Part 2 out of 2
the part just described is the earlier work of the thirteenth
century. It rises as far up as to the string-course formed by the
continuation of the abaci of the capitals in the two small
single-light windows. These narrow and sharp-pointed windows are
peculiar. The arch-moulds are different from the other work of the
same date in the church. There is no sign of tracery in their design,
and the jambs have a simple attached shaft in the outer reveal. The
bases to these shafts are earlier than those of the shafts to the
south aisle chapel windows, and the edge of the inner member of the
window arch is merely cut off with a straight chamber. There is one
window, the same as these, hidden in the west walk of the cloister.
Beneath the windows just described there are two small single-light
openings in each portion of walling on either side of the central
buttress. These six windows serve to light the vaulted (sacristy)
choir school within.
[Illustration: THE EAST WALK OF THE CLOISTER. _S.B. Bolas & Co.,
It has been supposed by some that a chapter-house once existed within
the paradise close by the west angle of the transept. The south end of
the transept rises on the north side of the cloister garth. At the
south-west angle a great part of the twelfth-century masonry in the
broad flat buttresses remains. The south-east angle and buttresses are
quite different. They are perhaps part of the work done during the
thirteenth century, though it is possible that they were introduced
when Langton inserted the large south window of the transept. This
window has been very much restored since the seventeenth century, when
it was almost knocked in pieces. Wooden props served instead of
mullions for many years to hold up the tracery above. The repair that
has been effected retains the old design. Above each angle of the
transept is a turret, octagonal in form. Neither of them is complete.
They were only required in the fifteenth century as a means of access
to the roofs at the parapet level from the staircases in the angle
buttresses. The gable of the transept rises above the parapet just
described, but it is not in the same vertical plane as the face of the
wall below. The top of this gable was for many years in a very wrecked
condition. The design of the tracery in the rose window is in two
orders, based upon equilateral triangles filled in with cusps.
Close to the ground on the south-west corner buttress are two
string-courses. The lower of these is a billet-moulded course cut,
like those to be seen on the south-west tower. Its presence here, and
at this level, shows that this was the original level of the sills of
all the old Norman windows on the outside walls until about the close
of the twelfth century.
On the east side of this part of the transept, at the clerestory
level, are two round-headed windows. Both originally were all of
twelfth-century workmanship. But now the southern one has abaci,
capitals, angle-shafts, and base, which are thirteenth-century work,
and the early label-mould has been changed. The other window shows
partly what was once probably the character of both of them. But the
greater part of this window was restored when the central tower and
spire were rebuilt after 1861. Between the windows is a buttress that
was introduced when the vault was added. The south-east angle on this
side retains part of the twelfth-century flat buttressing. There are
on this wall and the turret different types of masonry, which
represent five distinct periods of building, from the twelfth to the
nineteenth century. But the junction between the work of two of these
periods, being a weak part, shows by the crack down the wall from the
parapet that some movement has taken place here.
Projecting eastwards from the transept is the square chapel (now a
vestry), which took the place of the early apsidal one. Neither of its
three windows has any tracery. The window on the south side is
pointed. The arch-mould is the same as that to the round-headed window
on the east; but there is a label-mould over this south one and not on
the other. The abaci are new, and the angle-shafts and bases as well,
but the capitals are old, though decayed. The parapet on the south is
of the same character and date as that over the wall of the choir, but
earlier than that above the south window of the transept, which is of
the same date as that on the south wall of the nave.
The roof of this chapel appears, from the raking channel on the
transept wall, to have once been higher, with a sharper pitch. The
finish to the present gable point has disappeared. On the east wall
and on the south-west buttress of the transept there are two
interesting old lead rain-water heads. The east wall of the chapel
runs on northwards till it becomes a part of the buttress of the
choir. The wall between the north buttress of the chapel and the
buttress of the choir aisle close by is pierced with two small cusped
windows of fifteenth-century date. Below these is a larger and sharply
pointed arched head. It has no mouldings. But the square-headed small
light under it has splayed jambs. This opening was probably once a
round-headed twelfth-century window, as the old abacus is still in
The #South Side of the Choir# is externally divided into five bays.
There are five flying-buttresses to carry down the vault thrusts, with
a pinnacle above the buttress at the south-east angle. The first,
second, and third bays from the east side of the transept have still
the round-arched windows of the twelfth century set in the walling of
the same date. But it should be noted that part of the window in the
first bay was rebuilt after 1861. The fourth and fifth bays have
pointed windows, carved capitals, and angle-shafts. These, though now
entirely renewed, were built when the whole of this part of the choir
was added. Part of the walling for a few feet below the parapet was
renewed at the same time. The flying-buttresses are thirteenth-century
additions of the same date as the vaults within; and those three
nearest the transept abut on parts of the twelfth-century flat
buttresses. The flat projection was continued up to the parapet at a
later date, probably when the parapet itself was built on. But the
fourth buttress also abuts upon a slightly projecting flat strip of
buttressing. In this case, however, but not in the others, the flat
strip and the flying-buttress are of the same width and built as one
piece of structure. The third and fourth flying-buttresses have a
secondary, and apparently later, arch of fine grained white stone
beneath their larger arches.
The copings on the backs of these buttresses are not weathered like
those of the nave, and, except the one next the transept, each is
covered with lead. There are no pinnacles to them above the aisle
wall. The fourteenth-century builders had not touched them, as they
did those south of the nave. There are, too, no gutters along their
backs. It is curious that this method of carrying the water away from
the upper roofs over the lower ones should not have been adopted when
the parapets were put up.
[Illustration: THE CHOIR AND CENTRAL TOWER FROM THE SOUTH-EAST. _S.B.
Bolas & Co., photo_.]
The outer wall of the choir aisle is one of the most interesting
portions of the building, from an archaeological as well as an
architectural standpoint. It shows three of the arched heads of small
twelfth-century windows that used to light the earlier triforium
gallery. One of these has now a fifteenth-century insertion beneath
it. This is in the second bay from the transept. It is a small window
with a cusped head and a square label-mould above it. In the same area
of walling there are shown the levels of the cut string-course that
ran along under the sills of the twelfth-century aisle windows. It is
the same string and at the same level as it appears upon the
south-west angle of the transept and the south-west tower of the west
front. It shows, too, in the second bay, the level of the old abaci
which ran across from each capital in the window jambs and stopped
against the sides of the buttresses. There is also the continuous
chamfer course that ran along the walls above the heads of these aisle
windows. In proof of these things there is even now one of these same
old windows in almost its original state within the little chamber
known as the priest-vicars' vestry. This window is in the bay of aisle
walling immediately against the transept wall. The string-courses of
the old windows were continued round the later buttresses. In the
fourth bay, above the point of the window arch, the curve of the
original apse of the ambulatory is just traceable; but beyond this
point eastwards the twelfth-century walling has disappeared until we
meet it again in the lady-chapel. There is a small buttress in the
fourth bay marking the junction between the two periods of masonry. In
the second and third bays part of the twelfth-century top to the aisle
walls remains. The roof may have had eaves originally, but now there
is a parapet of about the same date as the present buttresses; and the
projection of this parapet is carried upon the corbels that were
carved and built in before the second fire occurred. The space between
each corbel is bridged over by small single stones cut out to the
shape of a semicircular arch.
The windows in the second, third, and fourth bays differ in size and
shape from each other; that in the second bay has a pointed arch and
no tracery, square abaci and the remains of carved capitals. The angle
shafts and bases are gone. They were all inserted at about the same
time; but that in the third bay has had some poor modern tracery
without cusps added to it, and that in the fourth bay is a more
recent, insertion than the one next to it. In the third and fourth
bays just above the low chamfered base of the wall are three
semicircular markings cut on the wall, but there is nothing to explain
their existence. In the fourth bay close beneath the sill of the
window is a stone built into the wall, upon which a dedication cross
is cut. At the fifth bay the east walk of the cloisters joins the wall
of the aisle; its roof partly hides a window, above which is a square
panel of the fifteenth century. This panel indicates the position of a
window, for the jambs and mullions of its tracery may be seen within
the church. They are rebated for shutters, the old hooks for which
also remain. The south-east angle turret of the presbytery has lately
been rebuilt; so also has that on the north-east angle. They are each
of them octagonal in form, but differ in detail, in imitation of those
The large rose window in the gable of the #East End# is of about
the same date as the vaulting over the south transept, since they
possess kindred details. In design it is a simple circle, with seven
others within it of equal diameter. Portions of the coping of an
earlier and lower pointed gable are bedded in the wall. Under the
string beneath the rose window are three windows grouped as a triplet,
with no label moulding. The centre light is higher than the others.
Though each has been much repaired, the early thirteenth-century
detail has been retained. The abaci of the capitals are square. The
windows have no tracery, and are probably quite fifty years earlier in
date than the large rose above them.
The exterior of the small chapel to the south has a square weathered
angle buttress. On its south side is a window of the same date as the
rest of the chapel, and like the triplet in the gable of the
presbytery in character and date. Its east end has been altered since
the chapel was finished. First a small rose window, recently renewed,
of the same date and type as that in the presbytery gable, was
inserted under the earlier narrow window close to the gable point;
then the original east window was removed, and a larger one was put
in, having three lights and a traceried head with cusped work of late
fourteenth-or early fifteenth-century work. The sill of the old window
was lowered to give more length. Most of the window now to be seen is
the result of recent restoration. Parts of the old string-courses
remain in the walling.
The south side of the #Lady-Chapel# beyond the chapel just
described has four bays. In each of these is a large three-light
window. The western and smallest one was probably first inserted. Then
the two eastern ones were put in when the two east bays were added to
the older lady-chapel. The other window appears the latest of the
four; or else may it not be that before deciding to lengthen the
lady-chapel, the builders first began only with the idea of inserting
some new windows in the older walls? But before this scheme had been
executed they concluded that they would add bodily to the chapel; and
in order to allow the chapel to continue in use while this was being
done, they built the extension first outside, then built up the
connection with the original walls, and inserted their latest window.
Two of the buttresses on this wall are flat. In this they are like
those of the twelfth century; but their upper parts were rebuilt when
the parapet was made. The others are later, and have more projection.
On the north and south of the lady-chapel the wall is finished by a
parapet. It is the same in detail and design as that on the south wall
of the presbytery. So it is probable that Bishop Gilbert de S.
Leophardo, when he lengthened the lady-chapel, caused other work to be
done at the same time.
