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Balder The Beautiful, Vol. I. by Sir James George Frazer

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witch to disclose herself.]

And the same thing holds good also of inanimate objects on which a witch
has cast her spell. In Wales they say that "if a thing is bewitched,
burn it, and immediately afterwards the witch will come to borrow
something of you. If you give what she asks, she will go free; if you
refuse it, she will burn, and a mark will be on her body the next
day."[787] So, too, in Oldenburg, "the burning of things that are
bewitched or that have been received from witches is another way of
breaking the spell. It is often said that the burning should take place
at a cross-road, and in several places cross-roads are shewn where the
burning used to be performed.... As a rule, while the things are
burning, the guilty witches appear, though not always in their own
shape. At the burning of bewitched butter they often appear as
cockchafers and can be killed with impunity. Victuals received from
witches may be safely consumed if only you first burn a portion of
them."[788] For example, a young man in Oldenburg was wooing a girl, and
she gave him two fine apples as a gift. Not feeling any appetite at the
time, he put the apples in his pocket, and when he came home he laid
them by in a chest. Two or three days afterwards he remembered the
apples and went to the chest to fetch them. But when he would have put
his hand on them, what was his horror to find in their stead two fat
ugly toads in the chest. He hastened to a wise man and asked him what he
should do with the toads. The man told him to boil the toads alive, but
while he was doing so he must be sure on no account to lend anything out
of the house. Well, just as he had the toads in a pot on the fire and
the water began to grow nicely warm, who should come to the door but the
girl who had given him the apples, and she wished to borrow something;
but he refused to give her anything, rated her as a witch, and drove her
out of the house. A little afterwards in came the girl's mother and
begged with tears in her eyes for something or other; but he turned her
out also. The last word she said to him was that he should at least
spare her daughter's life; but he paid no heed to her and let the toads
boil till they fell to bits. Next day word came that the girl was
dead.[789] Can any reasonable man doubt that the witch herself was
boiled alive in the person of the toads?

[The burning alive of a supposed witch in Ireland in 1895.]

Moreover, just as a witch can assume the form of an animal, so she can
assume the form of some other human being, and the likeness is sometimes
so good that it is difficult to detect the fraud. However, by burning
alive the person whose shape the witch has put on, you force the witch
to disclose herself, just as by burning alive the bewitched animal you
in like manner oblige the witch to appear. This principle may perhaps be
unknown to science, falsely so called, but it is well understood in
Ireland and has been acted on within recent years. In March 1895 a
peasant named Michael Cleary, residing at Ballyvadlea, a remote and
lonely district in the county of Tipperary, burned his wife Bridget
Cleary alive over a slow fire on the kitchen hearth in the presence of
and with the active assistance of some neighbours, including the woman's
own father and several of her cousins. They thought that she was not
Bridget Cleary at all, but a witch, and that when they held her down on
the fire she would vanish up the chimney; so they cried, while she was
burning, "Away she goes! Away she goes!" Even when she lay quite dead on
the kitchen floor (for contrary to the general expectation she did not
disappear up the chimney), her husband still believed that the woman
lying there was a witch, and that his own dear wife had gone with the
fairies to the old _rath_ or fort on the hill of Kylenagranagh, where he
would see her at night riding a grey horse and roped to the saddle, and
that he would cut the ropes, and that she would stay with him ever
afterwards. So he went with some friends to the fort night after night,
taking a big table-knife with him to cut the ropes. But he never saw his
wife again. He and the men who had held the woman on the fire were
arrested and tried at Clonmel for wilful murder in July 1895; they were
all found guilty of manslaughter and sentenced to various terms of penal
servitude and imprisonment; the sentence passed on Michael Cleary was
twenty years' penal servitude.[790]

[Sometimes bewitched animals are buried alive instead of being burned.]

However, our British peasants, it must be confessed, have not always
acted up to the strict logical theory which seems to call for death by
fire as the proper treatment both of bewitched animals and of witches.
Sometimes, perhaps in moments of weakness, they have merely buried the
bewitched animals alive instead of burning them. For example, in the
year 1643, "many cattle having died, John Brughe and Neane Nikclerith,
also one of the initiated, conjoined their mutual skill for the safety
of the herd. The surviving animals were drove past a tub of water
containing two enchanted stones: and each was sprinkled from the liquid
contents in its course. One, however, being unable to walk, 'was by
force drawin out at the byre dure; and the said Johnne with Nikclerith
smelling the nois thereof said it wald not leive, caused are hoill to be
maid in Maw Greane, quhilk was put quick in the hole and maid all the
rest of the cattell theireftir to go over that place: and in that
devillische maner, be charmeing,' they were cured."[791] Again, during
the prevalence of a murrain about the year 1629, certain persons
proposed to stay the plague with the help of a celebrated "cureing
stane" of which the laird of Lee was the fortunate owner. But from this
they were dissuaded by one who "had sene bestiall curet be taking are
quik seik ox, and making are deip pitt, and bureing him therin, and be
calling the oxin and bestiall over that place." Indeed Issobell Young,
the mother of these persons, had herself endeavoured to check the
progress of the distemper by taking "ane quik ox with ane catt, and ane
grit quantitie of salt," and proceeding "to burie the ox and catt quik
with the salt, in ane deip hoill in the grund, as ane sacrifice to the
devill, that the rest of the guidis might be fred of the seiknes or
diseases."[792] Writing towards the end of the eighteenth century, John
Ramsay of Ochtertyre tells us that "the violent death even of a brute is
in some cases held to be of great avail. There is a disease called the
_black spauld_, which sometimes rages like a pestilence among black
cattle, the symptoms of which are a mortification in the legs and a
corruption of the mass of blood. Among the other engines of superstition
that are directed against this fatal malady, the first cow seized with
it is commonly buried alive, and the other cattle are forced to pass
backwards and forwards over the pit. At other times the heart is taken
out of the beast alive, and then the carcass is buried. It is remarkable
that the leg affected is cut off, and hung up in some part of the house
or byre, where it remains suspended, notwithstanding the seeming danger
of infection. There is hardly a house in Mull where these may not be
seen. This practice seems to have taken its rise antecedent to
Christianity, as it reminds us of the pagan custom of hanging up
offerings in their temples. In Breadalbane, when a cow is observed to
have symptoms of madness, there is recourse had to a peculiar process.
They tie the legs of the mad creature, and throw her into a pit dug at
the door of the fold. After covering the hole with earth, a large fire
is kindled upon it; and the rest of the cattle are driven out, and
forced to pass through the fire one by one."[793] In this latter custom
we may suspect that the fire kindled on the grave of the buried cow was
originally made by the friction of wood, in other words, that it was a
need-fire. Again, writing in the year 1862, Sir Arthur Mitchell tells us
that "for the cure of the murrain in cattle, one of the herd is still
sacrificed for the good of the whole. This is done by burying it alive.
I am assured that within the last ten years such a barbarism occurred in
the county of Moray."[794]

[Calves killed and buried to save the rest of the herd.]

Sometimes, however, the animal has not even been buried alive, it has
been merely killed and then buried. In this emasculated form the
sacrifice, we may say with confidence, is absolutely useless for the
purpose of stopping a murrain. Nevertheless, it has been tried. Thus in
Lincolnshire, when the cattle plague was so prevalent in 1866, there
was, I believe, not a single cowshed in Marshland but had its wicken
cross over the door; and other charms more powerful than this were in
some cases resorted to. I never heard of the use of the needfire in the
Marsh, though it was, I believe, used on the wolds not many miles off.
But I knew of at least one case in which a calf was killed and solemnly
buried feet pointing upwards at the threshold of the cowshed. When our
garthman told me of this, I pointed out to him that the charm had
failed, for the disease had not spared that shed. But he promptly
replied, "Yis, but owd Edwards were a soight too cliver; he were that
mean he slew nobbutt a wankling cauf as were bound to deny anny road; if
he had nobbutt tekken his best cauf it wud hev worked reight enuff;
'tain't in reason that owd skrat 'ud be hanselled wi' wankling
draffle."[795]

Notes:

[262] See Jacob Grimm, _Deutsche Mythologie_*[4] (Berlin, 1875-1878), i.
502, 510, 516.

[263] W. Mannhardt, _Der Baumkultus der Germanen und ihrer
Nachbarstaemme_ (Berlin, 1875), pp. 518 _sq._

[264] In the following survey of these fire-customs I follow chiefly W.
Mannhardt, _Der Baumkultus_, kap. vi. pp. 497 _sqq._ Compare also J.
Grimm, _Deutsche Mythologie_,*[4] i. 500 _sqq._; Walter E. Kelly,
_Curiosities of Indo-European Tradition and Folk-lore_ (London, 1863),
pp. 46 _sqq._; F. Vogt, "Scheibentreiben und Fruehlingsfeuer,"
_Zeitschrift des Vereins fuer Volkskunde_, iii. (1893) pp. 349-369;
_ibid._ iv. (1894) pp. 195-197.

[265] _The Scapegoat_, pp. 316 _sqq._

[266] The first Sunday in Lent is known as _Invocavit_ from the first
word of the mass for the day (O. Frh. von Reinsberg-Dueringsfeld,
_Fest-Kalender aus Boehmen_, p. 67).

[267] Le Baron de Reinsberg-Dueringsfeld, _Calendrier Belge_ (Brussels,
1861-1862), i. 141-143; E. Monseur, _Le Folklore Wallon_ (Brussels,
N.D.), pp. 124 _sq._

[268] Emile Hublard, _Fetes du Temps Jadis, les Feux du Careme_ (Mons,
1899), pp. 25. For the loan of this work I am indebted to Mrs. Wherry of
St. Peter's Terrace, Cambridge.

[269] E. Hublard, _op. cit._ pp. 27 _sq._

[270] A. Meyrac, _Traditions, coutumes, legendes et contes des Ardennes_
(Charleville, 1890), p. 68.

[271] L.F. Sauve, _Le Folk-lore des Hautes-Vosges_ (Paris, 1889), p. 56.
The popular name for the bonfires in the Upper Vosges (_Hautes-Vosges_)
is _chavandes_.

[272] E. Cortet, _Essai sur les fetes religieuses_ (Paris, 1867), pp.
101 _sq._ The local name for these bonfires is _bures_.

[273] Charles Beauquier, _Les mois en Franche-Comte_ (Paris, 1900), pp.
33 _sq._ In Bresse the custom was similar. See _La Bresse Louhannaise,
Bulletin Mensuel, Organe de la Societe d'Agriculture et d'Horticulture
de l'Arrondissement de Louhans_, Mars, 1906, pp. 111 _sq._; E. Cortet,
_op. cit._ p. 100. The usual name for the bonfires is _chevannes_ or
_schvannes_; but in some places they are called _fouleres, foualeres,
failles_, or _bourdifailles_ (Ch. Beauquier, _op. cit._ p. 34). But the
Sunday is called the Sunday of the _brandons, bures, bordes_, or
_boides_, according to the place. The _brandons_ are the torches which
are carried about the streets and the fields; the bonfires, as we have
seen, bear another name. A curious custom, observed on the same Sunday
in Franche-Comte, requires that couples married within the year should
distribute boiled peas to all the young folks of both sexes who demand
them at the door. The lads and lasses go about from house to house,
making the customary request; in some places they wear masks or are
otherwise disguised. See Ch. Beauquier, _op. cit._ pp. 31-33.

[274] Curiously enough, while the singular is _granno-mio_, the plural
is _grannas-mias_.

[275] Dr. Pommerol, "La fete des Brandons et le dieu Gaulois Grannus,"
_Bulletins et Memoires de la Societe d'Anthropologie de Paris_, v.
Serie, ii. (1901) pp. 427-429.

[276] _Op. cit._ pp. 428 _sq._

[277] H. Dessau, _Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae_, vol. ii. Pars i.
(Berlin, 1902) pp. 216 _sq._, Nos. 4646-4652.

[278] (Sir) John Rhys, _Celtic Heathendom_ (London, 1888), pp. 22-25.

[279] Emile Hublard, _Fetes du Temps Jadis, les Feux du Careme_ (Mons,
1899), p. 38, quoting Dom Grenier, _Histoire de la Province de
Picardie_.

[280] E. Hublard, _op. cit._ p. 39, quoting Dom Grenier.

[281] M. Desgranges, "Usages du Canton de Bonneval," _Memoires de la
Societe Royale des Antiquaires de France_, i. (Paris, 1817) pp. 236-238;
Felix Chapiseau, _Le folk-lore de la Beauce et du Perche_ (Paris, 1902),
i. 315 _sq._

[282] John Brand, _Popular Antiquities of Great Britain_ (London,
1882-1883), i. 100.

[283] E. Cortet, _Essai sur les fetes religieuses_ (Paris, 1867), pp. 99
_sq.; La Bresse Louhannaise_, Mars, 1906, p. 111.

[284] A. de Nore, _Coutumes, mythes et traditions des provinces de
France_ (Paris and Lyons, 1846), pp. 283 _sq._ A similar, though not
identical, custom prevailed at Valenciennes (_ibid._ p. 338).

[285] A. de Nore, _op. cit._ p. 302.

[286] Desire Monnier, _Traditions populaires comparees_ (Paris, 1854),
pp. 191 _sq._

[287] Laisnel de la Salle, _Croyances et legendes du centre de la
France_ (Paris, 1875). i. 35 _sqq._

[288] Jules Lecoeur, _Esquisses du Rocage Normand_ (Conde-sur-Noireau,
1887), ii. 131 _sq._ For more evidence of customs of this sort observed
in various parts of France on the first Sunday in Lent, see Madame
Clement, _Histoire des Fetes civiles et religieuses_, etc., _du
Departement du Nord_*[2] (Cambrai, 1836), pp. 351 _sqq._; Emile Hublard,
_Fetes du Temps Jadis, les Feux du Careme_ (Mons, 1899), pp. 33 _sqq._

[289] J.H. Schmitz, _Sitten und Sagen, Lieder, Spruechwoerter und Raethsel
des Eifler Volkes_ (Treves, 1856-1858), i. 21-25; N. Hocker, in
_Zeitschrift fuer deutsche Mythologie und Sittenkunde_, i. (1853) p. 90;
W. Mannhardt, _Der Baumkultus der Germanen und ihrer Nachbarstaemme_
(Berlin, 1875), p. 501.

