_: acc. sg. bearhtm onge‚ton,
g˚horn galan, _they heard the sound, (heard) the battle-horn sound_, 1432.

bearm, m., gremium, sinus, _lap, bosom_: nom. sg. foldan bearm, 1138; acc.
sg. on bearm scipes, 35, 897; on bearm nacan, 214; him on bearm hladan
bunan and discas, 2776.--2) figuratively, _possession, property_, because
things bestowed were placed in the lap of the receiver (1145 and 2195, on
bearm licgan, ‚lecgan); dat. sg. him tÙ bearme cwom m‚umf‰t mÊre, _came
into his possession_, 2405.

bearn, st. n., 1) _child, son_: nom. sg. bearn Healfdenes, 469, etc.;
Ecgl‚fes bearn, 499, etc.; dat. sg. bearne, 2371; nom. pl. bearn, 59; dat.
pl. bearnum, 1075.--2) in a broader sense, _scion, offspring, descendant_:
nom. sg. Ongen˛eÛw's bearn, of his grandson, 2388; nom. pl. yldo. bearn,
70; gumena bearn, _children of men_, 879; h‰lea bearn, 1190; ‰elinga
bearn, 3172; acc. pl. ofer ylda bearn, 606; dat. pl. ylda bearnum, 150;
gen. pl. nia bearna, 1006.--Comp.: brÙor-, dryht-bearn.

bearn-gebyrdu, f., _birth, birth of a son_: gen. sg. ˛‰t hyre ealdmetod
Íste wÊre bearn-gebyrdo, _has been gracious through the birth of such a
son_ (i.e. as BeÛwulf), 947.

bearu, st. m., (_the bearer_, hence properly only the fruit-tree,
especially the oak and the beech), _tree_, collectively _forest_: nom. pl.
hrÓmge bearwas, _rime-covered_ or _ice-clad_, 1364.

be·cen, st. n., _sign, banner_, vexillum: nom. sg. beorht be·cen godes, _of
the sun_, 570; gen. pl. be·cna beorhtost, 2778. See bÍcn.

ge-be·cnian, w. v., _to mark, to indicate_: pret. part. ge-be·cnod, 140.

be·g, st. m., _ring, ornament_: nom. sg. be·h (_neck-ring_), 1212; acc. sg.
be·h (the collar of the murdered king of the Heaobeardnas), 2042; bÍg
(collective for the acc. pl.), 3165; dat. sg. cwom Wealh˛eÛ for g‚n under
gyldnum be·ge, _she walked along under a golden head-ring, wore a golden
diadem_, 1164; gen. sg. be·ges (of a collar), 1217; acc. pl. be·gas (rings
in general), 80, 523, etc.; gen. pl. be·ga, 35, 352, 1488, 2285, etc.--
Comp.: earm-, heals-be·g.

be·g-gyfa, w. m., _ring-giver_, designation of the prince: gen. sg. -gyfan,

be·g-hroden, adj., _adorned with rings, ornamented with clasps_: nom. sg.
be·ghroden, cwÍn, of HrÙg‚r's consort, perhaps with reference to her
diadem (cf. 1164), 624.

be·h-hord, st. m. n., _ring-hoard, treasure consisting of rings_: gen. sg.
be·h-hordes, 895; dat. pl. be·h-hordum, 2827; gen. pl. be·h-horda weard, of
King HrÙg‚r, 922.

be·h-sele, st. m., _ring-hall, hall in which the rings were distributed_:
nom. sg., of Heorot, 1178.

be·h-˛egu, st. f., _the receiving of the ring_: dat. sg. ‰fter be·h-˛ege,

be·h-wria, w. m. _ring-band_, ring with prominence given to its having the
form of a band: acc. sg. be·h-wrian, 2019.

be·m, st. m., _tree_, only in the compounds fyrgen-, gleÛ-be·m.

be·tan, st. v., _thrust, strike_: pres. sg. mearh burhstede be·te, _the
steed beats the castle-ground_ (place where the castle is built), i.e. with
his hoofs, 2266; pret. part. swealt bille ge-be·ten, _died, struck by the
battle-axe_, 2360.

beorh, st. m.: 1) _mountain, rock_: dat. sg. beorge, 211; gen. sg. beorges,
2525, 2756; acc. pl. beorgas, 222.--2) _grave-mound, tomb-hill_: acc. sg.
biorh, 2808; beorh, 3098, 3165. A grave-mound serves the drake as a retreat
(cf. 2277, 2412): nom. sg. beorh, 2242; gen. sg. beorges, 2323.--Comp.

beorh, st. f., _veil, covering, cap_; only in the comp. he·fod-beorh.

