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Beowulf by James A. Harrison and Robert Sharp, eds.

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˛re·tian, w. v. w. acc., _to press, oppress_: pret. pl. mec ...˛re·tedon,

˛reot-teoa, num. adj. w. m., _thirteenth_: nom. sg. ˛reot-teoa secg,

˛reÛ, num. (neut.), _three_: acc. ˛riÛ wicg, 2175; ˛reÛ hund wintra, 2279.

˛ridda, num. adj. w. m., _third_: instr. ˛riddan sÓe, 2689.

ge-˛ring, st. n., _eddy, whirlpool, crush_: acc. on holma ge-˛ring, 2133.

˛ringan, st. v., _to press_: pret. sg. wergendra tÙ lyt ˛rong ymbe ˛eÛden
(_too few defenders pressed round the prince_), 2884; pret. pl. syan
HrÍlingas tÙ hagan ˛rungon (_after the Hrethlingas had pressed into the
hedge_), 2961.

for-˛ringan, _to press out; rescue, protect_: inf. ˛‰t he ne mehte ...˛‚
we·-l‚fe wÓge for-˛ringan ˛eÛdnes ˛egne (_that he could not rescue the
wretched remnant from the king's thane by war_), 1085.

ge-˛ringan, _to press_: pret. sg. ceÛl up ge˛rang (_the ship shot up_),
i.e. on the shore in landing), 1913.

˛ritig, num., _thirty_ (neut. subst.): acc. sg. w. partitive gen.: ˛ritig
˛egna, 123; gen. ˛rittiges (XXXtiges MS.) manna, 379.

˛rÓst-hydig, adj., _bold-minded, valorous_: nom. sg. ˛iÛden ˛rÓst-hydig
(BeÛwulf), 2811.

˛rowian, w. v. w. acc., _to suffer, endure_: inf. (h‚t, gnorn) ˛rowian,
2606, 2659; pret. sg. ˛rowade, 1590, 1722; ˛rowode, 2595.

˛ry, st. f., _abundance, multitude_, _excellence, power_: instr. pl.
˛ryum (_excellently, extremely; excellent in strength?_), 494.

˛ry-‰rn, st. n., _excellent house, royal hall_: acc. sg. (of Heorot), 658.

˛rylÓc, adj., _excellent, chosen_: nom. sg. ˛ry-lÓc ˛egna he·p, 400,
1628; superl. acc. pl. ˛ry-lÓcost, 2870.

˛r˝-sw˝, st. n.?, _great pain_ (?): acc., 131, 737 [? adj., _very
powerful, exceeding strong_].

˛ry-word, st. n., _bold speech, choice discourse_: nom. sg., 644. (Great
store was set by good table-talk: cf. Lachmann's Nibelunge, 1612; RÓgsm‚l,
29, 7, in Mˆbius, p. 79b, 22.)

˛rym, st. m.: 1) _power, might, force_: nom. sg. ˝a ˛rym, 1919; instr. pl.
= adv. ˛rymmum (_powerfully_), 235.--2) _glory, renown_: acc. sg. ˛rym,
2.--Comp. hyge-˛rym.

˛rym-lÓc, adj., _powerful, mighty_: nom. sg. ˛rec-wudu ˛rym-lÓc (_the
mighty spear_), 1247.

˛u, pron., _thou_, 366, 407, 445, etc.; acc. sg. ˛ec (poetic), 948, 2152,
etc.; ˛e, 417, 426, 517, etc.; after compar. sÍlran ˛e (_a better one than
thee_), 1851. See ge.

˛unca, w. m. See ‰f-˛unca.

ge-˛ungen. See ge-˛ingan, st. v.

˛urfan, pret.-pres. v., _to need_: pres. sg. II. nÙ ˛u ne ˛earft ...
sorgian (_needest not care_), 450; so, 445, 1675; III. ne ˛earf ...
onsittan (_need not fear_), 596; so, 2007, 2742; pres. subj. ˛‰t he ...
sÍcean ˛urfe, 2496; pret. sg. ˛orfte, 157, 1027, 1072, 2875, 2996; pl.
nealles Hetware hrÍmge ˛orfton (i.e. wesan) fÍe-wÓges (_needed not boast
of their foot-fight_), 2365.

ge-˛uren. See ˛weran.

˛urh, prep. w. acc. signifying motion through, hence: I. local, _through,
throughout_: wÙd ˛‚ ˛urh ˛one w‰l-rÍc (_went then through the
battle-reek_), 2662.--II. causal: l) _on account of, for the sake of, owing
to_: ˛urh slÓne nÓ (_through fierce hostility, heathenism_), 184; ˛urh
holdne hige (_from friendliness_), 267; so, ˛urh r˚mne sefan, 278; ˛urh
sÓdne sefan, 1727; eÛwe ˛urh egsan unc˚ne nÓ (_shows unheard-of
hostility by the terror he causes_), 276; so, 1102, 1336, 2046. 2) _by
means of, through_: heao-rÊs for-nam mihtig mere-deÛr ˛urh mÓne hand, 558;
˛urh ‚nes cr‰ft, 700; so, 941, 1694, 1696, 1980, 2406, 3069.

˛us, adv., _so, thus_, 238, 337, 430.

˛unian, w. v., _to din, sound forth_: pret. sg. sund-wudu ˛unede, 1907.

˛˚send, num., _thousand_: 1) fem. acc. ic ˛e ˛˚senda ˛egna bringe tÙ helpe,
1830.--2) neut. with measure of value (sceat) omitted: acc. seofan ˛˚sendo,
2196; gen. hund-˛˚senda landes and locenra be·ga (100,000 _sceattas' worth
of land and rings_), 2995.--3) uninflected: acc. ˛˚send wintra, 3051.

˛wÊre, adj., _affable, mild_: in comp. man-˛wÊre.

ge-˛wÊre, adj., _gentle, mild_: nom. pl. ge-˛wÊre, 1231.

ge-˛weran, st. v., _to forge, strike_: pret. part. heoru ... hamere
ge-˛uren (for ge-˛woren) (_hammer-forged sword_), 1286.

˛yhtig. See ˛ihtig.

ge-˛yld (see ˛olian), st. f.: 1) _patience, endurance_: acc. sg. ge-˛yld,
1396.--2) _steadfastness_: instr. pl. = adv.: ge-˛yldum (_steadfastly,
patiently_), 1706.

˛yle, st. m., _spokesman, leader of the conversation at court_: nom. sg.,
1166, 1457.

˛yncan, ˛incean, w. v. w. dat. of pers., _to seem, appear_: pres. sg. III.
˛ince him tÙ lytel (_it seems to him too little_), 1749; ne ˛ynce me
gerysne, ˛‰t we _(it seemeth to me not fit that we_ ...), 2654; pres. pl.
hy ... wyre ˛incea eorla ge-Êhtlan (_they seem worthy contenders with_
(?) _earls_; or, _worthy warriors_), 368; pres. subj. sw‚ him ge-met ˛ince,
688; inf. ˛incean, 1342; pret. sg. ˛˚hte, 2462, 3058; nÙ his lÓf-ged‚l
s‚r-lÓc ˛˚hte secga Ênigum (_his death seemed painful to none of men_),
843; pret. pl. ˛Êr him fold-wegas f‰gere ˛˚hton, 867.

of-˛incan, _to displease, offend_: inf. m‰g ˛‰s ˛onne of-˛yncan ˛eÛden
(dat.) Heao-beardna and ˛egna gehw‚m ˛‚ra leÛda, 2033.

˛yrs, st. m., _giant_: dat. sg. wi ˛yrse (Grendel), 426.

˛ys-lÓc, adj., _such, of such a nature_: nom. sg. fem. ˛ys-lÓcu ˛earf,

˛˝. See ˛‰t.

˛˝wan (M.H.G. diuhen, O.H.G. duhan), w. v., _to crush, oppress_: inf. gif
˛ec ymb-sittend egesan ˛˝wa (_if thy neighbors oppress thee with dread_),

˛˝stru, st. f., _darkness_: dat. pl. in ˛˝strum, 87.

ge-˛˝we, adj., _customary, usual_: nom. sg. sw‚ him ge-˛˝we ne w‰s (_as was
not his custom_), 2333.


ufan, _adv., from above_, 1501; _above_, 330.

ufera (prop. _higher_), adj., _later_: dat. pl. ufaran dÙgrum, 2201, 2393.

ufor, adv., _higher_, 2952.

uhte, w. f., _twilight_ or _dawn_: dat. or acc. on uhtan, 126.

uht-floga, w. m., _twilight-flier, dawn-flier_ (epithet of the dragon):
gen. sg. uht-flogan, 2761.

uht-hlem, st. m., _twilight-cry, dawn-cry_: acc. sg., 2008.

uht-sceaa, w. m., _twilight-_ or _dawn-foe_: nom. sg., 2272.

umbor, st. n., _child, infant_: acc. sg., 46; dat. sg., 1188.

un-blÓe, adv.(?), _unblithely, sorrowfully_, 130, 2269; (adj., nom. pl.?),

un-byrnende, pres. part., _unburning, without burning_, 2549.

unc, dat. and acc. of the dual wit, _us two, to us two_, 1784, 2138, 2527;
gen. hw‰er ... uncer twega (_which of us two_), 2533; uncer Grendles (_of
us two, G. and me_), 2003.

uncer, poss. pron., _of us two_: nom. sg. [uncer], 2002(?); dat. pl. uncran
eaferan, 1186.

un-c˚, adj.: 1) _unknown_: nom. sg. stÓg ... eldum unc˚, 2215; acc. sg.
neut. unc˚ ge-l‚d (_unknown ways_), 1411.--2) _unheard-of, barbarous,
evil_: acc. sg. un-c˚ne nÓ, 276; gen. sg. un-c˚es (_of the foe_,
Grendel), 961.

under, I. prep. w. dat. and acc.: 1) w. dat., answering question where? =
_under_ (of rest), contrasted with _over_: b‚t (w‰s) under beorge, 211; ˛‚
cwom Wealh˛eÛ for g‚n under gyldnum be·ge (_W. walked forth under a golden
circlet_, i.e. decked with), 1164; sian he under segne sine ealgode
(_under his banner_), 1205; he under rande ge-cranc (_sank under his
shield_), 1210; under wolcnum, 8, 1632; under heofenum, 52, 505; under
roderum, 310; under helme, 342, 404; under here-grÓman, 396, 2050, 2606;
so, 711, 1198, 1303, 1929, 2204, 2416, 3061, 3104.--2) w. acc.: a)
answering question whither? = _under_ (of motion): ˛‚ secg wÓsode under
Heorotes hrÙf, 403; sian Êfen-leÛht under heofenes h‚dor be-holen
weore, 414; under sceadu bregdan, 708; fleÛn under fen-hleou, 821; hond
‚legde ... under ge·pne hrÙf, 837; teÛn in under eoderas, 1038; so, 1361,
1746, 2129, 2541, 2554, 2676, 2745; so, h‰fde ˛‚ for-sÓod sunu Ecg-˛eÛwes
under gynne grund, 1552 (for-sÓian requires acc.). b) after verbs of
venturing and fighting, with acc. of object had in view: he under h‚rne
st‚n ...‚na ge-nÍde frÍcne dÊde, 888; ne dorste under ˝a ge-win aldre
ge-nÍan, 1470. c) indicating extent, with acc. after expressions of limit,
etc.: under swegles begong (_as far as the sky extends_), 861, 1774; under
heofenes hwealf (_as far as heaven's vault reaches_), 2016.

II. Adv., _beneath, below_: stÓg under l‰g (_a path lay beneath_, i.e. the
rock), 2214.

undern-mÊl, st. n., _midday_: acc. sg., 1429.

un-dyrne, un-derne, adj., _without concealment, plain, clear_: nom. sg.,
127, 2001; un-derne, 2912.

un-dyrne, adv., _plainly, evidently_; un-dyrne c˚, 150, 410.

un-f‰ger, adj., _unlovely, hideous_: nom. sg. leÛht un-f‰ger, 728.

un-fÊcne, adj., _without malice, sincere_: nom. sg., 2069.

un-fÊge, adj., _not death-doomed_ or "_fey_": nom. sg., 2292; acc. sg.
un-fÊgne eorl, 573.

un-flitme, adv., _solemnly, incontestably_: Finn Hengeste elne unflitme
‚um benemde (_F. swore solemnly to H. with oaths_) [if an adj., elne un-f.
= _unconquerable in valor_], 1098.

un-forht, adj., _fearless, bold_: nom. sg., 287; acc. pl. unforhte (adv.?),
444. See Note.

un-from, adj., _unfit, unwarlike_: nom. sg., 2189.

un-frÙd, adj., _not aged, young_: dat sg. guman un-frÙdum, 2822.

un-gedÍfelÓce, adv., _unjustly, contrary to right and custom_, 2436.

un-gemete, adv., _immeasurably, exceedingly_, 2421, 2722, 2729.

un-gemetes, adv. gen. sg., the same, 1793.

un-ge‚ra, adv., (_not old_), _recently, lately_, 933; _soon_, 603.

un-gifee, adj., _not to be granted; refused_: nom. sg., 2922.

un-gle·w, adj., _regardless, reckless_: acc. sg. sweord ... ecgum ungle·w
(of a sharp-edged sword), 2565.

un-h‚r, adj., _very gray_: nom. sg., 357; (_bald_?).

un-hÊlo, st. f., _mischief, destruction_: gen. sg. wiht un-hÊlo (_the demon
of destruction_, Grendel), 120.

un-heÛre, un-h˝re, adj., _monstrous, horrible_: nom. sg. m., weard un-hiÛre
(the dragon), 2414; neut. wÓf un-h˝re (Grendel's mother), 2121; nom. pl.
neut. hand-sporu ... unheÛru (of Grendel's claws), 988.

un-hlytme, un-hlitme, adv. (cf. A.S. hlytm = _lot_; O.N. hluti = _part
division_), _undivided, unseparated_, _united_, 1130 [unless = un-flitme,
1098]. See Note.

un-leÛf, adj., _hated_: acc. pl. seah on un-leÛfe, 2864.

un-lifigende, pres. part., _unliving, lifeless_: nom. sg. un-lifigende,
468; acc. sg. un-lyfigendne, 1309; dat. sg. un-lifgendum, 1390; gen. sg.
un-lyfigendes, 745.

un-lytel, adj., _not little, very large_: nom. sg. dugu un-lytel (_a great
band of warriors_? or _great joy_?), 498; dÙm un-lytel (_no little glory_),
886; acc. sg. torn un-lytel (_very great shame, misery_), 834.

un-murnlÓce, adv., _unpityingly, without sorrowing_, 449, 1757.