[290] N. Hocker, _op. cit._ pp. 89 _sq._; W. Mannhardt, _l.c._

[291] F.J. Vonbun, _Beitraege zur deutschen Mythologie_ (Chur, 1862), p.
20; W. Mannhardt, _l.c._

[292] Ernst Meier, _Deutsche Sagen, Sitten und Gebraeuche aus Schwaben_
(Stuttgart, 1852), pp. 380 _sqq._; Anton Birlinger, _Volksthuemliches aus
Schwaben_ (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1861-1862), ii. 56 _sqq._, 66 _sqq._;
_Bavaria, Landes-und Volkskunde des Koenigreichs Bayern_ (Munich,
1860-1867), ii. 2, pp. 838 _sq._; F. Panzer, _Beitrag zur deutschen
Mythologie_ (Munich, 1848-1855), i. 211, Sec. 232; W. Mannhardt, _l.c._ One
of the popular German names for the first Sunday in Lent is White
Sunday, which is not to be confused with the first Sunday after Easter,
which also goes by the name of White Sunday (E. Meier, _op. cit._ p.
380; A. Birlinger, _op. cit._ ii. 56).

[293] H. Gaidoz, "Le dieu gaulois du soleil et le symbolisme de la
roue," _Revue Archeologique_, iii. serie, iv. (1884) pp. 139 _sq._

[294] August Witzschel, _Sagen, Sitten und Gebraeuche aus Thueringen_
(Vienna, 1878), p. 189; F. Panzer, _Beitrag zur deutschen Mythologie_
(Munich, 1848-1855), ii. 207; W. Mannhardt, _Der Baumkultus,_ pp. 500
_sq._

[295] W. Kolbe, _Hessiche Volks-Sitten und Gebraeuche_*[2] (Marburg,
1888), p. 36.

[296] Adalbert Kuhn, _Die Herabkunft des Feuers und des
Goettertranks_*[2] (Guetersloh, 1886), p. 86, quoting Hocker, _Des
Mosellandes Geschichten, Sagen und Legenden_ (Trier, 1852), pp. 415
_sqq._ Compare W. Mannhardt, _Der Baumkultus_, p. 501; and below, pp.
163 _sq._ Thus it appears that the ceremony of rolling the fiery wheel
down hill was observed twice a year at Konz, once on the first Sunday in
Lent, and once at Midsummer.

[297] H. Herzog, _Schweizerische Volksfeste, Sitten und Gebraeuche_
(Aarau, 1884), pp. 214-216; E. Hoffmann-Krayer, "Fruchtbarkeitsriten im
schweizerischen Volksbrauch," _Schweizerisches Archiv fuer Volkskunde_,
xi. (1907) pp. 247-249; _id., Feste und Braeuche des Schweizervolkes_
(Zurich, 1913), pp. 135 _sq._

[298] Theodor Vernaleken, _Mythen und Braeuche des Volkes in Oesterreich_
(Vienna, 1859), pp. 293 _sq._; W. Mannhardt, _Der Baumkultus_, p. 498.
See _The Dying God_, p. 239.

[299] J. H. Schmitz, _Sitten und Sagen, Lieder, Spruechwoerter und Raethsel
des Eifler Volkes_ (Treves, 1856-1858), i. 20; W. Mannhardt, _Der
Baumkultus_, p. 499.

[300] L. Strackerjan, _Aberglaube und Sagen aus dem Herzogthum
Oldenburg_ (Oldenburg, 1867), ii. 39, Sec. 306; W. Mannhardt, _Der
Baumkultus_, p. 498.

[301] W. Mannhardt, _Der Baumkultus_, p. 499.

[302] W. Mannhardt, _op. cit._ pp. 498 _sq._

[303] W. Mannhardt, _op. cit._ p. 499.

[304] Christian Schneller, _Maerchen und Sagen aus Waelschtirol_
(Innsbruck, 1867), pp. 234 _sq._; W. Mannhardt, _op. cit._ pp. 499 _sq._

[305] John Brand, _Popular Antiquities of Great Britain_ (London,
1882-1883), i. 157 _sq._; W. Mannhardt, _Der Baumkultus_, pp. 502-505;
Karl Freiherr von Leoprechting, _Aus dem Lechrain_ (Munich, 1855), pp.
172 _sq._; Anton Birlinger, _Volksthuemliches aus Schwaben_ (Freiburg im
Breisgau, 1861-1862), i. 472 _sq._; Montanus, _Die deutschen Volksfeste,
Volksbraeuche und deutscher Volksglaube_ (Iserlohn, N.D.), p. 26; F.
Panzer, _Beitrag zur deutschen Mythologie_ (Munich, 1848-1855), ii. 241
_sq._; Ernst Meier, _Deutsche Sagen, Sitten und Gebraeuche aus Schwaben_
(Stuttgart, 1852), pp. 139 _sq._; _Bavaria, Landes- und Volkskunde des
Koenigreichs Bayern_ (Munich, 1860-1867), i. 371; A. Wuttke, _Der
deutsche Volksaberglaube_*[2] (Berlin, 1869), pp. 68 _sq._, Sec. 81; Ignaz
V. Zingerle, _Sitten, Braeuche und Meinungen des Tiroler Volkes_*[2]
(Innsbruck, 1871), p. 149, Sec.Sec. 1286-1289; W. Kolbe, _Hessische
Volks-Sitten und Gebraeuche_*[2] (Marburg, 1888), pp. 44 _sqq._; _County
Folk-lore, Printed Extracts, Leicestershire and Rutland_, collected by
C.J. Billson (London, 1895), pp. 75 _sq._; A. Tiraboschi, "Usi pasquali
nel Bergamasco," _Archivio per lo Studio delle Tradizione Popolari_, i.
(1892) pp. 442 _sq._ The ecclesiastical custom of lighting the Paschal
or Easter candle is very fully described by Mr. H.J. Feasey, _Ancient
English Holy Week Ceremonial_ (London, 1897), pp. 179 _sqq._ These
candles were sometimes of prodigious size; in the cathedrals of Norwich
and Durham, for example, they reached almost to the roof, from which
they had to be lighted. Often they went by the name of the Judas Light
or the Judas Candle; and sometimes small waxen figures of Judas were
hung on them. See H.J. Feasey, _op. cit._ pp. 193, 213 _sqq._ As to the
ritual of the new fire at St. Peter's in Rome, see R. Chambers, _The
Book of Days_ (London and Edinburgh, 1886), i. 421; and as to the early
history of the rite in the Catholic church, see Mgr. L. Duchesne,
_Origines du Culte Chretien_*[3] (Paris, 1903), pp. 250-257.]

[306] _Bavaria, Landes und Volkskunde des Koenigreichs Bayern_ (Munich,
1860-1867), i. 1002 _sq._

[307] Gennaro Finamore, _Credenze, Usi e Costumi Abruzzesi_ (Palermo,
1890), pp. 122 _sq._

[308] G. Finamore, _op. cit._ pp. 123 _sq._

[309] Vincenzo Dorsa, _La Tradizione Greco-Latina negli Usi e nelle
Credenze Popolari della Calabria Citeriore_ (Cosenza, 1884), pp. 48
_sq._

[310] Alois John, _Sitte, Brauch und Volksglaube im deutschen
Westboehmen_ (Prague, 1905), pp. 62 _sq._

[311] K. Seifart, _Sagen, Maerchen, Schwaenke und Gebraeuche aits Stadt und
Stift Hildesheim_*[2] (Hildesheim, 1889), pp. 177 _sq._, 179 _sq._

[312] M. Lexer, "Volksueberlieferungen aus dem Lesachthal in Karnten,"
_Zeitschrift fuer deutsche Mythologie und Sittenkunde_, iii. (1855) p.
31.

[313] _The Popish Kingdome or reigne of Antichrist, written in Latin
verse by Thomas Naogeorgus and Englyshed by Barnabe Googe_, 1570, edited
by R.C. Hope (London, 1880), p. 52, _recto._ The title of the original
poem was _Regnum Papisticum_. The author, Thomas Kirchmeyer (Naogeorgus,
as he called himself), died in 1577. The book is a satire on the abuses
and superstitions of the Catholic Church. Only one perfect copy of
Googe's translation is known to exist: it is in the University Library
at Cambridge. See Mr. R.C. Hope's introduction to his reprint of this
rare work, pp. xv. _sq._ The words, "Then Clappers ceasse, and belles
are set againe at libertee," refer to the custom in Catholic countries
of silencing the church bells for two days from noon on Maundy Thursday
to noon on Easter Saturday and substituting for their music the harsh
clatter of wooden rattles. See R. Chambers, _The Book of Days_ (London
and Edinburgh, 1886), i, 412 _sq._ According to another account the
church bells are silent from midnight on the Wednesday preceding Maundy
Thursday till matins on Easter Day. See W. Smith and S. Cheetham,
_Dictionary of Christian Antiquities_ (London, 1875-1880), ii. 1161,
referring to _Ordo Roman_. i. _u.s._

[314] R. Chambers, _The Book of Days_ (London and Edinburgh, 1886), i.
421.

[315] Miss Jessie L. Weston, "The _Scoppio del Carro_ at Florence,"
_Folk-lore_, xvi. (1905) pp. 182-184; "Lo Scoppio del Carro,"
_Resurrezione, Numero Unico del Sabato Santo_ (Florence, April, 1906),
p. 1 (giving a picture of the car with its pyramid of fire-works). The
latter paper was kindly sent to me from Florence by my friend Professor
W.J. Lewis. I have also received a letter on the subject from Signor
Carlo Placci, dated 4 (or 7) September, 1905, 1 Via Alfieri, Firenze.

[316] Frederick Starr, "Holy Week in Mexico," _The Journal of American
Folk-lore_, xii. (1899) pp. 164 _sq._; C. Boyson Taylor, "Easter in Many
Lands," _Everybody's Magazine_, New York, 1903, p. 293. I have to thank
Mr. S.S. Cohen, of 1525 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, for sending me a
cutting from the latter magazine.

[317] K. von den Steinen, _Unter den Naturvoelkern Zentral-Brasiliens_
(Berlin, 1894), pp. 458 _sq._; E. Montet, "Religion et Superstition dans
l'Amerique du Sud," _Revue de l'Histoire des Religions_, xxxii. (1895)
p. 145.

[318] J.J. von Tschudi, _Peru, Reiseskizzen aus den Jahren 1838-1842_
(St. Gallen, 1846), ii. 189 _sq._

[319] H. Candelier, _Rio-Hacha et les Indiens Goajires_ (Paris, 1893),
p. 85.

[320] Henry Maundrell, "A Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem at Easter,
A.D. 1697," in Bohn's _Early Travellers in Palestine_ (London, 1848),
pp. 462-465; Mgr. Auvergne, in _Annales de la Propagation de la Foi_, x.
(1837) pp. 23 _sq._; A.P. Stanley, _Sinai and Palestine_, Second Edition
(London, 1856), pp. 460-465; E. Cortet, _Essai sur les Fetes
Religieuses_ (Paris, 1867), pp. 137-139; A.W. Kinglake, _Eothen_,
chapter xvi. pp. 158-163 (Temple Classics edition); Father N. Abougit,
S.J., "Le feu du Saint-Sepulcre," _Les Missions Catholiques_, viii.
(1876) pp. 518 _sq._; Rev. C.T. Wilson, _Peasant Life in the Holy Land_
(London, 1906), pp. 45 _sq._; P. Saint-yves, "Le Renouvellement du Feu
Sacre," _Revue des Traditions Populaires_, xxvii. (1912) pp. 449 _sqq._
The distribution of the new fire in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is
the subject of a picture by Holman Hunt. From some printed notes on the
picture, with which Mrs. Holman Hunt was so kind as to furnish me, it
appears that the new fire is carried by horsemen to Bethlehem and Jaffa,
and that a Russian ship conveys it from Jaffa to Odessa, whence it is
distributed all over the country.

[321] Father X. Abougit, S.J., "Le feu du Saint-Sepulcre," _Les Missions
Catholiques_, viii. (1876) pp. 165-168.

[322] I have described the ceremony as I witnessed it at Athens, on
April 13th, 1890. Compare _Folk-lore_, i. (1890) p. 275. Having been
honoured, like other strangers, with a place on the platform, I did not
myself detect Lucifer at work among the multitude below; I merely
suspected his insidious presence.

[323] W.H.D. Rouse, "Folk-lore from the Southern Sporades," _Folk-lore_,
x. (1899) p. 178.

[324] Mrs. A.E. Gardner was so kind as to send me a photograph of a
Theban Judas dangling from a gallows and partially enveloped in smoke.
The photograph was taken at Thebes during the Easter celebration of
1891.

[325] G.F. Abbott, _Macedonian Folklore_ (Cambridge, 1903) p. 37.

[326] Cirbied, "Memoire sur la gouvernment et sur la religion des
anciens Armeniens," _Memoires publiees par la Societe Royale des
Antiquaires de France_, ii. (1820) pp. 285-287; Manuk Abeghian, _Der
armenische Volksglaube_ (Leipsic, 1899), pp. 72-74. The ceremony is said
to be merely a continuation of an old heathen festival which was held at
the beginning of spring in honour of the fire-god Mihr. A bonfire was
made in a public place, and lamps kindled at it were kept burning
throughout the year in each of the fire-god's temples.

[327] _The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings_, i. 32, ii. 243;
_Spirits of the Corn and of the Wild_, ii. 65, 74, 75, 78, 136.

[328] Garcilasso de la Vega, _Royal Commentaries of the Yncas_
translated by (Sir) Clements R. Markham (Hakluyt Society, London,
1869-1871), vol. ii. pp. 155-163. Compare Juan de Velasco, "Histoire du
Royaume de Quito," in H. Ternaux-Compans's _Voyages, Relations et
Memoires originaux pour servir a l'Histoire de la Decouverte de
l'Amerique_, xviii. (Paris, 1840) p. 140.

[329] B. de Sahagun, _Histoire Generale des Choses de la Nouvelle
Espagne_, traduite par D. Jourdanet et R. Simeon (Paris, 1880), bk. ii.
chapters 18 and 37, pp. 76, 161; Brasseur de Bourbourg, _Histoire des
Nations civilisees du Mexique et de l'Amerique-Centrale_ (Paris,
1857-1859), iii. 136.