[Illustration: WINDOWS OF THE LADY-CHAPEL, SOUTH SIDE. _S.B. Bolas &
The lady-chapel has been much restored in many ways, but the old
parapet remains in part on the north side. The tracery of the windows
is interesting, as it shows early examples of cusped forms. The east
end of the lady-chapel has a five-light window, which has been much
repaired. It has been in a measure imitated from the others in the
The description of the south side of the chapel applies generally to
the north side. But the windows in two cases have been much more
restored. The chapel north of the lady-chapel has an angle turret like
that on the south. Its east and north windows are fifteenth-century
insertions. And it has a little rose window in the gable not yet
restored, though soon, by decay, it will have disappeared. The smaller
window above it is blocked up. On its north side there is neither a
gutter nor a parapet; but perhaps this is better than the foolish
cornice, with rosettes in it, which has been placed on the wall of the
south chapel to carry a gutter.
The details of the north wall of the presbytery are similar to those
described on the south. But there are no sub-arches to any of the
flying buttresses, and the slopes of each are protected by lead
coverings. And in the exterior of the north aisle the same elements of
structure and design may be discovered, even to the presence of
twelfth-century remains, the curve of the old encircling apse, and the
position of the first sills, abaci, and string-courses. But it should
be noticed that in the eastern bay of this aisle externally, where on
the south there is a fifteenth-century solid square panel, on the
north there is a small round-headed window. But this little window is
of no earlier date than the walls in which it is set. The second and
third windows from the east buttress of the presbytery aisle are
insertions of fifteenth-century type; but they have been so much
renewed and restored that only in the third one does there appear to
be any portion of the original tracery remaining. On the north side of
the choir and presbytery are four very fine old lead rain-water heads
and square lead pipes.
The east end of the present #Library# has in it five windows. Two
of the upper ones are built up, the central and higher one only being
glazed. In detail they are all of the same date as the walls they are
in. None has any tracery, and by this they show that this piece of
work was done at the same time as the chapel--now a vestry--on the
east side of the south end of the transept. The gable is a low slope
like the present roof, but the slope of the old gable and roof may be
seen upon the east wall of the transept. There is one buttress only on
the east side of the library. The north side is divided into two parts
in its length by a buttress. The parapet has a corbel course similar
to that on the two eastern bays of the presbytery aisle. The two small
pointed windows below it are built up, as now the apartment they once
lighted is a lumber-room, where the remnants of the old reredos are
stored. The larger windows below are of the same date, nearly, as
those two fifteenth-century ones in the north wall of the presbytery
aisle. The east one has three and the west four lights, with cusped
tracery in the heads.
The east wall of the north arm of the #Transept# has a buttress, as
is the case with the south arm. But early thirteenth-century pointed
windows take the place of the round-headed ones. There are, however,
three string-courses on this wall of the north arm which do not appear
on the south. One is the old twelfth-century string which evidently
once ran along above the old round-headed windows. The next is a
continuation of the abaci of the capitals. The other passes under the
sills of the windows. A comparison of this wall with that
corresponding to it in the south of the transept shows that for some
reason the windows here were totally changed and the others only
partially. This may suggest that at the time of the fire this part was
more damaged than the other. The parapet on this wall is unlike that
at the top of the presbytery and choir walls. It has no corbelling and
no arched and cusped work; it is merely a plain piece of walling,
slightly overhung with a weathered coping at the top and a moulded
The general features in the design of the north end of this transept
are similar to those of the south. The gable sets back from the face
of the lower wall as before, and in it is a rose window, also based on
the hexagon principle in design. It is later in character than either
of the other large rose windows in the south of the transept and the
east of the presbytery. Like the others, it has been much repaired.
The two irregular octagon turrets on each angle are of the same date
as those on the south, and, like them, have weathered and battlemented
parapets to the top of their side walls. The parapet of the north wall
between them is of the same design, detail, and date as that on the
north and south walls of the clerestory to the nave.
On the north-east angle are two buttresses; and on the north-west
angle there is a group of buttresses of a later type. On the west
there remains the old twelfth-century flat buttress, like those on the
south-west angle of the transept. Westward of this, and standing clear
of the wall, is a fine fourteenth-century flying-buttress. Projecting
northwards, but attached to the north-west angle, is a vertical
buttress of the same date as the flying one close to it.
On the west side, this part of the transept almost repeats what is to
be observed on the east; but the parapet here is the same as that on
the north end, and near the ground is one of the twelfth-century
windows. The arch-mould of its rounded head is the same in detail as
those in the priest-vicars' vestry and in the chamber above the
present library. It seems to be an example of that later work of the
twelfth century of which other specimens no doubt remained in the
walls of the lady-chapel before Bishop Gilbert transformed it into its
present state. Close to this window, and rising up just above the sill
of the clerestory windows, is a narrow, flat buttress, which is
probably of the same date as the window. Its upper half has an
attached shaft on each angle, with moulded bases and carved capitals
of the same period; but the weathering on its top appears to have been
changed in the thirteenth century.
Close by is the only part now remaining of the twelfth-century outer
wall of the nave aisle. The original corbel course of the parapet
remains, but not the upper part of the parapet. And it may be seen
here that the small windows that lighted the triforium gallery had
round arched heads in two orders, with a string-course at their sill.
Below this string is a thirteenth-century pointed window, with a
billet-moulded label cut in a twelfth-century manner of design.
[Illustration: THE CATHEDRAL FROM THE NORTH-EAST. _Photochrom Co.,
The north side of the nave retains the seven twelfth-century
clerestory windows, the one next to the transept having been rebuilt
after the fall of the central tower and spire in 1861. There are no
remains of later insertions, as on the south side. The parapet is
later in design than those to the choir and lady-chapel; but it is of
the same date as that on the south wall of the nave. In the five
eastern bays it is of two tiers. The upper projects beyond the lower,
and so widens the span between the north and south clerestory walls.
It has been suggested that this was done in order to straighten the
north wall, which in the twelfth century had been built so that it
bent inwards towards the south.
The weathered and channelled backs of five of the buttresses are the
same date as those south of the nave; but the easternmost one has a
flat raking back like those to the north and south of the choir and
presbytery. The four western buttresses had pinnacles with
spirelets--now destroyed. The western one was square, the other three
octagonal. All these are earlier in date than the fifth one from the
west, this last one being probably the same in date, as it is in
detail, as those on the south side. The sixth one finishes plainly
with a square top. It may once have had a pinnacle, but none now
The parapet to the aisle chapels in the four western bays is plain,
with a weathered coping and string-course in which is some carved work
of late fourteenth-century date. The gables between the buttresses are
gone, as is the case on the south side; but traces of their old
copings remain. The four large three-light windows are the same in
design and detail, and were no doubt executed when the chapels
themselves were built. They have traceried heads with early types of
cusping of about the same date as, or a little later than, the rose
window in the east gable; but they are certainly thirty or forty years
earlier than those of the lady-chapel. The north window of the chapel
in the fifth bay is a modern insertion of the same character as in the
south aisle chapels of the nave. It probably, like them, contained a
fifteenth-century window, which was removed to satisfy the taste which
thought the present substitute the better thing. The detail of the two
orders of its outer arch is earlier than that of the windows west of
it. Above the point of this window is a small circular one, with a
cusped treatment of perhaps the same date as the ones in the east end
of the chapels at the end of the aisles of the presbytery.
The #North Porch# has a pointed outer arch in two orders. The
abaci to the capitals are square; but now there are no shafts or bases
in the jambs. The sub-arches appear to be about the same date as the
transept vaulting, as they have the dogtooth ornament in their
mouldings. On the west face of the buttress, close by, is a double
niche in very bad repair; but as a specimen of work it is well worth
studying. The parvise chamber above this porch is not lighted except
by the small cuttings in the form of a cross which pierce the wall.
The new north-west tower, or its north front, has imitations of
twelfth-century work throughout, except in the case of the coupled
openings in the top stage, which are like the thirteenth-century work
at the same level in the south-west tower. The lower part of the
north-east buttress incorporates the remains of the original
twelfth-century flat buttressing.
The #Central Tower# and #Spire#, although they were rebuilt
again after the disaster in 1861, are as nearly as possible an exact
reproduction of the originals.
The tower rises out of the substructure where the roofs of the nave
and transept intersect. It is not square in plan, but has an axis from
east to west, longer than that from north to south. Below the
string-course, under the weathered sills of the arcaded openings in
the belfry stage, are, on the north, south, and west, small wall
arcades. At each angle there is a turret. Three of these are
octagonal, but that at the south-west is circular till it reaches the
string course below the parapet; and excepting those on the north-west
and south-west they are used as staircases. Each of the four sides is
pierced by two groups of coupled openings under superior arches, the
several moulded members of which rise in four receding orders from the
square abaci of the capitals of the angle shafts. The space between
the pointed heads of the sub-arches on the east and west faces is
pierced by quatrefoils; those on the west are different in design from
those on the east.
The parapet of the tower has features in its design which indicate
that the original one W been added to the earlier tower during the
fifteenth century. The octagonal terminations to the four turrets were
of the same character and date as the parapet.
[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd., photo._ THE DETACHED
The spire rises out of the supporting walls of the tower within the
parapet. It is a regular octagon in shape. Four octagonal pinnacles
are placed at its base next to each of the turrets of the tower; and
between these, on the other four faces of the spire, are tall stone
dormers, with carved crockets and finials on the copings of the
high-pitched gables. Above this group the spire is divided into three
sections by two bands of diaper-work cut out of the stone surfaces as
cusped quatrefoils; and from the base of the spire to its capstone
there is a projecting rib on each angle between the several faces of
The #Bell Tower#, which stands alone to the north of the cathedral,
is now the only one of its kind in England; and it is curious that in
two cases where these towers were found, as at Salisbury and at
Norwich, spires had been added to the central towers. The cathedral
bells have been hung in this tower since the fifteenth century. The
structure itself, with its massive walls, is square in plan at the
base, but at the top story it becomes an octagon, and the buttresses
on each angle terminate as pinnacles between the angles of the square
and four sides of the octagon.
[Illustration: THE NAVE, LOOKING WEST. _Photochrom Co., Ltd., photo.]
