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Beethoven's Letters 1790-1826 Vol. 2 by Lady Wallace

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the person who had suggested such harsh measures. A note, still extant,
written by Breuning to Beethoven, shows the state of matters, in which he
still maintains, though in moderate language, the absolute necessity of the
above precautions. This mode of argument seemed to make an impression on
the _maestro_, who at last promised to yield his own wishes. By his desire,
Breuning laid the codicil of three lines before him, and Beethoven at once
proceeded to copy it, which was no easy matter for him. When it was
finished he exclaimed, 'There! now I write no more!' He was not a little
surprised to see on the paper the words 'heirs of his body' changed into
'natural heirs.' Breuning represented to him the disputes to which this
destination might give rise. Beethoven replied that the one term was as
good as the other, and that it should remain just as it was. _This was his
last contradiction._"]

[Footnote 2: Next day, at noon, he lost consciousness, and a frightful
death-struggle began, which continued till the evening of March 26, 1827,
when, during a violent spring storm of thunder and lightning, the sublime
_maestro_ paid his last tribute to that humanity for which he had made so
many sacrifices in this world, to enter into life everlasting, which, from
his life and actions, few could look forward to more hopefully.]


Academies, concerts given by Beethoven, so called.
The grand concerts of the year 1824.

Address and appeal to London artists, from Beethoven.

Adlersburg, Dr. von, Court advocate and barrister at Vienna, "a most
inconsiderate character," for some time Beethoven's lawyer.

Aesthetical observations on particular subjects.

Albrechtsberger, the popular theorist and composer, Kapellmeister at St.
Stephen's in Vienna, for some time, about the year 1795, Beethoven's
instructor in musical composition.

Amenda of Courland, afterwards rector in Talsen.

"A.M.Z." _See_ Leipzig "Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung."

Andre, composer and music publisher in Offenbach on the Maine.

Archduke Carl.

Arnim, Frau von. _See_ Brentano, Bettina.

Artaria, print and music publisher in Vienna.

Attorney, power of.

Augarten, the well-known park near Vienna, in which morning concerts were
frequently given.


Austria, Beethoven's sentiments respecting that country, his second

Bach, Dr. Johann Baptist, Court advocate and barrister, from the year 1816
Beethoven's lawyer at Vienna.

Bach, Johann Sebastian.

Baden, near Vienna, a favorite watering-place, to which Beethoven often

Bauer, chief secretary to the Austrian Embassy in London.

Baumeister, private secretary to the Archduke Rudolph.

Beethoven's brother Carl, born at Bonn in 1774, instructed in music by
Beethoven; afterwards came to Vienna, where he occupied the appointment of
cashier in the Government Revenue (died Nov. 15, 1815).

His brother Johann, born in 1776, an apothecary, first in Linz,
afterwards in Vienna, and at a later period proprietor of Gneixendorf, an
estate near Krems, on the Danube; named by Beethoven, "Braineater,"
"Pseudo-brother," "Asinanios," &c.

His brother Ludwig Maria.

His father, Johann, son of Ludwig van Beethoven, Kapellmeister to the
Elector of Cologne, Court tenor singer at the Electoral Chapel at Bonn, a
man possessing no considerable mental endowments, but an excellent
musician, and Beethoven's first instructor in music. Unhappily, he was so
addicted to habits of intemperance, that he greatly impoverished his
family, the care of which, owing to the father's recklessness, devolved
entirely upon his son Ludwig (died Dec. 1792).

His grandfather, Ludwig van Beethoven, Kapellmeister to the Elector of
Cologne (died 1774).

His mother, Maria Magdalena Kewerich, the wife, first of Leym of
Ehrenbreitstein, cook to the Elector of Treves, and afterwards of Johann
van Beethoven, in Bonn, Court tenor singer to the Elector of Cologne. She
gave birth to her illustrious son Ludwig on Dec. 17, 1770, and died July
17, 1787.

His nephew, Carl, son of his brother Carl, Beethoven's ward from the year
Entered the Bloechlinger Institute, at Vienna, June 22, 1819.
Letters to him from Beethoven.

His sister-in-law, Johanna, wife of his brother Carl and mother of his
nephew, named by Beethoven "The Queen of the Night."