beorgan, st. v. (w. dat. of the interested person or thing), _to save, to
shield_: inf. wolde feore beorgan, _place her life in safety_, 1294;
here-byrne ... seÛ ˛e b‚ncÙfan beorgan c˚e, _which could protect his
body_, 1446; pret. pl. ealdre burgan, 2600.

be-beorgan (w. dat. refl. of pers. and acc. of the thing), _to take care,
to defend one's self from_: inf. him be-beorgan ne con wom, _cannot keep
himself from stain_ (fault), 1747; imp. bebeorh ˛e ˛one bealont, 1759.

ge-beorgan (w, dat. of person or thing to be saved), _to save, to protect_:
pret. sg. ˛‰t gebearh feore, _protected the life_, 1549; scyld wel gebearg
lÓfe and lÓce, 2571.

ymb-beorgan, _to surround protectingly_: pret. sg. bring ˚tan ymb-bearh,

beorht, byrht, adj.: 1) _gleaming, shining, radiant, shimmering_: nom. sg.
beorht, of the sun, 570, 1803; beorhta, of Heorot, 1178; ˛‰t beorhte bold,
998; acc. sg. beorhtne, of BeÛwulf's grave-mound, 2804; dat. sg. tÙ ˛Êre
byrhtan (here-byrhtan, MS.) byrig, 1200; acc. pl. beorhte fr‰twe, 214, 897;
beorhte randas, 231; bordwudu beorhtan, 1244; n. beorht hofu, 2314.
Superl.: be·cna beorhtost, 2778. --2) _excellent, remarkable_: gen. sg.
beorhtre bÙte, 158. --Comp.: sadol-, wlite-beorht.

beorhte, adv., _brilliantly, brightly, radiantly_, 1518.

beorhtian, w. v., _to sound clearly_: pret. sg. beorhtode benc-swÍg, 1162.

beorn, st. m., _hero, warrior, noble man_: nom. sg. (HrÙg‚r), 1881,
(BeÛwulf), 2434, etc.; acc. sg. (BeÛw.), 1025, (ƒschere), 1300; dat. sg.
beorne, 2261; nom. pl. beornas (BeÛwulf and his companions), 211,
(HrÙg‚r's guests), 857; gen. pl. biorna (BeÛwulf's liege-men),
2405.--Comp.: folc-, g˚-beorn.

beornan, st. v., _to burn_: pres. part. byrnende (of the drake),
2273.--Comp. un-byrnende.

for-beornan, _to be consumed, to burn_: pret. sg. for-barn, 1617, 1668;
for-born, 2673.

ge-beornan, _to be burned_: pret. gebarn, 2698.

beorn-cyning, st. m., _king of warriors, king of heroes_: nom. sg. (as
voc.), 2149.

beÛdan, st. v.: 1) _to announce, to inform, to make known_: inf. biÛdan,
2893.--2) _to offer, to proffer_ (as the notifying of a transaction in
direct reference to the person concerned in it): pret. pl. him ge˛ingo
budon, _offered them an agreement_, 1086; pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s Êht boden
Sweona leÛdum, _then was pursuit offered the Swedish people_, 2958; inf. ic
˛‰m gÙdan sceal m‚mas beÛdan, _I shall offer the excellent man treasures_,

‚-beÛdan, _to present, to announce_: pret. word inne ‚be·d, _made known the
words within_, 390; _to offer, to tender, to wish_: pret. him hÊl ‚be·d,
_wished him health_ (greeted him), 654. Similarly, hÊlo ‚be·d, 2419; eoton
weard ‚be·d, _offered the giant a watcher_, 669.

be-beÛdan, _to command, to order_: pret. sw‚ him se hearda bebe·d, _as the
strong man commanded them_, 401. Similarly, sw‚ se rÓca bebe·d, 1976.

ge-beÛdan: 1) _to command, to order_: inf. hÍt ˛‚ gebeÛdan byre Wihst‚nes
h‰lea monegum, ˛‰t hie..., _the son of Wihstan caused orders to be given
to many of the men..._, 3111.--2) _to offer_: him Hygd gebe·d hord and
rÓce, _offered him the treasure and the chief power_, 2370; inf. g˚e
gebeÛdan, _to offer battle_, 604.

beÛd-gene·t, st. m., _table-companion_: nom. and acc. pl. gene·tas, 343,

beÛn, verb, _to be_, generally in the future sense, _will be_: pres. sg. I.
g˚geweorca ic beÛ gearo sÙna, _I shall immediately be ready for warlike
deeds_, 1826; sg. III. w‚ bi ˛‰m ˛e sceal..., _woe to him who_...! 183;
so, 186; gifee bi is given, 299; ne bi ˛e wilna g‚d (_no wish will be
denied thee_), 661; ˛Êr ˛e bi manna ˛earf, _if thou shalt need the
warriors_, 1836; ne bi swylc cwÍnlÓc ˛e·w, _is not becoming, honorable to
a woman_, 1941; eft sÙna bi _will happen directly_, 1763; similarly, 1768,
etc.; pl. ˛onne biÛ brocene, _then are broken_, 2064; feor c˝e beÛ
sÍlran gesÙhte ˛am ˛e..., "terrae longinquae meliores sunt visitatu ei
qui..." (Grein), 1839; imp. beÛ (biÛ) ˛u on Ùfeste, _hasten!_ 386, 2748;
beÛ wi Ge·tas gl‰d, _be gracious to the Ge·tas_, 1174.