The #Nave# of Chichester, compared with that of other cathedrals,
possesses several peculiar characteristics. It has a beauty apart from
others in the quiet simplicity with which it has been designed. There
is an evident restraint, almost severity, to be felt in studying the
exquisite proportions of its parts. It does not exhibit the massive
force and strength of Durham; but the rigid power in the square piers
of the arcades is stern compared with the more subtle variations of
light and shade produced by the curved surfaces of the circular piers
either at Ely or Peterborough.
During the Reformation period the divisions between the several
chapels to the north and south of the nave were removed; and so since
that date Chichester has been the only cathedral in England which has
what may be called five aisles, and it is wider than any other,
excepting York, being ninety-one feet across.
The central space, or nave proper, is divided into eight bays
throughout its length. The vertical lines which mark these divisions
are the triple attached vaulting shafts. They support the transverse
ribs of the stone vault; and from their carved Purbeck marble capitals
spring also the wall and diagonal ribs. A Purbeck string-course in
each case separates the triforium gallery from the arcade below and
from the clerestory above.
[Illustration: THE NAVE, LOOKING EAST. _Photochrom Co., Ltd., photo_.]
The nave arcades have round arches. The fine stone facing of the piers
toward the nave, the small columns in the jambs, the vaulting shafts,
and the moulded outer member of the arches are all additions to the
twelfth-century structure. In the triforium, the round arch again
occurs with two smaller sub-arches of similar shape. In the nave these
were not altered after the second fire; but the clerestory above was
much changed in character. The central arch of the three remained
semicircular, but the side ones became pointed in place of the early
round arches. The detached columns, the jamb shafts, and the moulding
of the arches were all altered in detail; and the stone used was of
finer texture, like that with which the piers of the arcade below were
In the #South Aisle# there is a good view, which extends beyond the
transept into the small chapel of S. Mary Magdalen at the east end, in
which is the only really fine stained-glass window in the church. The
chapel aisle to the south of this, again, is interesting, in that it
still retains some signs of what purposes it served in former days.
The two western bays were originally the #chapel of S. George#.
Those to the east were dedicated as the #chapel of S. Clement#. In
each of these the old piscina and aumbry remain near where the altar
had been placed. The latter chapel has now been restored in memory of
Bishop Durnford (see page 121). Mr. G.F. Bodley, A.R.A., and Mr. T.
Garner were the architects who designed the new work. The old wall
arcade is now again used as part of the reredos. The figures under the
arches are--in the centre S. Clement, on the south S. Anselm, and on
the north S. Alphege. In the quatrefoils above are figures of two
angels bearing in their hands shields, on which are represented the
symbols of the Passion. Behind the altar, which is of oak, is a white
marble re-table. The deeply moulded arch which separates the two
vaulted bays of each of these chapels is carried by some very
beautiful carved capitals. Above them may be seen the square abaci
which are so much used in all the later work in the cathedral. They
are peculiarly a French characteristic, and serve to indicate the
relationship there was between the English and Continental schools of
Beyond this chapel is the doorway from the south porch, which gives
access to the west walk of the cloister.
The doorway on the right in the south aisle next to the entrance to
the south arm of the transept leads to the #Bishop's Consistory
Court# (or Langton's Chapter House), which is now a muniment-room.
The small chamber above the south porch is supposed to have been a
secret #Treasury#. It is approached through the muniment-room, and
has been popularly known as the "Lollard's Prison."
[Illustration: THE SOUTH AISLE FROM THE NAVE. _S.B. Bolas & Co.
The #North Aisle# is similar to that on the south side. Towards its
western end is the entrance door from the north porch.
The north chapel aisle was originally used as three separate chapels
until the divisions between them were removed. The two bays at the
west were the #chapel of S. Anne#; the two next east of this formed
the chapel of the Four Virgins, and the last bay was the small chapel
of SS. Thomas and Edmund. In the first named of these there may still
be seen, in the jambs, the capitals, and the arch-moulds of the
north-western window, some of the colour decoration of which so much
remained until the nineteenth century. The space in the north wall
shows where the aumbry used to be. The small remnants of the division
wall at the east are some slight indication of what the design of the
arcading on this wall was before it was destroyed. In the next chapel,
that of the #Four Virgins#, there is nothing to show where the
aumbry or the piscina was. But on the north 'the position of the
arcading on the east dividing wall remains. The #chapel of SS. Thomas
and Edmund# has an arcade on the east wall similar to that in the
chapel of S. Clement. The aumbry is on the north and the piscina on
the south side of the position which the altar used to occupy.
The #Rood-Screen# at the entrance to the choir from the nave was
erected in 1889, and is a memorial of Archdeacon Walker. It was
designed by Mr. T. Garner. At the point where the arms of the cross
meet is a figure representing the "Agnus Dei," and at the extremities
of the cross are carvings of the four-winged figures of the cherubim.
The #Pulpit# was designed by Sir Gilbert Scott, and is a memorial
of Dean Hook. It is very elaborately carved, and is made of Caen stone
and Purbeck marble. The four figures are intended to represent
Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.
The #Lectern# of brass was presented to the church as a memorial of
Richard Owen, of Chichester, by his daughter.
The #Font# under the south-western tower is a copy of an old one in
the church at Shoreham. It was the gift of Bishop Durnford, as a
memorial of his wife.
The #Monuments in the Nave# have in many cases suffered from bad
usage, and in most instances they do not now occupy their original
places in the building.
The canopied memorial to Bishop Durnford (1),  under which is a
recumbent effigy, forms part of the screen between S. Clement's
chapel and the south aisle of the nave. It was designed by Mr. Garner.
There are several tablets in the nave and aisles by Flaxman. The best
are those to the memory of Captain Cromwell's wife and daughter (2),
in S. Clement's chapel, and one on the north side of the nave, in the
chapel of the Four Virgins, as a memorial of Collins (3), the poet,
who was a native of Chichester. The two recumbent figures under the
arch leading into this same chapel are said to be those of Richard
Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel, and his wife (4). It was restored by
Richardson. Fitz-Alan was beheaded in 1397. Some say that these two
figures were removed from the chapel of the monastery of the Grey
Friars at the time of the Reformation, and were placed in their
present position in 1843, having been found embedded in the stonework
of the chapel wall close by. The base upon which the figures rest is
modern. The earl is represented in full armour. At his feet is a lion,
and at his head, under the helmet, is a coronet and a lion's head. At
the countess's feet is a dog, and her head rests upon two pillows.
 The figures in parenthesis refer to the numbers on the plan at
The most beautiful monument now remaining in the church is that which
is said to represent Maud, Countess of Arundel (1270) (5). The
modelling of the whole figure and the long flowing lines of her robes
are worthy of careful study. The whole pose and the disposition of the
two angels at the head arranging the pillows, with the two dogs upon
which her feet rest, have been finely conceived and well executed. The
hands are clasped over the breast, with the forearms bent upwards
slightly towards the face. On each of the long sides of the base
supporting the figure are six elongated quatrefoil panels, containing
in all six female figures and six shields. Between the quatrefoils are
winged heads of ten angelic figures. The blazoning of the shields is
entirely gone, and the brilliant colouring that once covered the
entire monument is only to be traced in a few places. The outer robe
still shows some signs of the rich blue with which it used to be
covered. The face of the figure appears to be badly mutilated, but the
damage to the features has been done principally by an endeavour to
preserve them. A thick coat of plaster had been placed over the face
to protect it from injury, perhaps in the seventeenth century or
earlier, and this was never completely removed. It had become
gradually polished like the material of the figure itself, and so it
remains, with a cut across it to represent a mouth. The remains of the
real face are still hidden beneath.
[Illustration: THE SACRISTY (SEE P. 90). _S.B. Bolas & Co. photo_.]
Close to this effigy, but in the aisle farther to the east, and on the
north wall, are two admirable memorial tablets which were designed in
the eighteenth century. One is in memory of Dean Hayley and his wife
(6), and the other in memory of Henry Baker and his wife and their
only child (7), who, by comparison with the other tablet, appears to
have been a second wife of the same Thomas Hayley.
Close to the porch in the south aisle is the only complete old brass
in the building (8). It is dated 1592, and records the fact that "Mr.
William Bradbridge" was "thrice Maior of this Cittie," and "had vi
sonnes & viii daughters." The other monuments in the nave are those of
Matthew Quantock, Dean Cloos, Bishop Arundel, and William Huskisson,
sometime member of Parliament for Chichester. One on the south side of
the west porch is Bishop Stephen de Berghstead's, and the other
opposite on the north is a work of the fifteenth century.
The #Choir and Sanctuary#--These are very different in appearance now
from what they were, as will be seen by reference to the chapter on
the history of the fabric.
The #Reredos# was designed by Messrs. Slater & Carpenter, and has
never been completed. It is generally considered that it is not at all
in keeping with the character of the building, and there is some hope
that it may be one day removed. The subject of the figure-work in the
panel is "The Ascension."
The #Altar# was presented by the late Mr. J.F. France, and is made
of oak. Some of the frontals are very elaborate examples of modern
The #Pavements# are composed of many specimens of various coloured
The #Stalls# are those which have been in use since the fourteenth
century. All the furniture of the choir had been removed for safety
before the fall of the tower and spire: but the bishop's throne (9)
and the stalls for the dean and precentor have been added since that
The #Candelabrum# which hangs from the vault was presented by Lady
Featherstonhaugh and two other ladies, in the eighteenth century.
The #Iron Grilles# which screen the eastern part of the choir from
the aisles are good examples of simple modern ironwork copied from old
examples; they were made in Chichester by Halsted & Sons.
[Illustration: THE MODERN ALTAR AND REREDOS.]
The #Organ# was placed on the north side of the choir after it
had been removed from its earlier position on the Arundel screen; and
in 1888, when it was largely remodelled, a new oak case was designed
for it. It was made originally by Harris in 1678, and had then only
one manual and no pedals; but between this date and the last
alteration, it had already been enlarged no less than at six different
As the choir stalls are immediately under the crossing, above which
rises the new central tower and spire, they are a convenient place
from which to examine the work of restoration. The new work represents
as nearly as possible all that was there before the collapse of the
old piers and arches.
In the #South Transept# the most important feature is the
beautifully designed stonework of the tracery in the south window; but
this may be seen better from the cloisters, as the crude vulgarity of
the bad painted glass makes it difficult to examine it from within the
The #Sacristy# (10), now used as a choir school and vestry, is a
large vaulted chamber, lighted on the south side by six small windows
(see page 87).
