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Ancient Nahuatl Poetry by Daniel G. Brinton

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[* Transcriber's note: The following substitutions have been made for
diacritical marks in the original text which are not available at DP:

For vowels with a breve: [)a], [)e], [)i], [)o], [)u].

For vowels with a macron: [=a], [=e], [=i], [=o], [=u]. *]

ANCIENT NAHUATL POETRY,

CONTAINING THE NAHUATL TEXT OF XXVII ANCIENT MEXICAN POEMS.

BRITON'S LIBRARY OF ABORIGINAL AMERICAN LITERATURE,

NUMBER VII.

WITH A TRANSLATION, INTRODUCTION, NOTES AND VOCABULARY.

BY

DANIEL G. BRINTON

1890

PREFACE.

It is with some hesitation that I offer this volume to the scientific
public. The text of the ancient songs which it contains offers
extreme and peculiar difficulties to the translator, and I have been
obliged to pursue the task without assistance of any kind. Not a line
of them has ever before been rendered into an European tongue, and my
endeavors to obtain aid from some of the Nahuatl scholars of Mexico
have, for various reasons, proved ineffectual. I am therefore alone
responsible for errors and misunderstandings.

Nevertheless, I have felt that these monuments of ancient native
literature are so interesting in themselves, and so worthy of
publication, that they should be placed at the disposition of
scholars in their original form with the best rendering that I could
give them at present, rather than to await the uncertain event of
years for a better.

The text itself may be improved by comparison with the original MS.
and with the copy previously made by the Licentiate Chimalpopoca,
referred to on page 48. My own efforts in this direction have been
confined to a faithful reproduction in print of the MS. copy of the
Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg.

The Notes, which might easily have been extended, I have confined
within moderate compass, so as not to enlarge unduly the bulk of the
volume.

To some, the Vocabulary may seem inadequate. I assume that those
persons who wish to make a critical study of the original text will
provide themselves with the Nahuatl Dictionaries of Molina or Simeon,
both of which are now easily obtainable, thanks to Mr. Julius
Platzmann for the reprint of Molina. I also assume that such students
will acquaint themselves with the rules of grammar and laws of
word-building of the tongue, and that they will use the vocabulary
merely as a labor-saving means of reaching the themes of compounds
and unusual forms of words. Employed in this manner, it will, I hope,
be found adequate.

In conclusion, I would mention that there is a large body of Nahuatl
literature yet unpublished, both prose and poetry, modern and
ancient, and as the Nahuatl tongue is one of the most highly
developed on the American continent, it is greatly to be desired that
all this material should be at the command of students. The Nahuatl,
moreover, is not a difficult tongue; for an Englishman or a
Frenchman, I should say it is easier to acquire than German, its
grammar being simple and regular, and its sounds soft and sonorous.
It has special recommendations, therefore, to one who would acquaint
himself with an American language.

CONTENTS.

PREFACE

INTRODUCTION

Sec. 1. THE NATIONAL LOVE OF POETRY
Sec. 2. THE POET AND HIS WORK
Sec. 3. THE THEMES AND CLASSES OF THE SONGS
Sec. 4. PROSODY OF THE SONGS
Sec. 5. THE VOCAL DELIVERY OF THE SONGS
Sec. 6. THE INSTRUMENTAL ACCOMPANIMENT
Sec. 7. THE POETIC DIALECT
Sec. 8. THE PRESERVATION OF THE ANCIENT SONGS
Sec. 9. THE LX SONGS OF THE KING NEZAHUALCOYOTL
Sec. 10. THE HISTORY OF THE PRESENT COLLECTION

ANCIENT NAHUATL POEMS:

I. SONG AT THE BEGINNING
II. A SPRING SONG, AN OTOMI SONG, A PLAIN SONG
III. ANOTHER PLAIN SONG
IV. AN OTOMI SONG OF THE MEXICANS
V. ANOTHER PLAIN SONG OF THE MEXICANS
VI. ANOTHER CHALCO-SONG, A POEM OF TETLAPAN QUETZANITZIN
VII. ANOTHER
VIII. COMPOSED BY A CERTAIN RULER IN MEMORY OF FORMER RULERS
IX. AN OTOMI SONG OF SADNESS
X. A SPRING SONG OF THE MEXICANS
XI. ANOTHER
XII. A SPRING SONG, A SONG OF EXHORTATION,
BECAUSE CERTAIN ONES DID NOT GO TO WAR
XIII. A SONG OF HUEXOTZINCO
XIV. A CHRISTIAN SONG
XV. THE REIGN OF TEZOZOMOCTLI
XVI. A SONG URGING TO WAR
XVII. A FLOWER SONG
XVIII. A SONG OF TOLLAN
XIX. A CHRISTIAN SONG
XX. A SONG LAMENTING THE TOLTECS
XXI. A SONG OF THE HUEXOTZINCOS,
COMING TO ASK AID OF MONTEZUMA AGAINST TLAXCALLA
XXII. A FLOWER SONG
XXIII. A SONG OF THE PRINCE NEZAHUALCOYOTL
XXIV. ANOTHER
XXV. A SONG OF LAMENTATION
XXVI. A SONG RELATING TO THE LORD NEZAHUALPILLI
XXVII. A CHRISTIAN SONG

NOTES

VOCABULARY

INDEX OF NAHUATL PROPER NAMES, WITH EXPLANATIONS

FOOTNOTES

ANCIENT NAHUATL POETRY.

INTRODUCTION.

Sec. 1. _THE NATIONAL LOVE OF POETRY._

The passionate love with which the Nahuas cultivated song, music and
the dance is a subject of frequent comment by the historians of
Mexico. These arts are invariably mentioned as prominent features of
the aboriginal civilization; no public ceremony was complete without
them; they were indispensable in the religious services held in the
temples; through their assistance the sacred and historical
traditions were preserved; and the entertainments of individuals
received their chief lustre and charm from their association with
these arts.

The profession of the poet stood in highest honor. It was the custom
before the Conquest for every town, every ruler and every person of
importance to maintain a company of singers and dancers, paying them
fixed salaries, and the early writer, Duran, tells us that this
custom continued in his own time, long after the Conquest. He
sensibly adds, that he can see nothing improper in it, although it
was condemned by some of the Spaniards.[1] In the training of these
artists their patrons took a deep personal interest, and were not at
all tolerant of neglected duties. We are told that the chief selected
the song which was to be sung, and the tune by which it was to be
accompanied; and did any one of the choir sing falsely, a drummer
beat out of time, or a dancer strike an incorrect attitude, the
unfortunate artist was instantly called forth, placed in bonds and
summarily executed the next morning![2]

With critics of such severity to please, no wonder that it was
necessary to begin the training early, and to set apart for it
definite places and regular teachers. Therefore it was one of the
established duties of the teachers in the calmecac or public school,
"to teach the pupils all the verses of the sacred songs which were
written in characters in their books."[3] There were also special
schools, called _cuicoyan_, singing places, where both sexes were
taught to sing the popular songs and to dance to the sound of the
drums.[4] In the public ceremonies it was no uncommon occurrence for
the audience to join in the song and dance until sometimes many
thousands would thus be seized with the contagion of the rhythmical
motion, and pass hours intoxicated (to use a favorite expression of
the Nahuatl poets) with the cadence and the movement.