unnan, pret.-pres. v., _to grant, give; wish, will_: pret.-pres. sg. I. ic
˛e an tela sinc-gestreÛna, 1226; weak pret. sg. I. ˚e ic swÓor ˛‰t ˛u
hine selfne ge-seÛn mÙste, 961; III. he ne ˚e ˛‰t ...(_he granted not that
..._), 503; him god ˚e ˛‰t ... he hyne sylfne ge-wr‰c (_God granted to him
that he avenged himself_), 2875; ˛e·h he ˚e wel (_though he well would_),

ge-unnan, _to grant, permit_: inf. gif he ˚s ge-unnan wile ˛‰t we hine ...
grÍtan mÙton, 346; me ge-˚e ylda waldend, ˛‰t ic ... ge-seah hangian (_the
Ruler of men permitted me to see hanging ..._), 1662.

un-nyt, adj., _useless_: nom. sg., 413, 3170.

un-riht, st. n., _unright, injustice, wrong_: acc. sg. unriht, 1255, 2740;
instr. sg. un-rihte (_unjustly, wrongly_), 3060.

un-rÓm, st. n., _immense number_: nom. sg., 1239, 3136; acc. sg., 2625.

un-rÓme, adj., _countless, measureless_: nom. sg. gold un-rÓme, 3013.

un-rÙt, adj., _sorrowing_: nom. pl. un-rÙte, 3149.

un-snyttru, st. f., _lack of wisdom_: dat. pl. for his un-snyttrum (_for
his unwisdom_), 1735.

un-softe, adv., _unsoftly, with violence_ (_hardly_?), 2141; _scarcely_,

un-sw˝e, adv., _not strongly_ or _powerfully_: compar. (ecg) b‚t unswÓor
˛onne his ˛iÛd-cyning ˛earfe h‰fde (_the sword bit less sharply than the
prince of the people needed_), 2579; f˝r unswÓor weÛll, 2882.

un-synnig, adj., _guiltless, sinless_: acc. sg. un-synnigne, 2090.

un-synnum, adv. instr. pl., _guiltlessly_, 1073.

un-tÊle, adj., _blameless_: acc. pl. un-tÊle, 1866.

un-tyder, st. m., _evil race, monster_: nom. pl. un-tydras, 111. [Cf. Ger.

un-w‚clÓc, adj., _that cannot be shaken; firm, strong_: acc. sg. ‚d ...
un-w‚clÓcne, 3139.

un-wearnum, adv. instr. pl., _unawares, suddenly_; (_unresistingly_?), 742.

un-wrecen, pret. part., _unavenged_, 2444.

up, adv., _up, upward_, 224, 519, 1374, 1620, 1913, 1921, 2894; (of the
voice), ˛‚ w‰s ... wÙp up ‚hafen, 128; so, 783.

up-lang, adj., _upright, erect_: nom. sg., 760.

uppe (adj., ˚fe, ˚ffe), adv., _above_, 566.

up-riht, adj., _upright, erect_: nom. sg., 2093.

uton. See wuton.

˚-genge, adj., _transitory, evanescent, ready to depart_, (_fled_?): ˛Êr
w‰s ƒsc-here ... feorh ˚-genge, 2124.

˚s, pers. pron. dat. and acc. of we (see we), _us, to us_, 1822, 2636,
2643, 2921, 3002, 3079; acc. (poetic), ˚sic, 2639, 2641, 2642;--gen. ˚re:
˚re Êg-hwylc (_each of us_), 1387; ˚ser, 2075.

˚ser, possess, pron.: nom. sg. ˚re man-drihten, 2648; dat. sg. ˚ssum
hl‚forde, 2635; gen. sg. neut. ˚sses cynnes, 2814; dat. pl. ˚rum ... b‚m
(_to us both, two_) (for unc b‚m), 2660.

˚t, adv., _out_, 215, 537, 664, 1293, 1584, 2082, 2558, 3131.

˚tan, adv., _from without, without_, 775, 1032, 1504, 2335.

˚t-f˚s, adj., _ready to go_: nom. sg. hringed-stefna Ósig and ˚t-f˚s, 33.

˚t-weard, adj., _outward, outside, free_: nom. sg. eoten (Grendel) w‰s
˚t-weard, 762.

˚tan-weard, adj., _without, outward, from without_: acc. sg. hlÊw ... ealne
˚tan-weardne, 2298.


*wacan, st. v., _to awake, arise, originate_: pret. sg. ˛anon (from Cain)
wÙc fela geÛ-sceaft-g‚sta, 1266; so, 1961; pl. ˛‚m feÛwer bearn ... in
worold wÙcun, 60.

*on-wacan: 1) _to awake_ (intrans.): pret. sg. ˛‚ se wyrm on-wÙc (_when the
drake awoke_), 2288.--2) _to be born_: pret. sg. him on-wÙc he·h Healfdene,
56; pl. on-wÙcon, 111.

wacian, w. v., _to watch_: imper. sg. waca wi wr‚um! 661.

wadan, st. v., (cf. wade, waddle) _to traverse; stride, go_: pret. sg. wÙd
˛urh ˛one w‰l-rÍc, 2662; wÙd under wolcnum (_stalked beneath the clouds_),

ge-wadan, _to attain by moving, come to, reach_: pret. part. Ù ˛‰t ...
wunden-stefna ge-waden h‰fde, ˛‰t ˛‚ lÓende land ge-s‚won (_till the ship
had gone so far that the sailors saw land_), 220.

on-wadan, w. acc., _to invade, befall_: pret. sg. hine fyren on-wÙd(?),

˛urh-wadan, _to penetrate, pierce_: pret. sg. ˛‰t swurd ˛urh-wÙd wr‰t-lÓcne
wyrm, 891; so, 1568.

wag, st. m., _wall_: dat. sg. on wage, 1663; dat. pl. ‰fter wagum (_along
the walls_), 996.

wala, w. m., _boss_: nom. pl. walan, 1032 (cf. Bouterwek in Haupt XI., 85

walda, w. m., _wielder, ruler_: in comp. an-, eal-walda.

wald-swau, st. f., _forest-path_: dat. pl. ‰fter wald-swaum (_along the
wood-paths_), 1404.

wam, wom, st. m., _spot, blot, sin_: acc. sg. him be-beorgan ne con wom
(_cannot protect himself from evil_ or _from the evil strange orders_,
etc.; wom = wogum? = _crooked_?), 1748; instr. pl. wommum, 3074.

wan, won, adj., _wan, lurid, dark_: nom. sg, ˝-geblond ... won (_the dark
waves_), 1375; se wonna hrefn (_the black raven_), 3025; wonna lÍg (_lurid
flame_), 3116; dat. sg. f. on wanre niht, 703; nom. pl. neut. scadu-helma
ge-sceapu ... wan, 652.

wang, st. m., _mead, field; place_: acc. sg. wang, 93, 225; wong, 1414,
2410, 3074; dat. sg. wange, 2004; wonge, 2243, 3040; acc. pl. wongas,
2463.--Comp.: freoo-, grund-, medo-, sÊ-wang.

wang-stede, st. m., (locus campestris), _spot, place_: dat. sg. wong-stede,

wan-h˝d (for hygd), st. f., _heedlessness, recklessness_: dat. pl. for his
won-h˝dum, 434.

wanian, w. v.: 1) intrans., _to decrease, wane_: inf. ˛‚ ˛‰t sweord ongan
... wanian, 1608.--2) w. acc., _to cause to wane_ or _lessen_: pret. sg. he
tÙ lange leÛde mÓne wanode, 1338.

ge-wanian, _to decrease, diminish_: pret. part. is mÓn flet-werod ...
ge-wanod, 477.

wan-sÊlig, adj., _unhappy, wretched_: nom. sg. won-sÊlig wer (Grendel),

wan-sceaft, st. f., _misery, want_: acc. sg. won-sceaft, 120.

warian, w. v. w. acc., _to occupy, guard, possess_: pres. sg. III. ˛Êr he
hÊen gold wara (_where he guards heathen gold_), 2278; pl. III. hie
(Grendel and his mother) d˝gel land warigea, 1359; pret. sg. (Grendel)
goldsele warode, 1254; (Cain) wÍsten warode, 1266.

waro, st. m., _shore_: dat. sg. tÙ waroe, 234; acc. pl. wide waroas,

waru, st. f., _inhabitants_, (collective) _population_: in comp. land-waru.

w‚, interj., _woe!_ w‚ bi ˛‰m ˛e... (_woe to him that..._), 183.

w‚u, st. f., _way, journey_: in comp. gamen-w‚u.

w‚nian, w. v., _to weep, whine, howl_, w. acc.: inf. geh˝rdon ... s‚r
w‚nigean helle h‰ftan (_they heard the hell-fastened one lamenting his
pain_), 788; pret. sg. [w‚node], 3152(?).

w‚t. See witan.

w‰cean, w. v., _to watch_: pret. part w‰ccende, 709, 2842; acc. sg. m.
w‰ccendne wer, 1269. See wacian.

w‰cnan, w. v., _to be awake, come forth_: inf., 85.

w‰d, st. n., (the moving) _sea, ocean_: nom. wado weallende, 546; wadu
weallendu, 581; gen. pl. wada 508.

w‰fre, adj., _wavering_ (like flame), _ghostlike, without distinct bodily
form_: nom. sg. w‰l-gÊst w‰fre (of Grendel's mother), 1332;--_flickering,
expiring_: nom. sg. w‰fre mÙd, 1151; him w‰s geÙmor sefa, w‰fre and
w‰l-f˚s, 2421.

be-w‰gnan, w. v., _to offer_: pret part, him w‰s ... freÛnd-lau wordum
be-w‰gned, 1194.

w‰l, st. n., _battle, slaughter, the slain in battle_: acc. sg. w‰l, 1213,
3028, blÙdig w‰l, 448; oe on w‰l crunge (_or in battle, among the slain,
fall_), 636; dat. sg. sume on w‰le crungon (_some fell in the slaughter_),
1114; dat. sg. in Fr...es w‰le (proper name in MS. destroyed), 1071; nom.
pl. walu, 1043.

w‰l-bed, st. n., _slaughter-bed, deathbed_: dat. sg. on w‰l-bedde, 965.

w‰l-bend, st. f., _death-bond_: acc. sg. or pl. w‰l-bende ...
hand-gewriene, 1937.

w‰l-ble·t, adj., _deadly, mortal, cruel_: acc. sg. wunde w‰l-ble·te, 2726.

w‰l-de·, st. m., _death in battle_: nom. sg., 696.

w‰l-dreÛr, st. m., _battle-gore_: instr. sg. w‰l-dreÛre, 1632.

w‰l-f‚h, adj., _slaughter-stained, blood-stained_: acc. sg. w‰l-f‚gne
winter, 1129.

w‰l-f‰h, st. f., _deadly feud_: gen. pl. w‰l-fÊha, 2029.

w‰l-feall, st. m., _(fall of the slain), death, destruction_: dat. sg. tÙ
w‰l-fealle, 1712.

w‰l-f˚s, adj., _ready for death, foreboding death_: nom. sg., 2421.

w‰l-fyllo, st. f., _fill of slaughter_: dat. sg. mid ˛Êre w‰l-fulle (i.e.
the thirty men nightly slaughtered at Heorot by Grendel), 125; w‰l-fylla?

w‰l-f˝r, st. n.: 1) _deadly fire_: instr. sg. w‰l-f˝re (of the fire-spewing
dragon), 2583.--2) _corpse-consuming fire, funeral pyre_: gen. pl. w‰l-f˝ra
mÊst, 1120.

w‰l-gÊst, st. m., _deadly sprite_ (of Grendel and his mother): nom. sg.
w‰l-gÊst, 1332; acc. sg. ˛one w‰l-gÊst, 1996.

w‰l-hlem, st. m., _death-stroke_: acc. sg. w‰l-hlem ˛one, 1996.

w‰lm, st. m., _flood, whelming water_: nom. sg. ˛Êre burnan w‰lm, 2547;
gen. sg. ˛‰s w‰lmes (_of the surf_), 2136.--Comp. cear-w‰lm.

w‰l-nÓ, st. m., _deadly hostility_: nom. sg., 3001; dat. sg. ‰fter
w‰l-nÓe, 85; nom. pl. w‰l-nÓas, 2066.

w‰l-r‚p, st. m., _flood-fetter, i.e. ice_: acc. pl. w‰l-r‚pas, 1611; (cf.
w‰ll, wel, wyll = _well, flood_: leax sceal on w‰le mid sceÛte scrÓan,
Gnom. Cott. 39).

w‰l-rÊs, st. m., _deadly onslaught_: nom. sg., 2948; dat. sg. w‰l-rÊse,
825, 2532.

w‰l-rest, st. f., _death-bed_, acc. sg. w‰l-reste, 2903.

w‰l-rÍc, st. m., _deadly reek_ or _smoke_: acc. sg. wÙd ˛‚ ˛urh ˛one
w‰l-rÍc, 2662.

w‰l-re·f, st, n., _booty of the slain, battle-plunder_: acc. sg., 1206.

w‰l-reÛw, adj., _bold in battle_: nom. sg., 630.

w‰l-sceaft, st. m., _deadly shaft, spear_: acc. pl. w‰l-sceaftas, 398.

w‰l-seax, st. n., _deadly knife, war-knife_: instr. sg. w‰ll-seaxe, 2704.

w‰l-stenge, st. m., _battle-spear_: dat. sg. on ˛am w‰l-stenge, 1639.

w‰l-stÙw, st. f., _battle-field_: dat. sg. w‰l-stÙwe, 2052, 2985.

w‰stm, st. m., _growth, form, figure_: dat. sg. on weres w‰stmum (_in man's
form_), 1353.

w‰ter, st. n., _water_: nom. sg., 93, 1417, 1515, 1632; acc. sg. w‰ter,
1365, 1620; deÛp w‰ter (_the deep_), 509, 1905; ofer wÓd w‰ter (_over the
high sea]_, 2474; dat. sg. ‰fter w‰tere _(along the Grendel-sea_), 1426;
under w‰tere (_at the bottom of the sea_), 1657; instr. w‰tere, 2723;
w‰tre, 2855; gen. sg. ofer w‰teres hrycg (_over the surface of the sea_),
471; on w‰teres Êht, 516; ˛urh w‰teres wylm (_through the sea-wave_), 1694;
gen. = instr. w‰teres weorpan (_to sprinkle with water_), 2792.

w‰ter-egesa, st. m., _water-terror_, i.e. _the fearful sea_: acc. sg., 1261

w‰ter-˝, st. f., _water-wave, billow_: dat. pl. w‰ter-˝um, 2243.

wÊd, st. f., _(weeds), garment_: in comp. here-, hilde-wÊd.