The #Chapel of S. Pantaleon# (11), on the east side of the
transept, still retains the old piscina in the south wall; but it is
used now as the vestry for the dean and canons.
The vaulting ribs in the part of the transept between this chapel and
the sacristy are carved like those in the last bay of the presbytery
next to the lady-chapel, and are of the same date. They appear to be
part of the work done during Bishop Gilbert Leophardo's episcopate.
The #Pictures# by Bernardi on the back of the choir stalls (see
illustration, p. 113) represent Ceadwalla and Henry VIII. granting and
confirming privileges to the bishops of their day. The portraits of
the bishops of the see from Wilfrid to Sherborne are in the north
The #South Aisle of the Choir# is entered from the south transept
under a deeply moulded arch. On the south is the priest-vicars' vestry
(12), and at the east end the #chapel of S. Mary Magdalen#. This
chapel was restored by Messrs. G.F. Bodley, A.R.A., and T. Garner,
architects, in memory of the Rev. T.F. Crosse, who was precentor and
canon of the cathedral. The aumbry in the north wall was the
receptacle in which S. Richard's head was preserved in a case of
silver. This is mentioned in William de Tenne's will. On the other
side is the old piscina. The paintings in the panels by Miss Lowndes
represent, on the north side (i) S. Richard celebrating the Eucharist
in S. Edmund's Chapel, (ii) the same bishop preaching, and (iii) his
death; on the south, (i) Mary anoints our Lord's Feet, (ii) The
Crucifixion, (iii) After the Resurrection. The carved and painted
reredos is of stone. Close to this chapel is the doorway into the
church from the east walk of the cloisters; in the spandrels of the
arches, both inside and outside, are the arms of William of Wykeham.
Above it is a window, the glass in which was given by Cardinal Manning
(when Archdeacon of Chichester) in memory of his wife.
[Illustration: THE TRIFORIUM IN THE CHOIR. _S.B. Bolas & Co., photo_.]
[Illustration. DECORATION ON THE VAULT OF THE LADY-CHAPEL, BY TH.
BERNARDI, 1519 (SEE P. 34). (Scale about 4 feet 10 ins. to 1 in).
_H.C. Corletle, delin_.]
The #Presbytery#, Ambulatory, or retro-choir, is the space between
the back of the reredos and the entrance to the lady-chapel. The
design in detail of these two bays is very different in character from
the three in the choir, which are like those in the nave. The two
piers of Purbeck marble are circular, and about them are grouped four
detached shafts of the same material. They are united only at the base
and by the abacus above the capitals, which are beautifully carved
(see page 16). The main arches in the two bays are not pointed, but
round, like those in the nave and choir; but, unlike the latter, they
have deeply cut mouldings in three orders. The triforium arcade above,
on the north and south sides, has moulded and carved details of a
similar character. Some of the beautifully carved figure-work still
remains in the spandrels between the subsidiary pointed arches. But
the most beautiful piece of design in all this work is in the arches
of the triforium passage across the east wall, above the entrance to
[Illustration: THE PRESBYTERY OR RETRO-CHOIR, LOOKING NORTH-EAST.]
It should be noticed that the sub-arches in the triforium here are
pointed, not round, as in the case of those in the same position
westward of this portion. And the support to these arches in the
centre, is a group of shafts instead of only one column. The
clerestory, however, offers a greater contrast to the earlier work in
that the central arch, as well as the side ones, is lifted up much
higher, the detached columns being lengthened to obtain the
alteration. Each arch also, at this level, is now pointed.
S. Richard's shrine occupied the bay in the presbytery immediately
behind the High Altar. It stood upon a platform which was approached
on its eastern side by steps, and was enclosed by iron grilles. The
platform was removed at the time of the general restoration in
1861-1867, and upon it used to stand also the tombs of Bishop Day and
Bishop Christopherson or Curteys.
The #Lady-Chapel#, as its walls and vaulting clearly show, was once
completely decorated with designs in colour. The windows now are the
only parts that indicate an attempt to renew this portion of its
earlier condition. The new reredos is of alabaster, and was designed
by Messrs Carpenter & Ingelow.
The #North Choir Aisle# contains some monuments which are referred
to separately. The now unused chapel at its eastern end was dedicated
to S. Catharine.
The #Library# is approached through a doorway in this aisle. There
is a chamber above in which was the library of pre-Reformation days.
The present library formed the chapel of S. John the Baptist and S.
Edmund the King (13) until it became the chancel of the parish church
of S. Peter the Great, the north transept being used as its nave. Part
of the vaulting in it is unlike any other in the building, having the
chevron or zigzag ornament cut on the side of the mouldings of the
ribs (see page 98).
[Illustration: THE LADY-CHAPEL.]
The library collection contains many relics of various kinds: among
them are Oslac's grant of land to the church at Selsea, A.D. 780; a
manuscript of the twelfth century; Cranmer's copy of the "Consultatio"
of Herman of Cologne; an old Sarum missal; the sealed book of Charles
II.; fragments of ecclesiastical vessels; and a leaden "Absolution" of
Bishop Godfrey dating from the eleventh century.
The #North Transept# has on its west side two of the old
twelfth-century round-arched windows, and opposite are the two large
round-arched openings into the library and the chamber above it. The
vaulting of this transept is not the same in detail as that to the
south of the choir, and is rather earlier in the type of its
mouldings. Close by the south springing of the arch leading to the
library is one of the few pieces of figure-carving in the church. It
is a head full of vigour and character.
The #Monuments in the Transepts and Choir# have been injured and
restored or removed at various times. The large one (14) under the
south window is Langton's tomb and effigy (d. 1336). The new one
nearest to the singing school is a memorial and effigy of Mr. John
Abel Smith, of Dale Park, who represented Chichester in the House of
Commons. On the east wall is another tomb of Tudor date (15), with
niches for sculpture. The tomb next to the back of the choir-stalls
(16) is that of Bishop Richard de la Wych. The two panels in relief
(17), in the south aisle of the choir are works of about the twelfth
century (see page 105). It is supposed that originally they were
brought to Chichester from Selsea. They were discovered in 1829 hidden
in the wall behind the woodwork of the stalls in the choir, and were
subsequently placed in their present position. The subject of the one
nearest to the transept is the "Raising of Lazarus," and of the other,
"Our Lord with Mary and Martha at Bethany." These are two of the most
interesting relics of earlier days that remain in the cathedral.
Historically and artistically, they are of much value, but at present
no more than has been stated is known about them. Bishop Sherborne's
monument (18) was built during his lifetime, and at his death he
provided for its care by New College, of which he had been a fellow.
It is still well cared for; but with its original decorations it must
have been a very beautiful object.
[Illustration: THE NORTH CHOIR AISLE, LOOKING WEST. _S.B. Bolas & Co.,
Dean Hook, who died in 1875, is commemorated by a monument (19)
opposite Sherborne's. It was designed by Sir Gilbert Scott, and, like
the pavements of the choir, it has in its composition many specimens
of coloured marbles. Much of the detail is executed in mosaic. Under
the arch of the presbytery arcade nearest to the reredos, on the south
side, is Bishop Day's tomb (20). On the south side of the
lady-chapel, close to the entrance, are the memorial slabs of two
early bishops, perhaps Hilary and John de Greneford, beneath the arch
where Bishop Gilbert's effigy was placed. On the opposite side is a
space under an arch in which may be traced the lines of some
decoration which once ornamented some memorial. Upon the floor below
is the memorial of Bishop Ralph (21), the builder of the first
portions of the cathedral. Close by is a large wall tablet in memory
of Bishop Thomas Bickley. It is a design of the seventeenth-century
period, and is interesting of its kind. Under the arch on the north
side of the presbytery, opposite Day's tomb, is that of Bishop
Christopherson or Curteys (22), and against the wall of the aisle near
the chapel of S. Catharine is a curious marble slab with some carving
upon it. It represents two hands, with parts of the arms, supporting a
heart, and the full inscription, now almost gone, was "ICY GIST LE
COEUR DE MAUDDE" ("Here lies the heart of Maud"). It is evidently work
of an early date, but nothing is accurately known of its history,
though it has been assumed that it was made in the twelfth or
thirteenth century (23). To the west of this is a bust of Bishop Otter
(24). In an arched recess in the wall nearer to the library is the
tomb and effigy of Bishop Storey (25). Close to this are two memorials
of the sixteenth century. On the west side of the north transept are
the monuments of Bishops Henry King, Carleton, and Grove.
[Illustration: THE LIBRARY. _S.B. Bolas & Co., photo_.]
The #Stained Glass# in the cathedral is all modern, and most of it
is of the worst possible kind. It is bad in design and crude in
colour, and much of it is not really stained glass at all, but a
painted substitute. The only really good window in the building is
that at the east end of the south choir aisle in S. Mary Magdalen's
chapel. It was designed by Mr. C.E. Kempe. The glass in the
lady-chapel windows is better than most of the rest, and it is
admitted that the worst glass that was ever placed in any cathedral
church by a generous munificence is that which is now in the large
window of the south transept.
[Illustration: THE TOWN CROSS. Built by Bishop Storey, _c_. 1500.
_Photochrom Co., Ltd., photo_.]
THE DIOCESE AND SEE.
To trace the history of the establishment of the city of Chichester we
need go back to the time when the Romans had occupied the same site
under the ancient name of Regnum. They had fortified themselves in
this position, and evidence of their occupation is to be found to-day
in the subdivision of the city into four parts by those streets which
meet at the Market Cross. But as the centre of the Imperial fabric
became weaker the dependencies were abandoned, and the Roman legions
recalled early in the fifth century. So when in 477 A.D. "came Aelle
to Britain, and his three sons, Cymen, Wlencing, and Cissa, with three
ships," and landed at "the place which is named Cymenesora, and there
slew many Welsh, and drove some into the forest which is named
Andredslea," there were no Roman soldiers to oppose them.