After the Conquest the Church set its face firmly against the
continuance of these amusements. Few of the priests had the liberal
views of Father Duran, already quoted; most of them were of the
opinion of Torquemada, who urges the clergy "to forbid the singing of
the ancient songs, because all of them are full of idolatrous
memories, or of diabolical and suspicious allusions of the same
character."[5]

To take the place of the older melodies, the natives were taught the
use of the musical instruments introduced by the Spaniards, and very
soon acquired no little proficiency, so that they could perform upon
them, compose original pieces, and manufacture most of the
instruments themselves.[6]

To this day the old love of the song and dance continues in the
Indian villages; and though the themes are changed, the forms remain
with little alteration. Travelers describe the movements as slow, and
consisting more in bending and swaying the body than in motions of
the feet; while the songs chanted either refer to some saint or
biblical character, or are erotic and pave the way to orgies.[7]

Sec. 2. _THE POET AND HIS WORK._

The Nahuatl word for a song or poem is _cuicatl_. It is derived from
the verb _cuica_, to sing, a term probably imitative or
onomatopoietic in origin, as it is also a general expression for the
twittering of birds. The singer was called _cuicani_, and is
distinguished from the composer of the song, the poet, to whom was
applied the term _cuicapicqui_, in which compound the last member,
_picqui_, corresponds strictly to the Greek _poiaetaes_,
being a derivative of _piqui_, to make, to create.[8] Sometimes he
was also called _cuicatlamantini_, "skilled in song."

It is evident from these words, all of which belong to the ancient
language, that the distinction between the one who composed the poems
and those who sang them was well established, and that the Nahuatl
poetry was, therefore, something much above mere improvisation, as
some have thought. This does not alter the fact that a professed bard
usually sang songs of his own composition, as well as those obtained
from other sources. This is obvious from the songs in this
collection, many of which contain the expression _ni cuicani_, I, the
singer, which also refers to the maker of the song.

In the classical work of Sahagun, the author describes the ancient
poet: "The worthy singer has a clear mind and a strong memory. He
composes songs himself and learns those of others, and is always
ready to impart either to the fellows of his craft. He sings with a
well-trained voice, and is careful to practice in private before he
appears before the public. The unworthy singer, on the other hand, is
ignorant and indolent. What he learns he will not communicate to
others. His voice is hoarse and untrained, and he is at once envious
and boastful."[9]

Sec. 3. _THE THEMES AND CLASSES OF THE SONGS._

From what he could learn about them some two centuries or more after
the Conquest, the antiquary Boturini classified all the ancient songs
under two general heads, the one treating mainly of historical
themes, while the other was devoted to purely fictitious, emotional
or imaginative subjects.[10] His terse classification is expanded by
the Abbe Clavigero, who states that the themes of the ancient poets
were various, some chanting the praises of the gods or petitioning
them for favors, others recalled the history of former generations,
others were didactic and inculcated correct habits of life, while
others, finally, were in lighter vein, treating of hunting, games and
love.[11]

His remarks were probably a generalization from a chapter in
Torquemada's _Monarquia Indiana_, in which that writer states that
the songs at the sacred festivals differed in subject with the
different months and seasons. Thus, in the second month of their
calendar, at its stated festival, the people sang the greatness of
their rulers; in the seventh month all the songs were of love, of
women, or of hunting; in the eighth the chants recalled the noble
deeds of their ancestors and their divine origin; while in the ninth
month nothing was heard but verses fraught with lamentation for the
dead.[12] With less minuteness, Father Duran gives almost the same
information. He himself had often heard the songs which Montezuma of
Tenochtitlan, and Nezahualpizintli of Tezcuco, had ordered to be
composed in their own honor, describing their noble lineage, their
riches, their grandeur and their victories. These songs were in his
day still sung at the public dances of the natives, and he adds,
"although they were filled with laudation of their ancient rulers, it
gave me much pleasure to hear the praises of such grandeur." There
were other poets, he observes, who lived in the temples and composed
songs exclusively in honor of the gods.[13]

These general expressions may be supplemented by a list of terms,
specifying particular classes of songs, preserved by various writers.
These are as follows:--

_melahuacuicatl_: this is translated by Tezozomoc, "a straight and
true song."[14] It is a compound of _melahuac_, straight, direct,
true; and _cuicatl_, song. It was a beginning or opening song at the
festivals, and apparently derived its name from its greater
intelligibility and directness of expression. A synonym, derived from
the same root, is _tlamelauhcayotl_, which appears in the title to
some of the songs in the present collection.

_xopancuicatl_: this term is spelled by Ixtlilxochitl,
_xompacuicatl_, and explained to mean "a song of the spring" (from
_xopan_, springtime, _cuicatl_, song). The expression seems to be
figurative, referring to the beginning or early life of things. Thus,
the prophetic songs of Nezahualcoyotl, those which he sang when he
laid the foundation of his great palace, bore this name.[15]

_teuccuicatl_: songs of the nobles (_teuctli_, _cuicatl_). These were
also called _quauhcuicatl_, "eagle songs," the term _quauhtli_,
eagle, being applied to distinguished persons.

_xochicuicatl_: flower-song, one singing the praises of flowers.

_icnocuicatl_: song of destitution or compassion.

_noteuhcuicaliztli_: "the song of my lords." This appears to be a
synonymous expression for _teuccuicatl_; it is mentioned by Boturini,
who adds that on the day sacred to the god Xiuhteuctli the king began
the song so called.[16]

_miccacuicatl_: the song for the dead (_miqui_, to die, _cuicatl_).
In this solemn chant the singers were seated on the ground, and their
hair was twisted in plaits around their heads.[17]

In addition to the above terms drawn from the subject or character of
the songs, there were others, of geographical origin, apparently
indicating that the song, or its tune, or its treatment was borrowed
from another locality or people. These are:--

_Huexotzincayotl_: a song of Huexotzinco, a Nahuatl town, situated
east of the Lake of Tezcuco. This song was sung by the king and
superior nobles at certain festivals, and, in the prescribed order of
the chants, followed a _melahuaccuicatl_.[18]

_Chalcayotl_: a song of Chalco, on the lake of the same name. This
followed the last mentioned in order of time at the festivals.

_Otoncuicatl_: a song of the Otomis. These were the immediate
neighbors of the Nahuas, but spoke a language radically diverse. The
songs so-called were sung fourth on the list.

_Cuextecayotl_: a song of the country of the Cuexteca, or Cuextlan, a
northern province of Mexico.

_Tlauancacuextecayotl_: a song of the country of the
Tlauancacuexteca.

_Anahuacayotl_: a song of Anahuac, that is, of a country near the
water, either the valley of Mexico, or the shores of the ocean.

Some very ancient sacred songs were referred to by Tezozomoc as
peculiar to the worship of Huitzilopochtli, and, indeed, introduced
by this potent divinity. From their names, _cuitlaxoteyotl_, and
_tecuilhuicuicatl_,[19] I judge that they referred to some of those
pederastic rites which still prevail extensively among the natives of
the pueblos of New Mexico, and which have been described by Dr.
William A. Hammond and other observers.[20] One of these songs began,

Cuicoyan nohuan mitotia;

In-the-place-of-song with-me they-dance.