beÛr, st. n., _beer_: dat. sg. ‰t beÛre, _at beer-drinking_, 2042; instr.
sg. beÛre druncen, 531; beÛre druncne, 480.

beÛr-scealc, st. m., _keeper of the beer, cup-bearer_: gen. pl.
beÛr-scealca sum (one of HrÙg‚r's followers, because they served the
Ge·tas at meals), 1241.

beÛr-sele, st. m., _beer-hall, hall in which beer is drunk_: dat. sg. in
(on) beÛrsele, 482, 492, 1095; biÛrsele, 2636.

beÛr-˛egu, st. f., _beer-drinking, beer-banquet_: dat. sg. ‰fter beÛr˛ege,
117; ‰t ˛Êre beÛr˛ege, 618.

beÛt, st. n., _promise, binding agreement to something that is to be
undertaken_: acc. sg. he beÛt ne ‚lÍh, _did not break his pledge_, 80; beÛt
eal ... gelÊste, _performed all that he had pledged himself to_, 523.

ge-beÛtian, w. v., _to pledge one's self to an undertaking, to bind one's
self_: pret. gebeÛtedon, 480, 536.

beÛt-word, st. n., same as beÛt: dat. pl. beÛt-wordum spr‰c, 2511.

biddan, st. v., _to beg, to ask, to pray_: pres. sg. I. dÙ sw‚ ic bidde!
1232; inf. (w. acc. of the pers. and gen. of the thing asked for) ic ˛e
biddan wille ‚nre bÍne, _beg thee for one_, 427; pret. sw‚ he selfa b‰d,
_as he himself had requested_, 29; b‰d hine blÓne (supply wesan) ‰t ˛Êre
beÛr˛ege, _begged him to be cheerful at the beer-banquet_, 618; ic ˛e lange
b‰d ˛‰t ˛u..., _begged you a long time that you_, 1995; frioowÊre b‰d
hl‚ford sÓnne, _begged his lord for protection_ (acc. of pers. and gen. of
thing), 2283; b‰d ˛‰t ge geworhton, _asked that you_..., 3097; pl. wordum
bÊdon ˛‰t..., 176.

on-bidian, w. v., _to await_: inf. lÊta hilde-bord her onbidian ... worda
ge˛inges, _let the shields await here the result of the conference_ (lay
the shields aside here), 397.

bil, st. n. _sword_: nom. sg. bil, 1568; bill, 2778; acc. sg. bil, 1558;
instr. sg. bille, 2360; gen. sg. billes, 2061, etc.; instr. pl. billum, 40;
gen. pl. billa, 583, 1145.--Comp.: g˚-, hilde-, wÓg-bil.

bindan, st. v., _to bind, to tie_: pret. part. acc. sg. wudu bundenne, _the
bound wood_, i.e. the built ship, 216; bunden golde swurd, _a sword bound
with gold_, i.e. either having its hilt inlaid with gold, or having gold
chains upon the hilt (swords of both kinds have been found), 1901; nom. sg.
heoru bunden, 1286, has probably a similar meaning.

ge-bindan, _to bind_: pret. sg. ˛Êr ic fÓfe geband, _where I had bound
five_(?), 420; pret. part. cyninges ˛egn word Ùer fand sÙe gebunden, _the
king's man found_ (after many had already praised BeÛwulf's deed) _other
words_ (also referring to BeÛwulf, but in connection with Sigemund)
_rightly bound together_, i.e. in good alliterative verses, as are becoming
to a gid, 872; wundenmÊl wr‰ttum gebunden, _sword bound with ornaments_,
i.e. inlaid, 1532; bisgum gebunden, _bound together by sorrow_, 1744; gomel
g˚wÓga eldo gebunden, _hoary hero bound by old age_ (fettered, oppressed),

on-bindan, _to unbind, to untie, to loose_: pret. onband, 501.

ge-bind, st. n. coll., _that which binds, fetters_: in comp. Ós-gebind.

bite, st. m., _bite_, figuratively of the cut of the sword: acc. sg. bite
Órena, _the swords' bite_, 2260; dat. sg. ‰fter billes bite, 2061.--Comp.