In this brief sentence, quoted from the Anglo-Saxon chronicle, there
is a reference to several interesting matters which concern the later
history of the South Saxons, their acceptance of Christianity, and the
foundation of that Church--first at Selsea, then at Chichester--which
was to be the future local centre to support and foster the faith they
for so long rejected. The Jute leaders, Hengest and Horsa, had
established themselves on British soil in 449 A.D. This was
twenty-eight years before Aelle arrived, and with his followers "slew
many Welsh"; that is, the British natives, the Wealas, or strangers,
whom he found in possession of the land. The place "named Cymenesora,"
at which Aelle had landed, was close to Wittering, at the mouth of
Chichester harbour. And the chronicle, relating what had occurred
thirteen years later, records how "in this year (490-1) Aelle and
Cissa besieged Andredes ceaster, and slew all that dwelt therein, so
that not even one Briton was left." This fortress of Anderida, which
had been a Roman _castrum_, occupied the spot now called Pevensey, the
landing-place of a later conqueror, the Norman William, in 1066. It
guarded on the east the strip of land between the South Downs and the
sea; and when it fell before them, the Saxons became masters of the
region to the north known then as Andredeslea, or Andredeswold, the
forest or weald of Anderida. To the west was Regnum, Cissa's Ceaster,
or Chichester, another of those fortresses which the provident and
energetic Romans had established along the South Coast.
One of Aelle's followers, named Boso, or Bosa, settled at the head of
a branch of Chichester harbour, and, as in the case of his superior,
Cymen, the place was named after him, as Bosenham, or Bosham. This was
in the fifth century. Augustine began his work in Kent late in the
sixth century, and Birinus, who was sent independently direct from
Rome, had undertaken the conversion of the West Saxons fifteen years
before the middle of the succeeding century. But neither by these
missionaries nor their brethren was the territory of the South Saxons
The West Saxons, by conquest, extended their rule westward and
northward, and missionary enterprise followed the course of military
success and subsequent civil protection. The original British
occupiers of the land withdrew to Wales, or else became subject to the
conquerors. Similar had been the course of events which followed the
taking of Kent by the Jutes. So when Augustine arrived he was welcomed
by Aethelberht, whose wife Bertha, a Frankish princess, was already a
Augustine having founded the see of Canterbury, was soon enabled, by
the help of political and social influence, to effect the
establishment of other sees. Rochester, London, and York were soon
centres of activity; but these neighbour principalities had not,
ecclesiastically, affected the territories that were close to their
respective domains; for the kingdom of the South Saxons remained,
nearly two centuries after Aelle's conquest, in the same heathen
condition as prevailed in his day.
Bede relates that at Bosham, Dicul had founded a monastery where,
"surrounded by woods and water, lived five or six brethren, serving
the Lord in humility and poverty." But "no one cared to emulate their
life, or listen to their teaching." Dicul came from Ireland, and it is
supposed that he had been educated in the monastic centre of
missionary life which in the sixth century had been founded there. It
is not, however, known how these few men found their way to the South
Saxon shores, and their presence there had no influence upon the minds
of those invaders who had possessed themselves of the adjacent lands.
A quarrel in the Northumbrian kingdom was the cause which sent a
missionary to Sussex in 680 A.D.
Ecgfrith and his witan had banished #Wilfrith#, Archbishop of York,
from his see. The unfortunate exile wandered some time in search of
welcome. Eventually he found his way to Sussex, where Aethelwealh and
his Christian wife offered him a new field for his energies. Twenty
years earlier he had been in the same kingdom. On that occasion,
having been consecrated by the Bishop of Paris, he was returning from
Gaul when the vessel in which he travelled was driven upon the coast
and stranded. While in this helpless condition they were discovered
and attacked by the South Saxons, who were three times beaten off, but
whilst they were continuing their preparations for another assault,
the vessel rose with the tide and escaped. Under other circumstances
he was now among these people again. The famine which prevailed at the
time of his arrival gave him the necessary opportunity to gain their
affections by first satisfying their material needs. He showed the
starving folk how to catch fish with nets which he and his companions
had made, and then was able to teach them other things. He preached
with success for some time, and baptized many who heard him. Bede has
left a record characteristic of his day, in which he relates that
immediately they had accepted the faith which he taught, "the rain, so
long withheld, revisited the thirsty land."
Aethelwealh, grateful for Wilfrith's aid, granted him lands at Selsea.
The bishop at once gave freedom to those families and their slaves who
occupied the district, and baptized them, giving them release, as Bede
has told, from spiritual and temporal bond's at the same time. Selsea
thus became another see from which Christian principle and practice
might be taught in the midst of the surrounding tribes. In this spot,
near the residence of the king, a church was built, in which the
bishop's cathedra was placed. The structure was dedicated to S. Peter,
and was the first cathedral church in Sussex. It is not now known what
the architectural character of this building was. Perhaps there was
some attempt in its design to take advantage of such suggestions as
the Romans left behind them at Regnum, for we find in early instances
of English architecture that such examples had exercised some
influence upon the elementary efforts of those days. But it is more
likely that his first church was nothing but a small and simple barn,
for men were not then burdened with the idea that a cathedral must be
a big church, provided it served as a centre from which the bishop
could use his pastoral responsibility. During Wilfrith's stay at
Selsea many changes took place.
Then Ceadwalla, who had defeated Aedilwalch, or Aethelwealh, confirmed
the grants to the Church made by his predecessor, in return for the
kindness he had received from Wilfrith some time before.
Under their new head the missionaries at Selsea undertook, with the
king's sanction, to convert those who inhabited the neighbouring
island of Wight and also parts of the mainland which now were subject
to the new ruler. But after five years in the south Wilfrith returned
to his old diocese of York. Sussex, to a large extent, had accepted
the faith he endeavoured to teach, and many churches were established
and organised before his departure.
[Illustrations: OUR LORD WITH MARTHA AND MARY. THE RAISING OF LAZARUS.
SCULPTURED PANELS IN THE SOUTH CHOIR AISLE, SUPPOSED TO HAVE BEEN
BROUGHT FROM THE CATHEDRAL AT SELSEA (SEE P. 96).]
For some years after Wilfrith had returned to York there was no bishop
in charge of the newly founded diocese in Sussex. The community of
workers he had brought together at Selsea still continued to exist;
but Sussex in ecclesiastical affairs was subject to Winchester during
this interval. Ceadwalla, when Kentwine, King of Wessex, died in 685,
had begun "to strive for the kingdom," so the chronicle has recorded,
and having established himself upon the throne, he succeeded also in
conquering the ruler of Sussex, and so brought both kingdoms under his
sway. Wilfrith had converted him to the Christian faith; but when this
prelate was recalled to his former diocese, no one had been appointed
to carry on the work he had begun. For twenty years this vacancy
continued. Then, after the death of Ceadwalla, Ine, his successor,
divided the large diocese, which was subject to the Bishop of
Winchester, by making, with the consent of his witan, a new see at
Sherburne and reviving that of Selsea. Of this latter, #Eadberht#
was appointed the first bishop in the year 709. The community in
Selsea over which Eadberht had presided before his consecration was a
secular foundation. Whatever was the principle upon which it had been
founded, there seems no doubt that during the interim which elapsed
before a bishop was placed in charge some elementary form of
government was carried on by a succession of elected presidents. This
body was either composed of secular clergy, who were distributed
throughout the diocese, living as priests in charge of parishes _in
saeculo_, or it was a foundation supported by those who lived according
to a _regula_. The regulars were those who lived together, having
vowed obedience to some particular form of rule. These were unmarried
men, who used one building, property, refectory, and dormitory of the
institution in common. Not all of these were ordained, as there were
among them lay brothers as well as those who were priests. But the
seculars--those in the world--were not subject to rules and conditions
such as these. Many, as priests living in their parishes, were married
After the consecration of Eadberht and his installation as Bishop of
Selsea, the cathedra, or episcopal chair, was occupied successively by
twenty prelates. The period during which these held office, including
the few intervals when for a time the see remained vacant, extended
over about three hundred and seventy years. Little is known of these
bishops further than that their signatures are to be found attached to
various charters. These were all called Bishops of the South Saxons.
#Aethelgar# was Bishop of Selsea in 980. He had been a member of
the monastic colony at Glastonbury, near Wells. After occupying the
see for about eight years, he succeeded Dunstan as Archbishop of
Bishops #Ordberht# and #Aelmer# were bishops after Aethelgar;
and then the next prelate of importance was #Aethelric#, who was a
Benedictine of Christ Church, Canterbury. He was learned in the
ancient laws and customs of his country, and when a very old man acted
as one of the arbitrators appointed to settle the differences which
had arisen between Lanfranc and Odo, Earl of Kent. Aethelric had been
consecrated by Stigand, Archbishop of Canterbury, who was removed from
the Primacy by William the Conqueror to make room for Lanfranc, his
The see of Selsea was governed by three other bishops till William
appointed one of his chaplains to the office. This was #Stigand#
(1070-1087), but not that Stigand (the Primate) who at the same royal
bidding had to make room for Lanfranc. It was while he was still an
occupant of the see that the transfer to Chichester was effected. He
earned the displeasure of the king by refusing to consecrate Gausbert
to the Abbey of Battle unless the monk would come to Chichester for
the ceremony. He had some trouble, too, with his metropolitan,
Lanfranc, on account of a dispute concerning the limits of his
jurisdiction. Certain parishes within the territory of his diocese
were claimed as subject to the more eastern see. The Primate
established his right to these "peculiars," and the right obtained
until the last century, when all such holdings were abolished by law.
#Godfrey# (1087-1088) evidently incurred the displeasure of his
papal superior, as the only known record of his very brief episcopate
is represented by a discovery which was made in 1830 when an
absolution from the Pope, inscribed upon a leaden cross, was dug up in
the paradise close to the south choir aisle.
It was not till three years had elapsed since Godfrey's death that
#Ralph de Luffa# (1091-1123) was consecrated to the vacancy by
Thomas, Archbishop of York. Meanwhile the king enjoyed the
temporalities of the see. In his person we meet a figure of much
importance to the history of the fabric and see, for to his energy and
initiative we owe the greater part of the cathedral building that
Ralph's activity was not wholly absorbed by his interest in the
architectural idea which he hoped to realise. He spent much time and
care attending to the needs of the churches of which he was the
overseer. He visited them regularly three times in the year for the
purpose of effecting reforms when they were necessary, for teaching,
and for developing the organisation of the diocese as it was affected
by the condition of each parochial unit. Thus by his office and
oversight he was endeavouring to maintain the necessary relations
between the particular churches and their cathedral centre. In defence
of these same members of the local and general ecclesiastical body he
was obliged to resent the attempted interference of two kings of the
realm. Henry I. wished to fill his pockets by imposing fines upon the
clergy. To oppose this the bishop closed all the churches in the
diocese and blocked up the entrances with thorns; and so, except in
the monasteries, the offering of public worship ceased. The
restriction was in time removed, and the king acknowledged the
bishop's plea that he should endeavour to replenish the coffers of his
poor see, so that the injured cathedral might be repaired, rather than
reduce it to poverty by extortion.