But the old chronicler, who doubtless knew it all by heart, gives us
no more of it.[21]

Sec. 4. _PROSODY OF THE SONGS._

The assertion is advanced by Boturini that the genuine ancient
Nahuatl poetry which has been preserved is in iambic metre, and he
refers to a song of Nezahualcoyotl in his collection to prove his
opinion. What study I have given to the prosody of the Nahuatl tongue
leads me to doubt the correctness of so sweeping a statement. The
vocalic elements of the language have certain peculiarities which
prevent its poetry from entering unencumbered into the domain of
classical prosody.

The quantity of Nahuatl syllables is a very important element in the
pronunciation of the tongue, but their quantity is not confined, as
in Latin, to long, short, and common. The Nahuatl vowels are long,
short, intermediate, and "with stress," or as the Spanish grammarians
say, "with a jump," _con saltillo_. The last mentioned is peculiar to
this tongue. The vowel so designated is pronounced with a momentary
suspension or catching of the breath, rendering it emphatic.

These quantities are prominent features in the formal portions of the
language, characterizing inflections and declinations. No common
means of designating them have been adopted by the grammarians, and
for my present purpose, I shall make use of the following signs:--

[)a] , short.

a , intermediate.

[=a] , long.

a , with stress.

The general prosodic rules are:--

1. In polysyllabic words in which there are no long vowels, all the
vowels are intermediate.

2. The vowels are long in the penultimate of the plurals of the
imperatives when the preterit of the verb ends in a vowel; the _[=a]_
of the _c[=a]n_ of the imperatives; the _[=i]_ of the _t[=i]_; of the
gerundives; the last vowel of the futures when the verb loses a vowel
to form them; the penultimates of passives in _lo_, of impersonals,
of verbals in _oni_, _illi_, _olli_ and _oca_, of verbal nouns with
the terminations _yan_ and _can_; the _[=o]_ of abstract nouns in
_otl_ in composition; and those derived from long syllables.

3. Vowels are "with stress" when they are the finals in the plurals
of nouns and verbs, also in the perfect preterite, in possessives
ending in a, e, o, and in the penultimate of nouns ending in _tli_,
_tla_ and _tle_ when these syllables are immediately preceded by the
vowel.[22]

The practical importance of these distinctions may be illustrated by
the following examples:--

_tatli_, = father.

_t[=a]tl[)i]_, = thou drinkest.

_t[=a]tli_, = we drink.

It is, however, evident from this example that the quantity of
Nahuatl syllables enters too much into the strictly formal part of
the language for rules of position, such as some of those above
given, to be binding; and doubtless for this reason the eminent
grammarian Carlos de Tapia Zenteno, who was professor of the tongue
in the University of Mexico, denies that it can be reduced to
definite rules of prosody like those of the Latin.[23]

Substituting accent for quantity, there would seem to be an iambic
character to the songs. Thus the first words of Song I, were probably
chanted:--

_Nino' yolno' notza' campa' nic[)u] iz' yec tli' ahui aca' xochitl'_:
etc.

But the directions given for the drums at the beginning of Songs
XVIII, XIX, etc., do not indicate a continuance of these feet, but of
others, as in XIX:--

u--, u--, u--, uu--, u--, u--, u--, etc.

Indeed, we may suppose that the metre varied with the subject and the
skill of the poet. This, in fact, is the precise statement of Father
Duran,[24] who speaks of the native poets as "giving to each song a
different tune (_sonada_), as we are accustomed in our poetry to have
the sonnet, the octava rima and the terceto."

Sec. 5. _THE VOCAL DELIVERY OF THE SONG._

Descriptions of the concerts so popular among the Nahuas have been
preserved by the older writers, and it is of the highest importance
to understand their methods in order to appreciate the songs
presented in this volume.

These concerts were held on ceremonial occasions in the open air, in
the village squares or in the courtyards of the houses. They began in
the morning and usually continued until nightfall, occasionally far
into the night. The musicians occupied the centre of the square and
the trained singers stood or sat around them. When the sign was given
to begin, the two most skillful singers, sometimes a man and a woman,
pronounced the first syllables of the song slowly but with a sharp
emphasis;[25] then the drums began in a low tone, and gradually increased in
strength as the song proceeded; the other singers united their voices
until the whole chorus was in action, and often the bystanders, to
the numbers of thousands, would ultimately join in the words of some
familiar song, keeping time by concerted movements of the hands and
feet.

Each verse or couplet of the song was repeated three or four times
before proceeding to the next, and those songs which were of the
slowest measure and least emotional in character were selected for
the earlier hours of the festivals. None of the songs was lengthy,
even the longest, in spite of the repetitions, rarely lasting over an
hour.[26]

The tone in which the words were chanted is described by Clavigero,
Muehlenpfordt and other comparatively recent travelers as harsh,
strident and disagreeable to the European ear. Mendieta calls it a
"contra-bass," and states that persons gifted with such a voice
cultivated it assiduously and were in great demand. The Nahuas call
it _tozquitl_, the singing voice, and likened it to the notes of
sweet singing birds.

Sec. 6. _THE INSTRUMENTAL ACCOMPANIMENT._

The Nahuas were not acquainted with any stringed instrument. They
manufactured, however, a variety of objects from which they could
extract what seemed to them melodious sounds. The most important were
two forms of drums, the _huehuetl_ and the _teponaztli_.

The word _huehuetl_ means something old, something ancient, and
therefore important and great. The drum so-called was a hollow
cylinder of wood, thicker than a man's body, and usually about five
palms in height. The end was covered with tanned deerskin, firmly
stretched. The sides were often elaborately carved and tastefully
painted. This drum was placed upright on a stand in front of the
player and the notes were produced by striking the parchment with the
tips of the fingers.

A smaller variety of this instrument was called _tlapanhuehuetl_, or
the half drum, which was of the same diameter but only half the
height.[27] Still another variety was the _yopihuehuetl_, "the drum
which tears out the heart,"[28] so called either by reason of its
penetrating and powerful sound, or because it was employed at the
_Yopico_, where that form of human sacrifice was conducted.

The _teponaztli_ was a cylindrical block of wood hollowed out below,
and on its upper surface with two longitudinal parallel grooves
running nearly from end to end, and a third in the centre at right
angles to these, something in the shape of the letter I. The two
tongues left between the grooves were struck with balls of rubber,
_ulli_, on the ends of handles or drum sticks. These instruments
varied greatly in size, some being five feet in length, and others so
small that they could conveniently be carried suspended to the neck.
The _teponaztli_ was the house instrument of the Nahuas. It was
played in the women's apartments to amuse the noble ladies, and the
war captains carried one at the side to call the attention of their
cohorts on the field of battle (Sahagun). The word is derived from
the name of the tree whose wood was selected to make the drum, and
this in turn from the verb _tepunazoa_, to swell, probably from some
peculiarity of its growth.[29]

A much superior instrument to the teponaztli, and doubtless a
development from it, was the _tecomapiloa_, "the suspended vase"
(_tecomatl_, gourd or vase, _piloa_, to hang or suspend). It was a
solid block of wood, with a projecting ridge on its upper surface and
another opposite, on its lower aspect; to the latter one or more
gourds or vases were suspended, which increased and softened the
sound when the upper ridge was struck with the _ulli_.[30] This was
undoubtedly the origin of the _marimba_, which I have described
elsewhere.[31]

The musical properties of these drums have been discussed by Theodor
Baker. The teponaztli, he states, could yield but two notes, and
could not have been played in accord with the huehuetl. It served as
an imperfect contra-bass.[32]

The _omichicahuaz_, "strong bone," was constructed somewhat on the
principle of a _teponaztli_. A large and long bone was selected, as
the femur of a man or deer, and it was channeled by deep longitudinal
incisions. The projections left between the fissures were rasped with
another bone or a shell, and thus a harsh but varied sound could be
produced.[33]

The _tetzilacatl_, the "vibrator" or "resounder," was a sheet of
copper suspended by a cord, which was struck with sticks or with the
hand. It appears to have been principally confined to the sacred
music in the temples.