Beethoven's _Works. In General._

I. _For pianoforte only._
Sonatas of the year 1783.
Op. 22.
Op. 31.
Op. 90.
Op. 106.
Op. 109.
Op. 111.
"Allegri di Bravoura."

II. _For pianoforte with obbligato instruments._
For pianoforte and violin:--Sonatas.
Sonatas with violoncello.
Twelve Variations in F on the Theme from "Figaro," "Se vuol ballare."
Variations with violoncello and violin.
for hautboys and horn.
Fantasia with chorus.

III. _Quartets._

IV. _Instrumental pieces._
Violin Romance.

V. _Orchestral music._
The Ninth.
Minuet and Interlude.
Music for the ballet of "Prometheus."
"King Stephen."
"The Ruins of Athens."
"Wellington's Victory at Vittoria."
March to "Tarpeia."
Gratulation Minuet.

VI. _Vocal music._
"Ah! Perfido."
"Heart, my Heart," and "Knowest Thou the Land?"
"To Hope."
Aria for bass voice with chorus.
Terzet on Count Lichnowsky.
Canon for Spohr.
"The Glorious Moment."
On Mdlle. Milder-Hauptmann.
Scotch songs.
Canon for Schlesinger;
for the Archduke Rudolph;
on Tobias Haslinger.
Various songs;
two grand songs with chorus from Goethe and Matthisson.
"Meeresstille und glueckliche Fahrt."
for Rellstab;
for Braunhofer;
for Kuhlau;
for Schlesinger.

VII. _Operas._
Grillparzer's "Melusina."
"Fidelio" in Dresden.

VIII. _Church music and Oratorios._
"Missa solennis."

Benedict, Julius, in London, a composer, the pupil of C.M. von Weber.


Bernard, Carl, an author, editor of the "Wiener Zeitschrift."

Bihler, J.N., a special admirer of Beethoven, one of the subscribers to,
and the bearer of, the address presented to Beethoven in the year 1824, in
which the master was requested again to present himself and his works to
the Viennese public.

Birchall, music publisher in London.

"Birne, zur goldnen," an eating-house in the Landstrasse, Vienna.

Bloechlinger, proprietor of an educational institution at Vienna.

Bocklet, Carl Maria, of Prague, pianist in Vienna.

Boehm, Joseph, a distinguished concerto violinist, professor at the Vienna
Conservatory, and the teacher of Joachim.


Bonn, residence of the Elector of Cologne, and Beethoven's birthplace,
which he left in the year 1792, never again to visit.

Braunhofer, Dr., for some time Beethoven's surgeon at Vienna.

Breitkopf & Haertel, the well-known book and music publishers in Leipzig.

Brentano, Bettina, became Frau von Arnim in 1811.

Brentano, Clemens, the poet.

Brentano, F.A., merchant at Frankfort, an admirer of Beethoven's music.
_See also_ Tonie.

Breuning, Christoph von.

Breuning, Dr. Gerhard von, Court physician at Vienna, son of Stephan von

Breuning, Eleonore von, daughter of Councillor von Breuning, in Bonn, the
friend and pupil of Beethoven; in 1802 became the wife of Dr. Wegeler,
afterwards consulting physician at Coblenz.

Breuning, Frau von, widow of Councillor von Breuning, into whose house
Beethoven was received as one of the family, and where he received his
first musical impressions.

Breuning, Lenz (Lorenz), youngest son of the "Frau Hofrath."

Breuning, Stephan von, of Bonn; came to Vienna in the spring of 1800, where
he became councillor, and died in 1827.

Browne, Count, of Vienna, an admirer of Beethoven's music.

Bruehl, the, a village and favorite pleasure resort near Vienna.

Brunswick, Count Franz von, of Pesth, one of Beethoven's greatest admirers
and friends in Vienna.

Bonaparte, Ludwig, King of Holland.

"Caecilia, a Journal for the Musical World," &c.

Carl, Archduke. _See_ Archduke Carl.



Castlereagh, the well-known English minister.

Cherubini. Visited Vienna in 1805.

Clement, Franz, born 1784, died 1842, orchestral director at the "Theater
an der Wien."


Collin, the famous Austrian poet.