biter (primary meaning that of biting), adj.: 1) _sharp, cutting, cutting
in_: acc. sg. biter (of a short sword), 2705; instr. sg. biteran strÊle,
1747; instr. pl. biteran b‚num, _with sharp teeth_, 2693.--2) _irritated,
furious_: nom. pl. bitere, 1432.

bitre, adv., _bitterly_ (in a moral sense), 2332.

bÓ, big (fuller form of the prep. be, which see), prep. w. dat.: 1) _near,
at, on, about, by_ (as under be, No. 1): bÓ sÊm tweÛnum, _in the circuit of
both seas_, 1957; ‚r‚s bÓ ronde, _raised himself up by the shield_, 2539;
bÓ wealle ges‰t, _sat by the wall_, 2718. With a freer position: him big
stÙdan bunan and orcas, _round about him_, 3048.--2) _to, towards_
(motion): hwearf ˛‚ bÓ bence, _turned then towards the bench_, 1189; geÛng
bÓ sesse, _went to the seat_, 2757.

bÓd (see bÓdan), st. n., _tarrying hesitation_: ˛Êr wear Ongen˛iÛ on bÓd
wrecen, _forced to tarry_, 2963.

bÓdan, st. v.: 1) _to delay, to stay, to remain, to wait_: inf. nÙ on
wealle leng bÓdan wolde, _would not stay longer within the wall_ (the
drake), 2309; pret. in ˛˝strum b‚d, _remained in darkness_, 87; flota
stille b‚d, _the craft lay still_, 301; receda ... on ˛‰m se rÓca b‚d,
_where the mighty one dwelt_, 310; ˛Êr se snottra b‚d, _where the wise man_
(HrÙg‚r) _waited_, 1314; he on searwum b‚d, _he_ (BeÛwulf) _stood there
armed_, 2569; ic on earde b‚d mÊlgesceafta, _lived upon the paternal ground
the time appointed me by fate_, 2737; pret. pl. sume ˛Êr bidon, _some
remained, waited there_, 400.--2) _to await, to wait for_, with the gen. of
that which is awaited: inf. bÓdan woldon Grendles g˚e, _wished to await
the combat with Grendel, to undertake it_, 482; similarly, 528; wÓges
bÓdan, _await the combat_, 1269; nalas andsware bÓdan wolde, _would await
no answer_, 1495; pret. b‚d beadwa ge˛inges, _awaited the event of the
battle_, 710; sÊgenga b‚d ‚gend-fre·n, _the sea-goer_ (boat) _awaited its
owner_, 1883; sele ... heaowylma b‚d, l‚an lÓges (the poet probably means
to indicate by these words that the hall Heorot was destroyed later in a
fight by fire; an occurrence, indeed, about which we know nothing, but
which 1165 and 1166, and again 2068 ff. seem to indicate), 82.

‚-bÓdan, _to await_, with the gen.: inf., 978.

ge-bÓdan: 1) _to tarry, to wait_: imp. gebÓde ge on beorge, _wait ye on the
mountain_, 2530; pret. part. ˛e·h ˛e wintra lyt under burhlocan gebiden
h‰bbe H‰rees dÙhtor _although H's daughter had dwelt only a few years in
the castle_, 1929.--2) _to live through, to experience, to expect_ (w.
acc.): inf. sceal ended‰g mÓnne gebÓdan, _shall live my last day_, 639; ne
wÍnde ... bÙte gebÓdan, _did not hope ... to live to see reparation_, 935;
fela sceal gebÓdan leÛfes and l‚es, _experience much good and much
affliction_, 1061; ende gebÓdan, 1387, 2343; pret. he ˛‰s frÙfre geb‚d,
_received consolation_ (compensation) _therefore_, 7; geb‚d wintra worn,
_lived a great number of years_, 264; in a similar construction, 816, 930,
1619, 2259, 3117. With gen.: inf. tÙ gebÓdanne Ùres yrfeweardes, _to await
another heir_, 2453. With depend, clause: inf. tÙ gebÓdanne ˛‰t his byre
rÓde on galgan, _to live to see it, that his son hang upon the gallows_,
2446; pret. dre·m-le·s geb‚d ˛‰t he..., _joyless he experienced it, that
he_..., 1721; ˛‰s ˛e ic on aldre geb‚d ˛‰t ic..., _for this, that I, in my
old age, lived to see that_..., 1780.

on-bÓdan, _to wait, to await_: pret. hordweard onb‚d earfolÓce Ù ˛‰t Êfen
cwom, _scarcely waited, could scarcely delay till it was evening_, 2303.

bÓtan, st. v., _to bite_, of the cutting of swords: inf. bÓtan, 1455, 1524;
pret. b‚t b‚nlocan, _bit into his body_ (Grendel), 743; b‚t unswÓor, _cut
with less force_ (BeÛwulf's sword), 2579.