ge-wÊde, st. n., _clothing_, especially _battle-equipments_: acc. pl.
gewÊdu, 292.--Comp. eorl-gewÊde.

wÊg, st. m., _wave_: acc. sg. wÊg, 3133.

wÊg-bora, w. m., _wave-bearer, swimmer_ (bearing or propelling the waves
before him): nom. sg. wundorlÓc wÊg-bora (of a sea-monster), 1441.

wÊg-flota, w. m., _sea-sailer, ship_: acc. sg. wÍg-flotan, 1908.

wÊg-holm, st. m., _the wave-filled sea_: acc. sg. ofer wÊg-holm, 217.

wÊge, st. n., _cup, can_: acc. sg. f‰ted wÊge, 2254, 2283.--Comp.: ealo-,

wÊg-lÓend, pres. part., _sea-farer_: dat. pl. wÊg-lÓendum (et lÓendum,
MS.), 3160.

wÊg-sweord, st. n., _heavy sword_: acc. sg., 1490.

wÊn, st. m., _wain, wagon_: acc. sg. on wÊn, 3135.

wÊpen, st. n., _weapon; sword_: nom. sg., 1661; acc. sg. wÊpen, 686, 1574,
2520, 2688; instr. wÊpne, 1665, 2966; gen. wÊpnes, 1468; acc. pl. wÊpen,
292; dat. pl. wÊpnum, 250, 331, 2039, 2396. --Comp.: hilde-, sige-wÊpen.

wÊpned-man, st. m., _warrior, man_: dat. sg. wÊpned-men, 1285.

wÊr, st. f., _covenant, treaty_: acc. sg. wÊre, 1101;--_protection, care_:
dat. sg. on fre·n (on ˛‰s waldendes) wÊre (_into God's protection_), 27,
3110.--Comp.: frioo-wÊr.

wÊsma, w. m., _fierce strength, war-strength_: in comp. here-wÊsma, 678.

we, pers. pron., _we_, 942, 959, 1327, 1653, 1819, 1820, etc.

web, st. n., _woven work, tapestry_:, nom. pl. web, 996.

webbe, w. f., _webster, female weaver_: in comp. freou-webbe.

weccan, weccean, w. v. w. acc., _to wake, rouse; recall_: inf. wÓg-bealu
weccan (_to stir up strife_), 2047; nalles hearpan swÍg (sceal) wÓgend
weccean (_the sound of the harp shall not wake up the warriors_), 3025;
ongunnon ˛‚ ... bÊl-f˝ra mÊst wÓgend weccan (_the warriors then began to
start the mightiest of funeral pyres_), 3145; pret. sg. wehte hine w‰tre
(_roused him with water_, i.e. WÓgl‚f recalled BeÛwulf to consciousness),

tÙ-weccan, _to stir up, rouse_: pret, pl. h˚ ˛‚ folc mid him (_with one
another_), fÊhe tÙ-wehton, 2949.

wed, st. n., (cf. wed-ding), _pledge_: dat. sg. hyldo tÙ wedde (_as a
pledge of his favor_), 2999.

weder, st. n., _weather_: acc. pl. wuldor-torhtan weder, 1137; gen. pl.
wedera cealdost, 546.

ge-wef, st. n., _woof, weaving_: acc. pl. wÓg-spÍda ge-wiofu (_the woof of
war-speed_: the battle-woof woven for weal or woe by the Walkyries; cf.
Njals-saga, 158), 698.

weg, st. m., _way_: acc. sg. on weg (_away, off_), 264, 764, 845, 1431,
2097; gyf ˛u on weg cymest (_if thou comest off safe_, i.e. from the battle
with Grendel's mother), 1383.--Comp.: feor-, fold-, for-, wÓd-weg.

wegan, st. v. w. acc., _to bear, wear, bring, possess_: subj. pres. n‚h hw‚
sweord wege (_I have none that may bear the sword_), 2253; inf. nalles
(sceal) eorl wegan m‚um tÙ ge-myndum (_no earl shall wear a memorial
jewel_), 3016; pret. ind. he ˛‚ fr‰twe w‰g ... ofer ˝a ful (_bore the
jewels over the goblet of the waves_), 1208; w‰l-seaxe ... ˛‰t he on byrnan
w‰g, 2705; heortan sorge w‰g (_bore heart's sorrow_); so, 152, 1778, 1932,

‰t-wegan = _auferre, to carry off_: syan H‚ma ‰t-w‰g tÙ ˛Êre byrhtan
byrig Brosinga mene (_since H. bore from the bright city the
Brosing-collar_), 1199.

ge-wegan (O.N. wega), _to fight_: inf. ˛e he wi ˛am wyrme ge-wegan
sceolde, 2401.

wel, adv.: 1) _well_: wel bi ˛‰m ˛e ... (_well for him that ...!_), 186;
se ˛e wel ˛ence (_he that well thinketh, judgeth_), 289; so, 640, 1046,
1822, 1834, 1952, 2602; well, 2163, 2813.--2) _very, very much_: Ge·t
ungemetes wel ... restan lyste (_the Geat longed sorely to rest_),
1793.--3) _indeed, to be sure_, 2571, 2856.

wela, w. m., _wealth, goods, possessions_: in comp. Êr-, burg-, hord-,

wel-hwylc, indef. pron., = quivis, _any you please, any_ (each, all): gen.
pl. wel-hwylcra wilna, 1345; w. partitive gen.: nom. sg. witena wel-hwylc,
266;--substantively: acc. neut. wel-hwylc, 875.

welig, adj., _wealthy, rich_: acc. sg. wÓc-stede weligne WÊgmundinga, 2608.

wel-˛ungen, pres. part., _well-thriven_ (in mind), _mature, high-minded_:
nom. sg. Hygd (w‰s) swÓe geong, wÓs, wel-˛ungen, 1928.

wenian, w. v., _to accustom, attract, honor_: subj. pret. ˛‰t ...
Folcwaldan sunu ... Hengestes he·p hringum wenede (_sh. honor_), 1092.

be-(bi-)wenian, _entertain, care for, attend_: pret. sg. m‰g ˛‰s ˛onne
of-˛yncan ˛eÛden Heao-beardna ... ˛onne he mid fÊmnan on flet gÊ,
dryht-bearn Dena dugua bi-wenede (_may well displease the prince of the
H.... when he with the woman goes into the hall, that a noble scion of the
Danes should entertain, bear wine to, the knights_, cf. 494 seqq.; or, _a
noble scion of the Danes should attend on her?_), 2036; pret. part. nom.
pl. wÊron her tela willum be-wenede, 1822.

wendan, w. v., _to turn_: pres. sg. III. him eal worold wende on willan
(_all the world turns at his will_), 1740.

ge-wendan, w. acc.: l) _to turn, turn round_: pret. sg. wicg gewende
(_turned his horse_), 315.--2) _to turn_ (intrans.), _change_: inf. w‚ bi
˛‰m ˛e sceal ... frÙfre ne wÍnan, wihte ge-wendan (_woe to him that shall
have no hope, shall not change at all_), 186.

on-wendan, _to avert, set aside_: 1) w. acc.: inf. ne mihte snotor h‰le
we·n on-wendan, 191.--2) intrans.: sibb Êfre ne m‰g wiht on-wendan ˛am ˛e
wel ˛ence (_in, to, him that is well thinking friendship can not be set
aside_), 2602.

wer, st. m., _man, hero_: nom. sg. (Grendel), 105; acc. sg. wer (BeÛwulf),
1269, 3174; gen. sg. on weres w‰stmum (_in man's form_), 1353; nom. pl.
weras, 216, 1223, 1234, 1441, 1651; dat. pl. werum, 1257; gen. pl. wera,
120, 994, 1732, 3001; (MS. weora), 2948.

wered, st. n., (as adj. = _sweet_), _a sort of beer_ (probably without hops
or such ingredients): acc. sg. scÓr wered, 496.

were-feohte, f., _defensive fight, fight in self-defence_: dat. pl. for
were-fyhtum (fere fyhtum, MS.), 457.

werho, st. f., _curse, outlawry, condemnation_: acc. sg. ˛u in helle
scealt werho dreÛgan, 590.

werian, _to defend, protect_: w. vb., pres. sg. III. beaduscr˚da ... ˛‰t
mÓne breÛst were, 453; inf. wit unc wi hron-fixas werian ˛Ùhton, 541;
pres. part. w. gen. pl. wergendra tÙ lyt (_too few defenders_), 2883; pret.
ind. w‰l-re·f werede (_guarded the battle-spoil_), 1206; se hwÓta helm
hafelan werede (_the shining helm protected his head_), 1449; pl. hafelan
weredon, 1328; pret. part. nom. pl. ge ... byrnum werede (_ye_ ...
_corselet-clad_), 238, 2530.

be-werian, _to protect, defend_: pret. pl. ˛‰t hie ... leÛda land-geweorc
l‚um be-weredon scuccum and scinnum (_that they the people's land-work
from foes, from monsters and demons, might defend_), 939

werig, adj., _accursed, outlawed_: gen. sg. wergan g‚stes (Grendel), 133;
(of the devil), 1748.

werod, weorod, st. n., _band of men, warrior-troop_: nom. sg. werod, 652;
weorod, 290, 2015, 3031; acc. sg. werod, 319; dat. instr. sg. weorode,
1012, 2347; werede, 1216; gen. sg. werodes, 259; gen. pl. wereda, 2187;
weoroda, 60.--Comp.: eorl-, flet-werod.

wer-˛eÛd, st. f., _people, humanity_: dat. sg. ofer wer-˛eÛde, 900.

wesan, v., _to be_: pres. sg. I. ic eom, 335, 407; II. ˛u eart, 352, 506;
III. is, 256, 272, 316, 343, 375, 473, etc.; nu is ˛Ónes m‰genes blÊd ‚ne
hwÓle (_the prime [fame?] of thy powers lasteth now for a while_), 1762;
ys, 2911, 3000, 3085; pl. I. we synt, 260, 342; II. syndon, 237, 393; III.
syndon, 257, 361, 1231; synt, 364; sint, 388; subj. pres. sÓe, 435, 683,
etc.; s˝, 1832, etc.; sig, 1779, etc.; imper. sg. II. wes, 269 (cf.
wassail, wes hÊl), 407, 1171, 1220, 1225, etc.; inf. wesan, 272, 1329,
1860, 2709, etc. The inf. wesan must sometimes be supplied: nealles Hetware
hrÍmge ˛orfton (i.e. wesan) fÍe-wÓges, 2364; so, 2498, 2660, 618, 1858;
pres. part. wesende, 46; dat. sg. wesendum, 1188; pret. sg. I., III. w‰s,
11, 12, 18, 36, 49, 53, etc.; w‰s on sunde (_was a-swimming_), 1619; so,
848, 850(?), 970, 981, 1293; progressive, w‰s secgende (for sÊde), 3029;
II. wÊre, 1479, etc.; pl. wÊron, 233, 536, 544, etc.; wÊran (w. reflex,
him), 2476; pret. subj. wÊre, 173, 203, 594, 946, etc.; progressive,
myndgiend wÊre (for myndgie), 1106.--Contracted neg. forms: , nis = ne +
is, 249, 1373, etc.; n‰s = ne + w‰s, 134, 1300, 1922, 2193, etc. (cf.
uncontracted: ne w‰s, 890, 1472); nÊron = ne + wÊron, 2658; nÊre = ne +
wÊre, 861, 1168. See cniht-wesende.

wÍg. See wÊg.

wÍn, st. f., _expectation, hope_: nom. sg., 735, 1874, 2324; nu is leÛdum
wÍn orleg-hwÓle (gen.) (_now the people have weening of a time of strife_),
2911; acc. sg. ˛‰s ic wÍn h‰bbe (_as I hope, expect_), 383; so, ˛‰s ˛e ic
[wÍn] hafo, 3001; wÍn ic talige, 1846; dat. pl. bega on wÍnum _(in
expectation of both_, i.e. the death and the return of BeÛwulf), 2896. See

wÍnan, w. v., _to ween, expect, hope_: 1) absolutely; pres. sg. I. ˛‰s ic
wÍne (_as I hope_), 272; sw‚ ic ˛e wÍne tÙ _(as I hope thou wilt_: BeÛwulf
hopes HrÙg‚r will now suffer no more pain), 1397.--2) w. gen. or acc.
pres. sg. I. ˛onne wÍne ic tÙ ˛e wyrsan ge-˛inges, 525; ic ˛Êr heau-f˝res
h‚tes wÍne, 2523; III. secce ne wÍne to G‚r Denum (_weeneth not of contest
with the Gar-Danes_), 601; inf. (beorhtre bÙte) wÍnan (_to expect, count
on, a brilliant_ [? _a lighter penalty_] _atonement_), 157; pret. pl. ˛‰s
ne wÍndon Êr witan Scyldinga ˛‰t ... _the wise men of the Scyldings weened
not of this before, that_...), 779; ˛‰t hig ˛‰s ‰elinges eft ne wÍndon ˛‰t
he ... sÍcean cÙme _(that they looked not for the atheling again that he_
... _would come to seek_ ...), 1598.--3) w. acc. inf.: pret. sg. wÍnde,
934.--4) w. depend, clause: pres. sg. I. wÍne ic ˛‰t..., 1185; wÍn' ic
˛‰t..., 338, 442; pret. sg. wÍnde, 2330; pl. wÍndon, 938, 1605.

wÍpan, st. v., _to weep_: pret. sg. [weÛp], 3152 (?).

werig, adj., _weary, exhausted_, w. gen.: nom. sg. sies wÍrig (_weary from
the journey, way-weary_), 579; dat. sg. sies wÍrgum, 1795;--w. instr.:
acc. pl. wundum wÍrge _(wound-weary_), 2938.--Comp.: de·-, fyl-,

ge-werigean, w. v., _to weary, exhaust_: pret. part. ge-wÍrgad, 2853.

wÍrig-mÙd, adj., _weary-minded (animo defessus)_: nom. sg., 845, 1544.

wÍste, adj., _waste, uninhabited_: acc. sg. win-sele wÍstne, 2457.

wÍsten, st. n., _waste, wilderness_: acc. sg. wÍsten, 1266.

wÍsten, st. f., _waste, wilderness_: dat. sg. on ˛Êre wÍstenne, 2299.

weal, st. m.: 1 _wall, rampart_: dat. instr. sg. wealle, 786, 892, 3163;
gen. sg. wealles, 2308.--2) _elevated sea-shore_: dat. sg. of wealle, 229;
acc. pl. windige weallas, 572, 1225.--3) _wall of a building_: acc, sg. wi
˛‰s recedes weal, 326; dat. sg. be wealle, 1574; hence, the inner and outer
rock-walls of the dragon's lair (cf. Heyne's essay: Halle Heorot, p. 59):
dat. sg., 2308, 2527, 2717, 2760, 3061, 3104; gen. sg. wealles,
2324.--Comp.: bord-, eor-, sÊ-, scyld-weal.