The _ayacachtli_ was a rattle formed of a jar of earthenware or a
dried gourd containing pebbles which was fastened to a handle, and
served to mark time in the songs and dances. An extension of this
simple instrument was the _ayacachicahualiztli_, "the arrangement of
rattles," which was a thin board about six feet long and a span wide,
to which were attached bells, rattles and cylindrical pieces of hard
wood. Shaking this produced a jingle-jangle, agreeable to the native
ear. The Aztec bells of copper, _tzilinilli_, are really metallic
rattles, like our sleigh bells. They are often seen in collections of
Mexican antiquities. Other names for them were _coyolliyoyotli_. and

Various forms of flutes and fifes, made of reeds, of bone or of
pottery, were called by names derived from the word _pitzaua_, to
blow (e.g., _tlapitzalli_, _uilacapitzli_), and sometimes, as being
punctured with holes, _zozoloctli_, from _zotl_, the awl or
instrument used in perforating skins, etc. Many of those made of
earthenware have been preserved, and they appear to have been a
highly-esteemed instrument, as Sahagun mentions that the leader of
the choir of singers in the temple bore the title _tlapitzcatzin_,
"the noble flute player."

Large conches were obtained on the seashore and framed into wind
instruments called _quiquiztli_ and _tecciztli_, whose hoarse notes
could be heard for long distances, and whistles of wood, bone and
earthenware added their shrill notes to the noise of the chanting of
the singers. The shell of the tortoise, _ayotl_, dried and suspended,
was beaten in unison with such instruments.

Recent researches by competent musical experts conducted upon
authentic specimens of the ancient Mexican instruments have tended to
elevate our opinion of their skill in this art. Mr. H.T. Cresson, of
the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, has critically
examined the various Aztec clay flutes, whistles, etc., which are
there preserved, and has reached the following conclusions:--

"I. That upon the four-holed clay flageolets the chromatic and
diatonic scales can be produced with a full octave.

"II. That the clay whistles or pitch pipes, which may be manipulated
in quartette, will produce an octave and a fourth.

"III. From the facts above shown, the Aztecs must have possessed a
knowledge of the scales as known to us, which has been fully tested
by comparison with the flute and organ."[34]

This result indicates for the instrumental accompaniment a much
higher position in musical notation than has hitherto been accepted.

Sec. 7. _THE POETIC DIALECT._

All the old writers who were familiar with the native songs speak of
their extreme obscurity, and the difficulty of translating them. No
one will question the intimate acquaintance with the Nahuatl language
possessed by Father Sahagun; yet no one has expressed more strongly
than he the vagueness of the Nahuatl poetic dialect. "Our enemy on
earth," he writes, "has prepared a thick woods and a dangerous ground
full of pitfalls, wherein to devise his evil deeds and to hide
himself from attack, as do wild beasts and venomous serpents. This
woods and these pitfalls are the songs which he has inspired to be
used in his service, as praises to his honor, in the temples and
elsewhere; because they are composed with such a trick that they
proclaim only what the devil commands, and are understood only by
those to whom they are addressed. It is well known that the cavern,
woods or depths in which the devil hides himself were these chants or
psalms which he himself has composed, and which cannot be understood
in their true significance except by those who are accustomed to the
peculiar style of their language."[35]

Not less positive are the expressions of Father Diego Duran,
contemporary of Sahagun, and himself well versed in the native
tongue. "All their songs," he observes, "were composed in such
obscure metaphors that scarcely any one can understand them unless he
give especial attention to their construction."[36] The worthy
Boturini was puzzled by those which he had collected, and writes,
"the songs are difficult to explain, because they mystify historical
facts with constant allegorizing,"[37] and Boturini's literary
executor, Don Mariano Echevarria y Veitia, who paid especial
attention to the poetic fragments he had received, says frankly: "The
fact is, that as to the songs I have not found a person who can fully
translate them, because there are many words in them whose
signification is absolutely unknown to-day, and moreover which do not
appear in the vocabularies of Molina or others."[38]

The Abbe Clavigero speaks in somewhat more definite terms of the
poetic forms and licenses of the language. He notes that in the
fragments of the ancient verses which had been preserved until his
day there were inserted between the significant words certain
interjections and meaningless syllables, apparently to fill out the
metre. Nevertheless, he considered the language of the chants, "pure,
pleasant, brilliant, figurative and replete with allusions to the
more pleasing objects in nature, as flowers, trees, brooks, etc."[39]
It is quite evident from the above extracts that in the translation
of the ancient songs in the present volume we must be prepared for
serious difficulties, the more so as the Nahuatl language, in the
opinion of some who are the best acquainted with it, lends itself
with peculiar facility to ambiguities of expression and obscure
figures of speech.[40] Students of American ethnology are familiar
with the fact that in nearly all tribes the language of the sacred
songs differs materially from that in daily life.

Of the older grammarians, Father Carochi alone has left us actual
specimens of the ancient poetic dialect, and his observations are
regretably brief. They occur in his chapter on the composition of
nouns and read as follows:[41]--

"The ancient Indians were chary in forming compounds of more than two
words, while those of to-day exceed this number, especially if they
speak of sacred things; although in their poetic dialect the ancients
were also extravagant in this respect, as the following examples
show:--

1. Tl[=a]uhquech[=o]llaztal[=e]hualto t[=o]natoc.

1. It is gleaming red like the tlauhquechol bird.

2. Ayauhcocam[=a]l[=o]t[=o]nam[=e]yotimani.

2. And it glows like the rainbow.

3. Xiuhcoyolizitzilica in te[=o]cuitlahu[=e]hu[=e]tl.

3. The silver drum sounds like bells of turquoise.

4. Xiuhtlapallacuil[=o]l[=a]moxtli manca.

4. There was a book of annals written and painted in colors.

5. Nic ch[=a]lchiuhcozcameca quenmach totoma in nocuic.

5. I see my song unfolding in a thousand directions, like a string of
precious stones."

From the specimens presented in this volume and from the above
extracts, I would assign the following peculiarities to the poetic
dialect of the Nahuatl:--

I. Extreme frequency and richness of metaphor. Birds, flowers,
precious stones and brilliant objects are constantly introduced in a
figurative sense, often to the point of obscuring the meaning of the
sentence.

II. Words are compounded to a much greater extent than in ordinary
prose writing.

III. Both words and grammatical forms unknown to the tongue of daily
life occur. These may be archaic, or manufactured capriciously by the
poet.