[330] Mrs. Matilda Coxe Stevenson, "The Zuni Indians," _Twenty-third
Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology_ (Washington, 1904),
pp. 108-141, 148-162, especially pp. 108, 109, 114 _sq._, 120 _sq._, 130
_sq._, 132, 148 _sq._, 157 _sq._ I have already described these
ceremonies in _Totemism and Exogamy_, iii. 237 _sq._ Among the Hopi
(Moqui) Indians of Walpi, another pueblo village of this region, new
fire is ceremonially kindled by friction in November. See Jesse Walter
Fewkes, "The Tusayan New Fire Ceremony," _Proceedings of the Boston
Society of Natural History_, xxvi. 422-458; _id._, "The Group of Tusayan
Ceremonials called _Katcinas," Fifteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of
Ethnology_ (Washington, 1897), p. 263; _id._, "Hopi _Katcinas,"
Twenty-first Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology_
(Washington, 1903), p. 24.

[331] Henry R. Schoolcraft, _Notes on the Iroquois_ (Albany, 1847), p.
137. Schoolcraft did not know the date of the ceremony, but he
conjectured that it fell at the end of the Iroquois year, which was a
lunar year of twelve or thirteen months. He says: "That the close of the
lunar series should have been the period of putting out the fire, and
the beginning of the next, the time of relumination, from new fire, is
so consonant to analogy in the tropical tribes, as to be probable" (_op.
cit._ p. 138).

[332] C.F. Hall, _Life with the Esquimaux_ (London, 1864), ii. 323.

[333] Franz Boas, "The Eskimo of Baffin Land and Hudson Bay," _Bulletin
of the American Museum of Natural, History_, xv. Part i. (New York,
1901) p. 151.

[334] G. Nachtigal, _Sahara und Sudan_, iii. (Leipsic, 1889) p. 251.

[335] Major C. Percival, "Tropical Africa, on the Border Line of
Mohamedan Civilization," _The Geographical Journal_, xlii. (1913) pp.
253 _sq._

[336] Adrien Germain, "Note sur Zanzibar et la cote orientale de
l'Afrique," _Bulletin de la Societe de Geographie_ (Paris), v. Serie
xvi. (1868) p. 557; _Les Missions Catholiques_, iii. (1870) p. 270;
Charles New, _Life, Wanderings, and Labours in Eastern Africa_ (London,
1873), p. 65; Jerome Becker, _La Vie en Afrique_ (Paris and Brussels,
1887), ii. 36; O. Baumann, _Usambara und seine Nachbargebiele_ (Berlin,
1891), pp. 55 _sq._; C. Velten, _Sitten und Gebraeucheaer Suaheli_
(Goettingen,1903), pp. 342-344.

[337] Duarte Barbosa, _Description of the Coasts of East Africa and
Malabar_ (Hakluyt Society, London, 1866), p. 8; _id._, in _Records of
South-Eastern Africa_, collected by G. McCall Theal, vol. i. (1898) p.
96; Damiao de Goes, "Chronicle of the Most Fortunate King Dom Emanuel,"
in _Records of South-Eastern Africa_, collected by G. McCall Theal, vol.
iii. (1899) pp. 130 _sq._ The name Benametapa (more correctly
_monomotapa_) appears to have been the regular title of the paramount
chief, which the Portuguese took to be the name of the country. The
people over whom he ruled seem to have been the Bantu tribe of the
Makalanga in the neighbourhood of Sofala. See G. McCall Theal, _Records
of South-Eastern Africa_, vii. (1901) pp. 481-484. It is to their custom
of annually extinguishing and relighting the fire that Montaigne refers
in his essay (i. 22, vol. i. p. 140 of Charpentier's edition), though he
mentions no names.

[338] Sir H.H. Johnson, _British Central Africa_ (London, 1897), pp.
426, 439.

[339] W.H.R. Rivers, _The Todas_ (London, 1906), pp. 290-292.

[340] Lieut. R. Stewart, "Notes on Northern Cachar," _Journal of the
Asiatic Society of Bengal_ xxiv. (1855) p. 612.

[341] A. Bastian, _Die Voelker des oestlichen Asien_, ii. (Leipsic, 1866)
pp. 49 _sq._; Shway Yoe, _The Burman_ (London, 1882), ii. 325 _sq._

[342] G. Schlegel, _Uranographie Chinoise_ (The Hague and Leyden, 1875),
pp. 139-143; C. Puini, "Il fuoco nella tradizione degli antichi Cinesi,"
_Giornale della Societa Asiatica Italiana_, i. (1887) pp. 20-23; J.J.M.
de Groot, _Les Fetes annuellement celebrees a Emoui (Amoy)_ (Paris,
1886), i. 208 _sqq._ The notion that fire can be worn out with age meets
us also in Brahman ritual. See the _Satapatha Brahmana_, translated by
Julius Eggeling, Part i. (Oxford, 1882) p. 230 (_Sacred Books of the
East_, vol. xii.).

[343] W.G. Aston, _Shinto, The Way of the Gods_ (London, 1905), pp. 258
_sq._, compare p. 193. The wands in question are sticks whittled near
the top into a mass of adherent shavings; they go by the name of
_kedzurikake_ ("part-shaved"), and resemble the sacred _inao_ of the
Aino. See W.G. Aston, _op. cit._ p. 191; and as to the _inao_, see
_Spirits of the Corn and of the Wild_, ii. 185, with note 2.

[344] Ovid, _Fasti_, iii. 82; Homer, _Iliad_, i. 590, _sqq._

[345] Philostiatus, _Heroica_, xx. 24.

[346] Ovid, _Fasti_, iii. 143 _sq._; Macrobius, _Saturn_, i. 12. 6.

[347] Festus, ed. C.O. Mueller (Leipsic, 1839), p. 106, _s.v._ "Ignis."
Plutarch describes a method of rekindling the sacred fire by means of
the sun's rays reflected from a hollow mirror (_Numa_, 9); but he seems
to be referring to a Greek rather than to the Roman custom. The rule of
celibacy imposed on the Vestals, whose duty it was to relight the sacred
fire as well as to preserve it when it was once made, is perhaps
explained by a superstition current among French peasants that if a girl
can blow up a smouldering candle into a flame she is a virgin, but that
if she fails to do so, she is not. See Jules Lecoeur, _Esquisses du
Bocage Normand_ (Conde-sur-Noireau, 1883-1887), ii. 27; B. Souche,
_Croyances, Presages et Traditions diverses_ (Niort, 1880), p. 12. At
least it seems more likely that the rule sprang from a superstition of
this sort than from a simple calculation of expediency, as I formerly
suggested (_Journal of Philology_, xiv. (1885) p. 158). Compare _The
Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings>_ ii. 234 _sqq._

[348] Geoffrey Keating, D.D., _The History of Ireland, translated from
the original Gaelic, and copiously annotated_, by John O'Mahony (New
York, 1857), p. 300, with the translator's note. Compare (Sir) John
Rhys, _Celtic Heathendom_ (London, 1888), pp. 514 _sq._

[349] W.R.S. Ralston, _Songs of the Russian People_, Second Edition
(London, 1872), pp. 254 _sq._

[350] A. Kuhn und W. Schwartz, _Norddeutsche Sagen, Maerchen und
Gebraeuche_ (Leipsic, 1848), p. 373; A. Kuhn, _Sagen, Gebraeuche und
Maerchen aus Westfalen_ (Leipsic, 1859), ii. 134 _sqq.; id., Maerkische
Sagen und Maerchen_ (Berlin, 1843), pp. 312 _sq._; J.D.H. Temme, _Die
Volkssagen der Altmark_ (Berlin, 1839), pp. 75 _sq._; K. Lynker,
_Deutsche Sagen und Sitten in hessischen Gauen_*[2] (Cassel and
Goettingen, 1860), p. 240; H. Proehle, _Harzbilder_ (Leipsic, 1855), p.
63; R. Andree, _Braunschweiger Volkskunde_ (Brunswick, 1896), pp.
240-242; W. Kolbe, _Hessische Volks-Sitten und Gebraeuche_ (Marburg,
1888), pp. 44-47; F.A. Reimann, _Deutsche Volksfeste_ (Weimar, 1839), p.
37; "Sitten und Gebraeuche in Duderstadt," _Zeitschrift fuer deutsche
Mythologie und Sitten-kunde_, ii. (1855) p. 107; K. Seifart, _Sagen,
Maerchen, Schwaenke und Gebraeuche aus Stadt und Stift Hildesheim_*[2]
(Hildesheim, 1889), pp. 177, 180; O. Hartung, "Zur Volkskunde aus
Anhalt," _Zeitschrift des Vereins fuer Volkskunde_, vii. (1897) p. 76.

[351] L. Strackerjan, _Aberglaube und Sagen aus dem Herzogthum
Oldenburg_ (Oldenburg, 1867), ii. p. 43 _sq._, Sec.313; W. Mannhardt, _Der
Baumkultus der Germanen und ihrer Nachbarstaemme_ (Berlin, 1875), pp. 505
_sq._

[352] L. Strackerjan, _op. cit._ ii. p. 43, Sec.313.

[353] J. Grimm, _Deutsche Mythologie_,*[4] (Berlin, 1875-1878), i. 512;
W. Mannhardt, _Der Baumkultus der Germanen und ihrer Nachbarstaemme_, pp.
506 _sq._

[354] H. Proehle, _Harzbilder_ (Leipsic, 1855), p. 63; _id._, in
_Zeitschrift fuer deutsche Mythologie und Sittenkunde_, i. (1853) p. 79;
A. Kuhn und W. Schwartz, _Norddeutsche Sagen, Maerchen und Gebraeuche_
(Leipsic, 1848), p. 373; W. Mannhardt, _Der Baumkultus_, p. 507.

[355] A. Kuhn, _Maerkische Sagen und Maerchen_ (Berlin, 1843), pp. 312
_sq._; W. Mannhardt, _l.c._

[356] W. Mannhardt, _Der Baumkultus_ p. 508. Compare J.W. Wolf,
_Beitraege zur deutschen Mythologie_ (Goettingen, 1852-1857), i. 74; J.
Grimm, _Deutsche Mythologie_,*[4] i. 512. The two latter writers only
state that before the fires were kindled it was customary to hunt
squirrels in the woods.

[357] A. Kuhn, _l.c._; W. Mannhardt, _Der Baumkultus_, p. 508.

[358] _Bavaria, Landes- und Volkskunde des Koenigreichs Bayern_ (Munich,
1860-1867), iii. 956.

[359] See above, pp. 116 _sq._, 119.

[360] F. Panzer, _Beitrag zur deutschen Mythologie_ (Munich, 1848-1855),
i. pp. 211 _sq._, Sec. 233; W. Mannhardt, _Der Baumkultus_, pp. 507 _sq._

[361] _Bavaria, Landes- und Volkskunde des Koenigreichs Bayern_, iii.
357.

[362] F. Panzer, _Beitrag zur deutschen Mythologie_ (Munich, 1848-1855),
i. pp. 212 _sq._, Sec. 236.

[363] F. Panzer, _op. cit._ ii. pp. 78 _sq._, Sec.Sec. 114, 115. The customs
observed at these places and at Althenneberg are described together by
W. Mannhardt, _Der Baumkultus_, p. 505.

[364] A. Birlinger, _Volksthuemliches aus Schwaben_ (Freiburg im
Breisgau, 1861-1862), ii. p. 82, Sec. 106; W. Mannhardt, _Der Baumkultus_,
p. 508.

[365] Elard Hugo Meyer, _Badisches Volksleben_ (Strasburg, 1900), pp. 97
_sq._

[366] _The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings_, ii. 349 _sqq._ See
further below, vol. ii. pp. 298 _sqq._

[367] J.W. Wolf, _Beitraege sur deutschen Mythologie_, i. 75 _sq._; W.
Mannhardt, _Der Baumkultus_, p. 506.

[368] L. Lloyd, _Peasant Life in Sweden_ (London, 1870), p. 228.

[369] W. Mueller, _Beitraege sur Volkskunde der Deutschen in Mahren_
(Vienna and Olmuetz, 1893), pp. 321, 397 _sq._ In Wagstadt, a town of
Austrian Silesia, a boy in a red waistcoat used to play the part of
Judas on the Wednesday before Good Friday. He was chased from before the
church door by the other school children, who pursued him through the
streets with shouts and the noise of rattles and clappers till they
reached a certain suburb, where they always caught and beat him because
he had betrayed the Redeemer. See Anton Peter, _Volksthuemliches aus
oesterreichisch-Schlesien_ (Troppau, 1865-1867), ii. 282 _sq._; Paul
Drechsler, _Sitte, Brauch und Volksglaube in Schlesien_ (Leipsic,
1903-1906), i. 77 _sq._

[370] _Scotland and Scotsmen in the Eighteenth Century_, from the MSS.
of John Ramsay, Esq., of Ochtertyre, edited by Alexander Allardyce
(Edinburgh and London, 1888), ii. 439-445. As to the _tein-eigin_ or
need-fire, see below, pp. 269 _sqq_. The etymology of the word Beltane
is uncertain; the popular derivation of the first part from the
Phoenician Baal is absurd. See, for example, John Graham Dalyell, _The
Darker Superstitions of Scotland_ (Edinburgh, 1834), pp. 176 _sq._: "The
recognition of the pagan divinity Baal, or Bel, the Sun, is discovered
through innumerable etymological sources. In the records of Scottish
history, down to the sixteenth or seventeenth centuries, multiplied
prohibitions were issued from the fountains of ecclesiastical
ordinances, against kindling _Bailfires_, of which the origin cannot be
mistaken. The festival of this divinity was commemorated in Scotland
until the latest date." Modern scholars are not agreed as to the
derivation of the name Beltane. See Rev. John Gregorson Campbell,
_Witchcraft and Second Sight in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland_
(Glasgow, 1902), pp. 268 _sq._; J.A. MacCulloch, _The Religion of the
Ancient Celts_ (Edinburgh, 1911), p. 264.