Cornega, a singer in Vienna commended to Beethoven by Schindler.

Court Theatre, Beethoven's letter to the directors of the.

Cramer, John, the celebrated London pianist, also a music publisher.

Czerny, Carl, in Vienna, the well known writer of pianoforte studies.

Czerny, Joseph, in Vienna.

Deafness of Beethoven.

De la Motte-Fouque, the poet of "Undine," which he had arranged as an Opera
libretto for T.A. Hoffmann.

Del Rio, Giannatasio, proprietor of an academy at Vienna, under whose care
Beethoven placed his nephew Carl from the year 1816 to 1818.

Diabelli, Anton, composer and music publisher in Vienna.

Doebling, Ober- and Unter-Doebling, near Vienna, Beethoven's occasional
summer residence.


Drossdick, Baroness Therese, to whom Beethoven was greatly attached.

Duport, director of the Kaernthnerthor Theatre in the year 1823.

Eisenstadt, in Hungary, the residence of Prince Esterhazy, where Beethoven
remained on a visit in the years 1794 and 1808.

English language, Beethoven's correspondence in the.

Erdoedy Countess, in Vienna, one of Beethoven's best friends.

Ertmann, Baroness Dorothea (_nee_ Graumann), a friend of Beethoven, and one
of the most accomplished pianists in Vienna; she especially excelled in the
performance of Beethoven's compositions.

Esterhazy, Prince Paul, son of the protector of Haydn, and himself, at a
later period, an ardent admirer of that master.


Frank, Dr.

Frank, Frau, in Vienna.

"Frau Schnaps," Beethoven's housekeeper during the latter years of his
life; called also "The Fast-sailing Frigate" and "The Old Goose."

French language, Beethoven's correspondence in the.

Fries, Count, in Vienna, an admirer of Beethoven's works.

Fux, the well-known old theorist and composer, in Vienna, author of the
"Gradus ad Parnassum."

Gallizin, Prince Nikolaus Boris, at St. Petersburg, a zealous friend of
art, from whom Beethoven received an order for his last quartet.

Gebauer, Franz Xaver, founder of the "Concerts Spirituels" at Vienna.

Gerardi, Mdlle.

Girowetz, Court musical director at the "Burgtheater."

Giuliani, a celebrated guitar player at Vienna.

Glaeser, Beethoven's copyist from the year 1823.

Gleichenstein, Baron, of Rothweil, near Freiburg in Breisgau, a friend of
Beethoven at Vienna. He left Vienna about the year 1815, and only revisited
that city once afterwards, in 1824.

Gneixendorf, the estate of Beethoven's brother Johann, near Krems, on the
Danube, which Beethoven visited, accompanied by his nephew, in the autumn
of 1826.


Gratz, in Styria.


Guicciardi, Countess Giulietta, Beethoven's "immortal beloved."

Hammer-Purgstall, the distinguished Orientalist in Vienna.


Haslinger, Tobias, music publisher at Vienna.

Hauschka, Vincenz, Government auditor, a friend of Beethoven.

Heiligenstadt, near Vienna, a favorite summer residence of Beethoven,
where, among other works, the "Pastoral Symphony" was written by him.

Hetzendorf, a favorite suburban residence near Vienna.

Hoffmann, Th. Amadeus.

Hofmeister, Kapellmeister and music publisher, first in Vienna, and
afterwards in company with Kuehnel in Leipzig (now Peters's Bureau de
Musique). _See also_ Peters.

Holz, Carl, Government official at Vienna, an accomplished violinist, born
in 1798; became a member of the Schuppanzigh Quartets in 1824, and
afterwards director of the Concerts Spirituels in that capital; a Viennese
of somewhat dissolute habits, by whom even the grave master himself was at
times unfavorably influenced.

Homer, especially the Odyssey, a favorite study of Beethoven.

Hoenigstein, a banker in Vienna.

Hummel, Johann Nepomuk, the celebrated composer and pianist, a pupil of
Mozart, and for some time Beethoven's rival in love matters, having married
the sister of the singer Roeckel, to whom Beethoven also was much attached
(_see also_ Schindler's "Biography," i. 189).

Hungary, Beethoven there.

Imperial Court at Vienna.