ge-wealc, st. n., _rolling_: acc. sg. ofer ˝a ge-wealc, 464.

ge-weald, st. n., _power, might_: acc. sg. on feÛnda ge-weald _(into the
power of his foes_), 809, 904; so, 1685; geweald ‚gan, h‰bban, ‚-beÛdan (w.
gen. of object = _to present) = to have power over_, 79, 655, 765, 951,
1088, 1611, 1728. See on-weald.

wealdan, st. v., _to wield, govern, rule over, prevail_: 1) absolutely or
with depend, clause: inf. gif he wealdan mÙt (_if he may prevail_), 442;
˛Êr he ... wealdan mÙste sw‚ him Wyrd ne ge-scr‚f (_if [where?] he was to
prevail, as Weird had not destined for him_), 2575; pres. part. waldend
(_God_), 1694; dat. wealdende, 2330; gen. waldendes, 2293, 2858, 3110.--2)
with instr. or dat.: inf. ˛‚m wÊpnum wealdan (_to wield, prevail with, the
weapons_), 2039; Ge·tum wealdan (_to rule the Ge·tas_), 2391; ˛e·h-hordum
wealdan (_to rule over, control, the treasure of rings_), 2828; w‰l-stÙwe
wealdan (_to hold the field of battle_), 2985; pret. sg. weÛld, 465, 1058,
2380, 2596; ˛enden wordum weÛld wine Scyldinga (_while the friend of the S.
ruled the G._), 30; pl. weÛldon, 2052.--3) with gen.: pres. sg. I. ˛enden
ic wealde wÓdan rÓces, 1860; pres. part. wuldres wealdend(waldend), 17,
183, 1753; weard, 2514; the _'dragon_ is called ylda waldend, 1662; waldend
fira, 2742; sigora waldend, 2876 (designations of God); pret. sg. weÛld,
703, 1771.

ge-wealdan, _to wield, have power over, arrange_: 1) w. acc.: pret. sg.
h‚lig god ge-weÛld wÓg-sigor, 1555.--2) w. dat.: pret. cyning ge-weÛld his
ge-witte (_the king possessed his senses_), 2704.--3) w. gen.: inf. he ne
mihte nÙ ... wÊpna ge-wealdan, 1510.

ge-wealden, pret. part., _subject, subjected_: acc. pl. gedÍ him sw‚
gewealdene worolde dÊlas, 1733.

weallan, st. v.: 1) _to toss, be agitated_ (of the sea): pres. part. nom.
pl. wadu weallende (weallendu), 546, 581; nom. sg. brim weallende, 848;
pret. ind. weÛl, 515, 850, 1132; weÛll, 2139.--2) figuratively (of
emotions), _to be agitated_: pres. pl. III. syan Ingelde wealla
w‰l-nÓas (_deadly hate thus agitates Ingeld_), 2066; pres. part.
weallende, 2465; pret. sg. hreer inne weÛll (_his heart was moved within
him_), 2114; hreer Ême weÛll (_his breast_ [the dragon's] _swelled from
breathing, snorting_), 2594; breÛst innan weÛll ˛eÛstrum ge-˛oncum, 2332;
so, weÛll, 2600, 2715, 2883.

weall-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff_: acc. sg. ofer weall-clif, 3133.

weallian, w. v., _to wander, rove about_: pres. part. in comp.
heoro-weallende, 2782.

weard, st. m., _warden, guardian; owner_: nom. sg. weard Scyldinga (_the
Scyldings' warden of the march_), 229; weard, 286, 2240; se weard, s‚wele
hyrde, 1742; the _king_ is called be·h-horda weard, 922; rÓces weard, 1391;
folces weard, 2514; the _dragon_ is called weard, 3061; weard un-hiÛre,
2414; beorges weard, 2581; acc. sg, weard, 669; (dragon), 2842; beorges
weard (dragon), 2525, 3067.--Comp.: b‚t-, Íel-, gold-, he·fod-, hord-,
h˝-, land-, rÍn-, sele-, yrfe-weard.

weard, st. m., _possession_ (Dietrich in Haupt XI., 415): in comp.
eor-weard, 2335.

weard, st. f., _watch, ward_: acc. sg. wearde healdan, 319; wearde heÛld,
305.--Comp. Êg-weard.

weard, adj., _-ward_: in comp. and-, innan-, ˚t-weard, 1288, etc.

weardian, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to watch, guard, keep_: inf. he his folme
forlÍt tÙ lÓf-wrae, l‚st weardian (_Grendel left his hand behind as a
life-saver, to guard his track_ [Kemble]), 972; pret. sg. him siÛ swÓre
swae weardade hand on Hiorte (_his right hand kept guard for him in H._,
i.e. showed that he had been there), 2099; sg. for pl. h˝rde ic ˛‰t ˛‚m
fr‰twum feÛwer mearas lungre gelÓce last weardode (_I heard that four
horses, quite alike, followed in the traces of the armor_), 2165.--2) _to
hold, possess, inhabit_: pret. sg. fÓfel-cynnes eard ... weardode (_dwelt
in the abode of the sea-fiends_), 105; reced weardode un-rÓm eorla (_an
immense number of earls held the hall_), 1238; pl. ˛Êr we gesunde s‰l
weardodon, 2076.

wearh, st. m., _the accursed one; wolf_: in comp. heoro-wearg, 1268.

wearn, st. f.: 1) _resistance, refusal_, 366.--2) _warning?, resistance?_
See un-wearnum, 742.

weaxan, st. v., _to wax, grow_: pres. sg. III. Ù ˛‰t him on innan
ofer-hygda dÊl weaxe (_till within him pride waxeth_), 1742; inf. weaxan,
3116; pret. sg. weÙx, 8.

ge-weaxan, _to grow up_: pret. sg. oft ˛‰t seÛ geogo ge-weÙx, 66.

ge-weaxan to, _to grow to_ or _for something_: pret. sg. ne ge-weÙx he him
to willan (_grew not for their benefit_), 1712.

we·, w. m., _woe, evil, misfortune_: nom. sg., 937; acc. sg. wean, 191,
423, 1207, 1992, 2293, 2938; gen. pl. we·na, 148, 934, 1151, 1397.

we·-l‚f, st. f., _wretched remnant_: acc. pl. ˛‚ we·-l‚fe (_the wretched
remnant_, i.e. Finn's almost annihilated band), 1085, 1099.

we·-spel, st. n., _woe-spell, evil tidings_: dat. sg. we·-spelle, 1316.

ge-weoldum. See ge-wild.

weorc, st. n.: 1) _work, labor, deed_: acc. sg., 74; (_war-deed_), 1657;
instr. sg. weorce, 1570; dat. pl. weorcum, 2097; wordum ne (and) worcum,
1101, 1834; gen. pl. worda and worca, 289.--2) _work, trouble, suffering_:
acc. sg. ˛‰s gewinnes weorc (_misery on account of this strife_), 1722;
dat. pl. adv. weorcum (_with labor_), 1639.--Comp.: bÊdo-, ellen-, heao-,

ge-weorc, st. n.: 1) _work, deed, labor_: nom. acc. sg., 455, 1563, 1682,
2718, 2775; gen. sg. ge-weorces, 2712. Comp.: Êr-, fyrn-, g˚-, hond-,
nÓ-ge-weorc.--2) _fortification, rampart_: in comp. land-geweorc, 939.

weorce, adj., _painful, bitter_: nom. sg., 1419.

weor, st. n., _precious object, valuable_: dat. sg. weore, 2497.

weor, adj., _dear, precious_: nom. sg. weor Denum ‰eling (_the atheling
dear to the Danes_, BeÛwulf), 1815; compar. nom. sg. ˛‰t he syan w‰s ...
m‚me ˛˝ weorra (_more honored from the jewel_), 1903; cf. wyre.

weoran, st. v.: 1) _to become_: pres. sg. III. beholen weore (_is
concealed_), 414; underne weore (_becomes known_), 2914; so, pl. III.
weora, 2067; wura, 282; inf. weoran, 3179; wuran, 808; pret. sg. I.,
III. wear, 6, 77, 149, 409, 555, 754, 768, 819, 824, etc.; pl. wurdon,
228; subj. pret. wurde, 2732.--2) inf. to frÙfre weoran (_to become a
help_), 1708; pret. sg. wear he Heaol‚fe tÙ hand-bonan, 460; so, wear,
906, 1262; ne wear HeremÙd sw‚ (i.e. to frÙfre) eaforum Ecgwelan, 1710;
pl. wurdon, 2204; subj. pret. sg. II. wurde, 588.--3) pret. sg. ˛‰t he on
fylle wear (_that he came to a fall_), 1545.--4) _to happen, befall_: inf.
unc sceal weoran ... sw‚ unc Wyrd ge-teÛ (_it shall befall us two as Fate
decrees_), 2527; ˛urh hw‰t his worulde ged‚l weoran sceolde, 3069; pret.
sg. ˛‚ ˛Êr sÙna wear ed-hwyrft eorlum (_there was soon a renewal to the
earls_, i.e. of the former perils), 1281.

ge-weoran: 1) _to become_: pret. sg. ge-wear, 3062; pret. part. cearu w‰s
geniwod ge-worden (_care was renewed_), 1305; sw‚ us ge-worden is,
3079.--2) _to finish; complete?_: inf. ˛‰t ˛u ... lÍte S˚-Dene sylfe
ge-weoran g˚e wi Grendel (_that thou wouldst let the S. D. put an end to
their war with Grendel_), 1997.--3) impersonally with acc., _to agree,
decide_: pret. sg. ˛‚ ˛‰s monige ge-wear ˛‰t ... (_since many agreed that_
...), 1599; pret. part. hafa ˛‰s ge-worden wine Scyldinga, rÓces hyrde,
and ˛‰t rÊd tala ˛‰t he ... (_therefore hath it so appeared(?) advisable
to the friend of the S., the guardian of the realm, and he counts it a gain
that_ ...), 2027.

weor-ful, adj., _glorious, full of worth_: nom. sg. weor-fullost, 3100.

weorian, w. v., _to honor, adorn_: pret. sg. ˛Êr ic ... ˛Óne leÛde
weorode weorcum (_there honored I thy people by my deeds_), 2097; subj.
pret. (˛‰t he) ‰t feoh-gyftum ... Dene weorode (_that he would honor the
Danes at, by, treasure-giving_), 1091.

ge-weorian, ge-wurian, _to deck, ornament_: pret. part. hire syan w‰s
‰fter be·h-˛ege breÛst ge-weorod, 2177; wÊpnum ge-weorad, 250; since
ge-weorad, 1451; so, ge-wurad, 331, 1039, 1646; wide ge-weorad (_known,
honored, afar_), 1960.

weor-lÓce, adv., _worthily, nobly_: superl. weor-lÓcost, 3163.

weor-mynd, st. f. n., _dignity, honor, glory_: nom. sg., 65; acc. sg.
geseah ˛‚ eald sweord ..., wÓgena weormynd (_saw an ancient sword there,
the glory of warriors_), 1560; dat. instr. pl. weor-myndum, 8; tÙ
wor-myndum, 1187; gen. pl. weor-mynda dÊl, 1753.

weorung, st. f., _ornament_: in comp. breÛst-, h‚m-, heorft-, hring-,

weorod. See werod.

weorpan, st. v.: 1) _to throw, cast away_, w. acc.: pret. sg. wearp ˛‚
wunden-mÊl wr‰ttum gebunden yrre oretta, ˛‰t hit on eoran l‰g (_the
wrathful warrior threw the ornamented sword, that it lay on the earth_),
1532.--2) _to throw around_ or _about_, w. instr.: pret. sg. beorges weard
. .. wearp w‰l-f˝re (_threw death-fire around_), 2583.--3) _to throw upon_:
inf. he hine eft ongan w‰teres (instr. gen.) weorpan (_began to cast water
upon him again_), 2792.

for-weorpan, w. acc., _to cast away, squander_: subj. pret. ˛‰t he genunga
g˚-gewÊdu wr‚e for-wurpe (_that he squandered uselessly the
battle-weeds_, i.e. gave them to the unworthy), 2873.

ofer-weorpan, _to stumble_: pret. sg. ofer-wearp ˛‚ ... wÓgena strongest,

weotian, w. v., _to provide with, adjust_(?): pret. part. acc. pl.
w‰l-bende weotode, 1937.

be-weotian, be-witian, w. v. w. acc., _to regard, observe, care for_: pres.
pl. III. be-witia, 1136; pret. sg. ˛egn ... se ˛e ... ealle be-weotede
˛egnes ˛earfe (_who would attend to all the needs of a thane_), 1797; draca
se ˛e ... hord be-weotode (_the drake that guarded a treasure_), 2213;--_to
carry out, undertake_: pres. pl. III. ˛‚ ... oft be-witiga sorh-fulne sÓ
on segl-r‚de, 1429.

wicg, st. n., _steed, riding-horse_: nom. sg., 1401; acc. sg. wicg, 315;
dat. instr. sg. wicge, 234; on wicge, 286; acc. pl. wicg, 2175; gen. pl.
wicga, 1046.

ge-widor, st. n., _storm, tempest_: acc. pl. l‚ ge-widru (_loathly
weather_), 1376.