[371] "_Bal-tein_ signifies the _fire of Baal. Baal_ or _Ball_ is the
only word in Gaelic for _a globe_. This festival was probably in honour
of the sun, whose return, in his apparent annual course, they
celebrated, on account of his having such a visible influence, by his
genial warmth, on the productions of the earth. That the Caledonians
paid a superstitious respect to the sun, as was the practice among many
other nations, is evident, not only by the sacrifice at Baltein, but
upon many other occasions. When a Highlander goes to bathe, or to drink
waters out of a consecrated fountain, he must always approach by going
round the place, _from east to west on the south side_, in imitation of
the apparent diurnal motion of the sun. When the dead are laid in the
earth, the grave is approached by going round in the same manner. The
bride is conducted to her future spouse, in the presence of the
minister, and the glass goes round a company, in the course of the sun.
This is called, in Gaelic, going round the right, or the _lucky way_.
The opposite course is the wrong, or the _unlucky_ way. And if a
person's meat or drink were to affect the wind-pipe, or come against his
breath, they instantly cry out _deisheal_! which is an ejaculation
praying that it may go by the right way" (Rev. J. Robertson, in Sir John
Sinclair's _Statistical Account of Scotland_, xi. 621 note). Compare
J.G. Campbell, _Superstitions of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland_
(Glasgow, 1900), pp. 229 _sq._: "_The Right-hand Turn_ (_Deiseal_).--
This was the most important of all the observances. The rule is
'_Deiseal_ (i.e. the right-hand turn) for everything,' and consists in
doing all things with a motion corresponding to the course of the sun,
or from left to right. This is the manner in which screw-nails are
driven, and is common with many for no reason but its convenience. Old
men in the Highlands were very particular about it. The coffin was taken
_deiseal_ about the grave, when about to be lowered; boats were turned
to sea according to it, and drams are given to the present day to a
company. When putting a straw rope on a house or corn-stack, if the
assistant went _tuaitheal_ (i.e. against the course of the sun), the old
man was ready to come down and thrash him. On coming to a house the
visitor should go round it _deiseal_ to secure luck in the object of his
visit. After milking a cow the dairy-maid should strike it _deiseal_
with the shackle, saying 'out and home' (_mach 'us dachaigh_). This
secures its safe return. The word is from _deas_, right-hand, and _iul_,
direction, and of itself contains no allusion to the sun." Compare M.
Martin, "Description of the Western Islands of Scotland," in J.
Pinkerton's _Voyages and Travels_, iii. 612 _sq._: "There was an ancient
custom in the island of Lewis, to make a fiery circle about the houses,
corn, cattle, etc., belonging to each particular family: a man carried
fire in his right hand, and went round, and it was called _dessil_, from
the right hand, which in the ancient language is called _dess_.... There
is another way of the _dessil_, or carrying fire round about women
before they are churched, after child-bearing; and it is used likewise
about children until they are christened; both which are performed in
the morning and at night. This is only practised now by some of the
ancient midwives: I enquired their reason for this custom, which I told
them was altogether unlawful; this disobliged them mightily, insomuch
that they would give me no satisfaction. But others, that were of a more
agreeable temper, told me that fire-round was an effectual means to
preserve both the mother and the infant from the power of evil spirits,
who are ready at such times to do mischief, and sometimes carry away the
infant; and when they get them once in their possession, return them
poor meagre skeletons; and these infants are said to have voracious
appetites, constantly craving for meat. In this case it was usual with
those who believed that their children were thus taken away, to dig a
grave in the fields upon quarter-day, and there to lay the fairy
skeleton till next morning; at which time the parents went to the place,
where they doubted not to find their own child instead of this skeleton.
Some of the poorer sort of people in these islands retain the custom of
performing these rounds sun-ways about the persons of their benefactors
three times, when they bless them, and wish good success to all their
enterprizes. Some are very careful when they set out to sea that the
boat be first rowed about sun-ways; and if this be neglected, they are
afraid their voyage may prove unfortunate." Probably the superstition
was based entirely on the supposed luckiness of the right hand, which
accordingly, in making a circuit round an object, is kept towards the
centre. As to a supposed worship of the sun among the Scottish
Highlanders, compare J.G. Campbell, _Witchcraft and Second Sight in the
Highlands and Islands of Scotland_, p. 304: "Both the sun (_a Ghrian_)
and moon (_a Ghealach_) are feminine in Gaelic, and the names are simply
descriptive of their appearance. There is no trace of a Sun-God or
Moon-Goddess." As to the etymology of Beltane, see above, p. 149 note.

[372] Rev. James Robertson (Parish Minister of Callander), in Sir John
Sinclair's _Statistical Account of Scotland_ (Edinburgh, 1791-1799), xi.
620 _sq._

[373] Pennant's "Tour in Scotland," in John Pinkerton's _Voyages and
Travels_ (London, 1808-1814), iii. 49.

[374] Rev. Dr. Thomas Bisset, in Sir John Sinclair's _Statistical
Account of Scotland_, v. 84.

[375] Rev. Allan Stewart, in Sir John Sinclair's _Statistical Account of
Scotland_, xv. 517 note.

[376] Rev. Walter Gregor, "Notes on Beltane Cakes," _Folk-lore_, vi.
(1895) pp. 2 _sq._ The Beltane cakes with the nine knobs on them remind
us of the cakes with twelve knobs which the Athenians offered to Cronus
and other deities (see _The Scapegoat_, p. 351). The King of the Bean on
Twelfth Night was chosen by means of a cake, which was broken in as many
pieces as there were persons present, and the person who received the
piece containing a bean or a coin became king. See J. Boemus, _Mores,
leges et ritus omnium gentium_ (Lyons, 1541), p. 222; John Brand,
_Popular Antiquities of Great Britain_ (London, 1882-1883), i. 22 _sq.;
The Scapegoat_, pp. 313 _sqq._

[377] Shaw, in Pennant's "Tour in Scotland," printed in J. Pinkerton's
_Voyages and Travels_, iii. 136. The part of Scotland to which Shaw's
description applies is what he calls the province or country of Murray,
extending from the river Spey on the east to the river Beauly on the
west, and south-west to Loch Lochy.

[378] Rev. Walter Gregor, _Notes on the Folk-lore of the North-East of
Scotland_ (London, 1881), p. 167.

[379] A. Goodrich-Freer, "More Folklore from the Hebrides," _Folk-lore_,
xiii. (1902) p. 41. The St. Michael's cake (_Struthan na h'eill
Micheil_), referred to in the text, is described as "the size of a
quern" in circumference. "It is kneaded simply with water, and marked
across like a scone, dividing it into four equal parts, and then placed
in front of the fire resting on a quern. It is not polished with dry
meal as is usual in making a cake, but when it is cooked a thin coating
of eggs (four in number), mixed with buttermilk, is spread first on one
side, then on the other, and it is put before the fire again. An earlier
shape, still in use, which tradition associates with the female sex, is
that of a triangle with the corners cut off. A _struhthan_ or
_struhdhan_ (the word seems to be used for no other kind of cake) is
made for each member of the household, including servants and herds.
When harvest is late, an early patch of corn is mown on purpose for the
_struthan_" (A. Goodrich-Freer, _op. cit._ pp. 44. _sq._.)

[380] Marie Trevelyan, _Folk-lore and Folk-stories of Wales_ (London,
1909), pp. 22-24.

[381] Jonathan Ceredig Davies, _Folklore of West and Mid-Wales_
(Aberystwyth, 1911), p. 76.

[382] Joseph Train, _An Historical and Statistical Account of the Isle
of Man_ (Douglas, Isle of Man, 1845), i. 314 _sq._

[383] (Sir) John Rhys, _Celtic Folk-lore, Welsh and Manx_ (Oxford,
1901), i. 309; _id._, "The Coligny Calendar," _Proceedings of the
British Academy, 1909-1910_, pp. 261 _sq._ See further _The Magic Art
and the Evolution of Kings_, ii. 53 _sq._

[384] Professor Frank Granger, "Early Man," in _The Victoria History of
the County of Nottingham_, edited by William Page, i. (London, 1906) pp.
186 _sq._

[385] (Sir) John Rhys, _Celtic Folk-lore, Welsh and Manx_ (Oxford,
1901), i. 310; _id._, "Manx Folk-lore and Superstitions," _Folk-lore_,
ii. (1891) pp. 303 _sq._

[386] P.W. Joyce, _A Social History of Ancient Ireland_ (London, 1903),
i. 290 _sq._, referring to Kuno Meyer, _Hibernia Minora_, p. 49 and
_Glossary_, 23.

[387] J.B. Bury, _The Life of St. Patrick_ (London, 1905), pp. 104
_sqq._

[388] Above, p. 147.

[389] Geoffrey Keating, D.D., _The History of Ireland_, translated by
John O'Mahony (New York, 1857), pp. 300 _sq._

[390] (Sir) John Rhys, "Manx Folk-lore and Superstition," _Folk-lore_,
ii. (1891) p. 303; _id., Celtic Folk-lore, Welsh and Manx_ (Oxford,
1901), i. 309. Compare P.W. Joyce, _A Social History of Ancient Ireland_
(London, 1903), i. 291: "The custom of driving cattle through fires
against disease on the eve of the 1st of May, and on the eve of the 24th
June (St. John's Day), continued in Ireland, as well as in the Scottish
Highlands, to a period within living memory." In a footnote Mr. Joyce
refers to Carmichael, _Carmina Gadelica_, ii. 340, for Scotland, and
adds, "I saw it done in Ireland."

[391] L. Lloyd, _Peasant Life in Sweden_ (London, 1870), pp. 233 _sq._

[392] Reinsberg-Dueringsfeld, _Fest-Kalender aus Boehmen_ (Prague, N.D.),
pp. 211 _sq._; Br. Jelinek, "Materialien zur Vorgeschichte und
Volkskunde Boehmens," _Mittheilungen der anthropologischen Gesellschaft
in Wien_, xxi. (1891) p. 13; Alois John, _Sitte, Branch, und Volksglaube
im deutschen Westboehmen_ (Prague, 1905), p. 71.

[393] J.A.E. Koehler, _Volksbrauch, Aberglauben, Sagen und andre alte
Ueberlieferungen im Voigtlande_ (Leipsic, 1867), p. 373. The
superstitions relating to witches at this season are legion. For
instance, in Saxony and Thuringia any one who labours under a physical
blemish can easily rid himself of it by transferring it to the witches
on Walpurgis Night. He has only to go out to a cross-road, make three
crosses on the blemish, and say, "In the name of God the Father, the
Son, and the Holy Ghost." Thus the blemish, whatever it may be, is left
behind him at the cross-road, and when the witches sweep by on their way
to the Brocken, they must take it with them, and it sticks to them
henceforth. Moreover, three crosses chalked up on the doors of houses
and cattle-stalls on Walpurgis Night will effectually prevent any of the
infernal crew from entering and doing harm to man or beast. See E.
Sommer, _Sagen, Maerchen und Gebraeuche aus Sachsen und Thueringen_ (Halle,
1846), pp. 148 _sq.; Die gestriegelte Rockenphilosophie_ (Chemnitz,
1759), p. 116.

[394] See _The Scapegoat_, pp. 158 _sqq._

[395] As to the Midsummer Festival of Europe in general see the evidence
collected in the "Specimen Calendarii Gentilis," appended to the _Edda
Rhythmica seu Antiquior, vulgo Saemundina dicta_, Pars iii. (Copenhagen,
1828) pp. 1086-1097.

[396] John Mitchell Kemble, _The Saxons in England_, New Edition
(London, 1876), i. 361 _sq_., quoting "an ancient MS. written in
England, and now in the Harleian Collection, No. 2345, fol. 50." The
passage is quoted in part by J. Brand, _Popular Antiquities of Great
Britain_ (London, 1882-1883), i. 298 _sq._, by R.T. Hampson, _Medii Aevi
Kalendarium_ (London, 1841), i. 300, and by W. Mannhardt, _Der
Baumkultus_, p. 509. The same explanations of the Midsummer fires and of
the custom of trundling a burning wheel on Midsummer Eve are given also
by John Beleth, a writer of the twelfth century. See his _Rationale
Divinorum Officiorum_ (appended to the _Rationale Divinorum Officiorum_
of G. [W.] Durandus, Lyons, 1584), p. 556 _recto: "Solent porro hoc
tempore_ [the Eve of St. John the Baptist] _ex veteri consuetudine
mortuorum animalium ossa comburi, quod hujusmodi habet originem. Sunt
enim animalia, quae dracones appellamus.... Haec inquam animalia in aere
volant, in aquis natant, in terra ambulant. Sed quando in aere ad
libidinem concitantur (quod fere fit) saepe ipsum sperma vel in puteos,
vel in aquas fluviales ejicunt ex quo lethalis sequitur annus. Adversus
haec ergo hujusmodi inventum est remedium, ut videlicet rogus ex ossibus
construeretur, et ita fumus hujusmodi animalia fugaret. Et quia istud
maxime hoc tempore fiebat, idem etiam modo ab omnibus observatur....
Consuetum item est hac vigilia ardentes deferri faculas quod Johannes
fuerit ardens lucerna, et qui vias Domini praeparaverit. Sed quod etiam
rota vertatur hinc esse putant quia in eum circulum tunc Sol descenderit
ultra quem progredi nequit, a quo cogitur paulatim descendere_." The
substance of the passage is repeated in other words by G. Durandus
(Wilh. Durantis), a writer of the thirteenth century, in his _Rationale
Divinorum Officiorum_, lib. vii. cap. 14 (p. 442 _verso_, ed. Lyons,
1584). Compare J. Grimm, _Deutsche Mythologie_,*[4] i. 516.