Imperial High Court of Appeal, letter from Beethoven to the.

Jenger, Chancery officer in the Imperial War Office at Vienna, a passionate
lover of music.


Kandeler, testimonial from Beethoven in favor of.

Kanne, F.A., at Vienna, highly appreciated in his day as a poet, composer,
and critic, an intimate friend of Beethoven, and occasionally his guest
(_see also_ Schindler's "Biography," i. 228).

Kauka, Dr., Beethoven's advocate in Prague.

Kiesewetter, Councillor von, in Vienna, the popular writer on the science
of music, one of the subscribers to the great address presented to
Beethoven in February, 1824.

Kinsky, Prince Ferdinand, of Bohemia, one of Beethoven's most devoted
patrons in Vienna.

Kinsky, Princess.

Kirnberger, of Berlin, the well-known theorist.

Koch, Barbara, of Bonn, daughter of the landlord of the "Zehrgaden," the
friend of Eleonore von Breuning, an amiable and intelligent lady, at whose
house the leading persons of the town were accustomed to assemble; she
afterwards became governess to the children of Count Belderbusch, whom she
married in 1802.

Koenneritz, Von, principal director of the Court band and Opera in Dresden.

Kraft, Anton, a celebrated violoncello-player in Vienna.

Kuhlau, Friedrich, the distinguished flute-player, a great admirer of
Beethoven's music.

Kuehnel, in Leipzig. _See_ Hofmeister.

Laibach, the Philharmonic Society of.

Landrecht, Beethoven's address to the honorable members of the.

Leidesdorf, M.J., composer and music publisher in Vienna, a subscriber to
the great address presented to Beethoven in 1824.

Leipzig "Allgemeine Zeitung," established in 1798; its remarks at first
unfavorable towards Beethoven.

Lichnowsky, Count Moritz, brother of Prince Carl Lichnowsky, and, like him,
the friend and patron of Beethoven. Schindler, in his "Biography," i. 241,
n., relates as follows:--"The acute perception of the Count led him, on a
nearer acquaintance with the work, to surmise that it had been written with
some special intentions. On being questioned on this matter, the author
replied that he had intended to set the Count's love-story to music, and
that if he needed titles for it, he might write over the first piece,
'Fight between Head and Heart,' and over the second, 'Conversation with the
Loved One.' After the death of his first wife, the Count had fallen deeply
in love with a distinguished opera singer, but his friends protested
against such an alliance. After a contest of many years' duration, however,
he at last succeeded, in 1816, in removing all hindrances to their union."

Lichnowsky, Prince Carl, a friend and pupil of Mozart, and afterwards a
most zealous patron of Beethoven in Vienna (died April 15, 1814).

Liechtenstein, Princess, in Vienna, Beethoven's patroness.

Linke, born 1783, a distinguished violoncello player, member of the
Rasumowsky Quartets.

Lobkowitz, Prince, one of Beethoven's most zealous patrons in Vienna.

London, England, and the English.


Maelzel, mechanician to the Imperial Court of Vienna, the well-known
inventor of the metronome.

Malchus, a youthful friend of Beethoven in Bonn, in later years Minister of
Finance of the kingdom of Westphalia, and afterwards of that of Wirtemberg
(died at Stuttgart in 1840).

Malfatti, Dr., a celebrated surgeon in Vienna; Beethoven under his
treatment in 1814.

Marconi, contralto singer in Vienna.

Marx, A.B., music director and professor at the University of Berlin;
edited, when in his twentieth year, the "Berliner Musikzeitung," a journal
whose publication, unfortunately, lasted but a few years only. Next to T.A.
Hofmann, he was the first who fully and thoroughly appreciated Beethoven's
music in all its depth and grandeur, and who manfully and intelligently
defended the lofty genius of the master against the base attacks to which
it was at times exposed; he has remained until the present day the most
efficient representative of the progress of musical art.

Matthisson, the poet.

Maximilian Franz, youngest brother of the Emperor Joseph II., Elector of
Cologne from the year 1785, and one of the noblest and most zealous patrons
of the young Beethoven, on whom, in 1785, he conferred the appointment of
Court organist, and in 1787, with a view to the further cultivation of his
talents, sent him to Vienna, assisting him in every way until the year
1794, at which period his country fell entirely under the dominion of
France (died in 1801).