blanca, w. m., properly _that which shines_ here of the horse, not so much
of the white horse as the dappled: dat. pl. on blancum, 857.

ge-bland, ge-blond, st. n., _mixture, heaving mass, a turning_.--Comp.:
sund-, ˝-geblond, windblond.

blanden-feax, blonden-feax, adj., _mixed_, i.e. having gray hair,
_gray-headed_, as epithet of an old man: nom. sg. blondenfeax, 1792;
blondenfexa, 2963; dat. sg. blondenfeaxum, 1874; nom. pl. blondenfeaxe,

bl‰c, adj., _dark, black_: nom. sg, hrefn blaca, 1802.

bl‚c, adj.: 1) _gleaming, shining_: acc. sg. bl‚cne leÛman, _a brilliant
gleam_, 1518.--2) of the white death-color, _pale_; in comp. heorobl‚c.

blÊd, st. m.: 1) _strength, force, vigor_: nom. sg. w‰s hira blÊd scacen
(of both tribes), _strength was gone_, i.e. the bravest of both tribes lay
slain, 1125; nu is ˛Ónes m‰gnes blÊd ‚ne hwÓle, _now the fulness of thy
strength lasts for a time_, 1762.--2) _reputation, renown, knowledge_ (with
stress upon the idea of filling up, spreading out): nom. sg. blÊd, 18;
(˛Ón) blÊd is ‚rÊred, _thy renown is spread abroad_, 1704.

blÊd-‚gend, pt., _having renown, renowned_: nom. pl. blÊd-‚gende, 1014.

blÊd-f‰st, adj., _firm in renown, renowned, known afar_: acc. sg.
blÊdf‰stne beorn (of ƒschere, with reference to 1329), 1300.

ble·t, adj., _miserable, helpless_; only in comp. w‰l-ble·t.

ble·te, adv., _miserably, helplessly_, 2825.

blÓcan, st. v., _shine, gleam_: inf., 222

blÓe, adj.: 1) _blithe, joyous, happy_ acc. sg. blÓne, 618.--2)
_gracious, pleasing_: nom. sg. blÓe, 436.--Comp. un-blÓe.

blÓ-heort, adj., _joyous in heart, happy_: nom. sg., 1803.

blÙd, st. n., _blood_: nom. sg., 1122; acc. sg., 743; dat. sg. blÙde, 848;
‰fter deÛrum men him langa beorn wi blÙde, _the hero_ (HrÙg‚r) _longs
for the beloved man contrary to blood_, i.e. he loves him although he is
not related to him by blood, 1881; dat. as instr. blÙde, 486, 935, 1595,

blÙd-f‚g, adj., _spotted with blood, bloody_, 2061.

blÙdig, adj., _bloody_: acc. sg. f. blÙdge, 991; acc. sg. n. blÙdig, 448;
instr. sg. blÙdigan g‚re, 2441.

ge-blÙdian, w. v., _to make bloody, to sprinkle with blood_: pret. part.
ge-blÙdegod, 2693.

blÙdig-tÙ, adj., _with bloody teeth_: nom. sg. bona blÙdig-tÙ (of
Grendel, because he bites his victims to death), 2083.

blÙd-reÛw, adj., _bloodthirsty, bloody-minded_: nom. sg. him on ferhe
greÛw breÛst-hord blÙd-reÛw, _in his bosom there grew a bloodthirsty
feeling_, 1720.

be-bod, st. n., _command, order_; in comp. wundor-bebod.

bodian, w. v., _(to be a messenger), to announce, to make known_: pret.
hrefn blaca heofones wynne blÓ-heort bodode, _the black raven announced
joyfully heaven's delight_ (the rising sun), 1803.

boga, w. m., _bow_, of the bended form; here of the dragon, in comp.
hring-boga; as an instrument for shooting, in the comp. fl‚n-, horn-boga;
bow of the arch, in comp. st‚n-boga.

bolca, w. m., "forus navis" (Grein), _gangway_; here probably the planks
which at landing are laid from the ship to the shore: acc. sg. ofer bolcan,

bold, st. n., _building, house, edifice_: nom. sg. (Heorot), 998;
(Hygel‚c's residence), 1926; (BeÛwulfs residence), 2197, 2327.--Comp.

bold-‚gend, pt., _house-owner, property-holder_: gen. pl. monegum
bold‚gendra, 3113.

bolgen-mÙd, adj., _angry at heart, angry_, 710, 1714.

bolster, st. m., _bolster, cushion, pillow_: dat. pl. (reced) geond-brÊded
wear beddum and bolstrum, _was covered with beds and bolsters_,
1241.--Comp. hleÛr-bolster.

bon-. See ban-.