With the notion that the air is poisoned at midsummer we may compare the
popular belief that it is similarly infected at an eclipse. Thus among
the Esquimaux on the Lower Yukon river in Alaska "it is believed that a
subtle essence or unclean influence descends to the earth during an
eclipse, and if any of it is caught in utensils of any kind it will
produce sickness. As a result, immediately on the commencement of an
eclipse, every woman turns bottom side up all her pots, wooden buckets,
and dishes" (E.W. Nelson, "The Eskimo about Bering Strait," _Eighteenth
Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology_, Part i. (Washington,
1899) p. 431). Similar notions and practices prevail among the peasantry
of southern Germany. Thus the Swabian peasants think that during an
eclipse of the sun poison falls on the earth; hence at such a time they
will not sow, mow, gather fruit or eat it, they bring the cattle into
the stalls, and refrain from business of every kind. If the eclipse
lasts long, the people get very anxious, set a burning candle on the
mantel-shelf of the stove, and pray to be delivered from the danger. See
Anton Birlinger, _Volksthuemliches aus Schwaben_ (Freiburg im Breisgau,
1861-1862), i. 189. Similarly Bavarian peasants imagine that water is
poisoned during a solar eclipse (F. Panzer, _Beitrag zur deutschen
Mythologie_, ii. 297); and Thuringian bumpkins cover up the wells and
bring the cattle home from pasture during an eclipse either of the sun
or of the moon; an eclipse is particularly poisonous when it happens to
fall on a Wednesday. See August Witzschel, _Sagen, Sitten und Gebraeuche
aus Thueringen_ (Vienna, 1878), p. 287. As eclipses are commonly supposed
by the ignorant to be caused by a monster attacking the sun or moon
(E.B. Tylor, _Primitive Culture_,*[2] London, 1873, i. 328 _sqq._), we
may surmise, on the analogy of the explanation given of the Midsummer
fires, that the unclean influence which is thought to descend on the
earth at such times is popularly attributed to seed discharged by the
monster or possibly by the sun or moon then in conjunction with each
other.

[397] _The Popish Kingdome or reigne of Antichrist, written in Latin
verse by Thomas Naogeorgus and Englyshed by Barnabe Googe, 1570_, edited
by R.C. Hope (London, 1880), p. 54 _verso_. As to this work see above,
p. 125 note 1.

[398] J. Boemus, _Mores, leges et ritus omnium gentium_ (Lyons, 1541),
pp. 225 _sq._

[399] Tessier, "Sur la fete annuelle de la roue flamboyante de la
Saint-Jean, a Basse-Kontz, arrondissement de Thionville," _Memoires et
dissertations publies par la Societe Royale des Antiquaires de France_,
v. (1823) pp. 379-393. Tessier witnessed the ceremony, 23rd June 1822
(not 1823, as is sometimes stated). His account has been reproduced more
or less fully by J. Grimm (_Deutsche Mythologie_,*[4] i. 515 _sq._) W.
Mannhardt (_Der Baumkultus_, pp. 510 _sq._), and H. Gaidoz ("Le dieu
gaulois du Soleil et le symbolisme de la Roue," _Revue Archeologique_,
iii. Serie, iv. (1884) pp. 24 _sq._).

[400] _Bavaria, Landes- und Volkskunde des Koenigreichs Bayern_ (Munich,
1860-1867), i. 373 _sq_.; compare _id_., iii. 327 _sq_. As to the
burning discs at the spring festivals, see above, pp. 116 _sq_., 119,
143.

[401] _Op. cit_. ii. 260 _sq_., iii. 936, 956, iv. 2. p. 360.

[402] _Op. cit_. ii. 260.

[403] _Op. cit._ iv. i. p. 242. We have seen (p. 163) that in the
sixteenth century these customs and beliefs were common in Germany. It
is also a German superstition that a house which contains a brand from
the midsummer bonfire will not be struck by lightning (J.W. Wolf,
_Beitraege, zur deutschen Mythologie_, i. p. 217, Sec. 185).

[404] J. Boemus, _Mores, leges et ritus omnium gentium_ (Lyons, 1541),
p. 226.

[405] Karl Freiherr von Leoprechting, _Aus dem Lechrain_ (Munich, 1855),
pp. 181 _sqq._; W. Mannhardt, _Der Baumkultus_, p. 510.

[406] A. Birlinger, _Volksthuemliches aus Schwaben_ (Freiburg im
Breisgau, 1861-1862), ii. pp. 96 _sqq._, Sec. 128, pp. 103 _sq._, Sec. 129;
_id., Aus Schwaben_ (Wiesbaden, 1874), ii. 116-120; E. Meier, _Deutsche
Sagen, Sitten und Gebraeuche aus Schwaben_ (Stuttgart, 1852), pp. 423
_sqq._; W. Mannhardt, _Der Baumkultus_, p. 510.

[407] F. Panzer, _Beitrag zur deutschen Mythologie_ (Munich, 1848-1855),
i. pp. 215 _sq._, Sec. 242; _id._, ii. 549.

[408] A. Birlinger, _Volksthuemliches aus Schwaben_ (Freiburg im
Breisgau, 1861-1862), ii. 99-101.

[409] Elard Hugo Mayer, _Badisches Volksleben_ (Strasburg, 1900), pp.
103 _sq._, 225 _sq._

[410] W. von Schulenberg, in _Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft
fuer Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte, Jahrgang 1897_, pp. 494
_sq._ (bound up with _Zeitschrift fuer Ethnologie_, xxix. 1897).

[411] H. Gaidoz, "Le dieu Gaulois du Soleil et le symbolisme de la
Roue," _Revue Archeologique_, iii. Serie, iv. (1884) pp. 29 _sq._

[412] Bruno Stehle, "Volksglauben, Sitten und Gebraeuche in Lothringen,"
_Globus_, lix. (1891) pp. 378 _sq._; "Die Sommerwendfeier im St.
Amarinthale," _Der Urquell_, N.F., i. (1897) pp. 181 _sqq._

[413] J.H. Schmitz, _Sitten und Sagen Lieder, Spruechwoerter und Raethsel
des Eifler Volkes_ (Treves, 1856-1858), i. 40 _sq._ According to one
writer, the garlands are composed of St. John's wort (Montanus, _Die
deutschen Volksfeste, Volksbraeuche und deutscher Volksglaube_, Iserlohn,
N.D., p. 33). As to the use of St. John's wort at Midsummer, see below,
vol. ii. pp. 54 _sqq._

[414] A. Kuhn und W. Schwartz, _Norddeutsche Sagen, Maerchen und
Gebraeuche_ (Leipsic, 1848), p. 390.

[415] Montanus, _Die deutschen Volksfeste, Volksbraeuche und deutscher
Volksglaube_ (Iserlohn, N.D.), pp. 33 _sq._

[416] C.L. Rochholz, _Deutscher Glaube und Brauch_ (Berlin, 1867), ii.
144 _sqq._

[417] Philo vom Walde, _Schlesien in Sage und Brauch_ (Berlin, N.D.), p.
124; Paul Drechsler, _Sitte, Brauch, und Volksglaube in Schlesien_
(Leipsic, 1903-1906), i. 136 _sq._

[418] J. Grimm, _Deutsche Mythologie,_*[4] i. 517 _sq._

[419] From information supplied by Mr. Sigurd K. Heiberg, engineer, of
Bergen, Norway, who in his boyhood regularly collected fuel for the
fires. I have to thank Miss Anderson, of Barskimming, Mauchline,
Ayrshire, for kindly procuring the information for me from Mr. Heiberg.

The Blocksberg, where German as well as Norwegian witches gather for
their great Sabbaths on the Eve of May Day (Walpurgis Night) and
Midsummer Eve, is commonly identified with the Brocken, the highest peak
of the Harz mountains. But in Mecklenburg, Pomerania, and probably
elsewhere, villages have their own local Blocksberg, which is generally
a hill or open place in the neighbourhood; a number of places in
Pomerania go by the name of the Blocksberg. See J. Grimm, _Deutsche
Mythologie_*[4] ii. 878 _sq._; Ulrich Jahn, _Hexenwesen und Zauberei in
Pommern_ (Breslau, 1886), pp. 4 _sq._; _id._, _Volkssagen aus Pommern
und Ruegen_ (Stettin, 1886), p. 329.

[420] L. Lloyd, _Peasant Life in Sweden_ (London, 1870), pp. 259, 265.

[421] L. Lloyd, _op. cit._ pp. 261 _sq._ These springs are called
"sacrificial fonts" (_Offer kaellor_) and are "so named because in
heathen times the limbs of the slaughtered victim, whether man or beast,
were here washed prior to immolation" (L. Lloyd, _op. cit._ p. 261).

[422] E. Hoffmann-Krayer, _Feste und Braeuche des Schweizervolkes_
(Zurich, 1913), p. 164.

[423] Ignaz V. Zingerle, _Sitten, Braeuche und Meinungen des Tiroler
Volkes_*[2] (Innsbruck, 1871), ii. p. 159, Sec. 1354.

[424] I.V. Zingerle, _op. cit._ p. 159, Sec.Sec. 1353, 1355, 1356; W.
Mannhardt, _Der Baumkultus_, p. 513.

[425] W. Mannhardt, _l.c._

[426] F. Panzer, _Beitrag zur deutschen Mythologie_ (Munich, 1848-1855),
i. p. 210, Sec. 231.

[427] Theodor Vernaleken, _Mythen und Braeuche des Volkes in Oesterreich_
(Vienna, 1859), pp. 307 _sq._

[428] J. Grimm, _Deutsche Mythologie_*[4] i. 519; Theodor Vernaleken,
_Mythen und Braeuche des Volkes in Oesterreich_ (Vienna, 1859), p. 308;
Joseph Virgil Grohmann, _Aberglauben und Gebraeuche aus Bohmen und
Maehren_ (Prague and Leipsic, 1864), p. 80, Sec. 636; Reinsberg-Dueringsfeld,
_Fest-Kalender aus Bohmen_ (Prague, N.D.), pp. 306-311; Br. Jelfnek,
"Materialien zur Vorgeschichte und Volkskunde Boehmens," _Mittheilungen
der anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien>_ xxi. (1891) p. 13; Alois
John, _Sitte, Brauch und Volksglaube im deutschen Westboehmen_ (Prague,
1905) pp. 84-86.

[429] Willibald Mueller, _Beitraege zur Volkskunde der Deutschen in
Maehren_ (Vienna and Olmutz, 1893), pp. 263-265.

[430] Anton Peter, _Volksthuemliches aus Oesterreichisch-Schlesien_
(Troppau, 1865-1867), ii. 287.

[431] Th. Vernaleken, _Mythen und Braeuche des Volkes in Oesterreich_
(Vienna, 1859), pp. 308 _sq._

[432] _The Dying God_, p. 262. Compare M. Kowalewsky, in _Folk-lore_, i.
(1890) p. 467.

[433] W.R.S. Ralston, _Songs of the Russian People_, Second Edition
(London, 1872), p. 240.

[434] J. Grimm, _Deutsche Mythologie_,*[4] i. 519; W.R.S. Ralston,
_Songs of the Russian People_ (London, 1872), pp. 240, 391.

[435] W.R.S. Ralston, _op. cit._ p. 240.

[436] W.R.S. Ralston, _l.c._

[437] W.J.A. von Tettau und J.D.H. Temme, _Die Volkssagen Ostpreussens,
Litthauens und Westpreussens_ (Berlin, 1837), p. 277.

[438] M. Toeppen, _Aberglauben aus Masuren_*[2] (Danzig, 1867), p. 71.

[439] F.S. Krauss, "Altslavische Feuergewinnung," _Globus_, lix. (1891)
p. 318.

[440] J.G. Kohl, _Die deutsch-russischen Ostseeprovinzen_ (Dresden and
Leipsic, 1841), i. 178-180, ii. 24 _sq._ Ligho was an old heathen deity,
whose joyous festival used to fall in spring.

[441] Ovid, _Fasti_, vi. 775 _sqq._

[442] Friederich S. Krauss, _Sitte und Brauch der Suedslaven_ (Vienna,
1885), pp. 176 _sq._

[443] J. Grimm, _Deutsche Mythologie_,*[4] i. 519.

[444] H. von Wlislocki, _Volksglaube und religioeser Brauch der Magyar_
(Muenster i. W., 1893), pp. 40-44.

[445] A. von Ipolyi, "Beitraege zur deutschen Mythologie aus Ungarn,"
_Zeitschrift fuer deutsche Mythologie und Sittenkunde_, i. (1853) pp. 270
_sq._

[446] J.G. Kohl, _Die deutsch-russischen Ostseeprovinzen_, ii. 268
_sq._; F.J. Wiedemann, _Aus dem inneren und aeusseren Leben der Ehsten_
(St. Petersburg, 1876), p. 362. The word which I have translated "weeds"
is in Esthonian _kaste-heinad_, in German _Thaugras_. Apparently it is
the name of a special kind of weed.

[447] Fr. Kreutzwald und H. Neus, _Mythische und Magische Lieder der
Ehsten_ (St. Petersburg, 1854), p. 62.

[448] J.B. Holzmayer, "Osiliana," _Verhandlungen der gelehrten
Estnischen Gesellschaft zu Dorpat_, vii. (1872) pp. 62 _sq._ Wiedemann
also observes that the sports in which young couples engage in the woods
on this evening are not always decorous (_Aus dem inneren und aeusseren
Leben der Ehsten_, p. 362).

[449] J.G. Kohl, _Die deutsch-russischen Ostseeprovinzen_, ii. 447 _sq._

[450] J.G. Georgi, _Beschreibung aller Nationen des russischen Reichs_
(St. Petersburg, 1776), p. 36; August Freiherr von Haxthausen, _Studien
ueber die innere Zustaende das Volksleben und insbesondere die laendlichen
Einrichtungen Russlands_ (Hanover, 1847), i. 446 _sqq._

[451] Alfred de Nore, _Coutumes, Mythes et Traditions des Provinces de
France_ (Paris and Lyons, 1846), p. 19.

[452] It is notable that St. John is the only saint whose birthday the
Church celebrates with honours like those which she accords to the
nativity of Christ. Compare Edmond Doutte, _Magie et Religion dans
l'Afrique du Nord_ (Algiers, 1908), p. 571 note I.

[453] Bossuet, _Oeuvres_ (Versailles, 1815-1819), vi. 276 ("Catechisme
du diocese de Meaux"). His description of the superstitions is, in his
own words, as follows: "_Danser a l'entour du feu, jouer, faire des
festins, chanter des chansons deshonnetes, jeter des herbes par-dessus
le feu, en cueillir avant midi ou a jeun, en porter sur soi, les
conserver le long de l'annee, garder des tisons ou des charbons du feu,
et autres semblables._" This and other evidence of the custom of
kindling Midsummer bonfires in France is cited by Ch. Cuissard in his
tract _Les Feux de la Saint-Jean_ (Orleans, 1884).

[454] Ch. Cuissard, _Les Feux de la Saint-Jean_ (Orleans, 1884), pp. 40
_sq._

[455] A. Le Braz, _La Legende de la Mort en Basse-Bretagne_ (Paris,
1893), p. 279. For an explanation of the custom of throwing a pebble
into the fire, see below, p. 240.