Maximilian, Friedrich, Elector of Cologne until the year 1784; the first
noble patron of Beethoven, whom he placed under the instruction of the
Court organist Von der Eeden, and afterwards, on the death of that
musician, under Neefe; as an acknowledgment for which kindness, and in
proof of the success which had attended his studies, the young composer,
then only eleven years of age, dedicated his first sonatas to his

Mayseder, the celebrated violinist (died at Vienna in 1863).

Meyer, Friedrich Sebastian, a singer (born 1773, died 1835), the husband of
Mozart's eldest sister-in-law, who frequently, even in Beethoven's
presence, made some boastful remark in praise of his deceased relative;
such as "My brother-in-law would not have written that!"

Metronome, an instrument for measuring tune in music, invented about the
year 1815 by Maelzel, of Vienna, and often employed and spoken of by

Milder-Hauptmann, Mdlle., the celebrated singer, first in Vienna and
afterwards in Berlin.

Moedling, a village near Vienna, and Beethoven's favorite summer residence.

Mollo, music publisher in Vienna, afterwards the firm of Steiner & Co., and
at a later period that of Haslinger.

Moelk, the celebrated abbey on the Danube.

Moelker Bastei, the, at Vienna, on several occasions Beethoven's residence
in the house of Baron von Pasqualati (_see also_ Schindler's "Biography,"
i. 187).


Mosel, Hofrath Ignaz von, in Vienna, a well-known music writer, and the
founder of the Conservatory of Music in that capital.



Mythological subjects, reference made to, by Beethoven, who, as it is well
known, possessed a considerable acquaintance with ancient history.

Naegeli, Hans Georg, the distinguished founder of men's vocal unions in
Switzerland, also a popular composer of vocal music, a music publisher,
and, at a later period, educational inspector in Zurich.

Napoleon, when General Bonaparte, so greatly admired by Beethoven, that on
the occasion of that General's appearance, the master was incited to
compose the "Eroica," which he dedicated to him ("Napoleon
Buonaparte--Luigi van Beethoven"). On hearing, however, of the coronation
of his hero as Emperor, he angrily cast aside the intended presentation
copy of his work, and refused to send it to him.

Neate, Charles, a London artist, and a great admirer of Beethoven, with
whom he became acquainted in Vienna in the year 1816.

Nussboeck, town sequestrator at Vienna, for some time the guardian of
Beethoven's nephew.

Nussdorf, a favorite summer residence on the Danube, near Vienna.

Oliva, a philologist and friend of Beethoven. According to Schindler
("Biography," i. 228), he repaired to St. Petersburg in 1817, in which city
he settled as professor of German literature; Schindler is, however,
mistaken in the date which he has given.

Oppersdorf, Count Franz von, Beethoven's friend and patron.

Pachler-Koschak, Marie, of Gratz, to whom Beethoven was warmly attached.



Parry, Captain, wrote on the music of the Esquimaux.

Pasqualati, Baron von, merchant in Vienna, an ardent admirer of Beethoven,
and his constant benefactor. In 1813 Beethoven again occupied apartments
appropriated to his use by the Baron at his residence on the Moelker Bastei,
and remained there until 1816.

Penzing, a village near Vienna, a favorite summer residence.

Peters, C.F., "Bureau de Musique" in Leipzig (_see also_ Hofmeister).

Peters, councillor of Prince Lobkowitz at Vienna, a friend of Beethoven.

Philharmonic Society in London. In Laibach.

Pianoforte, Beethoven's remarks concerning the.

Pilat, editor of the "Austrian Observer."


Portraits of Beethoven.

Potter, Cipriani, pianist in London.


Prince Regent, the, afterwards George IV. of England.

Probst, music publisher in Leipzig.


Punto (_alias_ Stich) a celebrated horn player, to whom Beethoven was
mainly indebted for his knowledge of that instrument (died 1804).

"Queen of the Night." _See_ Beethoven's sister-in-law.

Radziwill, Prince, at Berlin, a devoted patron of music and the composer of
music to "Faust."

Rampel, Beethoven's copyist about the year 1824.