IV. Vowels are inordinately lengthened and syllables reduplicated,
either for the purpose of emphasis or of meter.

V. Meaningless interjections are inserted for metrical effect, while
others are thrown in and repeated in order to express emotion.

VI. The rhetorical figure known as aposiopesis, where a sentence is
left unfinished and in an interjectional condition, in consequence of
some emotion of the mind, is not rare and adds to the obscurity of
the wording.

Sec. 8. _THE PRESERVATION OF THE ANCIENT SONGS._

In a passage already quoted,[42] Sahagun imparts the interesting
information that the more important songs were written down by the
Nahuas in their books, and from these taught to the youth in the
schools. A certain branch of the Mexican hieroglyphic writing was
largely phonetic, constructed on that method to which I have applied
the adjective _ikonomatic_, and by which it was quite possible to
preserve the sound as well as the sense of sentences and verses.[43]
Such attention could have been bestowed only on the sacred, royal, or
legendary chants, while the compositions of ordinary poets would only
be disseminated by oral teaching.

By one or both of these methods there was a large body of poetic
chants the property of the Nahuatl-speaking tribes, when they were
subjugated by the Europeans. Among the intelligent missionaries who
devoted their lives to mastering the language and translating into it
the doctrines of Christianity, there were a few who felt sufficient
interest in these chants to write some of them down in the original
tongue. Conspicuous among these was the laborious Bernardino de
Sahagun, whose works are our most valued sources of information on
all that concerns the life of the ancient Nahuas. He collected a
number of their sacred hymns, translated them into Spanish, and
inserted them into the Appendix to the Second Book of his _History of
New Spain_; but this portion of his work was destroyed by order of
the Inquisition, as a note in the original MS. expressly states.[44]

A certain number, however, were preserved in the original tongue,
and, as already noted, we find the able grammarian Horatio Carochi,
who published his Grammar of the Nahuatl in 1645, quoting lines from
some as furnishing examples of the genuine ancient forms of
word-building. He could not, therefore, have doubted their antiquity
and authenticity.

A number of these must have come to the knowledge and were probably
in the possession of the eminent mathematician and antiquary Don
Carlos de Siguenza y Gongora, who lived in the latter half of the
same century (died 1700). It was avowedly upon the information which
he thought he gleaned from these ancient chants that he constructed
his historical theory of the missionary labors of St. Thomas in
Mexico in the first century of our era. The title of the work he
wrote upon this notion was as follows:--

_Fenix del Occidente San Thomas Apostol, hallado con el nombre de
Quetzalcoatl entre las cenizas de antiguas tradiciones, conservadas
en piedras, en Teoamoxtles Tultecas, y en cantares Teochichimecas y
Mexicanos."_

For many years this curious work, which was never printed, was
supposed to be lost; but the original MS. is extant, in the
possession of the distinguished antiquary Don Alfredo Chavero, of the
City of Mexico.[45] Unfortunately, however, the author did not insert
in his work any song in the native language nor a literal translation
of any, as I am informed by Senor Chavero, who has kindly examined
the work carefully at my request, with this inquiry in view.

Half a century later, when Boturini was collecting his material, he
found but very few of the old poems. In the catalogue of his MSS. he
mentions (XIX, 1) some fragments of ancient songs, badly written, on
European paper, but he does not say whether in the original or
translated. The same doubt might rest on the two songs of
Nezahualcoyotl named in his Catalogue (V, 2). He does not
specifically state that they are in the original. The song of
Moquihuix, King of Tlatilulco, in which he celebrated his victory
over the Cuextla, which Boturini states in his text (p. 91) as in his
possession, is not mentioned at all in his Catalogue, and it is
uncertain whether his copy was in Nahuatl.

His literary friend, however, Don Mariano Echevarria y Veitia,
removes the uncertainty about the two songs of Nezahualcoyotl, as he
informs us that they were in the original tongue, and adds that he
had inserted them in his History without translation.[46] I have
examined the manuscript of his work, now in the Lenox Library, New
York City, but it does not contain these texts, and evidently the
copy used by Bustamente did not.[47]

Boturini included the translations of the two odes of Nezahualcoyotl
in a work on the Virgin of Guadelupe, only a fragment of which has
been preserved. One of the chapters in this Latin Essay is entitled
_De Indorum Poetarum Canticis sive Prosodiis_, in which he introduces
Ixtlilxochitl's translation and also a song in the original Nahuatl,
but the latter is doubtless of late date and unimportant as a really
native production.[48]

The fragments of Boturini's library collected by M. Aubin, of Paris,
contain a number of the original ancient songs of the highest
importance, which make us regret the more that this collection has
been up to the present inaccessible to students. In his description
of these relics published in 1851, M. Aubin refers to the _Historical
Annals of the Mexican Nation_ (Sec. VIII, 10, of Boturini's Catalogue)
as containing "historical songs in a dialect so difficult that I have
not been able to translate them entirely," and adds that similar
songs are preserved in others of the ancient annals in his hands.[49]

Sec. 9. _THE LX SONGS OF THE KING NEZAHUALCOYOTL._

The most distinguished figure among the Nahuatl poets was
Nezahualcoyotl, ruler of Tezcuco. His death took place in 1472, at
the age of eighty years. His father, Ixtlilxochitl, had been deprived
of his possessions and put to death by Tezozomoc, King of the
Tepanecas, and until the death of the latter at an advanced age in
1427, Nezahualcoyotl could make but vain efforts to restore the power
of his family. Much of the time he was in extreme want, and for this
reason, and for his savage persistence in the struggle, he acquired
the name "the fasting or hungry wolf"-- _nezahualcoyotl_. Another of
his names was _Acolmiztli_, usually translated "arm of the lion,"
from _aculli_, shoulder, and _miztli_, lion.

A third was _Yoyontzin_, which is equivalent to _cevetor nobilis_,
from _yoyoma_ (_cevere_, i.e., _femora movere in re venered_); it is
to be understood figuratively as indicating the height of the
masculine forces.

When his power became assured, he proved himself a liberal and
enlightened patron of the arts and industries. The poetry and music
of his native land attracted him the more as he felt within himself
the moving god, firing his imagination with poetic vision, the _Deus
in nobis, calescimus, agitant'illo_. Not only did he diligently seek
out and royally entertain skilled bards, but he himself had the
credit of composing sixty chants, and it appears that after the
Conquest there were that many written down in Roman characters and
attributed to him. We need not inquire too closely whether they were
strictly his own composition. Perhaps they were framed on themes
which he furnished, or were selected by him from those sung at his
court by various bards. The history of the works by royal authors
everywhere must not be too minutely scanned if we wish to leave them
their reputation for originality.

He was of a philosophic as well as a poetic temperament, and
reflected deeply on the problems of life and nature. Following the
inherent tendency of the enlightened intellect to seek unity in
diversity, the One in the Many, he reached the conclusion to which so
many thinkers in all ages and of all races have been driven, that
underlying all phenomena is one primal and adequate Cause, the
Essence of all Existence. This conclusion he expressed in a
philosophic apothegm which was preserved by his disciples, in these
words:--

_Ipan in chicunauitlamanpan meztica in tloque nahuaque palne nohuani
teyocoyani icel teotl oquiyocox in ixquex quexquex in ittoni ihuan
amo ittoni._

"In the ninth series is the Cause of All, of us and of all created
things, the one only God who created all things both visible and
invisible."[50]

To perpetuate the memory of this philosophic deduction he caused to
be constructed at Tezcuco a stone tower nine stories in height, the
ruins of which were visible long after the Spanish occupation. To
this tower he gave the name Chililitli, a term of uncertain meaning,
but which we find was applied in Tenochtitlan to a building sacred to
the Nine Winds.[51] To explain the introduction of this number, I
should add that a certain school of Nahuatl priests taught that the
heaven above and the earth below were each divided into nine
concentric arcs, each leading farther and farther away from the
conditions of the present life. Hence, there were nine heavens,
abodes of the gods, and nine lower regions, abodes of the souls of
the dead. Another school taught that there were not nine but thirteen
of these stages.