[456] M. Quellien, quoted by Alexandre Bertrand, _La Religion des
Gaulois_ (Paris, 1897), pp. 116 _sq._

[457] Collin de Plancy, _Dictionnaire Infernal_ (Paris, 1825-1826), iii.
40; J.W. Wolf, _Beitraege zur deutschen Mythologie_ (Goettingen,
1852-1857), i. p. 217, Sec. 185; A. Breuil, "Du Culte de St. Jean
Baptiste," _Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaires de Picardie_, viii.
(Amiens, 1845) pp. 189 _sq._

[458] Eugene Cortet, _Essai sur les Fetes Religieuses_ (Paris, 1867), p.
216; Ch. Cuissard, _Les Feux de la Saint-Jean_ (Orleans, 1884), p. 24.

[459] Paul Sebillot, _Coutumes populaires de la Haute-Bretagne_ (Paris,
1886), pp. 192-195. In Upper Brittany these bonfires are called _rieux_
or _raviers_.

[460] A. de Nore, _Coutumes, Mythes et Traditions des Provinces de
France_ (Paris and Lyons, 1846), p. 219; E. Cortet, _Essai sur les Fetes
Religieuses_, p. 216.

[461] A. de Nore, _Coutumes, Mythes et Traditions des Provinces de
France_, pp. 219, 228, 231; E. Cortet, _op. cit._ pp. 215 _sq._

[462] J. Lecoeur, _Esquisses du Bocage Normand_ (Conde-sur-Noireau,
1883-1887), ii. 219-224.

[463] This description is quoted by Madame Clement (_Histoire des fetes
civites et religieuses_, etc., _de la Belgique Meridionale_, Avesnes,
1846, pp. 394-396); F. Liebrecht (_Des Gervasius von Tilbury Otia
Imperialia_, Hanover, 1856, pp. 209 _sq._); and W. Mannhardt (_Antike
Wald und Feldkulte_, Berlin, 1877, pp. 323 _sqq._) from the _Magazin
pittoresque_, Paris, viii. (1840) pp. 287 _sqq._ A slightly condensed
account is given, from the same source, by E. Cortet (_Essai sur les
Fetes Religieuses_, pp. 221 _sq._).

[464] Bazin, quoted by Breuil, in _Memoires de la Societe d' Antiquaires
de Picardie_, viii. (1845) p. 191 note.

[465] Correspondents quoted by A. Bertrand, _La Religion des Gaulois_
(Paris, 1897), pp. 118, 406.

[466] Correspondent quoted by A. Bertrand, _op. cit._ p. 407.

[467] Felix Chapiseau, _Le folk-lore de la Beauce et du Perche_ (Paris,
1902), i. 318-320. In Perche the midsummer bonfires were called
_marolles_. As to the custom formerly observed at Bullou, near
Chateaudun, see a correspondent quoted by A. Bertrand, _La Religion des
Gaulois_ (Paris, 1897), p. 117.

[468] Albert Meyrac, _Traditions, Coutumes, Legendes, et Contes des
Ardennes_ (Charleville, 1890), pp. 88 _sq._

[469] L.F. Sauve, _Le Folk-lore des Hautes-Vosges_ (Paris, 1889), p.
186.

[470] Desire Monnier, _Traditions populaires comparees_ (Paris, 1854),
pp. 207 _sqq._; E. Cortet, _Essai sur les Fetes Religieuses_, pp. 217
_sq._

[471] Berenger-Feraud, _Reminiscences populaires de la Provence_ (Paris,
1885), p. 142.

[472] Charles Beauquier, _Les Mois en Franche-Comte_ (Paris, 1900), p.
89. The names of the bonfires vary with the place; among them are
_failles, bourdifailles, bas_ or _baux, feuleres_ or _folieres_, and
_chavannes_.

[473] _La Bresse Louhannaise_, Juin, 1906, p. 207.

[474] Laisnel de la Salle, _Croyances et Legendes du Centre de la
France_ (Paris, 1875), i. 78 _sqq._ The writer adopts the absurd
derivation of _jonee_ from Janus. Needless to say that our old friend
Baal, Bel, or Belus figures prominently in this and many other accounts
of the European fire-festivals.

[475] A. de Nore, _Coutumes, Mythes et Traditions des Provinces de
France_ (Paris and Lyons, 1846), p. 150.

[476] Correspondent, quoted by A. Bertrand, _La Religion des Gaulois_
(Paris, 1897), p. 408.

[477] Guerry, "Sur les usages et traditions du Poitou," _Memoires et
dissertations publies par la Societe Royale des Antiquaires de France_,
viii. (1829) pp. 451 _sq._

[478] Breuil, in _Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaires de Picardie_,
viii. (1845) p. 206; E. Cortet, _Essai sur les Fetes Religieuses_, p.
216; Laisnel de la Salle, _Croyances et Legendes du Centre de la
France_, i. 83; J. Lecoeur, _Esquisses du Bocage Normand_, ii. 225.

[479] H. Gaidoz, "Le dieu gaulois du soleil et le symbolisme de la
roue," _Revue Archeologique_, iii. Serie, iv. (1884) p. 26, note 3.

[480] L. Pineau, _Le Folk-lore du Poitou_ (Paris, 1892), pp. 499 _sq._
In Perigord the ashes of the midsummer bonfire are searched for the hair
of the Virgin (E. Cortet, _Essai sur les Fetes Religieuses_, p. 219).

[481] A. de Nore, _Coutumes Mythes et Traditions des Provinces de
France_, pp. 149 _sq._; E. Cortet, _op. cit._ pp. 218 _sq._

[482] Dupin, "Notice sur quelques fetes et divertissemens populaires du
departement des Deux-Sevres," _Memoires et Dissertations publies par la
Societe Royale des Antiquaires de France_, iv. (1823) p. 110.

[483] J.L.M. Nogues, _Les moeurs d'autrefois en Saintonge et en Aunis_
(Saintes, 1891), pp. 72, 178 _sq._

[484] H. Gaidoz, "Le dieu soleil et le symbolisme de la roue," _Revue
Archeologique_, iii. Serie, iv. (1884) p. 30.

[485] Ch. Cuissard, _Les Feux de la Saint-Jean_ (Orleans, 1884), pp. 22
_sq._

[486] A. de Nore, _Coutumes, Mythes et Traditions des Provinces de
France_ p. 127.

[487] Aubin-Louis Millin, _Voyage dans les Departemens du Midi de la
France_ (Paris, 1807-1811), iii. 341 _sq._

[488] Aubin-Louis Millin, _op. cit._ iii. 28.

[489] A. de Nore, _op. cit._ pp. 19 _sq._; Berenger-Feraud,
_Reminiscences populaires de la Provence_ (Paris, 1885), pp. 135-141. As
to the custom at Toulon, see Poncy, quoted by Breuil, _Memoires de la
Societe des Antiquaires de Picardie_, viii. (1845) p. 190 note. The
custom of drenching people on this occasion with water used to prevail
in Toulon, as well as in Marseilles and other towns in the south of
France. The water was squirted from syringes, poured on the heads of
passers-by from windows, and so on. See Breuil, _op. cit._ pp. 237 _sq._

[490] A. de Nore, _op. cit._ pp. 20 _sq._; E. Cortet, _op. cit._ pp.
218, 219 _sq._

[491] Le Baron de Reinsberg-Dueringsfeld, _Calendrier Belge_ (Brussels,
1861-1862), i. 416 _sq._ 439.

[492] Le Baron de Reinsberg-Dueringsfeld, _op. cit._ i. 439-442.

[493] Madame Clement, _Histoire des fetes civiles et religieuses_, etc.,
_du Departement du Nord_ (Cambrai, 1836), p. 364; J.W. Wolf, _Beitraege
zur deutschen Mythologie_ (Goettingen, 1852-1857), ii. 392; W. Mannhardt,
_Der Baumkultus_. p. 513.

[494] E. Monseur, _Folklore Wallon_ (Brussels, N.D.), p. 130, Sec.Sec. 1783,
1786, 1787.

[495] Joseph Strutt, _The Sports and Pastimes of the People of England_,
New Edition, by W. Hone (London, 1834), p. 359.

[496] John Stow, _A Survay of London_, edited by Henry Morley (London,
N.D.), pp. 126 _sq._ Stow's _Survay_ was written in 1598.

[497] John Brand, _Popular Antiquities of Great Britain_ (London,
1882-1883), i. 338; T.F. Thiselton Dyer, _British Popular Customs_
(London, 1876), p. 331. Both writers refer to _Status Scholae Etonensis_
(A.D. 1560).

[498] John Aubrey, _Remaines of Gentilisme and Judaisme_ (London, 1881),
p. 26.

[499] J. Brand, _Popular Antiquities of Great Britain_ (London,
1882-1883), i. 300 _sq._, 318, compare pp. 305, 306, 308 _sq._; W.
Mannhardt, _Der Baumkultus_, p. 512. Compare W. Hutchinson, _View of
Northumberland_, vol. ii. (Newcastle, 1778), Appendix, p. (15), under
the head "Midsummer":--"It is usual to raise fires on the tops of high
hills and in the villages, and sport and danse around them; this is of
very remote antiquity, and the first cause lost in the distance of
time."

[500] Dr. Lyttelton, Bishop of Carlisle, quoted by William Borlase,
_Antiquities, Historical and Monumental, of the County of Cornwall_
(London, 1769), p. 135 note.

[501] _County Folk-lore_, vol. iv. _Northumberland_, collected by M.C.
Balfour (London, 1904), p. 76, quoting E. Mackenzie, _An Historical,
Topographical, and Descriptive View of the County of Northumberland_,
Second Edition (Newcastle, 1825), i. 217.

[502] _County Folk-lore_, vol. iv. _Northumberland_, collected by M.C.
Balfour, p. 75.

[503] _County Folk-lore_, vol. iv. _Northumberland_, collected by M.C.
Balfour, p. 75.

[504] _The Denham Tracts_, edited by J. Hardy (London, 1892-1895), ii.
342 _sq._, quoting _Archaelogia Aeliana_, N.S., vii. 73, and the
_Proceedings_ of the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, vi. 242 _sq._;
_County Folk-lore_, vol. iv. _Northumberland_, collected by M.C. Balfour
(London, 1904), pp. 75 _sq._ Whalton is a village of Northumberland, not
far from Morpeth.

[505] _County Folk-lore_, vol. vi. _East Riding of Yorkshire_, collected
and edited by Mrs. Gutch (London, 1912), p. 102.

[506] John Aubrey, _Remaines of Gentilisme and Judaisme_ (London, 1881),
p. 96, compare _id._, p. 26.

[507] J. Brand, _Popular Antiquities of Great Britain_ (London,
1882-1883), i. 311.

[508] William Borlase, LL.D., _Antiquities, Historical and Monumental,
of the County of Cornwall_ (London, 1769), pp. 135 _sq._ The Eve of St.
Peter is June 28th. Bonfires have been lit elsewhere on the Eve or the
day of St. Peter. See above, pp. 194 _sq._ 196 _sq._, and below, pp. 199
_sq._, 202, 207.

[509] J. Brand, _op. cit._ i. 318, 319; T.F. Thiselton Dyer, _British
Popular Customs_ (London, 1876), p. 315.

[510] William Bottrell, _Traditions and Hearthside Stories of West
Cornwall_ (Penzance, 1870), pp. 8 _sq._, 55 _sq._; James Napier,
_Folk-lore, or Superstitious Beliefs in the West of Scotland_ (Paisley,
1879), p. 173.

[511] Richard Edmonds, _The Land's End District_ (London, 1862), pp. 66
_sq._; Robert Hunt, _Popular Romances of the West of England_, Third
Edition (London, 1881), pp. 207 _sq._

[512] Marie Trevelyan, _Folk-lore and Folk-stories of Wales_ (London,
1909), pp. 27 _sq._ Compare Jonathan Ceredig Davies, _Folk-lore of West
and Mid-Wales_ (Aberystwyth, 1911), p. 76.

[513] J. Brand, _Popular Antiquities of Great Britain_ (London,
1882-1883), i. 318.

[514] Joseph Train, _Account of the Isle of Man_ (Douglas, Isle of Man,
1845), ii. 120.

[515] Sir Henry Piers, _Description of the County of Westmeath_, written
in 1682, published by (General) Charles Vallancey, _Collectanea de Rebus
Hibernieis_, i. (Dublin, 1786) pp. 123 _sq._

[516] J. Brand, _Popular Antiquities of Great Britain_ (London,
1882-1883), i. 303, quoting the author of the _Survey of the South of
Ireland_, p. 232.

[517] J. Brand, _op. cit._ i. 305, quoting the author of the _Comical
Pilgrim's Pilgrimage into Ireland_ (1723), p. 92.

[518] _The Gentleman's Magazine_, vol. lxv. (London, 1795) pp. 124 _sq._
The writer dates the festival on June 21st, which is probably a mistake.

[519] T.F. Thiselton Dyer, _British Popular Customs_ (London, 1876), pp.
321 _sq._, quoting the _Liverpool Mercury_ of June 29th, 1867.

[520] L.L. Duncan, "Further Notes from County Leitrim," _Folk-lore_, v.
(1894) p. 193.

[521] A.C. Haddon, "A Batch of Irish Folk-lore," _Folk-lore_, iv. (1893)
pp. 351, 359.

[522] G.H. Kinahan, "Notes on Irish Folk-lore," _Folk-lore Record_, iv.
(1881) p. 97.

[523] Charlotte Elizabeth, _Personal Recollections_, quoted by Rev.
Alexander Hislop, _The Two Babylons_ (Edinburgh, 1853), p. 53.

[524] Lady Wilde, _Ancient Legends, Mystic Charms, and Superstitions of
Ireland_ (London, 1887), i. 214 _sq._

[525] T.F. Thiselton Dyer, _British Popular Customs_ (London, 1876), pp.
322 _sq._, quoting the _Hibernian Magazine_, July 1817. As to the
worship of wells in ancient Ireland, see P.W. Joyce, _A Social History
of Ancient Ireland_ (London, 1903), i. 288 _sq._, 366 _sqq._

[526] Rev. A. Johnstone, describing the parish of Monquhitter in
Perthshire, in Sir John Sinclair's _Statistical Account of Scotland_
(Edinburgh, 1791-1799), xxi. 145. Mr. W. Warde Fowler writes that in
Scotland "before the bonfires were kindled on midsummer eve, the houses
were decorated with foliage brought from the woods" (_Roman Festivals of
the Period of the Republic_, London, 1899, pp. 80 _sq._). For his
authority he refers to _Chambers' Journal_, July, 1842.