wi prep. w. dat. and acc., with fundamental meanings of division and
opposition: 1) w. dat., _against, with_ (in hostile sense), _from_: ˛‚ wi
gode wunnon, 113; ‚na (wan) wi eallum, 145; ymb feorh sacan, l‚ wi
l‚um, 440; so, 426, 439, 550, 2372, 2521, 2522, 2561, 2840, 3005; ˛‰t him
holt-wudu ... helpan ne meahte, lind wi lÓge, 2342; hw‰t ... sÍlest wÊre
wi fÊr-gryrum tÙ ge-fremmanne, 174; ˛‰t him g‚st-bona geÛce gefremede wi
˛eÛd-˛re·um, 178; wi rihte wan (_strove against right_), 144; h‰fde ...
sele HrÙg‚res ge-nered wi nÓe (_had saved H.'s hall from strife_), 828;
(him dyrne langa ...) beorn wi blÙde (_the hero longeth secretly contrary
to his blood_, i.e. H. feels a secret longing for the non-related BeÛwulf),
1881; sundur ge-dÊlan lÓf wi lÓce (_to sunder soul from body_), 2424;
stre·mas wundon sund wi sande (_the currents rolled the sea against the
sand_), 213; lÓg-˝um forborn bord wi ronde (rond, MS.) (_with waves of
flame burnt the shield against, as far as, the rim_), 2674; holm storme
weÛl, won wi winde (_the sea surged, wrestled with the wind_), 1133; so,
hiora in ‚num weÛll sefa wi sorgum (_in one of them surged the soul with
sorrow_ [_against_?, Heyne]), 2601; ˛‰t hire wi healse heard gr‚pode
(_that the sharp sword bit against her neck_), 1567.--2) w. acc.: a)
_against, towards_: wan wi HrÙg‚r (_fought against H._), 152; wi feÛnda
gehwone, 294; wi wr‚ werod, 319; so, 540, 1998, 2535; hine h‚lig god ˚s
on-sende wi Grendles gryre, 384; ˛‰t ic wi ˛one g˚-flogan gylp
ofer-sitte (_that I refrain from boastful speech against the
battle-flier_), 2529; ne wolde wi manna ge-hwone ... feorh-bealo feorran
(_would not cease his life-plotting against any of the men_; or, _withdraw
life-bale from_, etc.? or, _peace would not have with any man..., mortal
bale withdraw_?, Kemble), 155; ic ˛‚ leÛde w‚t ge wi feÛnd ge wi freÛnd
f‰ste geworhte (_towards foe and friend_), 1865; heÛld he·h-lufan wi
h‰lea brego (_cherished high love towards the prince of heroes_), 1955;
wi ord and wi ecge ingang forstÙd (_prevented entrance to spear-point and
sword-edge_), 1550. b) _against, on, upon, in_: setton sÓde scyldas ... wi
˛‰s recedes weal (_against the wall of the hall_), 326; wi eoran f‰m
(eardodon) (_in the bosom of the earth_), 3050; wi earm ge-s‰t (_sat on,
against, his arm_), 750; so, stÓ-mÙd ge-stÙd wi ste·pne rond, 2567; [wi
duru healle eode] (_went to the door of the hall_), 389; wi Hrefna-wudu
(_over against, near, H._), 2926; wi his sylfes sunu setl ge-tÊhte
(_showed me to a seat with, near, beside, his own son_), 2014. c) _towards,
with_ (of contracting parties): ˛‰t hie healfre ge-weald wi Eotena bearn
‚gan mÙston (_that they power over half the hall with the Eotens' sons were
to possess_), 1089; ˛enden he wi wulf w‰l re·fode (_whilst with the wolf
he was robbing the slain_), 3028.--3) Alternately with dat. and acc.,
_against_: nu wi Grendel sceal, wi ˛am aglÊcan, ‚na gehegan ˛ing wi
˛yrse, 424-426;--_with, beside_: ge-s‰t ˛‚ wi sylfne..., mÊg wi mÊge,

wier-gyld, st. n., _compensation_: nom. sg., 2052, [proper name?].

wier-r‰htes, adv., _opposite, in front of_, 3040.

wire, st. n., _resistance_: gen. sg. wires ne tr˚wode, 2954.

wig-weorung, st. f., _idol-worship, idolatry, sacrifice to idols_: acc.
pl. -weorunga, 176.

wiht, st. f.: 1) _wight, creature, demon_: nom. sg. wiht unhÊlo (_the demon
of destruction_, Grendel), 120; acc. sg. syllÓcran wiht (the dragon),
3039.--2) _thing, something, aught_: nom. sg. w. negative, ne hine wiht
dwele (_nor does aught check him_), 1736; him wiht ne speÛw (_it helped
him naught_), 2855; acc. sg. ne him ˛‰s wyrmes wÓg for wiht dyde (_nor did
he count the worm's warring for aught_), 2349; ne meahte ic ... wiht
gewyrcan _(I could not do aught_ ...), 1661;--w. partitive gen.: nÙ ...
wiht swylcra searo-nia, 581;--the acc. sg. = adv. like Germ. _nicht_: ne
hie h˚ru wine-drihten wiht ne lÙgon (_did not blame their friendly lord
aught_), 863; so, ne wiht = _naught, in no wise_, 1084, 2602, 2858; nÙ
wiht, 541; instr. sg. wihte (_in aught, in any way_), 1992; ne ... wihte
(_by no means_), 186, 2278, 2688; wihte ne, 1515, 1996, 2465, 2924.--Comp.:
‚-wiht (‚ht = _aught_), ‰l-wiht, Ù-wiht.

wil-cuma, w. m., _one welcome_ (qui gratus advenit): nom. pl. wil-cuman
Denigea leÛdum (_welcome to the people of the Danes_), 388; so, him (the
lord of the Danes) wil-cuman, 394; wil-cuman Wedera leÛdum (_welcome to the
Ge·tas_), 1895.

ge-wild, st. f., _free-will_? dat. pl. nealles mid ge-weoldum (_sponte,
voluntarily_, Bugge), 2223.

wil-deÛr (for wild-deÛr), st. n., _wild beast_: acc. pl. wil-deÛr, 1431.

wil-gesÓ, st. m., _chosen_ or _willing companion_: nom. pl. -ge-sÓas, 23.

wil-geofa, w. m., _ready giver_ (= voti largitor: princely designation),
_joy-giver_?: nom. sg. wil-geofa Wedra leÛda, 2901.

willa, w. m.: 1) _will, wish, desire, sake_: nom. sg. 627, 825; acc. sg.
willan, 636, 1740, 2308, 2410; instr. sg. ‚nes willan (_for the sake of
one_), 3078; so, 2590; dat. sg. tÙ willan, 1187, 1712; instr. pl. willum
(_according to wish_), 1822; sylfes willum, 2224, 2640; gen. pl. wilna,
1345.--2) _desirable thing, valuable_: gen. pl. wilna, 661, 951.

willan, aux. v., _will_: in pres. also _shall_ (when the future action is
depend. on one's free will): pres. sg. I. wille ic ‚-secgan (_I will set
forth, tell out_), 344; so, 351, 427; ic tÙ sÊ wille (_I will to sea_),
318; wylle, 948, 2149, 2513; sg. II. ˛u wylt, 1853; sg. III. he wile, 346,
446, 1050, 1182, 1833; wyle, 2865; wille, 442, 1004, 1185, 1395; Êr he in
wille (_ere he will in_, i.e. go or flee into the fearful sea), 1372;
wylle, 2767; pl. I. we ... wylla, 1819; pret. sg. I., III. wolde, 68, 154,
200, 646, 665, 739, 756, 797, 881, etc.; nÙ ic fram him wolde (i.e.
fleÛtan), 543; so, sw‚ he hira m‚ wolde (i.e. ‚-cwellan), 1056; pret. pl.
woldon, 482, 2637, 3173; subj. pret., 2730.--Forms contracted w. negative:
pres. sg. I. nelle (= ne + wille, _I will not_, nolo), 680, 2525(?); pret.
sg. III. nolde (= ne + wolde), 792, 804, 813, 1524; w. omitted inf. ˛‚
metod nolde, 707, 968; pret. subj. nolde, 2519.

wilnian, w. v., _to long for, beseech_: inf. wel bi ˛‰m ˛e mÙt ... tÙ
f‰der f‰mum freoo wilnian (_well for him that may beseech protection in
the Father's arms_), 188.

wil-sÓ, st. m., _chosen journey_: acc. sg. wil-sÓ, 216.

ge-win, st. n.: 1) _strife, struggle, enmity, conflict_: acc. sg., 878; ˛‚
hie ge-win drugon (_endured strife_), 799; under ˝a ge-win (_under the
tumult of the waves_), 1470; gen. sg. ˛‰s ge-winnes weorc (_misery for this
strife_), 1722.--2) _suffering, oppression_: nom. sg., 133, 191; acc. sg.
eald ge-win, 1782.--Comp.: fyrn-, ˝-ge-win.

wÓn-‰rn, st. n., _hall of hospitality, hall, wine-hall_: gen. sg.
wÓn-‰rnes, 655.

wind, st. m., _wind, storm_: nom. sg., 547, 1375, 1908; dat. instr. sg.
winde, 217; wi winde, 1133.

windan, st. v.: 1) intrans., _to wind, whirl_: pret. sg. wand tÙ wolcnum
w‰l-f˝ra mÊst, 1120.--2) w. acc., _to twist, wind, curl_: pret. pl.
stre·mas wundon sund wi sande, 212; pret. part. wunden gold (_twisted,
spirally-twined, gold_), 1194, 3135; instr. pl. wundnum (wundum, MS.)
golde, 1383.

‰t-windan, _to wrest one's self from, escape_: pret. sg. se ˛‰m feÛnde
‰t-wand, 143.

be-windan, _to wind with_ or _round, clasp, surround, envelop_ (involvere):
pret. sg. ˛e hit (the sword) mundum be-wand, 1462; pret. part. wÓrum
be-wunden (_wound with wires_) 1032; feorh ... flÊsce be-wunden
(_flesh-enclosed_), 2425; g‚r ... mundum be-wunden (_a spear grasped with
the hands_), 3023; i˚-manna gold galdre be-wunden (_spell-encircled gold_),
3053; (‚st‚h ...) lÍg wÙpe be-wunden (_uprose the flame mingled with a
lament_), 3147.

ge-windan, _to writhe, get loose, escape_: inf. wÓdre ge-windan (_to flee
further_), 764; pret. sg. on fle·m ge-wand, 1002.

on-windan, _to unwind, loosen_: pres. sg. (˛onne f‰der) on-winde
w‰l-r‚pas, 1611.

win-d‰g, st. m., _day of struggle_ or _suffering_: dat. pl. on ˛yssum
win-dagum (_in these days of sorrow_, i.e. of earthly existence), 1063.

wind-bland (blond), st. n., _wind-roar_: nom. sg., 3147.

wind-gereste, f., _resting-place of the winds_: acc. sg., 2457.

windig, adj., _windy_: acc. pl. windige (weallas, n‰ssas), 572, 1359;
windige weallas (wind geard weallas, MS.), 1225.

wine, st. m., _friend, protector_, especially the _beloved ruler_: nom. sg.
wine Scyldinga, leÛf land-fruma (Scyld), 30; wine Scyldinga (HrÙg‚r), 148,
1184. As vocative: mÓn wine, 2048; wine mÓn, BeÛwulf (Hunfer), 457, 530,
1705; acc. sg. holdne wine (HrÙg‚r), 376; wine Deniga, Scyldinga, 350,
2027; dat. sg. wine Scyldinga, 170; gen. sg. wines (BeÛwulf), 3097; acc.
pl. wine, 21; dat. pl. Denum eallum, winum Scyldinga, 1419; gen. pl.
winigea le·sum, 1665; winia bealdor, 2568.--Comp.: fre·-, freÛ-, gold-,
g˚-, mÊg-wine.

wine-dryhten, st. m., (dominus amicus), _friendly lord, lord and friend_:
acc. sg. wine-drihten, 863, 1605; wine-dryhten, 2723, 3177; dat. sg.
wine-drihtne, 360.

wine-geÙmor, adj., _friend-mourning_: nom. sg., 2240.

wine-le·s, adj., _friendless_: dat. sg. wine-le·sum, 2614.

wine-mÊg, st. m., _dear kinsman_: nom. pl. wine-m‚gas, 65.

ge-winna, w. m., _striver, struggler, foe_: comp. eald-, ealdor-gewinna.

winnan, st. v., _to struggle, fight_: pret. sg. III. wan ‚na wi eallum,
144; Grendel wan ... wi HrÙg‚r, 151; holm ... won wi winde (_the sea
fought with the wind_: cf. wan wind endi water, Heliand, 2244), 1133; II.
eart ˛u se BeÛwulf, se ˛e wi Brecan wunne, 506; pl. wi gode wunnon, 113;
˛Êr ˛‚ graman wunnon (_where the foes fought_), 778.

wÓn-reced, st. n., _wine-hall, guest-hall, house for entertaining guests_:
acc. sg., 715, 994.

wÓn-sele, st. m., the same, _wine-hall_: nom. sg., 772; dat. sg. wÓn-sele,
696 (cf. Heliand Glossary, 369 [364]).

winter, st. m. n.: 1) _winter_: nom. sg., 1133, 1137; acc. sg. winter,
1129; gen. sg. wintres, 516.--2) _year_ (counted by winters): acc. pl.
fÓftig wintru (neut.), 2210; instr. pl. wintrum, 1725, 2115, 2278; gen. pl.
wintra, 147, 264, 1928, 2279, 2734, 3051.

wintre, adj., _so many winters_ (old): in comp. syfan-wintre.

ge-wislÓce, adv., _certainly, undoubtedly_: superl. gewislÓcost, 1351.

wist, st. f., fundamental meaning = _existentia_, hence: 1) _good
condition, happiness, abundance_: dat. sg. wuna he on wiste, 1736.--2)
_food, subsistence, booty_: dat. sg. ˛‚ w‰s ‰fter wiste wÙp up ‚-hafen (_a
cry was then uplifted after the meal_, i.e. Grendel's meal of thirty men),

wist-fyllo, st. f., _fulness_ or _fill of food, rich meal_: gen. sg.
wist-fylle, 735.

wit, st. n., (wit), _understanding_: nom. sg., 590.--Comp.: fyr-, in-wit.

ge-wit, st. n.: 1) _consciousness_. dat. sg. ge-weÛld his ge-witte,
2704.--2) _heart, breast_: dat. sg. f˝r unswÓor weÛll (_the fire surged
less strongly from the dragon's breast_), 2883.

wit, pers. pron. dual of we, _we two_, 535, 537, 539, 540, 544, 1187, etc.
See unc, uncer.

wita, weota, w. m., _counsellor, royal adviser_; pl., _the king's council
of nobles_: nom. pl. witan, 779: gen. pl. witena, 157, 266, 937 weotena,
1099.--Comp.: fyrn-, r˚n-wita.

witan, pret.-pres. v., _to wot, know_. 1) w. depend, clause: pres. sg. I.,
III. w‚t, 1332, 2657; ic on Higel‚ce w‚t ˛‰t he ... (_I know as to H., that
he_ ...), 1831; so, god w‚t on mec ˛‰t ...(_God knows of me, that_ ...),
2651; sg. II. ˛u w‚st, 272; weak pret. sg. I., III. wiste, 822; wisse,
2340, 2726; pl. wiston, 799, 1605; subj. pres. I. gif ic wiste, 2520.--2)
w. acc. and inf.: pres. sg. I. ic w‚t, 1864.--3) w. object, predicative
part, or adj.: pret. sg. III. tÙ ˛‰s he win-reced ... gearwost wisse,
f‰ttum f‚hne, 716; so, 1310; wiste ˛‰m ahlÊcan hilde ge-binged, 647.--4) w.
acc., _to know_: inf. witan, 252, 288; pret. sg. wisse, 169; wiste his
fingra ge-weald on grames gr‚pum, 765; pl. II. wisson, 246; wiston, 181.