Rasumowsky, Count, afterwards Prince, Russian ambassador at Vienna, an
ardent lover of music.

Recke, Elise von der, the well-known poetess.

Reisser, vice-director of the Polytechnic Institution at Vienna,
co-guardian of Beethoven's nephew in the year 1825.

Religious and moral sentiments on particular subjects.

Rellstab, Ludwig, a writer and poet, for many years editor of the
"Vossische Zeitung," in Berlin.

Ries, Ferdinand, son of the preceding, a pupil of Beethoven and a
distinguished composer. Quitted Vienna in 1805, and, with the exception of
a short residence there, on his return from Russia in the autumn of 1808,
never again returned to that capital (Schindler, i. 227).

Ries, Franz, Court musician to the Elector of Cologne, a helpful friend to
Beethoven (born 1755).

Rochlitz, Friedrich, the well-known writer on the science of music, and for
nearly twenty-five years editor of the Leipzig "Allgemeine Musikzeitung," a
man who, notwithstanding his entire lack of historical acumen and his
limited acquaintance with the technicalities of music, did very much
towards liberating the art from its mechanical condition, and promoting its
intellectual appreciation by the public. He was in Vienna in the year 1822,
where he became personally acquainted with Beethoven, but never fully
appreciated the genius of the master,--a circumstance which Beethoven
himself most deeply felt, even after the retirement of Rochlitz from the
editorship of that journal, and which formed the subject of many ironical
remarks on the part of Beethoven respecting these representatives of the
so-called Old-German national composers.

Roeckel, singer of the part of Florestan in Vienna in 1806, still living at
Bath, in England.

Rode, the celebrated violinist; came to Vienna in the winter of 1812-13,
where he became acquainted with Beethoven.

Rudolph, Archduke, youngest brother of the Emperor Franz, born 1788, died
1831, a passionate lover of music, and himself a composer; he became
Beethoven's pupil in 1808, and in 1819 Cardinal-Archbishop of Olmuetz.


Rzehatschek, in Vienna.

Salieri, Kapellmeister at Vienna, a contemporary and rival of Haydn and
Mozart, for some time Beethoven's instructor in the dramatic style.

Salomon, J.P., of Bonn, the celebrated violinist, until the year 1782
director of the concerts of Prince Heinrich of Prussia; he afterwards came
to London, where he became chiefly instrumental in the introduction of
German music into that capital; as is well known, it was owing to him also
that J. Haydn was induced to visit England.


Sartorius, royal censor at Vienna (_see also_ Schindler's "Biography," ii.

Saxony. _See also_ Dresden.

Schade, Dr., advocate at Augsburg, a helpful friend of the young Beethoven.

Schenk, the well-known composer of the "Village Barber," for some time
Beethoven's instructor in Vienna (died 1836).


Schindler, Anton, of Moravia, Beethoven's sincere friend and biographer
(born 1790, died 1864); he became acquainted with Beethoven towards the end
of March, 1814.

Schlemmer, for many years Beethoven's copyist until 1823.

Schlemmer, a gentleman living in the Alleengasse, auf der Wieden, in whose
house Beethoven placed his nephew Carl (not to be confounded with the
copyist of the same name).

Schlesinger, Moritz, music publisher in Berlin and Paris.

Schmidt, Dr., army surgeon in Vienna.

Schoberlechner, Franz, pianist.

Scholz, music director in Warmbrunn.

Schoenauer, Dr., Court advocate and barrister at Vienna, appointed by
Beethoven's brother Carl testamentary trustee to his nephew--an intriguing

Schott, music publisher in Mayence.

Schroeder, Wilhelmine, the great singer.

Schuppanzigh, Ignaz, born 1776, died 1830, the celebrated violinist, whose
extraordinary corpulence was a frequent subject of Beethoven's witticisms;
he was, however, the first who fully appreciated Beethoven's music for
stringed instruments, which he performed in a masterly manner. Resided in
Russia from 1816 to 1823.

Schweiger, Joseph Freiherr von, chamberlain to the Archduke Rudolph.

Schweizer, Ed. Friedrich von, chamberlain to the Archduke Anton, an admirer
of Beethoven's music and subscriber to the address of February 1824.

Sebald, Auguste, the singer.