[527] John Ramsay, of Ochtertyre, _Scotland and Scotsmen in the
Eighteenth Century_, edited by A. Allardyce (Edinburgh, 1888), ii. 436.

[528] Rev. Mr. Shaw, Minister of Elgin, in Pennant's "Tour in Scotland,"
printed in John Pinkerton's _Voyages and Travels_ (London, 1808-1814),
iii. 136.

[529] A. Macdonald, "Midsummer Bonfires," _Folk-lore_, xv. (1904) pp.
105 _sq._

[530] From notes kindly furnished to me by the Rev. J.C. Higgins, parish
minister of Tarbolton. Mr. Higgins adds that he knows of no superstition
connected with the fire, and no tradition of its origin. I visited the
scene of the bonfire in 1898, but, as Pausanias says (viii. 41. 6) in
similar circumstances, "I did not happen to arrive at the season of the
festival." Indeed the snow was falling thick as I trudged to the village
through the beautiful woods of "the Castle o' Montgomery" immortalized
by Burns. From a notice in _The Scotsman_ of 26th June, 1906 (p. 8) it
appears that the old custom was observed as usual that year.

[531] Thomas Moresinus, _Papatus seu Depravatae Religionis Origo et
Incrementum_ (Edinburgh, 1594), p. 56.

[532] Rev. Dr. George Lawrie, in Sir John Sinclair's _Statistical
Account of Scotland_, iii. (Edinburgh, 1792) p. 105.

[533] Letter from Dr. Otero Acevado of Madrid, published in _Le Temps_,
September 1898. An extract from the newspaper was sent me, but without
mention of the day of the month when it appeared. The fires on St.
John's Eve in Spain are mentioned also by J. Brand, _Popular Antiquities
of Great Britain_, i. 317. Jacob Grimm inferred the custom from a
passage in a romance (_Deutsche Mythologie_,*[4] i. 518). The custom of
washing or bathing on the morning of St. John's Day is mentioned by the
Spanish historian Diego Duran, _Historia de las Indias de Nueva Espana_,
edited by J.F. Ramirez (Mexico, 1867-1880), vol. ii. p. 293. To roll in
the dew on the morning of St. John's Day is a cure for diseases of the
skin in Normandy, Perigord, and the Abruzzi, as well as in Spain. See J.
Lecoeur, _Esquisses du Bocage Normand_, ii. 8; A. de Nore, _Coutumes,
Mythes et Traditions des Provinces de France_, p. 150; Gennaro Finamore,
_Credenze, Usi e Costumi Abruzzesi_ (Palermo, 1890), p. 157.

[534] M. Longworth Dames and Mrs. E. Seemann, "Folklore of the Azores,"
_Folk-lore_, xiv. (1903) pp. 142 _sq._; Theophilo Braga, _O Povo
Portuguez nos seus Costumes, Crencas e Tradicoes_ (Lisbon, 1885), ii.
304 _sq._, 307 _sq._

[535] See below, pp. 234 _sqq._

[536] Angelo de Gubernatis, _Mythologie des Plantes_ (Paris, 1878-1882),
i. 185 note 1.

[537] _Adonis, Attis, Osiris_, Second Edition, pp. 202 _sq._

[538] G. Finamore, _Credenze, Usi e Costumi Abruzzesi_ (Palermo, 1890),
pp. 154 _sq._

[539] G. Finamore, _Credenze, Usi e Costumi Abruzzesi_, pp. 158-160. We
may compare the Provencal and Spanish customs of bathing and splashing
water at Midsummer. See above, pp. 193 _sq._, 208.

[540] Giuseppe Pitre, _Spettacoli e Feste Popolari Siciliane_ (Palermo,
1881), pp. 246, 308 _sq._; _id., Usi e Costumi, Credenze e Pregiudizi
del Popolo Siciliano_ (Palermo, 1889), pp. 146 _sq._

[541] J. Grimm, _Deutsche Mythologie_,*[4] i. 518.

[542] V. Busuttil, _Holiday Customs in Malta, and Sports, Usages,
Ceremonies, Omens, and Superstitions of the Maltese People_ (Malta,
1894), pp. 56 _sqq._ The extract was kindly sent to me by Mr. H.W.
Underwood (letter dated 14th November, 1902, Birbeck Bank Chambers,
Southampton Buildings, Chancery Lane, W.C.). See _Folk-lore_, xiv.
(1903) pp. 77 _sq._

[543] W. R. Paton, in _Folk-lore_, ii. (1891) p. 128. The custom was
reported to me when I was in Greece in 1890 (_Folk-lore_, i. (1890) p.
520).

[544] J. Grimm, _Deutsche Mythologie_,*[4] i. 519.

[545] G. Georgeakis et L. Pineau, _Le Folk-lore de Lesbos_ (Paris,
1894), pp. 308 _sq._

[546] W.R. Paton, in _Folk-lore_, vi. (1895) p. 94. From the stones cast
into the fire omens may perhaps be drawn, as in Scotland, Wales, and
probably Brittany. See above, p. 183, and below, pp. 230 _sq._, 239,
240.

[547] W.H.D. Rouse, "Folklore from the Southern Sporades," _Folk-lore_,
x. (1899) p. 179.

[548] Lucy M.J. Garnett, _The Women of Turkey and their Folk-lore, the
Christian Women_ (London, 1890), p. 122; G.F. Abbott, _Macedonian
Folklore_ (Cambridge, 1903), p. 57.

[549] J.G. von Hahn, _Albanesische Studien_ (Jena, 1854), i. 156.

[550] K. von den Steinen, _Unter den Natur-Voelkern Zentral-Brasiliens_
(Berlin, 1894), p. 561.

[551] Alcide d'Orbigny, _Voyage dans l'Amerique Meridionale_, ii. (Paris
and Strasbourg, 1839-1843), p. 420; D. Forbes, "On the Aymara Indians of
Bolivia and Peru," _Journal of the Ethnological Society of London_, ii.
(1870) p. 235.

[552] Edmond Doutte, _Magie et Religion dans l'Afrique du Nord_
(Algiers, 1908), pp. 566 _sq_. For an older but briefer notice of the
Midsummer fires in North Africa, see Giuseppe Ferraro, _Superstizioni,
Usi e Proverbi Monferrini_ (Palermo, 1886), pp. 34 _sq._: "Also in
Algeria, among the Mussalmans, and in Morocco, as Alvise da Cadamosto
reports in his _Relazione dei viaggi d'Africa_, which may be read in
Ramusio, people used to hold great festivities on St. John's Night; they
kindled everywhere huge fires of straw (the _Palilia_ of the Romans), in
which they threw incense and perfumes the whole night long in order to
invoke the divine blessing on the fruit-trees." See also Budgett Meakin,
_The Moors_ (London, 1902), p. 394: "The Berber festivals are mainly
those of Islam, though a few traces of their predecessors are
observable. Of these the most noteworthy is Midsummer or St. John's Day,
still celebrated in a special manner, and styled _El Ansarah_. In the
Rif it is celebrated by the lighting of bonfires only, but in other
parts there is a special dish prepared of wheat, raisins, etc.,
resembling the frumenty consumed at the New Year. It is worthy of remark
that the Old Style Gregorian calendar is maintained among them, with
corruptions of Latin names."

[553] Edward Westermarck, "Midsummer Customs in Morocco," _Folklore_,
xvi. (1905) pp. 28-30; _id., Ceremonies and Beliefs connected with
Agriculture, Certain Dates of the Solar Year, and the Weather_
(Helsingfors, 1913), pp. 79-83.

[554] E. Westermarck, "Midsummer Customs in Morocco," _Folk-lore_, xvi.
(1905) pp. 30 _sq._; _id., Ceremonies and Beliefs connected with
Agriculture_, etc., pp. 83 _sq._

[555] Edmond Doutte, _Magie et Religion dans l'Afrique du Nord_
(Algiers, 1908), pp. 567 _sq._

[556] E. Westermarck, "Midsummer Customs in Morocco," _Folk-lore_, xvi.
(1905) pp. 31 _sq._; _id., Ceremonies and Beliefs connected with
Agriculture_, etc., pp. 84-86.

[557] See K. Vollers, in Dr. James Hastings's _Encyclopaedia of Religion
and Ethics_ iii. (Edinburgh, 1910) _s.v._ "Calendar (Muslim)," pp. 126
_sq._ However, L. Ideler held that even before the time of Mohammed the
Arab year was lunar and vague, and that intercalation was only employed
in order to fix the pilgrimage month in autumn, which, on account of the
milder weather and the abundance of food, is the best time for pilgrims
to go to Mecca. See L. Ideler, _Handbuch der mathematischen und
techischen Chronologie_ (Berlin, 1825-1826), ii. 495 _sqq._

[558] E. Doutte, _Magie et Religion dans l'Afrique du Nord_, pp. 496,
509, 532, 543, 569. It is somewhat remarkable that the tenth, not the
first, day of the first month should be reckoned New Year's Day.

[559] E. Westermarck, "Midsummer Customs in Morocco," _Folk-lore_, xvi.
(1905) pp. 40-42.

[560] E. Doutte, _Magie et Religion dans l'Afrique du Nord_ (Algiers,
1908), pp. 541 _sq._

[561] E. Westermarck, "Midsummer Customs in Morocco," _Folk-lore_, xvi.
(1905) p. 42; _id., Ceremonies and Beliefs connected with Agriculture,
Certain Dates of the Solar Year, and the Weather in Morocco_
(Helsingfors, 1913), p. 101.

[562] E. Westermarck, "Midsummer Customs in Morocco," _Folk-lore_, xvi.
(1905), pp. 42 _sq._, 46 _sq.; id., Ceremonies and Beliefs connected
with Agriculture_, etc., _in Morocco_, pp. 99 _sqq._

[563] G. F. Abbott, _Macedonian Folklore_ (Cambridge, 1903), pp. 60
_sq._

[564] "Narrative of the Adventures of four Russian Sailors, who were
cast in a storm upon the uncultivated island of East Spitzbergen,"
translated from the German of P.L. Le Roy, in John Pinkerton's _Voyages
and Travels_ (London, 1808-1814), i. 603. This passage is quoted from
the original by (Sir) Edward B. Tylor, _Researches into the Early
History of Mankind_, Third Edition (London, 1878), pp. 259 _sq._

[565] See _The Scapegoat_, pp. 166 _sq._

[566] E.K. Chambers, _The Mediaeval Stage_ (Oxford, 1903), i. 110 _sqq._

[567] In Eastern Europe to this day the great season for driving out the
cattle to pasture for the first time in spring is St. George's Day, the
twenty-third of April, which is not far removed from May Day. See _The
Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings_, ii. 324 _sqq._ As to the
bisection of the Celtic year, see the old authority quoted by P.W.
Joyce, _The Social History of Ancient Ireland_ (London, 1903), ii. 390:
"The whole year was [originally] divided into two parts--Summer from 1st
May to 1st November, and Winter from 1st November to 1st May." On this
subject compare (Sir) John Rhys, _Celtic Heathendom_ (London and
Edinburgh, 1888), pp. 460, 514 _sqq.; id., Celtic Folk-lore, Welsh and
Manx_ (Oxford, 1901), i. 315 _sqq._; J.A. MacCulloch, in Dr. James
Hastings's _Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics_, iii. (Edinburgh,
1910) p. 80.

[568] See below, p. 225.

[569] Above, pp. 146 _sqq._; _The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings_,
ii. 59 _sqq._

[570] (Sir) John Rhys, _Celtic Folk-lore, Manx and Welsh_ (Oxford,
1901), i. 316, 317 _sq._; J.A. MacCulloch, in Dr. James Hastings's
_Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics_, iii. (Edinburgh, 1910) _s.v._
"Calendar," p. 80, referring to Kelly, _English and Manx Dictionary_
(Douglas, 1866), _s.v._ "Blein." Hogmanay is the popular Scotch name for
the last day of the year. See Dr. J. Jamieson, _Etymological Dictionary
of the Scottish Language_, New Edition (Paisley, 1879-1882), ii. 602
_sq._

[571] (Sir) John Rhys, _Celtic Folk-lore, Welsh and Manx_, i. 316 _sq._

[572] Above, p. 139.

[573] See _Adonis, Attis, Osiris_, Second Edition, pp. 309-318. As I
have there pointed out, the Catholic Church succeeded in altering the
date of the festival by one day, but not in changing the character of
the festival. All Souls' Day is now the second instead of the first of
November. But we can hardly doubt that the Saints, who have taken
possession of the first of November, wrested it from the Souls of the
Dead, the original proprietors. After all, the Saints are only one
particular class of the Souls of the Dead; so that the change which the
Church effected, no doubt for the purpose of disguising the heathen
character of the festival, is less great than appears at first sight.

[574] In Wales "it was firmly believed in former times that on All
Hallows' Eve the spirit of a departed person was to be seen at midnight
on every cross-road and on every stile" (Marie Trevelyan, _Folk-lore and
Folk-stories of Wales_, London, 1909, p. 254).

[575] E. J. Guthrie, _Old Scottish Customs_ (London and Glasgow, 1885),
p. 68.

[576] A. Goodrich-Freer, "More Folklore from the Hebrides," _Folk-lore_,
xiii. (1902) p. 53.

[577] (Sir) Jolin Rhys, _Celtic Heathendom_ (London and Edinburgh,
1888), p. 516.

[578] P.W. Joyce, _A Social History of Ancient Ireland_ (London, 1903),
i. 264 _sq._, ii. 556.

[579] (Sir) John Rhys, _Celtic Heathendom_, p. 516.

[580] Rev. John Gregorson Campbell, _Superstitions of the Highlands and
Islands of Scotland_ (Glasgow, 1900), pp. 61 _sq._

[581] Ch. Rogers, _Social Life in Scotland_ (Edinburgh, 1884-1886), iii.
258-260.

[582] Douglas Hyde, _Beside the Fire, a Collection of Irish Gaelic Folk
Stories_ (London, 1890), pp. 104, 105, 121-128.

[583] P.W. Joyce, _Social History of Ancient Ireland_, i. 229.