n‚t = ne + w‚t, _I know not_: 1) elliptically with hwylc, indef. pronoun =
_some or other_: sceaa ic n‚t hwylc.--2) w. gen. and depend. clause: n‚t
he ˛‚ra gÙda, ˛‰t he me on-ge·n sle·, 682.

ge-witan, _to know, perceive_: inf. ˛‰s ˛e hie gewis-lÓcost ge-witan
meahton, 1351.

be-witian. See be-weotian.

witig, adj., _wise, sagacious_: nom. sg. witig god, 686, 1057; witig
drihten (God), 1555; wittig drihten, 1842.

ge-wittig, adj., _conscious_: nom. sg. 3095.

ge-witnian, w. v., _to chastise, punish_: wommum gewitnad (_punished with
plagues_), 3074.

wÓc, st. n., _dwelling, house_: acc. sg. wÓc, 822, 2590;--often in pl.
because houses of nobles were complex: dat. wÓcum, 1305, 1613, 3084; gen.
wÓca, 125, 1126.

ge-wÓcan, st. v., _to soften, give way, yield_ (here chiefly of swords):
pret. sg. ge-w‚c, 2578, 2630.

wÓc-stede, st. m., _dwelling-place_: nom. sg. 2463; acc. sg. wÓc-stede,

wÓd, adj., _wide, extended_: 1) space: acc. sg. neut. ofer wÓd w‰ter, 2474;
gen. sg. wÓdan rÓces, 1860; acc. pl. wÓde sÓas, waroas, 878, 1966.--2)
temporal: acc. sg. wÓdan feorh (acc. of time), 2015; dat. sg. tÙ wÓdan
feore, 934.

wÓde, adv., _widely, afar_, 18, 74, 79, 266, 1404, 1589, 1960, etc.; wÓde
c˚ (_widely, universally, known_), 2136, 2924; so, underne wÓde, 2914;
wÓde geond eoran (_over the whole earth, widely_), 3100;--modifier of
superl.: wreccena wÓde mÊrost (_the most famous of wanderers, exiles_),
899.--Compar. wÓdre, 764.

wÓd-c˚, adj., _widely known, very celebrated_: nom. sg. neut., 1257; acc.
sg. m. wÓd-c˚ne man (BeÛwulf), 1490; wÓd-c˚ne we·n, 1992; wÓd-c˚es
(HrÙg‚r), 1043.

wÓde-ferh, st. m. n., (_long life_), _great length of time_: acc. sg. as
acc. of time: wÓde-ferh (_down to distant times, always_), 703, 938; ealne
wÓde-ferh, 1223.

wÓd-floga, w. m., _wide-flier_ (of the dragon): nom. sg., 2831; acc. sg.
wÓd-flogan, 2347.

wÓd-scofen, pret. part., _wide-spread_? _causing fear far and wide_? 937.

wÓd-weg, st. m., _wide way, long journey_: acc. pl. wÓd-wegas, 841, 1705.

wÓf, st. n., _woman, lady, wife_: nom. sg. freÛ-lÓc wÓf (Queen Wealh˛eÛw),
616; wÓf un-h˝re (Grendel's mother), 2121; acc. sg. drihtlÓce wÓf (Finn's
wife), 1159; instr. sg. mid ˛˝ wÓfe (HrÙg‚r's daughter, Fre·waru), 2029;
dat. sg. ˛am wÓfe (Wealh˛eÛw), 640; gen. sg. wÓfes (as opposed to _man_),
1285; gen. pl. wera and wÓfa, 994.--Comp.: aglÊc-, mere-wÓf.

wÓf-lufe, w. f., _wife-love, love for a wife, woman's love_: nom. pl.
wÓf-lufan, 2066.

wÓg, st. m.: 1) _war, battle_: nom. sg., 23, 1081, 2317, 2873; acc. sg.,
686, 1084, 1248; dat. sg. wÓge, 1338, 2630; as instr., 1085; (wigge, MS.),
1657, 1771; gen. sg. wÓges, 65, 887, 1269.--2) _valor, warlike prowess_:
nom. sg. w‰s his mÙd-sefa manegum ge-c˝ed, wÓg and wÓsdÙm, 350; wÓg, 1043;
wÓg ... eafo and ellen, 2349; gen. sg. wÓges, 2324.--Comp. fÍe-wÓg.

wÓga, w. m., _warrior, fighter_: nom. sg., 630; dat. pl. wÓgum, 2396; gen.
pl. wÓgena, 1544, 1560, 3116.--Comp.: ‰sc-, byrn-, g‚r-, g˚-, lind-,
rand-, scyld-wÓga.

wÓgan, st. v., _to fight_: pres. sg. III. wÓge, 600; inf., 2510.

wÓgend, pres. part., _fighter, warrior_: nom. sg., 3100; nom. pl. wÓgend,
1126, 1815, 3145; acc. pl. wÓgend, 3025; gen. pl. wÓgendra, 429, 900, 1973,
2338.--Comp. g‚rwÓgend.

wÓg-bealu, st. n., _war-bale, evil contest_: acc. sg., 2047.

wÓg-bil, st. n., _war-bill, battle-sword_: nom. sg., 1608.

wÓg-bord, st. n., _war-board_ or _shield_: acc. sg., 2340.

wÓg-cr‰ft, st. m., _war-power_: acc. sg., 2954.

wÓg-cr‰ftig, adj., _vigorous in fight, strong in war_: acc. sg.
wÓg-cr‰ftigne (of the sword Hrunting), 1812.

wÓg-freca, w. m., _war-wolf, war-hero_: acc. sg. wÓg-frecan, 2497; nom. pl.
wÓg-frecan, 1213.

wÓg-fruma, w. m., _war-chief_ or _king_: nom. sg., 665; acc. sg.
wÓg-fruman, 2262.

wÓg-geatwe, st. f. pl., _war-ornaments, war-gear_: dat. pl. on wÓg-geatwum
(-getawum, MS.), 368.

wÓg-ge-weorad, pret. part., _war-honored, distinguished in war_, 1784? See

wÓg-gryre, st. m., _war-horror_ or _terror_: nom. sg., 1285.

wÓg-hete, st. m., _war-hate, hostility_: nom. sg., 2121.

wÓg-heafola, w. m., _war head-piece, helmet_: acc. sg. wÓg-heafolan,

wÓg-he·p, st. m., _war-band_: nom sg., 447.

wÓg-hryre, st. m., _war-ruin, slaughter, carnage_: acc. sg., 1620.

wÓg-sigor, st. m., _war-victory_: acc. sg., 1555.

wÓg-sped, st. f.?, _war-speed, success in war_: gen. pl. wÓg-spÍda, 698.

wÓn, st. n., _wine_: acc. sg., 1163, 1234; instr. wÓne, 1468.

wÓr, st. n., _wire, spiral ornament of wire_: instr. pl. wÓrum, 1032; gen.
pl. wÓra, 2414.

wÓs, adj., _wise, experienced, discreet_: nom. sg. m. wÓs (_in his mind,
conscious_), 3095; f. wÓs, 1928; in w. form, se wÓsa, 1401, 1699, 2330;
acc. sg. ˛one wÓsan, 1319; gen. pl. wÓsra, 1414; w. gen. nom. sg. wÓs
wordcwida (_wise of speech_), 1846.

wÓsa, w. m., _guide, leader_: nom. sg. werodes wÓsa, 259.--Comp.: brim-,
here-, hilde-wÓsa.

wÓscte. See w˝scan.

wÓs-dÙm, st. m., _wisdom, experience_: nom. sg., 350; instr. sg. wÓs-dÙme,

wÓse, w. f., _fashion, wise, custom_: acc. sg. (instr.) ealde wÓsan (_after
ancient custom_), 1866.

wÓs-f‰st, adj., _wise, sagacious_ (sapienti‚ firmus): nom. sg. f., 627.

wÓs-hycgende, pres. part. _wise-thinking, wise_, 2717.

wÓsian, w. v., _to guide_ or _lead to, direct, point out_: 1) w. acc.: inf.
he·n wong wÓsian, 2410; pret. sg. secg wÓsade land-gemyrcu, 208.--2) w.
dat.: pres. sg. I. ic eÛw wÓsige (_I shall guide you_), 292, 3104; pret.
sg. se ˛Êm heao-rincum hider wÓsade, 370; sÙna him sele-˛egn ... for
wÓsade _(the hall-thane led him thither forthwith_, i.e. to his couch),
1796; stÓg wÓsode gumum ‰t-g‰dere, 320; so, 1664.--3) w. prep.?: pret. sg.
˛‚ secg wÓsode under Heorotes hrÙf (_when the warrior showed them the way
under Heorot's roof_, [but under H.'s hrÙf depends rather on snyredon
‰tsomne]), 402.

wÓtan, st. v., properly _to look at; to look at with censure, to blame,
reproach, accuse_, w. dat. of pers. and acc. of thing: inf. for-˛am me
wÓtan ne ˛earf waldend fira moror-bealo m‚ga, 2742.

‰t-wÓtan, _to blame, censure_ (cf. 'twit), w. acc. of thing: pret. pl.
‰t-witon we·na dÊl, 1151.

ge-wÓtan, properly _spectare aliquo; to go_ (most general verb of motion):
1) with inf. after verbs of motion: pret. sg. ˛anon eft ge-w‚t ... tÙ h‚m
faran, 123; so, 2570; pl. ˛anon eft gewiton ... mearum rÓdan, 854.
Sometimes with reflex, dat.: pres. sg. him ˛‚ Scyld ge-w‚t ... fÍran on
fre·n wÊre, 26; gew‚t him ... rÓdan, 234; so, 1964; pl. ge-witon, 301.--2)
associated with general infinitives of motion and aim: imper. pl. ge-wÓta
for beran wÊpen and gewÊdu, 291; pret. sg. ge-w‚t ˛‚ neÛsian he·n h˚ses,
115; he ˛‚ f‚g ge-w‚t ... man-dre·m fleÛn, 1264; nyer eft gew‚t dennes
niÛsian, 3045; so, 1275, 2402, 2820. So, with reflex, dat.: him eft gew‚t
... h‚mes niÛsan, 2388; so, 2950; pl. ge-witon, 1126.--3) without inf. and
with prep, or adv.: pres. sg. III. ˛Êr firgen-stre·m under n‰ssa genipu
nier ge-wÓte, 1361; ge-wÓte on sealman, 2461; inf. on flÙdes Êht feor
ge-wÓtan, 42; pret. sg. ge-w‚t, 217; him ge-w‚t, 1237, 1904; of lÓfe,
ealdre ge-w‚t (_died_), 2472, 2625; fyrst for ge-w‚t (_time went on_),
210; him ge-w‚t ˚t of healle, 663; ge-w‚t him h‚m, 1602; pret. part. dat.
sg. me for-ge-witenum (_me defuncto, I dead_), 1480.

Ù-wÓtan, _to blame, censure, reproach_: inf. ne ˛orfte him ˛‚ le·n
Ù-wÓtan mon on middan-gearde, 2997.

wlanc, wlonc, adj., _proud, exulting_: nom. sg. wlanc, 341; w. instr. Êse
wlanc (_proud of, exulting in, her prey, meal_), 1333; wlonc, 331; w. gen.
m‚m-Êhta wlonc (_proud of the treasures_), 2834; gen. sg. wlonces,
2954.--Comp. gold-wlanc.

wl‚tian, w. v., _to look_ or _gaze out, forth_: pret. sg. se ˛e Êr ... feor
wl‚tode, 1917.

wlenco, st. f., _pride, heroism_: dat. sg. wlenco, 338, 1207; wlence, 508.

wlite, st. m. _form, noble form, look, beauty_: nom. sg., 250.

wlite-beorht, adj., _beauteous, brilliant in aspect_: acc. sg.
wlite-beorhtne wang, 93.

wlite-seÛn, st. n. f., _sight, spectacle_: acc. sg., 1651.

wlitig, adj., _beautiful, glorious, fair in form_: acc. sg. wlitig
(sweord), 1663.

wlÓtan, st. v., _to see, look, gaze_: pret. sg. he ‰fter recede wl‚t
(_looked along the hall_), 1573; pret. pl. on holm wliton (_looked on the
sea_), 1593; wlitan on WÓgl‚f, 2853.

geond-wlÓtan, w. acc., _to examine, look through, scan_: inf. wr‰te
giond-wlÓtan, 2772.

woh-bogen, pret. part., (_bent crooked), crooked, twisted_: nom. sg. wyrm
woh-bogen, 2828.

wolcen, st. n. m., _cloud_ (cf. welkin): dat. pl. under wolcnum (_under the
clouds, on earth_), 8, 652, 715, 1771; tÙ wolcnum, 1120, 1375.

wollen-te·r, adj., _tear-flowing, with flowing tears_: nom. pl.
wollen-te·re, 3033.

wom. See wam.

won. See wan.

worc. See weorc.

word, st. n.: 1) _word, speech_: nom. sg., 2818; acc. sg. ˛‰t word, 655,
2047; word, 315, 341, 390, 871, 2552; instr. sg. worde, 2157; gen. sg.
wordes, 2792; nom. pl. ˛‚ word, 640; word, 613; acc. pl. word (of an
alliterative song), 871; instr. pl, wordum, 176, 366, 627, 875, 1101, 1173,
1194, 1319, 1812, etc.; ge-saga him wordum (_tell them in words,
expressly_), 388. The instr. wordum accompanies biddan, ˛ancian, be-w‰gnan,
secgan, hÍrgan, to emphasize the verb, 176, 627, 1194, 2796, 3177; gen. pl.
worda, 289, 398, 2247, 2263(?), 3031.--2) _command, order_: gen. sg. his
wordes geweald habban (_to rule, reign_), 79; so, instr. pl. wordum weÛld,
30.--Comp.: beÛt-, gylp-, meel-, ˛ry-word.

word-cwide, st. m., (_word-utterance_), _speech_: acc. pl. word-cwydas,
1842; dat. pl. word-cwydum, 2754; gen. pl. word-cwida, 1846.

word-gid, st. m, _speech, saying_: acc. sg. word-gyd, 3174.

word-hord, st. n., _word-hoard, treasury of speech, mouth_: acc. sg.
word-hord on-le·c (_unlocked his word-hoard_, opened his mouth, spoke),

word-riht, st. n., _right speech, suitable word_: gen. pl. WÓgl‚f maelode
word-rihta fela, 2632.

wor-mynd. See weor-mynd.