The sixty poems by Nezahualcoyotl are mentioned by various writers as
in existence after the Conquest, reduced to writing in the original
tongue, and of several of them we have translations or abstracts.[52]
Of four the translations claim to be complete, and were published
entire for the first time in the original Spanish by Lord
Kingsborough in the ninth volume of his great work on the
_Antiquities of Mexico_. Since then they have received various
renderings in prose and verse into different languages at the hands
of modern writers.

I shall give a literal prose translation from the Spanish, numbering
the poems and their verses, for convenience of reference, in the
order in which they appear in the pages of Lord Kingsborough.

* * * * *

The first is one referred to, and partly translated by Ixtlilxochitl,
in his _Historia Chichimeca_ (cap. 47). He calls it a _xopancuicatl_
(see ante, p. 15), and states that it was composed and sung on the
occasion of the banquet when the king laid the foundations of his
great palace. He gives the first words in the original as follows:--

_Tlaxoconcaguican ani Nezahualcoyotzin;_

And the translation:--

"Hear that which says the King Nezahualcoyotl."

Restoring the much mutilated original to what I should think was its
proper form, the translation should read:--

"Listen attentively to what I, the singer, the noble Nezahualcoyotl,
say:"--

I.

1. Listen with attention to the lamentations which I, the King
Nezahualcoyotl, make upon my power, speaking with myself, and
offering an example to others.

2. O restless and striving king, when the time of thy death shall
come, thy subjects shall be destroyed and driven forth; they shall
sink into dark oblivion. Then in thy hand shall no longer be the
power and the rule, but with the Creator, the All-powerful.

3. He who saw the palaces and court of the old King Tezozomoc, how
flourishing and powerful was his sway, may see them now dry and
withered; it seemed as if they should last forever, but all that the
world offers is illusion and deception, as everything must end and
die.

4. Sad and strange it is to see and reflect on the prosperity and
power of the old and dying King Tezozomoc; watered with ambition and
avarice, he grew like a willow tree rising above the grass and
flowers of spring, rejoicing for a long time, until at length,
withered and decayed, the storm wind of death tore him from his
roots, and dashed him in fragments to the ground. The same fate
befell the ancient King Colzatzli, so that no memory was left of him,
nor of his lineage.

5. In these lamentations and in this sad song, I now call to memory
and offer as an example that which takes place in the spring, and the
end which overtook King Tezozomoc; and who, seeing this, can refrain
from tears and wailing, that these various flowers and rich delights
are bouquets that pass from hand to hand and all wither and end even
in the present life!

6. Ye sons of kings and mighty lords, ponder well and think upon that
which I tell you in these my lamentations, of what takes place in
spring and of the end which overtook King Tezozomoc; and who, seeing
this, can refrain from tears and wailing that these various flowers
and rich delights are bouquets that pass from hand to hand and all
wither and end even in the present life!

7. Let the birds now enjoy, with melodious voices, the abundance of
the house of the flowery spring, and the butterflies sip the nectar
of its flowers.

* * * * *

The second song is preserved in a Spanish metrical translation only,
but which from internal evidence I should judge to be quite literal.
The words of the poem do not represent it as a composition by the
royal poet, but one which was sung before him, and addressed to him.
It admonishes him to rejoice in the present moment, as the
uncertainties of life and fate must at some time, perhaps very soon,
deprive him of their enjoyment.

II.

1. I wish to sing for a moment, since time and occasion are
propitious; I hope to be permitted, as my intention merits it, and I
begin my song, though it were better called a lamentation.

2. And thou, beloved companion, enjoy the beauty of these flowers,
rejoice with me, cast out fears, for if pleasure ends with life, so
also does pain.

3. I, singing, will touch the sonorous instrument, and thou,
rejoicing in the flowers, dance and give pleasure to God the
powerful. Let us be happy in the present, for life is transitory.

4. Thou hast placed thy noble court in Acolhuacan, thine are its
lintels, thou hast decked them, and one may well believe that with
such grandeur thy state shall increase and grow.

5. O prudent Yoyontzin, famous king and peerless monarch, rejoice in
the present, be happy in the springtime, for a day shall come in
which thou shall vainly seek these joys.

6. Then thy destiny shall snatch the sceptre from thy hand, thy moon
shall wane, no longer wilt thou be strong and proud, then thy
servants shall be destitute of all things.

7. In this sad event, the nobles of thy line, the provinces of might,
children of noble parents, lacking thee as their lord, shall taste
the bitterness of poverty.

8. They shall call to mind how great was thy pomp, thy triumphs and
victories, and bewailing the glory and majesty of the past, their
tears will flow like seas.

9. These thy descendants who serve thy plume and crown, when thou art
gone, will forsake Culhuacan, and as exiles will increase their woes.

10. Little will fame have to tell of this wondrous majesty, worthy of
a thousand heralds; the nations will only remember how wisely
governed the three chieftains who held the power,

11. At Mexico, Montezuma the famous and valorous, at Culhuacan the
fortunate Nezahualcoyotl, and at the stronghold of Acatlapan,
Totoquilhuatli.

12. I fear no oblivion for thy just deeds, standing as thou dost in
thy place appointed by the Supreme Lord of All, who governs all
things.

13. Therefore, O Nezahualcoyotl, rejoice in what the present offers,
crown thyself with flowers from thy gardens, hear my song and music
which aim to please thee.

14. The pleasures and riches of this life are but loaned, their
substance is vain, their appearance illusory; and so true is this
that I ask thee for an answer to these questions:

15. What has become of Cihuapan? Of the brave Quantzintecomatzin? Of
Conahuatzin? What of all these people? Perhaps these very words have
already passed into another life.

16. Would that we who are now united by the ties of love and
friendship could foresee the sharp edge of death, for nothing is
certain, and the future ever brings changes.

* * * * *

The third is a "spring song" in which the distinguished warriors of
the king are compared to precious stones. Such jewels were believed
by the Nahuas to possess certain mysterious powers as charms and
amulets, a belief, it is needless to say, found among almost all
nations. In verse 18 there is a reference to the superstition that at
dawn, when these jewels are exposed to the first rays of the sun,
they emit a fine vapor which wafts abroad their subtle potency. The
poem is in Spanish verse, and the original is said to have been
written down by Don Fernando de Avila, governor of Tlalmanalco, from
the mouth of Don Juan de Aguilar, governor of Cultepec, a direct
descendant of Nezahualcoyotl.

III.