Ralph is credited with having established the office of "dean"  at
Chichester--the first of the four cathedral dignitaries, of which the
others are the praecentor, the chancellor, and the treasurer.
 Stephens, p. 49.
#Seffrid Pelochin#, or #d'Escures# (1125-1147), ceded to the
king's aggression the rights and privileges Ralph had gained. He was
obliged to vacate the see in 1145, [an]d returned to Glastonbury,
where he had been abbot before he was made bishop. His name figures in
the list which Roger of Hoveden gives in his chronicle, as one among
the bishops who were at the Council of London in 1129.
#Hilary# (1147-1169) was a bishop who was before all things an
ecclesiastic. To Ralph Luffa's foundation of the dean's office he
added those of the chancellor and treasurer, if not also, as is
supposed, that of the praecentor. With Hilary began the traditional
post of confessor to the queen of the realm. Stephen had given him
this office, and at the same time added to the privilege a perpetual
chaplaincy in connection with the castle at Pevensey.
The letters from Popes Eugenius and Alexander III., which confirmed
the possessions held by the see and guaranteed a papal protection of
the church in Chichester, are among the collection in the cathedral
library. The properties these deeds acknowledge include that portion
of the city--one fourth--in which the close was situated; and within
this area were comprised the church itself, the episcopal palace, and
the residences of the canons. The original grant of this land was
made by William, Earl of Arundel, in 1147, who bestowed it among other
things as compensation "for the damages which I once did to the same
church." Hilary was Bishop of Chichester during that historic period
when Becket opposed Henry II. He attempted, like the rest of the
bishops, to heal the breach; and Tennyson, in "Becket," adopting a
phrase he used, makes him say to his Primate, "Hath not thine ambition
set the Church this day between the hammer and the anvil ... fealty to
the King, obedience to thyself?" He went to Sens, to plead as an
advocate on the king's behalf before Pope Alexander III. and the
French king. The result of this meeting was that England was placed
under the ban of excommunication. But Henry replied by declaring that
the property of all who acted upon it should be confiscated and
themselves banished. The bishop was involved also in a local contest
with the Abbot of Battle, who refused to consider himself subject to
his episcopal jurisdiction.
After Hilary's death in 1169 the revenues of the see were for four
years appropriated to his own uses by the king, who late in the year
1173 appointed #John Greenford# (1174-1180), who was Dean of
Chichester, to the vacancy. The bishop-elect was not consecrated
until, in 1174, he, with three more nominated about the same time, had
done penance before Becket's tomb at Canterbury. Little is known of
him except that he attended some ecclesiastical councils.
The episcopate of #Seffrid II.# (1180-1204) introduces an important
period of activity, during which great alterations were made in the
fabric of the cathedral.
#Simon Fitz Robert#, or #Simon of Wells# (1204-1207), was a
bishop whose favour with the king (John) enabled him to do much for
the see. He had held a post in the Royal Exchequer, and had been
guardian of the Fleet Prison as well as Provost of Beverley and
Archdeacon of Wells. The benefactions he obtained were various. A
charter was granted by which the see should hold its property free
from impost, under the protection of the king. The bishop, with his
dean and chapter, were practically exempted from the jurisdiction of
the local civil courts and from the payment of customs and tolls
within the same sphere. Within the bounds of the property owned by
the see they were to rule without restraint, and in the presence of a
royal official "the view of Frank Pledge was to be held in the
bishop's court." In the patent rolls of King John there are two
entries, dated 1205 A.D. and 1206 A.D., by which the bishop was
granted permission to take Purbeck marble for the repair of his church
without hindrance, from the coast of Dorset to Chichester.  But
precautions were taken to prevent any of the material thus obtained
from being used elsewhere. A further grant, the evidence of which is
now removed, allowed the chapter to build premises beyond the
precincts northward, which encroached twelve feet into the roadway now
known as West Street. A row of lime-trees now stands where these
houses remained till the middle of the last century. For six years
after Simon's death John kept the see vacant, and during the interim
enjoyed the temporalities.
 See Walcott, p. 15, note _c_, May 24th, 1207.
#Richard Poore# was then consecrated bishop in 1215. He had been
Dean of Old Sarum. But after occupying the see for no more than two
years, he was translated to Salisbury.
#Ranulf of Warham# (1217-1224) bequeathed some property to the
see ; but otherwise he did little, except as a fortunate collector
of cattle, for the support of which his successor provided pasturage.
 Stephens, p. 57.
#Ralph Neville# (1224-1244) was a bishop of more than local
celebrity. Like Langton, the archbishop, he withstood the demands
which the papacy and Henry III. made in their endeavours to impoverish
the Church in England. For this opposition the king removed him
temporarily from the post of Chancellor of the Realm, a position he
held from 1226 to 1240. His "fame rests more upon his repute as a
statesman faithful in many perils, and a singular pillar of truth in
the affairs of the kingdom."  He succeeded in procuring the payment
to the Church of tithe from some royal properties which had been
withheld, and left provision for the supply of twelve quarters of
wheat annually to the poor in Chichester. Some, notes preserved in the
cathedral records lead to the supposition that the portion of the old
central tower above the roof and up to the parapet at the foot of the
spire was built, or at least begun, during Ralph's tenure of the see.
One of these memoranda shows that he released from twenty days'
penance those who should visit the cathedral and contribute to the
maintenance of the fabric. The others state that he expended one
hundred and thirty marks upon repairs, and his executors paid over one
hundred and forty marks to the dean and chapter for the purpose of
finishing a stone tower which it had been found necessary to
repair.  Three years after his death it was nearly completed.
Bishop Neville died at his house by Chancellor's Lane, now Chancery
Lane. His property later passed into the hands of the Earl of Lincoln,
and was known then as the inn, or hospital, of Lincoln. The estate is
now covered by the buildings of Lincoln's Inn,  and that portion
which is still the property of the see is known as "The Chichester
 Matt. Paris.
 See Walcott, p. 15, note _c_.
 See Stephens, p. 61, cf. Murray's "Chichester."
Ralph's successor was Richard of Wych (1245-1253), generally called
St. Richard. He had studied under Edmund and Grosseteste at Oxford,
and also in Paris and Bologna. Returning from Europe, he became
Chancellor of the University of Oxford, then of the diocese of
Canterbury. Having withdrawn again to France, he was ordained priest
at Orleans, and then worked as vicar at Deal, from which post he was
called upon to occupy again his earlier office at Canterbury. Then
came his appointment to Chichester. The canons had elected Robert
Passelew, but the archbishop objected. Henry III., having supported
the first nominee, disputed Richard's election. Meanwhile the king
appropriated the temporalities for two years. Richard appealed to
Innocent IV., who confirmed the appointment and consecrated Richard at
Lyons in 1245. This did not end the difference, for on the new
bishop's return he was obliged to accept the hospitality of his
clergy, the king being still hostile. But he did not allow these
difficulties to interfere with his attention to episcopal duty, for he
walked throughout the diocese, organising and teaching as he went. In
his leisure he followed the pursuits of his youth, and spent his spare
time in farming and gardening. He was an excellent man, whose peculiar
sanctity rests largely upon his having succeeded in doing the duties
some of his predecessors had disregarded, and for a generosity which
outran his income. Accepting that law which the papacy had added to
those of Christianity, he treated the married clergy with the severity
his sense of duty and obedience urged, for he deprived them of their
benefices, and their wives were denied the offices of the Church both
before and after death. Any bequests to them by their husbands, he
declared, should be confiscated, and the funds derived by this means
devoted to the needs of the cathedral building Rather inconsistently
he taught the beneficed clergy that they should use hospitality and
charity; but like another Malachi, he reminded men that to withhold
the tithe of their increase from the Church made them robbers not of
the clergy, but of their Creator. He instituted the fund afterwards
known as "S. Richard's Pence." It was a system by which regular
offerings should be made for the completion and maintenance of the
cathedral fabric. And, characteristically, he obtained the support of
the archbishop and seven other prelates in their approval of his wish
that they should "recommend visits and offerings to Chichester, for
the repair and completion of the cathedral." This is another evidence
of the great extent of those building operations that were in progress
throughout the thirteenth century. Just before his death he began to
preach a crusade, but died at Dover. In his will he still remembered
the cathedral by leaving a legacy of forty pounds for the needs of the
#John of Clymping# (1253-1262) succeeded Richard. His episcopate
appears chiefly remarkable for the growth of stories about the
miraculous powers and saintly life of his predecessor.
#Stephen of Berghsted# (1262-1288) now occupied the see. During his
episcopate Richard was canonised, a deputation, sent at great cost to
Rome, having succeeded in persuading Urban IV. that his merits and
fame deserved an honour which should bring wealth and celebrity to the
see in whose cathedral his body was laid; so in 1276 the remains of
his body were removed from their tomb and placed at the back of the
high altar in a shrine, or feretory, dedicated to him.
[Illustration: TOMB ASSIGNED TO BISHOP RICHARD OF WYCH, AND PICTURES
ORIGINALLY BY BERNARDI. _Photochrom Co. Ltd., photo_.]
#Gilbert de Sancto Leophardo# (1288-1305) was a bishop who, like S.
Richard, devoted himself to his diocesan duties with a singleminded
purpose which was not a common virtue with all mediaeval prelates. He
endeavoured to regulate the habits of those clergy who accepted their
privileges but were inclined to neglect the duties and
responsibilities these involved. His interest in the fabric of the
cathedral was expressed principally by the additions that were made to
the lady-chapel during his episcopate.
#John Langton# (1305-1337) took a conspicuous part in the
suppression of the knights templars during the reign of Edward II. in
obedience to the papal order regarding them. He was Chancellor of the
Realm before his elevation to the episcopate, and showed his energy as
a statesman locally by commanding the restoration of rights to some
vicars of the cathedral who had been suspended in accordance with the
provisions of certain statutes which the dean and chapter made without
his consent. Like Bishop Gilbert, he was an instrument by whose
sanction more changes were made in the building.
#Robert of Stratford# (1337-1362), another statesman bishop,
succeeded Langton. He had also been chancellor, and asserted his
episcopal authority as sternly as his predecessor.