worig (for weorig), st. m., _palace, estate, court_: acc. sg. on worig
(_into the palace_), 1973.

worn, st. n., _multitude, number_: acc. sg. worn eall (_very many_), 3095;
wintra worn (_many years_), 264; ˛onne he wintrum frÙd worn ge-munde (_when
he old in years thought of their number_), 2115. Used with fela to
strengthen the meaning: nom. acc. sg. worn fela, 1784; hw‰t ˛u worn fela
... sprÊce (_how very much thou hast spoken!_), 530; so, eal-fela
eald-gesegena worn, 871; gen. pl. worna fela, 2004, 2543.

woruld, worold, st. f., _humanity, world, earth_: nom. sg. eal worold,
1739; acc. sg. in worold (wacan) (_to be born, come into the world_), 60;
worold oflÊtan, of-gifan (_die_), 1184, 1682; gen. sg. worolde, 951, 1081,
1388, 1733; worulde, 2344; his worulde ge-d‚l (_his separation from the
world, death_), 3069; worolde br˚can (_to enjoy life, live_), 1063; worlde,

worold-‚r, st. f., _worldly honor_ or _dignity_: acc. sg. worold-‚re, 17.

woruld-candel, st. f., _world-candle, sun_: nom. sg., 1966.

worold-cyning, st. m., _world king, mighty king_: nom. sg., 3182; gen. pl.
worold-cyninga, 1685.

woruld-ende, st. m., _world's end_: acc. sg., 3084.

worold-rÊden, st. f., _usual course, fate of the world, customary fate_:
dat. sg. worold-rÊdenne, 1143?

wÙp, st. m., (_whoop_), _cry of grief, lament_: nom. sg., 128; acc. sg.
wÙp, 786; instr. sg. wÙpe, 3147.

wracu, st. f., _persecution, vengeance, revenge_: nom. sg. wracu (MS,
uncertain), 2614; acc. sg. wr‰ce, 2337.--Comp.: gyrn-, n˝d-wracu.

wrau, st. f., _protection, safety_: in comp. lÓf-wrau.

wr‚, adj., _wroth, furious, hostile_: acc. sg. neut. wr‚, 319; dat. sg.
wr‚um, 661, 709; gen. pl. wr‚ra, 1620.

wr‚e, adv., _contemptibly, disgracefully_, 2873.

wr‚-lÓce, adv., _wrathfully, hostilely_ (in battle), 3063.

wr‚sn, st. f., _circlet of gold for the head, diadem, crown_: in comp.

wr‰c-l‚st, st. m., _exile-step, exile, banishment_: acc. sg. wr‰c-l‚stas
tr‰d (_trod exile-steps, wandered in exile_), 1353.

wr‰c-m‰cg, st. m., _exile, outcast_: nom. pl. wr‰c-m‰cgas, 2380.

wr‰c-sÓ, st. m., _exile-journey, banishment, exile, persecution_: acc.
sg., 2293; dat. sg. -sÓum, 338.

wr‰t, st. f., _ornament, jewel_: acc. pl. wr‰te (wrÊce, MS.), 2772, 3061;
instr. pl. wr‰ttum, 1532; gen. pl. wr‰tta, 2414.

wr‰t-lÓc, adj.: 1) _artistic, ornamental; valuable_: acc. sg. wr‰t-lÓcne
wundur-m‚um, 2174; wr‰t-lÓc wÊg-sweord, 1490; wÓg-bord wr‰t-lÓc,
2340.--2) _wondrous, strange_: acc. sg. wr‰t-lÓcne wyrm [from its rings or
spots?], 892; wlite-seÛn wr‰t-lÓc, 1651.

wrÊc, st. f., _persecution_; hence, _wretchedness, misery_: nom. sg., 170;
acc. sg. wrÊc, 3079.

wrecan, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to press, force_: pret. part. ˛Êr w‰s Ongen˛eÛ
... on bÓd wrecen, 2963.--2) _to drive out, expel_: pret. sg. ferh ellen
wr‰c, 2707.--3) _to wreak_ or _utter_: gid, spel wrecan (_to utter words or
songs_); subj. pres. sg. III. he gyd wrece, 2447; inf. wrecan spel ge-r‚de,
874; word-gyd wrecan, 3174; pret. sg. gyd ‰fter wr‰c, 2155; pres. part. ˛Êr
w‰s ... gid wrecen, 1066.--4) _to avenge, punish_: subj. pres. ˛‰t he his
freÛnd wrece, 1386; inf. wolde hire mÊg wrecan, 1340; so, 1279, 1547; pres.
part. wrecend (_an avenger_), 1257; pret. sg. wr‰c Wedera nÓ, 423; so,
1334, 1670.

‚-wrecan, _to tell, recount_: pret. sg. ic ˛is gid be ˛e ‚-wr‰c (_I have
told this tale for thee_), 1725; so, 2109.

for-wrecan, w. acc., _to drive away, expel; carry away_: inf. ˛˝ l‰s him
˝a ˛rym wudu wyn-suman for-wrecan meahte (_lest the force of the waves
might carry away the winsome ship_), 1920; pret. sg. he hine feor for-wr‰c
... man-cynne fram, 109.

ge-wrecan, w. acc., _to avenge, wreak vengeance upon, punish_: pret. sg.
ge-wr‰c, 107, 2006; he ge-wr‰c (i.e. hit, _this_) cealdum cear-sÓum, 2396;
he hine sylfne ge-wr‰c (_avenged himself_), 2876; pl. ge-wrÊcan, 2480;
pret. part. ge-wrecen, 3063.

wrecca, w. m., (_wretch_), _exile, adventurer, wandering soldier, hero_:
nom. sg. wrecca (Hengest), 1138; gen. pl. wreccena wÓde mÊrost (Sigemund),

wreoen-hilt, adj., _wreathen-hilted, with twisted hilt_: nom. sg., 1699.

wridian, w. v., _to flourish, spring up_: pret. sg. III. wrida, 1742.

wria, w. m., _band_: in comp. be·g-wria (_bracelet_), 2019.

wrixl, st. n., _exchange, change_: instr. sg. wyrsan wrixle (_in a worse
way, with a worse exchange_), 2970.

ge-wrixle, st. n., _exchange, arrangement, bargain_: nom. sg. ne w‰s ˛‰t
ge-wrixle til (_it was not a good arrangement, trade_), 1305.

wrixlan, w. v., _to exchange_: inf. wordum wrixlan (_to exchange words,
converse_), 366; 875 (_tell_).

wrÓan, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to bind, fasten, wreathe together_: inf. ic
hine (him, MS.) ... on w‰l-bedde wrÓan ˛Ùhte, 965.--2) _to bind up_ (a
wounded person, a wound): pret. pl. ˛‚ wÊron monige ˛e his mÊg wrion,
2983. See hand-gewrien.

wrÓtan, st. v., _to incise, engrave_: pret. part. on ˛‰m (hilte) w‰s Ùr
writen fyrn-gewinnes (_on which was engraved the origin of an ancient
struggle_), 1689.

for-wrÓtan, _to cut to pieces_ or _in two_: pret. sg. for-wr‚t Wedra helm
wyrm on middan, 2706.

wrÙht, st. m. f., _blame, accusation, crime_; here _strife, contest,
hostility_: nom. sg., 2288, 2474, 2914.

wudu, st. m., _wood_: 1) _material, timber_: nom. pl. wudu, 1365; hence,
_the wooden spear_: acc. pl. wudu, 398.--2) _forest, wood_: acc. sg. wudu,
1417.--3) _wooden ship_: nom. sg. 298; acc. sg. wudu, 216, 1920.--Comp.:
bÊl-, bord-, gamen-, heal-, holt-, m‰gen-, sÊ-, sund-, ˛rec-wudu.

wudu-rÍc, st. m., _wood-reek_ or _smoke_: nom. sg., 3145.

wuldor, st. n., _glory_: nom. sg. kyninga wuldor (_God_), 666; gen. sg.
wuldres wealdend, 17, 183, 1753; wuldres hyrde, 932, (designations of God).

wuldor-cyning, st. m., _king of glory, God_. dat. sg. wuldur-cyninge, 2796

wuldor-torht, adj., _glory-bright, brilliant, clear_: acc. pl.
wuldor-torhtan weder, 1137.

wulf, st. m., _wolf_: acc. sg., 3028.

wulf-hli, st. n., _wolf-slope, wolf's retreat, slope whereunder wolves
house_: acc. pl. wulf-hleou, 1359.

wund, st. f., _wound_: nom. sg., 2712, 2977; acc. sg. wunde, 2532, 2907;
acc. sg. wunde, 2726; instr. pl. wundum, 1114, 2831, 2938.--Comp.

wund, adj., _wounded, sore_: nom. sg., 2747; dat. sg. wundum, 2754; nom.
pl. wunde, 565, 1076.

wunden-feax, adj., _curly-haired_ (of a horse's mane): nom. sg., 1401.

wunden-heals, adj., _with twisted_ or _curved neck_ or _prow_: nom. sg.
wudu wunden-hals (_the ship_), 298.

wunden-heorde?, _curly-haired_?: nom. sg. f., 3153.

wunden-mÊl, adj., _damascened, etched, with wavy ornaments_(?): nom. sg.
neut., 1532 (of a sword).

wunden-stefna, w. m. _curved prow, ship_: nom. sg., 220.

wundor, st. n.: 1) _wonder, wonderwork_: nom. sg., 772, 1725; wundur, 3063;
acc. sg. wundor, 841; wunder, 932; wundur, 2760, 3033, 3104; dat. sg.
wundre, 932; instr. pl. wundrum (_wondrously_), 1453, 2688; gen. pl.
wundra, 1608.--2) _portent, monster_: gen. pl. wundra, 1510.--Comp.: hand-,
nÓ-, searo-wundor.

wundor-bebod, st. n., _wondrous command, strange order_: instr. pl.
-bebodum, 1748.

wundor-de·, st. m., _wonder-death, strange death_: instr. sg. wundor
de·e, 3038.

wundor-f‰t, st. n., _wonder-vat, strange vessel_: dat. pl. of wundor-fatum
(_from wondrous vessels_), 1163.

wundor-lÓc, adj., _wonder like, remarkable_: nom. sg., 1441.

wundor-m‚um, st. m., _wonder-jewel, wonderful treasure_: acc. sg., 2174.

wundor-smi, st. m., _wonder-smith, skilled smith, worker of marvellous
things_: gen. pl. wundor-smia geweorc (the ancient giant's sword), 1682.

wundor-seÛn, st. f., _wondrous sight_: gen. pl. wunder-siÛna, 996.

wunian, w. v.: 1) _to stand, exist, remain_: pres. sg. III. ˛enden ˛Êr
wuna on he·h-stede h˚sa sÍlest (_as long as the best of houses stands
there on the high place_), 284; wuna he on wiste (_lives in plenty_),
1736; inf. on sele wunian (_to remain in the hall_), 3129; pret. sg. wunode
mid Finne (_remained with F._), 1129.--2) w. acc. or dat., _to dwell in, to
inhabit, to possess_: pres. sg. III. wuna w‰l-reste (_holds his
death-bed_), 2903; inf. w‰ter-egesan wunian scolde..., stre·mas, 1261;
wÓcum wunian, 3084; w. prep.: pres. sg. Higel‚c ˛Êr ‰t h‚m wuna, 1924.

ge-wunian, w. acc.: 1) _to inhabit_: inf. ge-[wunian], 2276.--2) _to remain
with, stand by_: subj. pres. ˛‰t hine on ylde eft ge-wunigen wil-ge-sÓas,

wuran. See weoran.

wuton, v. from wÓtan, used as interj., _let us go! up!_ w. inf.: wutun
gangan tÙ (_let us go to him!_), 2649; uton hrae fÍran! 1391; uton nu
Ífstan, 3102.

wylf, st. f., _she-wolf_: in comp. brim-wylf.

wylm, st. m., _surge, surf, billow_: num. sg. flÙdes wylm, 1765; dat.
wintres wylme (_with winter's flood_), 516; acc. sg. ˛urh w‰teres wylm,
1694; acc. pl. heortan wylmas, 2508.--Comp.: breÛst-, brim-, byrne-, cear-,
f˝r-, heao-, holm-, sÊ-, sorh-wylm. See w‰lm.

wyn, st. f., _pleasantness, pleasure, joy, enjoyment_: acc. sg. mÊste ...
worolde wynne (_the highest earthly joy_), 1081; eoran wynne (_earth-joy,
the delightful earth_), 1731; heofenes wynne (_heaven's joy_, the rising
sun), 1802; hearpan wynne (_harp-joy, the pleasant harp_), 2108; ˛‰t he ...
ge-drogen h‰fde eoran wynne (_that he had had his earthly joy_), 2728;
dat. sg. weorod w‰s on wynne, 2015; instr. pl. m‰genes wynnum (_in joy of
strength_), 1717; so, 1888.--Comp.: Íel-, hord-, lÓf-, lyft-, symbel-wyn.

wyn-le·s, adj., _joyless_: acc. sg. wyn-le·sne wudu, 1417; wyn-le·s wÓc,

wyn-sum, adj., _winsome, pleasant_: acc. sg. wudu wyn-suman (_the ship_),
1920; nom. pl. word wÊron wyn-sume, 613.

wyrcan, v. irreg.: 1) _to do, effect_, w. acc.: inf. (wundor) wyrcan,
931.--2) _to make, create_, w. acc.: pret. sg. ˛‰t se ‰l-mihtiga eoran
worh[te], 92; sw‚ hine _(the helmet_) worhte wÊpna smi, 1453.--3) _to
gain, win, acquire_, w. gen.: subj. pres. wyrce, se ˛e mÙte, dÙmes Êr
de·e, 1388.

be-wyrcan, _to gird, surround_: pret. pl. bronda betost wealle be-worhton,

ge-wyrcan: 1) intrans., _to act, behave_: inf. sw‚ sceal geong guma gÙde
gewyrcean ... on f‰der wine ˛‰t ... (_a young man shall so act with
benefits towards his father's friends that_ ...), 20.--2) w. acc., _to do,
make, effect, perform_: inf. ne meahte ic ‰t hilde mid Hruntinge wiht
ge-wyrcan, 1661; sweorde ne meahte on ˛am aglÊcan ... wunde ge-wyrcean,
2907; pret. sg. ge-worhte, 636, 1579, 2713; pret. part. acc. ic ˛‚ leÛde
w‚t ... f‰ste ge-worhte. 1865.--3) _to make, construct_: inf. (medo-‰rn)
ge-wyrcean, 69; (wÓg-bord) ge-wyrcean, 2338; (hlÊw) ge-wyrcean, 2803; pret.
pl. II. ge-worhton, 3097; III. ge-worhton, 3158; pret. part. ge-worht,
1697.--4) _to win, acquire_: pres. sg. ic me mid Hruntinge dÙm ge-wyrce,

Wyrd, st. f., _Weird_ (one of the Norns, guide of human destiny; mostly
weakened down = _fate, providence_): nom. sg., 455, 477, 572, 735, 1206,
2421, 2527, 2575, 2815; acc. sg. wyrd, 1057, 1234; gen. pl. wyrda, 3031.
(Cf. Weird Sisters of Macbeth.)

wyrdan, w. v., _to ruin, kill, destroy_: pret. sg. he tÙ lange leÛde mine
wanode and wyrde, 1338.