bora, w. m., _carrier, bringer, leader_: in the comp. mund-, rÊd-,

bord, st. n., _shield_: nom. sg., 2674; acc. sg., 2525; gen. pl. ofer borda
gebr‰c, _over the crashing of the shields_, 2260.--Comp.: hilde-, wÓg-bord.

bord-h‰bbend, pt., _one having a shield, shield-bearer_: nom. pl. h‰bbende,

bord-hreÛa, w. m., _shield-cover, shield_ with particular reference to its
cover (of hides or linden bark): dat. sg. -hreÛan, 2204.

bord-rand, st. m., _shield_: acc. sg., 2560.

bord-weall, st. m., _shield-wall, wall of shields_: acc. sg., 2981.

bord-wudu, st. m., _shield-wood, shield_: acc. pl. beorhtan beord-wudu,

botm, st. m., _bottom_: dat. sg. tÙ botme (here of the bottom of the
fen-lake), 1507.

bÙt (emendation, cf. bÍtan), st. f.: 1) _relief, remedy_: nom. sg., 281;
acc. sg. bÙte, 935; acc. sg. bÙte, 910.--2) _a performance in expiation, a
giving satisfaction, tribute_: gen. sg. bÙte, 158.

brand, brond, st. m.: 1) _burning, fire_: nom. sg. ˛‚ sceal brond fretan
(_the burning of the body_), 3015; instr. sg. by hine ne mÙston ... bronde
forb‰rnan (_could not bestow upon him the solemn burning_), 2127; h‰fde
landwara lÓge befangen, bÊle and bronde, _with glow, fire, and flame_,
2323.--2) in the passage, ˛‰t hine nÙ brond ne beadomÍcas bÓtan ne meahton,
1455, brond has been translated _sword, brand_ (after the O.N. brand-r).
The meaning _fire_ may be justified as well, if we consider that the old
helmets were generally made of leather, and only the principal parts were
mounted with bronze. The poet wishes here to emphasize the fact that the
helmet was made entirely of metal, a thing which was very unusual.--3) in
the passage, forgeaf ˛‚ BeÛwulfe brand Healfdenes segen gyldenne, 1021, our
text, with other editions, has emendated, bearn, since brand, if it be
intended as a designation of HrÙg‚r (perhaps _son_), has not up to this
time been found in this sense in A.-S.

brant, bront, adj., _raging, foaming, going-high_, of ships and of waves:
acc. sg. brontne, 238, 568.

br‚d, adj.: 1) _extended, wide_: nom. pl. br‚de rÓce, 2208.--2) _broad_:
nom. sg. he·h and br‚d (of BeÛwulf's grave-mound), 3159; acc. sg. br‚dne
mÍce, 2979; (seax) br‚d [and] br˚necg, _the broad, short sword with bright
edge_, 1547.--3) _massive, in abundance_. acc, sg. br‚d gold, 3106.

ge-br‰c, st. n., _noise, crash_: acc. sg. borda gebr‰c, 2260.

geond-brÊdan, w. v., _to spread over, to cover entirely_: pret. part.
geond-brÊded, 1240.

brecan, st. v.: 1) _to break, to break to pieces_: pret. b‚nhringas br‰c,
(the sword) _broke the joints_, 1568. In a moral sense: pret. subj. ˛‰t ˛Êr
Ênig mon wÊre ne brÊce, _that no one should break the agreement_, 1101;
pret. part. ˛onne biÛ brocene ... ‚-sweord eorla, _then are the oaths of
the men broken_, 2064.--2) probably also simply _to break in upon
something, to press upon_, w. acc.: pret. sg. sÊdeÛr monig hildetuxum
heresyrcan br‰c, _many a sea-animal pressed with his battle-teeth upon the
shirt of mail_ (did not break it, for, according to 1549 f., 1553 f., it
was still unharmed). 1512.--3) _to break out, to spring out_: inf. geseah
... stre·m ˚t brecan of beorge, _saw a stream break out from the rocks_,
2547; lÍt se hearda Higel‚ces ˛egn br‚dne mÍce ... brecan ofer bordweal,
_caused the broadsword to spring out over the wall of shields_, 2981.--4)
figuratively, _to vex, not to let rest_: pret. hine fyrwyt br‰c, _curiosity
tormented_ (N.H.G. brachte die Neugier um), 232, 1986, 2785.

ge-brecan, _to break to pieces_: pret. b‚nh˚s gebr‰c, _broke in pieces his
body_ (BeÛwulf in combat with D‰ghrefn), 2509.

tÙ-brecan, _to break in pieces_: inf., 781; pret. part. tÙ-brocen, 998.