Of #William of Lynn# (1362-1368) and his episcopacy little record
#William Rede# (1369-1385) earned some repute as a scholar, and was
the founder of Merton College Library in Oxford, and it is to him that
the diocese is indebted for the preservation of the early records
relating to the see. Nothing of importance is known of the next three
#Thomas Rushoke# (1385-1389).
#Richard Metford# (1389-1395).
#Robert Waldby# (1395-1396).
#Robert Rede# (1397-1415), whose register is the earliest among
those that remain, occupied the see during the reign of Henry IV. This
record contains many interesting details concerning the part its
compiler took in the endeavour to suppress the doctrines of Wycliffe
and the Lollards; and it also shows that much disorder prevailed among
the canons and vicars of the cathedral. One of the canons, besides
stealing money from the treasury, appropriated for his private use
some materials which had been intended for the repair of the church.
Rectors of parishes allowed their cures to fall into a state of
destitution, and left them to the care of poorly paid vicars while
they themselves resided elsewhere. The see was not filled for two
years after the death of Rede. Then followed in succession:
#Stephen Patryngton# (1417).
#Henry Ware# (1418).
#John Kemp# (1421).
#Thomas Poldon# (1421).
#John Rickingale# (1426).
#Simon Sydenham# (1429).
No registers remain relating to the affairs of the episcopate during
the twenty years covered by their occupation of the see.
In the register left by #Richard Praty# (1438-1446) there is
evidence that many of the negligences censured by Bishop Rede were
still without correction. The discipline of the monastic houses in
Sussex is represented as having become very lax.
#Adam Moleyns#, or #Molyneux# (1446-1450), was instrumental in
arranging the marriage of Henry VI. with Margaret of Anjou. Many
concessions were granted to him by the king for the benefit of himself
and the diocese, but having become unpopular he was murdered by some
sailors in Portsmouth early in 1450 when on his way to France.
#Reginald Pecock# (1450-1459), "being convicted of heresy, he
resigned his bishopric," so say the records of the cathedral.
#John Arundel# (1459-1478). The record of his episcopal
administration has been lost; but it is known that he built the screen
named after him. He appears, however, to have been much less restless
than his predecessor.
#Edward Storey# (1478-1503) has left in his register full accounts
of his deeds and the condition of the diocese. It shows the latter had
again become very disordered. Both the regular and secular bodies are
charged with abusing the trust committed to them. Bishop Storey tried
to correct this state of things. He proved his usefulness, otherwise,
by the foundation of the Prebendal, or Free Grammar-School, in
Chichester, and also by giving the Market Cross to the city for the
benefit of the poor.
Of #Richard Fitz-James# (1503-1508) and his administration there
is but little information.
With #Robert Sherburne# (1508-1536) we come to the close of a long
period of ecclesiastical history--one during which the distinctly
Christian, as opposed to the pagan, principles and forms of art had
been developed. As bishop at Chichester he represented the Church and
those principles which then in the west were taught in her name.
Accordingly he protested against "the King's most dreadful commandment
concerning (with other things) the uniting of the Supreme head of the
Church of [? in] England with the Imperial Crown of this realm; and
also the abolishing and secluding out of this realm the enormities and
abuses of the Bishop of Rome's authority, usurped within the same." He
wrote thus in 1534 to Cromwell. And obeying this command from the
civil authority, he caused these orders to be published throughout the
diocese. As a subject he obeyed his king; but, being honest, he could
not as a bishop and a man disregard his principles when he found such
obedience involved their denial. Consequently he resigned the see in
#Richard Sampson# (1536-1543) took part in the Reformation
movement. Although he had defended the principle that the king was to
be considered "high governor under God, and Supreme head of the Church
of England," his principles appear to have been easily affected by the
political weather that prevailed. His attitude in favour of every
principle involved in the acceptance of the papacy appears in the
support he gave to doctrines which had been rejected by the party of
reform. He no doubt feared the results that might follow upon another
attempt to adapt the Church's constitution to changed conditions.
In the time of #George Daye# (1543-1552) the pendulum moved again
across the face of the political and ecclesiastical clock. He was a
man whose convictions led him to support those same six articles which
had been upheld by Bishop Sampson; and he attempted to prevent the
introduction of the first prayer-book of Edward VI. in 1549, as well
as the destruction of the earlier service-books in the following year.
He was a man to be respected, for in the face of general opposition he
proved that his convictions on important affairs were not ready to
change at the sudden bidding of a new authority which he was unable to
recognise. As he was not to be persuaded that his position was wrong,
he was removed from the see towards the end of the year 1551. But we
meet him again presently, for Bishop #John Scory# (1552-1554), who
took his place, retired soon after Mary's accession. Bishop Daye came
back to favour, preached at the coronation, reoccupied the see, and
was now "a mighty busy man."  He caused some recent orders to be
reversed by reviving the use of the earlier forms of liturgy,
restoring the older ceremonial, and again setting up those altars in
the churches which should never have been broken down. In his own
words Daye "styeked" not at things trivial; but he would not assent to
the abolition of essentials, however much they had been misused or
become offensive in the eyes of untutored civil dignitaries and their
party followers. Daye on his restoration had attempted to remove
reformers and their opinions from the diocese by the aid of faggots
and flames. But #John Christopherson# (1557-1559) was more
energetic in upholding his authority and ideas by this same means; for
Mary, though she would revive the papal supremacy, yet retained in her
own hands the ecclesiastical position which the Throne in England had
 Strype, quoted by Dean Stephens, p. 190.
At the close of Mary's reign Bishop Christopherson died, and in his
place Elizabeth put #William Barlow# (1559-1568), who had been
removed from the see of Bath and Wells by her predecessor. He made
some attempt to remove a variety of irregularities which had been
introduced since the death of Sherburne, for the services of the
Church had become much disordered in consequence of the many changes
of attitude which had been favoured by the rulers, both civil and
ecclesiastical, during nearly thirty years. Barlow's endeavour to
bring this chaos to a new order was in accord with the methods of
those who sought reform. He tried to carry out the injunction of
Parker, the Primate, whose aim was to "reduce all to a Godly
uniformitie." But any desire for unity in diversity was not likely to
be satisfied unless it was sought for with at least some unanimity of
hope and aim. After his death the see remained vacant for two years.
#Richard Curteys# (1570-1583) found the revenues of his see so
reduced that he was unable properly to fulfil the ordinary obligations
of his position. He did not spare himself in his endeavour to do the
duties he had undertaken. With the assistance of others he
methodically instructed the diocese under his charge, an well was
this done that a contemporary said "the people with ardent zeale,
wonderful rejoicinge, and in great number, take farre and long
journeys to be partakers of his good and godly lessons." This
excellent man, however, owing to the political spoliation of the
church, died impoverished in 1583.
 Kennett's Notes: see Stephens' "Diocesan History of Chichester,"
From 1583 till 1585 no bishop was appointed, but in the latter year
#Thomas Bickley# (1585-1596) was selected.
#Antony Watson# (1596-1605) was Bishop of Chichester when James
became king. He was occupied much in furthering Whitgift's endeavour
to improve the condition of the Church in England by urging conformity
to the newly ordered methods of ecclesiastical government and
#Launcelot Andrews# (1605-1609) then ruled the diocese until he was
transferred to Ely.
He was followed by #Samuel Harsnett# (1609-1619), who was an
opponent of the Calvinistic attitude of thought. The records of his
visitations ask some pertinent questions, which show how the Cathedral
Church itself was being served. He inquires, "Have not many of the
vicars and lay vicars been absent for months together? Is the choir
sufficiently furnished, and are the boys properly instructed? What has
become of the copes and vestments? Who is responsible for the custody
of them and of the books? Are there not ale-houses in the close? Why
are all these things not amended since the last visitation?" This was
the state of affairs in the cathedral church of the diocese at the
beginning of the seventeenth century; and during the two hundred years
that followed there is but little improvement to remark. Certainly in
#George Carleton#'s (1619-1628) and in #Richard Montagu#'s day
(1628-1638) there was not much change, for the latter asks in every
parish "whether communicants 'meekly kneel,' or whether they stand or
sit at the time of reception: Whether the Holy Table is profaned at
any time by persons sitting upon it, casting hats or cloaks upon it,
writing or casting up accounts or any other indecent usuage."  And
in consequence the archbishop desired to restore some sense of order
and decency to the minds of both the clergy and laity by replacing the
altars in their proper positions again. He asks, therefore, Bishop
#Brian Duppa# (1638-1641), in the questions put during the first
visitation of parish churches, "Is your communion-table, or altar,
strong, fair and decent? Is it set according to the practice of the
ancient Church,--upon an ascent at the east end of the chancel, with
the ends of it north and south? Is it compassed in with a handsome
rail to keep it from profanation according to an order made in the
metropolical visitation?" 
 Stephens' "Diocesan History," p. 216.
 Quoted by Stephens, "Diocesan History," p. 216.
During the episcopate of #Henry King# (1642-1670) the diocese was a
theatre of rebellion and civil war. Chichester was taken on December
29th, 1642, by Waller and the Parliamentary soldiers after a siege of
eight days. Bishop King repaired, after the Restoration, the wrecked
cathedral and the episcopal palace, but this appears to be all that is
known of him.
#Peter Gunning# (1670-1675) was the first Bishop of Chichester
appointed after the Restoration. He had suffered for the tenacity with
which he clung to his principles during the period of the Rebellion.
Having been ejected from a fellowship at Cambridge, he came to London,
and there, with no little audacity, he ministered and taught as a
loyalist and Churchman.
But #Ralph Brideoake# (1675-1678) watched the political and
ecclesiastical weathercocks, and feathered his nest. He had been
"Chaplain to Speaker Lenthall, who gave him the rich living of Witney,
near Oxford, where we are told he 'preached twice every Lord's Day,
and in the evening catechised the youth in his own house; outvying in
labour and vigilancy any of the godly brethren in those parts.' In
1659 he was made one of the 'triers,' yet immediately after the
Restoration he was rapidly promoted to a canonry at Windsor, to the
Deanery of Salisbury, and finally to the Bishopric of Chichester."
Though Bishop Henry King had endeavoured to restore the cathedral
and the buildings of the precincts, these still were in a state of
extreme dilapidation, for Bishop Brideoake's record of his visitation
shows that the towers, windows, and cloisters had not yet been
 Stephens' "Diocesan History," p. 233.