Seibert, Dr., surgeon in Vienna, Beethoven's operator.

Seyfried, Ignaz Ritter von, the well-known composer, publisher of the
spurious edition of "Studies by Ludwig van Beethoven," Kapellmeister in

Shakespeare, deeply read and greatly admired by Beethoven.

Siboni, a distinguished tenorist in Vienna.

Sight, Beethoven's weakness of.

Simrock, Court musician (horn player) to the Elector of Cologne, and music
publisher in Bonn, a friend of Beethoven's early days.

His son, the present proprietor of the business in Bonn, at Vienna in the
summer of 1816.

Sketch by Beethoven.

Smart, Sir George, music publisher in London, a great admirer of
Beethoven's music.

Smetana, Dr., surgeon at Vienna; gained considerable popularity by his
treatment of deafness.

"Society of Friends to Music in the Austrian States" at Vienna.

Sonntag, Henriette, the celebrated singer.

Spiecker. Dr., of Berlin.


Stadler, Abbe Maximilian (born 1748, died 1833), a composer, and the friend
of Mozart; an opponent of the Beethoven school of music (_see_ Schindler's
"Biography," i. 80; ii. 109).

Standenheim, a celebrated physician in Vienna.

Stein, pianoforte manufacturer at Vienna, brother of Frau Nanette

Steiner, S.A., music publisher in Vienna, succeeded by T. Haslinger.

Sterkel, Franz Xaver, a pleasing pianist and composer, whom Beethoven
visited at Aschaffenburg in 1791, and greatly astonished by his pianoforte

Stoll, a young poet at Vienna.

Streicher, Andreas, the well-known friend of Schiller's early days. He
married, when in his nineteenth year, Nanette Stein, only daughter of the
celebrated pianoforte manufacturer at Augsburg, whom he took with him to
Vienna, where he first became teacher of the pianoforte, and afterwards, by
the assistance of his wife, who had made herself acquainted with her
father's art, founder of the celebrated Streicher pianoforte manufactory.
Schindler, in his "Biography," i. 187, speaks of the interest taken by Frau
Streicher in Beethoven's domestic matters.

Stumpff, harp manufacturer in London, an admirer of Beethoven's works.

Swedish Academy of Music.

"An der Wien."

Tiedge, the poet of "Urania," and also of the song "An die Hoffnung," so
much admired by Beethoven, and several times set to music by him.

Tonie, Antonie, of Birkenstock, daughter of a family in Vienna from which
Beethoven received great kindness from the first period of his residence in
that capital, and in which, in the year 1810, Bettina lived, who afterwards
became the wife of B.A. Brentano, a merchant in Frankfort, to whom
Beethoven was greatly indebted.

Toeplitz, in Bohemia.

Trautmannsdorf, Prince, High Chamberlain.

Travels and travelling projects of Beethoven. _See also_ London.

Treitschke, stage poet at Vienna.

Unger, the celebrated singer.

University, the, of Vienna.

Ursulines, convent of the, at Gratz, in Styria, music supplied by Beethoven
in aid of.

Varenna, Kammerprocurator at Gratz.

Varnhagen von Ense.

Vering, Dr., army surgeon at Vienna.

Vienna, Beethoven's settled residence from the year 1792, of which,
however, he never spoke favorably.

Wawruch, Dr., clinical professor, Beethoven's last surgeon.

Weber, Carl Maria von.

Weber, Gottfried, theorist and composer.

Wegeler, Dr., of Bonn, an early friend of Beethoven.

Weigl, Joseph, composer of the "Swiss Family," Kapellmeister at Vienna.

Weinmueller, singer at the Kaernthnerthor Theatre.

Weiss, tenor player at Vienna.

Westphalia, Beethoven offered the appointment of Kapellmeister to the King
of, in 1808.

Wieden, a suburb of Vienna, on several occasions Beethoven's residence.


Wills, Beethoven's.

Wolf, Dr., advocate in Prague.

Zelter, the song composer and friend of Goethe, director of the Academy of
Vocal Music at Berlin.

Zmeskall von Domanowecz, Court secretary at Vienna, one of Beethoven's
earliest friends in the Imperial city, a good violoncello player and also a

Zulehner, music publisher at Mayence.



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