˛urh-brecan, _to break through_, pret. wordes ord breÛsthord ˛urh-br‰c,
_the word's point broke through his closed breast_, i.e. a word burst out
from his breast, 2793.

brec, st. f., _condition of being broken, breach_: nom. pl. mÙdes breca
(_sorrow of heart_), 171.

‚-bredwian, w. v. w. acc., _to fell to the ground, to kill_ (?): pret.
‚bredwade, 2620.

bregdan, st. v., properly _to swing round_, hence: 1) _to swing_: inf.
under sceadu bregdan, _swing among the shadows, to send into the realm of
shadows_, 708; pret. br‰gd ealde l‚fe, _swung the old weapon_, 796; br‰gd
feorh-genÓlan, _swung his mortal enemy_ (Grendel's mother), threw her
down, 1540; pl. git e·gorstre·m ... mundum brugdon, _stirred the sea with
your hands_ (of the movement of the hands in swimming), 514; pret. part.
broden (brogden) mÊl, _the drawn sword_, 1617, 1668.--2) _to knit, to knot,
to plait_: inf., figuratively, inwitnet Ùrum bregdan, _to weave a
waylaying net for another_ (as we say in the same way, to lay a trap for
another, to dig a pit for another), 2168; pret. part. beadohr‰gl broden, _a
woven shirt of mail_ (because it consisted of metal rings joined together),
552; similarly, 1549; brogdne beadusercean, 2756.

‚-bregdan, _to swing_: pret. hond up ‚-br‰d, _swung, raised his hand_,

ge-bregdan: 1) _swing_: pret. hring-mÊl gebr‰gd, _swung the ringed sword_,
1565; eald sweord e·cen ... ˛‰t ic ˛˝ wÊpne gebr‰gd, _an old heavy sword
that I swung as my weapon_, 1665; with interchanging instr. and acc.
w‰llseaxe gebr‰d, biter and beadu-scearp, 2704; also, _to draw out of the
sheath_: sweord Êr gebr‰d, _had drawn the sword before_, 2563.--2) _to
knit, to knot, to plait_: pret. part. bere-byrne hondum gebroden, 1444.

on-bregdan, _to tear open, to throw open_: pret. onbr‰d ˛‚ recedes m˚an,
_had then thrown open the entrance of the hall_ (onbregdan is used because
the opening door swings upon its hinges), 724.

brego, st. m., _prince, ruler_: nom. sg. 427, 610.

brego-rÙf, adj., _powerful, like a ruler, of heroic strength_: nom. sg. m.,

brego-stÙl, st. m., _throne_, figuratively for _rule_: acc. sg. him
gesealde seofon ˛˚sendo, bold and brego-stÙl, _seven thousand_ see under
sceat), _a country-seat, and the dignity of a prince_, 2197; ˛Êr him Hygd
gebe·d ... brego-stÙl, _where H. offered him the chief power_, 2371; lÍt
˛one bregostÙl BeÛwulf healdan, _gave over to BeÛwulf the chief power_ (did
not prevent BeÛwulf from entering upon the government), 2390.

breme, adj., _known afar, renowned_. nom. sg., 18.

brenting (see brant), st. m., _ship craft_: nom. pl. brentingas, 2808.

‚-bre·tan, st. v., _to break, to break in pieces, to kill_: pret. ‚breÛt
brimwÓsan, _killed the sea-king_ (King HÊcyn), 2931. See breÛtan.

breÛst, st. n.: 1) _breast_: nom. sg., 2177; often used in the pl., so acc.
˛‰t mÓne breÛst were, _which protects my breast_, 453; dat. pl. beadohr‰gl
broden on breÛstum l‰g. 552.--2) _the inmost thoughts, the mind, the heart,
the bosom_: nom. sg. breÛst innan weÛll ˛eÛstrum ge˛oncum, _his breast
heaved with troubled thoughts_, 2332; dat. pl. lÍt ˛‚ of breÛstum word ˚t
faran, _caused the words to come out from his bosom_, 2551.

breÛst-gehygd, st. n. f., _breast-thought, secret thought_: instr. pl.
-gehygdum, 2819.

breÛst-gewÊdu, st. n. pl., _breast-clothing, garment covering the breast_,
of the coat of mail: nom., 1212; acc., 2163.

breÛst-hord, st. m., _breast-hoard, that which is locked in the breast,
heart, mind, thought, soul_: nom. sg., 1720; acc. sg., 2793.

breÛst-net, st. n., _breast-net, shirt of chain-mail, coat of mail_: nom.
sg. breÛst-net broden, 1549.

breÛst-weorung, st. f., _ornament that is worn upon the breast_: acc. sg.
breÛst-weorunge, 2505: here the collar is meant which BeÛwulf receives
from Wealh˛eÛw (1196, 2174) as a present, and which B., according to 2173,
presents to Hygd, while, according to 1203, it is in the possession of her
husband Hygel‚c. In front the collar is trimmed with ornaments (fr‰twe),
which hang down upon the breast, hence the name breÛst-weorung.

breÛst-wylm, st. m., _heaving of the breast, emotion of the bosom_: acc.
sg, 1878.

breÛtan, st. v., _to break, to break in pieces, to kill_: pret. bre·t
beÛdgene·tas, _killed his table-companions_ (courtiers), 1714.