1. The flowery spring has its house, its court, its palace, adorned
with riches, with goods in abundance.

2. With discreet art they are arranged and placed, rich feathers,
precious stones, surpassing in luster the sun.

3. There is the valued carbuncle, which from its beauteous center
darts forth rays which are the lights of knowledge.

4. There is the prized diamond, sign of strength, shooting forth its
brilliant gleams.

5. Here one sees the translucent emerald suggesting the hope of the
rewards of merit.

6. Next follows the topaz, equaling the emerald, for the reward it
promises is a heavenly dwelling.

7. The amethyst, signifying the cares which a king has for his
subjects, and moderation in desires.

8. These are what kings, princes and monarchs delight to place upon
their breasts and crowns.

9. All these stones with their varied and singular virtues, adorn Thy
house and court, O Father, O Infinite God!

10. These stones which I the King Nezahualcoyotl have succeeded in
uniting in loving liens,

11. Are the famous princes, the one called Axaxacatzin, the other
Chimalpopoca, and Xicomatzintlamata.

12. To-day, somewhat rejoiced by the joy and words of these, and of
the other lords who were with them,

13. I feel, when alone, that my soul is pleased but for a brief time,
and that all pleasure soon passes.

14. The presence of these daring eagles pleases me, of these lions
and tigers who affright the world,

15. These who by their valor win everlasting renown, whose name and
whose deeds fame will perpetuate.

16. Only to-day am I glad and look upon these rich and varied stones,
the glory of my bloody battles.

17. To-day, noble princes, protectors of the realm, my will is to
entertain you and to praise you.

18. It seems to me that ye answer from your souls, like the fine
vapor arising from precious stones,--

19. "O King Nezahualcoyotl, O royal Montezuma, your subjects sustain
themselves with your soft dews.

20. "But at last a day shall come which will cut away this power, and
all these will be left wretched orphans.

21. "Rejoice, mighty King, in this lofty power which the King of
Heaven has granted you, rejoice and be glad.

22. "In the life of this world there is no beginning anew, therefore
rejoice, for all good ends.

23. "The future promises endless changes, griefs that your subjects
will have to undergo.

24. "Ye see before you the instruments decked with wreaths of odorous
flowers; rejoice in their fragrance.

25. "To-day there are peace, and goodfellowship; therefore let all
join hands and rejoice in the dances,

26. "So that for a little while princes and kings and the nobles may
have pleasure in these precious stones,

27. "Which through his goodness the will of the King Nezahualcoyotl
has set forth for you, inviting you to-day to his house."

* * * * *

The fourth song has been preserved in an Otomi translation by the
Mexican antiquary Granados y Galvez[53] and in an abstract by
Torquemada.[54] The latter gives the first words as follows:--

_Xochitl mamani in huehuetitlan:_

Which he translates:--

"There are fresh and fragrant flowers among the groves."

It is said to have been composed at the time the king dedicated his
palace.

IV.

1. The fleeting pomps of the world are like the green willow trees,
which, aspiring to permanence, are consumed by a fire, fall before
the axe, are upturned by the wind, or are scarred and saddened by
age.

2. The grandeurs of life are like the flowers in color and in fate;
the beauty of these remains so long as their chaste buds gather and
store the rich pearls of the dawn and saving it, drop it in liquid
dew; but scarcely has the Cause of All directed upon them the full
rays of the sun, when their beauty and glory fail, and the brilliant
gay colors which decked forth their pride wither and fade.

3. The delicious realms of flowers count their dynasties by short
periods; those which in the morning revel proudly in beauty and
strength, by evening weep for the sad destruction of their thrones,
and for the mishaps which drive them to loss, to poverty, to death
and to the grave. All things of earth have an end, and in the midst
of the most joyous lives, the breath falters, they fall, they sink
into the ground.

4. All the earth is a grave, and nought escapes it; nothing is so
perfect that it does not fall and disappear. The rivers, brooks,
fountains and waters flow on, and never return to their joyous
beginnings; they hasten on to the vast realms of Tlaloc, and the
wider they spread between their marges the more rapidly do they mould
their own sepulchral urns. That which was yesterday is not to-day;
and let not that which is to-day trust to live to-morrow.

5. The caverns of earth are filled with pestilential dust which once
was the bones, the flesh, the bodies of great ones who sate upon
thrones, deciding causes, ruling assemblies, governing armies,
conquering provinces, possessing treasures, tearing down temples,
flattering themselves with pride, majesty, fortune, praise and
dominion. These glories have passed like the dark smoke thrown out by
the fires of Popocatepetl, leaving no monuments but the rude skins on
which they are written.

6. Ha! ha! Were I to introduce you into the obscure bowels of this
temple, and were to ask you which of these bones were those of the
powerful Achalchiuhtlanextin, first chief of the ancient Toltecs; of
Necaxecmitl, devout worshiper of the gods; if I inquire where is the
peerless beauty of the glorious empress Xiuhtzal, where the peaceable
Topiltzin, last monarch of the hapless land of Tulan; if I ask you
where are the sacred ashes of our first father Xolotl; those of the
bounteous Nopal; those of the generous Tlotzin; or even the still
warm cinders of my glorious and immortal, though unhappy and luckless
father Ixtlilxochitl; if I continued thus questioning about all our
august ancestors, what would you reply? The same that I reply--I know
not, I know not; for first and last are confounded in the common
clay. What was their fate shall be ours, and of all who follow us.

7. Unconquered princes, warlike chieftains, let us seek, let us sigh
for the heaven, for there all is eternal, and nothing is corruptible.
The darkness of the sepulchre is but the strengthening couch for the
glorious sun, and the obscurity of the night but serves to reveal the
brilliancy of the stars. No one has power to alter these heavenly
lights, for they serve to display the greatness of their Creator, and
as our eyes see them now, so saw them our earliest ancestors, and so
shall see them our latest posterity.

* * * * *

It will be seen that the philosophy of these songs is mostly of the
Epicurean and _carpe diem_ order. The certainty of death and the
mutability of fortune, observations which press themselves upon the
mind of man everywhere, are their principal staples, and cast over
them a hue of melancholy, relieved by exhortations to enjoy to the
utmost what the present moment offers of pleasure and sensual
gratification. Here and there a gleam of a higher philosophy lights
the sombre reflections of the bard; his thoughts turn toward the
infinite Creator of this universe, and he dimly apprehends that by
making Him the subject of his contemplation, there is boundless
consolation even in this mortal life.

Both these leading _motifs_ recur over and over again in the songs
printed in the original in the present volume, and this similarity is
a common token of the authenticity of the book.

Sec. 10. _THE HISTORY OF THE PRESENT COLLECTION._

The most recent Mexican writers formally deny that any ancient
Mexican poetry is now extant. Thus the eminent antiquary, Don Alfredo
Chavero, in his elaborate work, _Mexico a traves de los Siglos_,
says, "the truth is, we know no specimens of the ancient poetry, and
those, whether manuscript or printed, which claim to be such, date
from after the Conquest."[55] In a similar strain the grammarian
Diario Julio Caballero, writes: "There has never come into our hands
a single poetic composition in this language. It is said that the
great King Nezahualcoyotl was a poet and composed various songs;
however that may be, the fact is that we have never seen any such
compositions, nor met any person who has seen them."[56]

It is important, therefore, to state the exact provenance of the
specimens printed in this volume, many of which I consider to have
been composed previous to the Conquest, and written down shortly
after the Nahuatl language had been reduced to the Spanish alphabet.