‚-wyrdan, w. v., _to destroy, kill_: pret. part.: ‰eling monig wundum
‚-wyrded, 1114.

wyre, adj., _noble; worthy, honored, valued_: acc. sg. m. wyrne (ge-dÙn)
(_to esteem worthy_), 2186; nom. pl. wyre, 368; compar. nom. sg. rÓces
wyrra (_worthier of rule_), 862.--Comp. fyrd-wyre. See weor.

wyrgen, st, f., _throttler_ [cf. sphinx], _she-wolf_; in comp.

ge-wyrht, st. n., _work; desert_; in comp. eald-gewyrht, 2658.

wyrm, st. m., _worm, dragon, drake_: nom. sg., 898, 2288, 2344, 2568, 2630,
2670, 2746, 2828; acc. sg. wyrm, 887, 892, 2706, 3040, 3133; dat. sg.
wyrme, 2308, 2520; gen. wyrmes, 2317, 2349, 2760, 2772, 2903; acc. pl.
wyrmas, 1431.

wyrm-cyn, st. m., _worm-kin, race of reptiles, dragons_: gen. sg.
wyrm-cynnes fela, 1426.

wyrm-f‚h, adj., _dragon-ornamented, snake-adorned_ (ornamented with figures
of dragons, snakes, etc.: cf. Dietrich in Germania X., 278): nom. sg.
sweord ... wreoen-hilt and wyrm-f‚h, 1699.

wyrm-hord, st. n., _dragon-hoard_: gen. pl. wyrm-horda, 2223.

for-wyrnan, w. v., _to refuse, reject_: subj. pres. II. ˛‰t ˛u me nÙ
for-wyrne, ˛‰t... (_that thou refuse me not that_...), 429; pret. sg. he ne
for-wyrnde worold-rÊdenne, 1143.

ge-wyrpan, w. v. reflex., _to refresh one's self, recover_: pret. sg. he
hyne ge-wyrpte, 2977.

wyrpe, st. m., _change_: acc. sg. ‰fter we·-spelle wyrpe ge-fremman (_after
the woe-spell to bring about a change of things_), 1316.

wyrsa, compar. adj., _worse_: acc. sg. neut. ˛‰t wyrse, 1740; instr. sg.
wyrsan wrixle, 2970; gen. sg. wyrsan ge˛inges, 525; nom. acc. pl. wyrsan
wÓg-frecan, 1213, 2497.

wyrt, st. f., [_-wort_], _root_: instr. pl. wudu wyrtum f‰st, 1365.

w˝scan, w. v., _to wish, desire_: pret. sg. wÓscte (rihde, MS.) ˛‰s yldan
(_wished to delay that_ or _for this reason_, 2440, 1605(?). See Note.


yfel, st n., _evil_: gen. pl. yfla, 2095.

yldan, w. v., _to delay, put off_: inf. ne ˛‰t se aglÊca yldan ˛Ùhte, 740;
weard wine-geÙmor wÓscte ˛‰s yldan, ˛‰t he lytel f‰c long-gestreÛna br˚can
mÙste, 2240.

ylde, st. m. pl., _men_: dat. pl. yldum, 77, 706, 2118; gen. pl. ylda, 150,
606, 1662. See elde.

yldest. See eald.

yldo, st. f., _age (senectus), old age_: nom. sg., 1737, 1887; atol yldo,
1767; dat. sg. on ylde, 22.--2) _age (Êtas), time, era_: gen. sg. yldo
bearn, 70. See eldo.

yldra. See eald.

ylf, st. f., _elf (incubus, alp_): nom. pl. ylfe, 112.

ymb, prep. w. acc.: 1) local, _around, about, at, upon_: ymb hine (_around,
with, him_), 399. With prep, postponed: hine ymb, 690; ymb brontne ford
(_around the seas, on the high sea_), 568; ymb ˛‚ gif-healle (_around the
gift-hall, throne-hall_), 839; ymb ˛‰s helmes hrÙf (_around the helm's
roof, crown_), 1031.--2) temporal, _about, after_: ymb ‚n-tÓd Ùres dÙgores
(_about the same time the next day_), 219; ymb ‚ne niht (_after a night_),
135.--3) causal, _about, on account of, for, owing to_: (frÓnan) ymb ˛Ónne
sÓ (_on account of, concerning?, thy journey_), 353; hw‰t ˛u ... ymb
Brecan sprÊce (_hast spoken about B._), 531; so, 1596, 3174; n‚ ymb his lÓf
ceara (_careth not for his life_), 1537; so, 450; ymb feorh sacan, 439;
sundor-nytte beheÛld ymb aldor Dena, 669; ymb sund (_about the swimming,
the prize for swimming_), 507.

ymbe, I. prep. w. acc. = ymb: 1) local, 2884, 3171; hlÊw oft ymbe hwearf
(prep, postponed), 2297. 2) causal, 2071, 2619.--II. adv., _around_: him
... ymbe, 2598.

ymb-sittend, pres. part., _neighbor_ gen. pl. ymb-sittendra, 9.

ymbe-sittend, the same: nom. pl. ymbe-sittend, 1828; gen. pl.
ymbe-sittendra, 2735.

yppe, w. f., _high seat, dais, throne_: dat. sg. eode ... tÙ yppan, 1816.

yrfe, st. n., _bequest, legacy_: nom. sg., 3052.

yrfe-l‚f, st. f., _sword left as a bequest_: acc. sg. yrfe-l‚fe, 1054;
instr. sg. yrfe-l‚fe, 1904.

yrfe-weard, st. m., _heir, son_: nom. sg., 2732; gen. sg. yrfe-weardes,
2454. (-as, MS.)

yrmo, st. f., _misery, shame, wretchedness_: acc. sg. yrme, 1260, 2006.

yrre, st. n., _anger, ire, excitement_: acc. sg. godes yrre, 712; dat. sg,
on yrre, 2093.

yrre, adj., _angry, irate, furious_: nom. sg. yrre oretta (BeÛwulf), 1533;
˛egn yrre (the same), 1576; g‰st yrre (Grendel), 2074; nom. pl. yrre, 770.
See eorre.

yrringa, adv., _angrily, fiercely_, 1566, 2965.

yrre-mÙd, adj., _wrathful-minded, wild_: nom. sg., 727.

ys, _he is_. See wesan.

˝ (O.H.G. unda), st. f., _wave; sea_: nom. pl. ˝a, 548; acc. pl. ˝e, 46,
1133, 1910; dat. pl. ˝um, 210, 421, 534, 1438, 1908; ˝um weallan (_to
surge with waves_), 515, 2694; gen. pl. ˝a, 464, 849, 1209, 1470,
1919.--Comp: flÙd-, lÓg-, w‰ter-˝.

˝an, w. v., _to ravage, devastate, destroy_: pret. sg. ˝de eotena cyn,
421 (cf. Óende = _depopulating_, Bosworth, from ∆lfric's Glossary; pret.
˝de, Wanderer, 85).

˝e. See e·e.

˝e-lÓce, adv., _easily_: ˝e-lÓce he eft ‚-stÙd (_he easily arose
afterwards_), 1557.

˝-gebland, st. n., _mingling_ or _surging waters, water-tumult_: nom. sg.
-geblond, 1374, 1594; nom. pl. -gebland, 1621.

˝-gewin, st. n., _strife with the sea, wave-struggle, rushing of water_:
dat. sg. ˝-gewinne, 2413; gen. sg. -gewinnes, 1435.

˝-l‚d, st. f., _water-journey, sea-voyage_: nom. pl. ˝-l‚de, 228.

˝-l‚f, st. f., _water-leaving, what is left by the water (undarum
reliquiae), shore_: dat. sg. be ˝-l‚fe, 566.

˝-lida, w. m., _wave-traverser, ship_: acc. sg. ˝-lidan, 198.

˝-naca, w. m., _sea-boat_: acc. sg. [˝-]nacan, 1904.

˝-gesÍne. See Í-ges˝ne.

˝wan, w. v. w. acc., _to show_: pret. sg. an-s˝n ˝wde (_showed itself,
appeared_), 2835. See e·wan, eÛwan.

ge-˝wan, w. acc. of thing, dat. of pers., _to lay before, offer_: inf.,


‚brecan, st. v., _to shatter_: part. his byrne ‚brocen wÊre (_his byrnie
was shattered_).

‚nyman, st. v., _to take, take away_.

b‚n-helm, st. m., _bone-helmet; skull_, [_shield_, Bosw.].

buruh-˛elu, st. f., _castle-floor_.

cÍlod, part, (adj.?), _keeled_, i.e. boat-shaped or hollow.

dagian, w. v., _to dawn_: ne ˛is ne dagia e·stan (_this is not dawning
from the east_).

deÛr-mÙd, adj., _brave in mood_: deÛr-mÙd h‰le.

driht-gesÓ, st m., _companion, associate_.

e·stan, adv., _from the east_.

eor-b˚end, st. m., _earth-dweller, man_.

fÍr, st. m. _fear, terror_.

f˝ren, adj., _flaming, afire_: nom. f. swylce eal Finns-buruh f˝renu wÊre
(_as if all Finnsburh were afire_).

gehlyn, st. n., _noise, tumult_.

gellan, st. v., _to sing_ (i.e. ring or resound): pres. sg. gylle
grÊg-hama (_the gray garment_ [byrnie] _rings_); (_the gray wolf

genesan, st. v., _to survive, recover from_: pret. pl. ˛‚ wÓgend hyra wunda
genÊson (_the warriors were recovering from their wounds_).

gold-hladen, adj., _laden with gold_ (wearing heavy gold ornaments).

grÊg-hama, w. m., _gray garment, mail-coat_; (_wolf_?--Brooke).

g˚-wudu, st. m., _war-wood, spear_.

h‰g-steald, st. m., _one who lives in his lord's house, a house-carl._

heao-geong, adj., _young in war._

here-sceorp, st. n., _war-dress, coat of mail_.

hleorian, w. v., _to speak, exclaim_: pret. sg. hleorode ... cyning (_the
prince exclaimed_).

hrÊw, st. n., _corpse_.

hrÙr, adj., _strong_: here-sceorpum hrÙr (_strong_ [though it was] _as
armor_, Bosw.).

lac (la?)? for flacor, _fluttering?_

oncwean, st. v., _to answer_: pres. sg. scyld scefte oncwy (_the shield
answers the spear_).

onwacnian, w. v., _to awake, arouse one's self_: imper. pl. onwacnigea...,
wÓgend mine (_awake, my warriors!_).

sceft (sceaft), st. m., _spear, shaft_.

sealo-br˚n, adj., _dusky-brown_.

sige-beorn, st. m., _victorious hero, valiant warrior_.

sw‰er (sw‚ hw‰er), pron., _which of two, which_.

sw‚n, st. m., _swain, youth; warrior_.

sweart, adj., _swart, black_.

swÍt, adj., _sweet_: acc. m. swÍtne medo ... forgyldan (_requite the sweet
mead_, i.e. repay, by prowess in battle, the bounty of their chief).

swurd-leÛma, w. m., _sword-flame, flashing of swords_.

˛yrl, adj., _pierced, cloven_.

undearninga, adv., _without concealment, openly_.

wandrian, w. v., _to fly about, hover_: pret. sg. hr‰fn wandrode (_the
raven hovered_).

waol, st. m., _the full moon_ [Grein]; [adj., _wandering_, Bosw.].

w‰l-sliht (-sleaht), st. m., _combat, deadly struggle_: gen. pl. w‰l-slihta
gehlyn (_the din of combats_)

we‚-dÊd, st. f., _deed of woe_: nom. pl. ‚risa we‚-dÊda.

witian (weotian), w. v., _to appoint, determine_: part. ˛e is ... witod.

wurlÓce (weorlÓce), adv., _worthily, gallantly_: compar. wur-lÓcor.

w‰g, weg, st. m., _way_.


ARGUMENT, recals = recalls
ll. 131, 737 ˛ry-swy = ˛r˝-sw˝
l. 256 Ùfest = Ùfost
l. 303 sciÛnon = scionon
l. 706 buton = b˚ton
l. 1115 ‚t = ‰t
l. 1133 wÓ = wi
ll. 1304, 1560, 1616 missing caesuras supplied
l. 1436 here-str‰l = here-strÊl
l. 1642 feÙwer- = feÛwer
l. 1747 str‰le = strÊle
l. 1828 ˛ywa = ˛˝wa
l. 1926 betlic = betlÓc
l. 2224 gesceÛd = gesceÙd
ll. 2288, 3036 w‚s = w‰s
l. 2453 to = tÙ
l. 2503 Huga = H˚ga
l. 2586 nie = nÓe
l. 2587 si = sÓ
l. 2684 irenna = Órenna
l. 2915 Hugas = H˚gas
l. 2956 he·o-liendum = heao-lÓendum
l. 3000 fi‚t = fi‰t; feÙnd- = feÛnd-
l. 3056 sÛ = sÙ
l. 3137 HrÙnes = Hrones
list of names, under:
Dene, ScedenÓgge = Scedenigge
E·dgils, Ohthere = ‘hthere
Fre·waru, Freawaru = Fre·waru
HrÙg‚r, HrÙ-g‚re = HrÙg‚re
Hygelac, HÊre = H‰re
l. 31, of l. 31 = of l. 30
l. 1441, wÙ- = wÊg-
l. 1916, leÙfra = leÛfra
GLOSSARY, under headword
‰ele, Beowulf's = BeÛwulf's
‚n, gehwilces = gehwylces
Êg-hw‚, Êgh-w‰s = Êghw‰s
‰t-beran, beadol‚ce = beadul‚ce
beadu-l‚c, beado- = beadu- (twice)
be·g, beages = be·ges
beorh, he·ford- = he·fod
beÛdan, leodum = leÛdum
beÛn, cwÍnlic = cwÍnlÓc
biddan, bline = blÓne
bitter, str‰le = strÊle
ge-bÓdan, therefor = therefore
on-bÓdan, earfÙlÓce = earfolÓce
brecan, lÍtdse = lÍt se

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