[584] Marie Trevelyan, _Folk-lore and Folk-stories of Wales_ (London,
1909), p. 254.

[585] (Sir) John Rhys, _Celtic Heathendom_, pp. 514 _sq._ In order to
see the apparitions all you had to do was to run thrice round the parish
church and then peep through the key-hole of the door. See Marie
Trevelyan, _op. cit._ p. 254; J. C. Davies, _Folk-lore of West and
Mid-Wales_ (Aberystwyth, 1911), p. 77.

[586] Miss E. J. Guthrie, _Old Scottish Customs_ (London and Glasgow,
1885), p. 75.

[587] Rev. John Gregorson Campbell, _Witchcraft and Second Sight in the
Highlands and Islands of Scotland_ (Glasgow, 1902), p. 282.

[588] Thomas Pennant, "Tour in Scotland, and Voyage to the Hebrides in
1772," in John Pinkerton's _Voyages and Travels_, iii. (London, 1809)
pp. 383 _sq._ In quoting the passage I have corrected what seem to be
two misprints.

[589] John Ramsay, of Ochtertyre, _Scotland and Scotsmen in the
Eighteenth Century_, edited by Alexander Allardyce (Edinburgh and
London, 1888), ii. 437 _sq._ This account was written in the eighteenth
century.

[590] Rev. James Robertson, Parish minister of Callander, in Sir John
Sinclair's _Statistical Account of Scotland_, xi. (Edinburgh, 1794), pp.
621 _sq._

[591] Rev. Dr. Thomas Bisset, in Sir John Sinclair's _Statistical
Account of Scotland_ v. (Edinburgh, 1793) pp. 84 _sq._

[592] Miss E. J. Guthrie, _Old Scottish Customs_ (London and Glasgow,
1885), p. 67.

[593] James Napier, _Folk Lore, or Superstitious Beliefs in the West of
Scotland within this Century_ (Paisley, 1879), p. 179.

[594] J. G. Frazer, "Folk-lore at Balquhidder," _The Folk-lore Journal_,
vi. (1888) p. 270.

[595] Rev. Walter Gregor, _Notes on the Folk-lore of the North-East of
Scotland_ (London, 1881), pp. 167 _sq._

[596] Rev. A. Johnstone, as to the parish of Monquhitter, in Sir John
Sinclair's _Statistical Account of Scotland_, xxi. (Edinburgh, 1799) pp.
145 _sq._

[597] A. Macdonald, "Some former Customs of the Royal Parish of Crathie,
Scotland," _Folk-lore_, xviii. (1907) p. 85. The writer adds: "In this
way the 'faulds' were purged of evil spirits." But it does not appear
whether this expresses the belief of the people or only the
interpretation of the writer.

[598] Rev. John Gregorson Campbell, _Witchcraft and Second Sight in the
Highlands and Islands of Scotland_ (Glasgow, 1902), pp. 282 _sq._

[599] Robert Burns, _Hallowe'en_, with the poet's note; Rev. Walter
Gregor, _op. cit._ p. 84; Miss E.J. Guthrie, _op. cit._ p. 69; Rev. J.G.
Campbell, _op. cit._ p. 287.

[600] R. Burns, _l.c._; Rev. Walter Gregor, _l.c._; Miss E.J. Guthrie,
_op. cit._ pp. 70 _sq._; Rev. J.G. Campbell, _op. cit._ p. 286.

[601] R. Burns, _l.c._.; Rev. W. Gregor, _l.c._; Miss E.J. Guthrie, _op.
cit._ p. 73; Rev. J.G. Campbell, _op. cit._ p. 285; A. Goodrich-Freer,
"More Folklore from the Hebrides," _Folk-lore_, xiii. (1902) pp. 54
_sq._

[602] R. Burns, _l.c._; Rev. W. Gregor, _op. cit._ p. 85; Miss E.J.
Guthrie, _op. cit._ p. 71; Rev. J.G. Campbell, _op. cit._ p. 285.
According to the last of these writers, the winnowing had to be done in
the devil's name.

[603] R. Burns, _l.c._; Rev. W. Gregor, _l.c._; Miss E.J. Guthrie, _op.
cit._ p. 72; Rev. J.G. Campbell, _op. cit._ p. 286; A. Goodrich-Freer,
"More Folklore from the Hebrides," _Folklore_, xiii. (1902) p. 54.

[604] Rev. J.G. Campbell, _op. cit._ p. 283.

[605] Rev. J.G. Campbell, _op. cit._ pp. 283 _sq._; A. Goodrich-Freer,
_l.c._

[606] Rev. J.G. Campbell, _op. cit._ p. 284.

[607] R. Burns, _l.c._; Rev. W. Gregor, _op. cit._ p. 85; Miss E.J.
Guthrie, _op. cit._ p. 70; Rev. J.G. Campbell, _op. cit._ p. 284. Where
nuts were not to be had, peas were substituted.

[608] Rev. J.G. Campbell, _op. cit._ p. 284.

[609] Rev. J.G. Campbell, _l.c._ According to my recollection of
Hallowe'en customs observed in my boyhood at Helensburgh, in
Dumbartonshire, another way was to stir the floating apples and then
drop a fork on them as they bobbed about in the water. Success consisted
in pinning one of the apples with the fork.

[610] R. Burns, _l.c._; Rev. W. Gregor, _op. cit_. pp. 85 _sq_.; Miss
E.J. Guthrie, _op. cit_. pp. 72 _sq_.; Rev. J.G. Campbell, _op. cit_. p.
287.

[611] R. Burns, _l.c._; Rev. W. Gregor, _op. cit_. p. 85; Miss E.J.
Guthrie, _op. cit_. pp. 69 _sq_.; Rev. J.G. Campbell, _op. cit_. p. 285.
It is the last of these writers who gives what may be called the
Trinitarian form of the divination.

[612] Miss E.J. Guthrie, _Old Scottish Customs_ (London and Glasgow,
1885), pp. 74 _sq_.

[613] A. Goodrich-Freer, "More Folklore from the Hebrides," _Folk-lore_,
xiii. (1902) p. 55.

[614] Pennant's manuscript, quoted by J. Brand, _Popular Antiquities of
Great Britain_ (London, 1882-1883), i. 389 _sq_.

[615] Sir Richard Colt Hoare, _The Itinerary of Archbishop Baldwin
through Wales A.D. MCLXXXVIII. by Giraldus de Barri_ (London, 1806), ii.
315; J. Brand, _Popular Antiquities_, i. 390. The passage quoted in the
text occurs in one of Hoare's notes on the Itinerary. The dipping for
apples, burning of nuts, and so forth, are mentioned also by Marie
Trevelyan, _Folk-lore and Folk-stories of Wales_ (London, 1909), pp.
253, 255.

[616] (Sir) John Rhys, _Celtic Heathendom_ (London and Edinburgh, 1888),
pp. 515 _sq._ As to the Hallowe'en bonfires in Wales compare J.C.
Davies, _Folk-lore of West and Mid-Wales_ (Aberystwyth, 1911), p. 77.

[617] See above, p. 183.

[618] See above, p. 231.

[619] Marie Trevelyan, _Folk-lore and Folk-stories of Wales_ (London,
1909), pp. 254 _sq._

[620] (General) Charles Vallancey, _Collectanea de Rebus Hibernicis_,
iii. (Dublin, 1786), pp. 459-461.

[621] Miss A. Watson, quoted by A.C. Haddon, "A Batch of Irish
Folk-lore," _Folk-lore_, iv. (1893) pp. 361 _sq._

[622] Leland L. Duncan, "Further Notes from County Leitrim,"
_Folk-lore_, v. (1894) pp. 195-197.

[623] H.J. Byrne, "All Hallows Eve and other Festivals in Connaught,"
_Folk-lore_, xviii. (1907) pp. 437 _sq._

[624] Joseph Train, _Historical and Statistical Account of the Isle of
Man_ (Douglas, Isle of Man, 1845), ii. 123; (Sir) John Rhys, _Celtic
Folk-lore, Welsh and Manx_ (Oxford, 1901), i. 315 _sqq._

[625] (Sir) John Rhys, _Celtic Folk-lore, Welsh and Manx_ (Oxford,
1901), i. 318-321.

[626] John Harland and T.T. Wilkinson, _Lancashire Folk-lore_
(Manchester and London, 1882), pp. 3 _sq_.

[627] J. Harland and T.T. Wilkinson, _op. cit_. p. 140.

[628] Annie Milner, in William Hone's _Year Book_ (London, preface dated
January, 1832), coll. 1276-1279 (letter dated June, 1831); R.T. Hampson,
_Medii Aevi Kalendarium_ (London, 1841), i. 365; T.F. Thiselton Dyer,
_British Popular Customs_ (London, 1876), p. 395.

[629] _County Folk-lore_ vol. iv. _Northumberland_, collected by M.C.
Balfour (London, 1904), p. 78. Compare W. Henderson, _Notes on the
Folk-lore of the Northern Counties of England_ (London, 1879), pp. 96
_sq_.

[630] Baron Dupin, in _Memoires publiees par la Societe Royale des
Antiquaires de France_, iv. (1823) p. 108.

[631] The evidence for the solar origin of Christmas is given in
_Adonis, Attis, Osiris_, Second Edition, pp. 254-256.

[632] For the various names (Yu-batch, Yu-block, Yule-log, etc.) see
Francis Grose, _Provincial Glossary_, New Edition (London, 1811), p.
141; Joseph Wright, _The English Dialect Dictionary_ (London,
1898-1905), vi. 593, _s.v._ "Yule."

[633] "I am pretty confident that the Yule block will be found, in its
first use, to have been only a counterpart of the Midsummer fires, made
within doors because of the cold weather at this winter solstice, as
those in the hot season, at the summer one, are kindled in the open
air." (John Brand, _Popular Antiquities of Great Britain_, London,
1882-1883, i. 471). His opinion is approved by W. Mannhardt _(Der
Baumkultus der Germanen und ihrer Nachbarstaemme_, p. 236).

[634] "_Et arborem in nativitate domini ad festivum ignem suum
adducendam esse dicebat_" (quoted by Jacob Grimm, _Deutsche Mythologie_,
i. 522).

[635] Montanus, _Die deutschen Volksfeste, Volksbrauche und deutscher
Volksglaube_ (Iserlohn, N.D.), p. 12. The Sieg and Lahn are two rivers
of Central Germany, between Siegen and Marburg.

[636] J.H. Schmitz, _Sitten und Sagen, Lieder, Spruechwoerter und Raethsel
des Eifler Volkes_ (Treves, 1856-1858), i. 4.

[637] Adalbert Kuhn, _Sagen, Gebraeuche und Maerchen aus Westfalen_
(Leipsic, 1859), ii. Sec. 319, pp. 103 _sq_.

[638] A. Kuhn, _op. cit._ ii. Sec. 523, p. 187.

[639] August Witzschel, _Sagen, Sitten und Gebraeuche aus Thueringen_
(Vienna, 1878), p. 172.

[640] K. Hoffmann-Krayer, _Feste und Braeuche des Schweizervolkes_
(Zurich, 1913), pp. 108 _sq._

[641] Le Baron de Reinsberg-Dueringsfeld, _Calendrier Belge_ (Brussels,
1861-1862), ii. 326 _sq._ Compare J.W. Wolf, _Beitraegezur deutschen
Mythologie_ (Goettingen, 1852-1858), i. 117.

[642] J.B. Thiers, _Traite des Superstitions_*[5] (Paris, 1741), i. 302
_sq._; Eugene Cortet, _Essai sur les Fetes Religieuses_ (Paris, 1867),
pp. _266 sq._

[643] J.B. Thiers, _Traite des Superstitions_ (Paris, 1679), p. 323.

[644] Aubin-Louis Millin, _Voyage dans les Departemens du Midi de la
France_ (Paris, 1807-1811), iii. 336 _sq._ The fire so kindled was
called _caco fuech_.

[645] Alfred de Nore, _Coutumes, Mythes et Traditions des Provinces de
France_ (Paris and Lyons, 1846), pp. 151 _sq._ The three festivals
during which the Yule log is expected to burn are probably Christmas Day
(December 25th), St. Stephen's Day (December 26th), and St. John the
Evangelist's Day (December 27th). Compare J.L.M. Nogues, _Les Moeurs
d'autrefois en Saintonge et en Aunis_ (Saintes, 1891), pp. 45-47.
According to the latter writer, in Saintonge it was the mistress of the
house who blessed the Yule log, sprinkling salt and holy water on it; in
Poitou it was the eldest male who officiated. The log was called the
_cosse de No_.

[646] Laisnel de Salle, _Croyances et Legendes du Centres de la France_
(Paris, 1875), i. 1-3.

[647] Jules Lecoeur, _Esquisses du Bocage Normand_ (Conde-sur-Noireau,
1883-1887), ii. 291. The author speaks of the custom as still practised
in out-of-the-way villages at the time when he wrote. The usage of
preserving the remains of the Yule-log (called _trefouet_) in Normandy
is mentioned also by M'elle Amelie Bosquet, _La Normandie Romanesque et
Merveilleuse_ (Paris and Rouen, 1845), p. 294.

[648] A. de Nore, _Coutumes, Mythes, et Traditions des Provinces de
France_ (Paris and Lyons, 1846), p. 256.

[649] Paul Sebillot, _Coutumes populaires de la Haute-Bretagne_ (Paris,
1886), pp. 217 _sq._

[650] Albert Meyrac, _Traditions, Coutumes, Legendes et Contes des
Ardennes_ (Charleville, 1890), pp. 96 _sq._

[651] See above, p. 251.

[652] Lerouze, in _Memoires de l'Academie Celtique_, iii. (1809) p. 441,
quoted by J. Brand, _Popular Antiquities of Great Britain_ (London,
1882-1883), i. 469 note.

[653] L.F. Sauve, _Le Folk-lore des Hautes-Vosges_ (Paris, 1889), pp.
370 _sq._

[654] Charles Beauquier, _Les Mois en Franche-Comte_ (Paris, 1900), p.
183.

[655] A. de Nore, _Coutumes, Mythes, et Traditions des Provinces de
France_ (Paris and Lyons, 1846), pp. 302 _sq._

[656] John Brand, _Popular Antiquities of Great Britain_ (London,
1882-1883), i. 467.

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