#Guy Carleton# (1678-1685) was a Royalist bishop of a most
consistent type. On two occasions he had been turned out of a cure by
the Parliamentary "triers" for his opinions; but in his eighty-second
year he came from the see of Bristol to Chichester.
Another Royalist, who as a soldier had supported the cause of Charles
I., occupied the see after Carleton. This was #John Lake#
(1685-1689). He was one of those seven bishops who protested against
James's Declaration of Indulgence.
#Simon Patrick# (1689), #Robert Grove# (1691), #John
Williams# (1696), #Thomas Manningham# (1709), #Thomas Bowers#
(1722), and #Edward Waddington# (1724) served in the episcopate
#Francis Hare# (1731-1740) then filled the vacancy. He wasted some
of his time in useless controversy, and, as the Duke of Marlborough's
chaplain, made his office cheap, though perhaps popular, by
occasionally dilating in his sermons upon the genius and military
skill of his patron. He was a man of some capacity, who advised
conformity to the meagre and starved ideals of the then accepted
orthodoxy. Apparently he deemed this course a safe one, where there
could, it appears, be little other guidance for those who still had
any faith, except in the conventionalities of what had become
ecclesiastical custom. He saw that the interpretation which individual
opinion in its practical rejection of Christian ordinances would read
into faith was likely to be no more than a new expression of early and
#Mathias Mawson# (1740-1754) was bishop after Hare; and then Sir
#William Ashburnham# (1754-1799) came to the diocese and occupied
the see for forty-five years, "the longest episcopate since the
foundation of the see." 
 Stephens, p, 245.
Before the close of the eighteenth century #John Buckner#
(1799-1824) succeeded Ashburnham.
In 1824 #Robert James Carr#, and in 1831 #Edward Maltby#, were
appointed to the see.
[Illustration: S. CLEMENT'S CHAPEL, AND TOMB OF BISHOP DURNFORD (SEE
p. 83). _S.B. Bolas & Co., photo_.]
#William Otter# succeeded (1836-1840). During his episcopate the
Diocesan Association was founded in 1838 to help the clergy and laity
of the diocese to provide themselves with better schools, to increase
the means of instruction and ministration, to restore or enlarge
their churches and schools, and to provide new ones when they had the
opportunity afforded by sufficient means. Bishop Otter and Dean
Chandler succeeded in establishing a theological college in the city.
#Philip N. Shuttleworth# (1840-1842), #Ashurst Turner Gilbert#
(1842-1870), and #Richard Durnford# (1870-1895) were succeeded by
#Ernest Roland Wilberforce#, the present bishop, who was translated
to the see from Newcastle in 1895.
DEANS or CHICHESTER.
John de Greneford, 1150.
Jordan de Meleburn, 1176.
Matthew de Chichester, 1180.
Nicholas de Aquila, 1190.
Simon de Perigord, 1220.
Thomas de Lichfield, 1232.
Walter de Glocestrin, 1256.
William de Brakelsham, 1276.
Thomas de Berghstede, 1296.
William de Grenefeld, 1302.
John de St. Leophardo, 1307.
Henry de Garland, 1332.
Walter de Segrave, 1342.
William de Lenne, 1356.
Roger de Freton, 1369.
Richard le Scrope, 1383.
William de Lullyngton, 1389-1390.
John de Maydenhith, 1400.
John Haselee, 1407.
Henry Lovel, 1410.
Richard Talbot, 1415.
William Milton, 1420.
John Patten, or Waynflete, 1425.
John Crutchere, 1429.
John Waynfleet, 1478.
John Gloos, 1481.
John Prychard, 1501.
Geoffrey Symson, 1504.
John Young (Bishop), S.T.P. 1508.
William Fleshmonger, 1526.
Richard Camden, 1541.
Giles Eyre, S.T.D, 1549.
Bartholomew Traheron, S.T.P., 1551-1552.
Thomas Sampson, S.T.P., 1552-1553.
William Pye, 1553.
Hugh Turnbull, 1558.
Richard Curteis, 1566.
Anthony Rushe, 1570.
Martin Culpepper, M.D, 1577.
William Thome, 1601.
Francis Dee, 1630.
Richard Steward, 1634-1635.
Bruno Ryves, 1646.
Joseph Henshaw, 1660.
Joseph Gulston, S.T.P., 1663.
Nathaniel, Lord Crew, LL.D., 1669.
Thomas Lambrook, 1671.
George Stradling, S.T.P., 1672.
Francis Hawkins, S.T.P.,1688.
William Hayley, S.T.P., 1699.
Thomas Sherlock, 1715.
John Newey, 1727.
Thomas Hayley, D.D., 1735-1736.
James Hargraves, D.D., 1739.
William Ashburnham, Bart., 1741.
Thomas Ball, A.M., 1754.
Charles Harward, 1770.
Combe Miller, 1790.
Christopher Bethell, 1814.
Samuel Slade, 1824.
George Chandler, D.C.L., 1830.
Walter Farquhar Hook, D.D., 1859.
John William Burgon, D.D., 1875.
Francis Pigou, D.D., 1887.
Richard William Randall, D.D., 1892.
BISHOPS OF SELSEA AFTER EADBERT.
Sigga, or Sigfrid, 733.
Osa, or Bosa, 765-770.
Wiohtun, or Peletun, 789-805.
Bernege, or Beornegus, 909-922.
Aethelric I., 1032-1038.
Aethelric II, 1058-1070.
ANCIENT BUILDINGS IN THE CITY.
Amongst other interesting architectural monuments, closely connected
with the cathedral or the bishops, the following may be particularly
The #Bishop's Palace# has an interesting chapel, in which a small
fresco of the "Virgin and Child" of an early date is still preserved.
The dining-room has a panelled wooden ceiling. The painting on it was
originally executed in Sherborne's day, but it has suffered by decay
and attempts at restoration since the sixteenth century.
The #Vicars' Hall# is to the south-east of the cathedral.
The #Canon Gate# is the archway in South Street, which leads to the
palace, the deanery, and other buildings connected with the cathedral.
The #Market Cross# was built by Bishop Storey about the year 1500
(see illustration, p. 100).
#S. Mary's Hospital# was founded about the middle of the twelfth
century; but the existing building dates from the end of the
thirteenth century. It maintains five aged women by a weekly allowance
to each, with fuel and medical attendance free.
[Illustration: PAINTED DECORATION FORMERLY ON THE CHOIR VAULT, FROM
AN ENGRAVING BY T. KING 1814 (SEE PAGES 42-43). _(Lent by the Reverend
Prebendary Bennett.) (Scale about 7 feet 101/2 inches to 1 inch.)]
Aethelgar, Bishop, 106
Aethelric, Bishop, 106
Apsidal termination, 8, 9, 17, 24
Arundel, Bishop, 32
---- Earl of, William, 6;
Countess of, 86
---- monuments, 86
---- screen, 32, 46
Barlow, Bishop, 117
Bell tower, 30
Bernardi, paintings by, 34
Brideoake, Bishop, 120
Buttresses, nave, 58
CHAPELS added to nave, 24
Chapel of S. Catharine, 94
---- of S. Clement, 86
---- of Four Virgins, 85
---- of S. Mary Magdalen, 90, 98
---- of S. Pantaleon, 90
---- of SS. Thomas and Edmund, 85
Chapter House, 27
Choir (exterior), 65-71;
Consecration, 6, 19
Consistory Court, 83
Curteys, Bishop, 118
Daye, Bishop, 35, 116
Durnford, Bishop, 85
Fire of 1114, 5;
of 1187, 6, 10
Flying buttresses, 15, 57, 66
Gunning, Bishop, 119
Hare, Bishop, 120
Harsnett, Bishop, 35, 118
Hilary, Bishop, 108
Hook, Dean, his monument, 97
Lady-chapel, 9, 26; exterior, 69;
Langton, Bishop, 26, 114
Leophardo (Gilbert de S.), Bishop, 20, 26, 70, 112
Library, exterior, 71;
Luffa (Ralph de), Bishop, 5, 8, 107
Manning, Cardinal, 92
"Maudde," inscribed monument to, 98
Moleyns, Bishop, 115
Monuments in nave, 85;
in transepts and choir, 96
Nave, exterior, 53, 73;
Neville, Bishop, 20, 23, 110
Organ, 40, 88
Otter, Bishop, 121
Paintings on the walls, 41;
on the vaults, 46;
Bernardi's, 34, 90;
Miss Lowndes', 91
Porch, west, 53;
Presbytery constructed, 17
---- interior, 92
Rede (William), Bishop, 30, 114;
Reformation, 34, 36
Reredos, ancient, 28, 43, 47;
Sacristy, 61, 90
Sampson, Bishop, 116
Sculptures, romanesque, 96
See, transfer of, 4, 5, 8;
foundation of, 101
Seffrid d'Escures, Bishop, 108
---- II., Bishop, 19
Selsea, carved panels from, 96;
church at, 103;
bishops of, 123
Sherburne, Bishop, 34, 116
Spire, 30, 40, 42, 76;
fall of, 48
Stigand, Bishop, 4, 107
Storey, Bishop, 115
Tower, central, 32, 47, 76
Towers, fall of, 14, 21, 37-40
---- western, 51, 55
Transept, south, 64, 90;
north, 92, 96
Triforium, 36, 94
Vault constructed, 12
Watson, Bishop, 118
Welles (Simon de), Bishop, 20, 109
Wilfrith, Archbishop, 103
Window, west, 53;
Windows, nave, 57, 73, 75;
stained glass in, 98
Wren, Sir C., 37, 42
Wych (S. Richard of), Bishop, 20;
shrine of, 28, 35, 94, 111-112;
* * * * *
CHISWICK PRESS: PRINTED BY CHARLES WHITTTNGHAM AND CO.
TOOKS COURT, CHANCERY LANE, LONDON.
* * * * *
Length (extreme). . _internal_ . 393 feet.
" of nave. . " . 155 feet.
Width of nave (extreme) . " . 90 feet.
Length of choir. . " . 115 feet.
" " transept . " . 131 feet.
Width of transept . " . 33 feet.
Height of vault. . " . 61 feet.
" " spire. . " . 277 feet.
Area . . . . . 28,000 sq. feet.
[Illustration: THE CATHEDRAL CHURCH OF THE HOLY TRINITY CHICHESTER:
1901: FROM A PLAN MADE BY THE LATE JOSEPH BUTLER ARCHITECT TO THE