‚-breÛtan, same as above: pret. ˛one ˛e heÛ on r‰ste ‚bre·t, _whom she
killed upon his couch_, 1299; pret. part. ˛‚ ˛‰t monige gewear, ˛‰t hine
seÛ brimwylf ‚broten h‰fde, _many believed that the sea-wolf_ (Grendel's
mother) _had killed him_, 1600; hÓ hyne ... ‚broten h‰fdon, _had killed
him_ (the dragon), 2708.

brim, st. n., _flood, the sea_: nom. sg., 848, 1595; gen. sg. tÙ brimes
faroe, _to the sea_, 28; ‰t brimes nosan, _at the sea's promontory_, 2804;
nom. pl. brimu swaredon, _the waves subsided_, 570.

brim-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff, cliff washed by the sea_: acc. pl. -clifu,

brim-l‚d, st. f., _flood-way, sea-way_: acc. sg. ˛‚ra ˛e mid BeÛwulfe
briml‚de te·h, _who had travelled the sea-way with B._, 1052.

brim-lÓend, pt, _sea-farer, sailor_ acc. p. -lÓende, 568.

brim-stre·m, st. m., _sea-stream, the flood of the sea_: acc. pl. ofer
brim-stre·mas, 1911.

brim-wÓsa, w. m., _sea-king_: acc. sg. brimwÓsan, of HÊcyn, king of the
Ge·tas, 2931.

brim-wylf, st. f., _sea-wolf_ (designation of Grendel's mother): nom. sg.
seÛ brimwylf, 1507, 1600.

brim-wylm, st. m., _sea-wave_: nom. sg., 1495.

bringan, anom. v., _to bring, to bear_: prs. sg. I. ic ˛e ˛˚senda ˛egna
bringe tÙ helpe, _bring to your assistance thousands of warriors_, 1830;
inf. sceal hringnaca ofer he·u bringan l‚c and luft‚cen, _shall bring
gifts and love-tokens over the high sea_, 1863; similarly, 2149, 2505;
pret. pl. we ˛‚s sÊl‚c ... brÙhton, _brought this sea-offering_ (Grendel's
head), 1654.

ge-bringan, _to bring_: pres. subj. pl. ˛at we ˛one gebringan ... on
‚df‰re, _that we bring him upon the funeral-pile_, 3010.

brosnian, w. v., _to crumble, to become rotten, to fall to pieces_: prs.
sg. III. herep‚d ... brosna ‰fter beorne, _the coat of mail falls to
pieces after_ (the death of) _the hero_, 2261.

brÙor, st. m., _brother_: nom. sg., 1325, 2441; dat sg. brÍer, 1263; gen.
sg. his brÙor bearn, 2620; dat. pl. brÙrum, 588, 1075.

ge-brÙru, pl., _brethren, brothers_: dat. pl. s‰t be ˛Êm gebrÙrum twÊm,
_sat by the two brothers_, 1192.

brÙga, w. m., _terror, horror_: nom. sg., 1292, 2325, 2566; acc. sg. billa
brÙgan, 583.--Comp.: gryre-, here-brÙga.

br˚can, st. v. w. gen., _to use, to make use of_: prs. sg. III. se ˛e longe
her worolde br˚ce, _who here long makes use of the world_, i.e. lives
long, 1063; imp. br˚c manigra mÍda, _make use of many rewards, give good
rewards_, 1179; _to enjoy_: inf. ˛‰t he be·hhordes br˚can mÙste, _could
enjoy the ring-hoard_, 895; similarly, 2242, 3101; pret. bre·c
lÓfgesceafta, _enjoyed the appointed life, lived the appointed time_, 1954.
With the genitive to be supplied: bre·c ˛onne mÙste, 1488; imp. br˚c ˛isses
be·ges, _enjoy this ring, take this ring_, 1217. Upon this meaning depends
the form of the wish, wel br˚can (compare the German geniesze froh!): inf.
hÍt hine wel br˚can, 1046; hÍt hine br˚can well, 2813; imp. br˚c ealles
well, 2163.

br˚n, adj., _having a brown lustre, shining_: nom. sg. siÛ ecg br˚n, 2579.

br˚n-ecg, adj., _having a gleaming blade_: acc. sg. n. (hyre seaxe) br‚d
[and] br˚necg, _her broad sword with gleaming blade_, 1547.

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