All of them are from a MS. volume in the library of the University of
Mexico, entitled _Cantares de los Mexicanos y otros opusculos_,
composed of various pieces in different handwritings, which, from
their appearance and the character of the letter, were attributed by
the eminent antiquary Don Jose F. Ramirez, to the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries.

The copy I have used is that made by the late Abbe Brasseur (de
Bourbourg). It does not appear to be complete, but my efforts to have
it collated with the original have not been successful. Another copy
was taken by the late well-known Mexican scholar Faustino
Chimalpopoca, which was in the possession of Senor Ramirez and sold
at the vendue of his books in 1880. It is No. 511 of the catalogue.

The final decision of the age of the poems must come from a careful
scrutiny of the internal evidence, especially the thoughts they
contain and the language in which they are expressed. In applying
these tests, it should be remembered that a song may be almost wholly
ancient, that is, composed anterior to the Conquest, and yet display
a few later allusions introduced by the person who preserved it in
writing, so as to remove from it the flavor of heathenism. Some
probable instances of this kind will be pointed out in the Notes.

The songs are evidently from different sources and of different
epochs. There are two notes inserted in the MS. which throw some
light on the origin of a few of the poems. The first is in connection
with No. XII. In my copy of the MS, the title of this song is written
twice, and between the two the following memorandum appears in
Spanish:

"Ancient songs of the native Otomis, which they were accustomed to
sing at their festivals and marriages, translated into the Mexican
language, the play and the spirit of the song and its figures of
speech being always retained; as Your Reverence will understand, they
displayed considerable style and beauty, better than I can express
with my slight talent; and may Your Reverence at your convenience
approve and be entertained by them, as a skilled master of the
tongue, as Your Reverence is."

From its position and from the titles following, this note appears to
apply only to No. XII.

The second note is prefixed to No. XIV, which has no title. It is in
Nahuatl, and reads as follows:--

* * * * *

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I H S

Nican ompehua in cuicatl motenehua melahuac Huexotzincayotl ic
moquichitoya in tlatoque Huexotzinca mani mecatca; yexcan inic
tlatlamantitica, teuccuicatl ahnoco quauhcuicatl, xochicuicatl,
icnocuicatl. Auh inic motzotzona huehuetl cencamatl mocauhtiuh, auh
in occencamatl ipan huetzi yetetl ti; auh in huel ic ompehua centetl
ti; auh inic mocuepa quiniquac iticpa huehuetzi y huehuetl, zan
mocemana in maitl; auh quiniquac iyeinepantla occeppa itenco
hualcholoa in huehuetl; tel yehuatl itech mottaz, ynima ynaquin
cuicani quimati iniuh motzotzona; auh yancuican yenoceppa inin
cuicatl ychan D. Diego de Leon, Governador Azcapotzalco; yehuatl
oquitzotzon in D. Frco Placido ypan xihuitl 1551, ypan in
ezcalilitzin tl Jesu Christo.

* * * * *

This may be freely translated as follows:--

* * * * *

"Here begins a song called a plain song of Huexotzinco as it was
recited by the lords of Huexotzinco. These songs are divided into
three classes, the songs of the nobles or of the eagles, the flower
songs, and the songs of destitution. (Directions follow for beating
the drum in unison with the voices.) This song was sung at the house
of Don Diego de Leon, Governor of Azcapotzalco; he who beat the drum
was Don Francisco Placido; in the year of the resurrection of our
Lord Jesus Christ 1551."

* * * * *

This assigns beyond doubt the song in question to the first half of
the sixteenth century, and we may therefore take its phraseology as a
type of the Nahuatl poetry shortly after the Conquest. It is also
stated to be a native composition, and from its contents, it was
clearly composed by one of the converts to the Christian faith.

ANCIENT NAHUATL POEMS.

I.

_CUICAPEUHCAYOTL._

I.

_SONG AT THE BEGINNING._

1. Ninoyolnonotza, campa nicuiz yectli, ahuiaca xochitl:--Ac
nitlatlaniz? Manozo yehuatl nictlatlani in quetzal huitzitziltin, in
chalchiuh huitzitzicatzin; manozo ye nictlatlani in zaquan papalotl;
ca yehuantin in machiz, ommati, campa cueponi in yectli ahuiac
xochitl, tla nitlahuihuiltequi in nican acxoyatzinitzcanquauhtla,
manoze nitlahuihuiltequi in tlauhquecholxochiquauhtla; oncan
huihuitolihui ahuach tonameyotoc in oncan mocehcemelquixtia; azo
oncan niquimittaz intla onechittitique; nocuexanco nictemaz ic
niquintlapaloz in tepilhuan, ic niquimellelquixtiz in teteuctin.

1. I am wondering where I may gather some pretty, sweet flowers. Whom
shall I ask? Suppose that I ask the brilliant humming-bird, the
emerald trembler; suppose that I ask the yellow butterfly; they will
tell me, they know, where bloom the pretty, sweet flowers, whether I
may gather them here in the laurel woods where dwell the tzinitzcan
birds, or whether I may gather them in the flowery forests where the
tlauquechol lives. There they may be plucked sparkling with dew,
there they come forth in perfection. Perhaps there I shall see them
if they have appeared; I shall place them in the folds of my garment,
and with them I shall greet the children, I shall make glad the
nobles.

2. Tlacazo nican nemi, ye nicaqui in ixochicuicatzin yuhqui tepetl
quinnananquilia; tlacazo itlan in meyaquetzalatl, xiuhtotoameyalli,
oncan mocuica, momotla, mocuica; nananquilia in centzontlatolli; azo
quinnananquilia in coyoltototl, ayacachicahuacatimani, in nepapan
tlazocuicani totome. Oncan quiyectenehua in tlalticpaque
hueltetozcatemique.

2. Truly as I walk along I hear the rocks as it were replying to the
sweet songs of the flowers; truly the glittering, chattering water
answers, the bird-green fountain, there it sings, it dashes forth, it
sings again; the mockingbird answers; perhaps the coyol bird answers,
and many sweet singing birds scatter their songs around like music.
They bless the earth pouring out their sweet voices.

3. Nic itoaya, nitlaocoltzatzia; ma namechellelti y tlazohuane, niman
cactimotlalique, niman hualtato in quetzal huitzitziltin. Aquin
tictemohua, cuicanitzine? Niman niquinnanquilia niquimilhuia: Campa
catqui in yectli, ahuiac xochitl ic niquimellelquixtiz in
amohuampotzitzinhuan? Niman onechicacahuatzque ca nican
tlatimitzittitili ticuicani azo nelli ic tiquimellelquixtiz in
toquichpohuan in teteuctin.

3. I said, I cried aloud, may I not cause you pain ye beloved ones,
who are seated to listen; may the brilliant humming-birds come soon.
Whom do we seek, O noble poet? I ask, I say: Where are the pretty,
fragrant flowers with which I may make glad you my noble compeers?
Soon they will sing to me, "Here we will make thee to see, thou
singer, truly wherewith thou shalt make glad the nobles, thy
companions."

4. Tepeitic tonacatlalpa, xochitlalpa nechcalaquiqueo oncan on
ahuachtotonameyotimani, oncan niquittacaya in nepapan tlazoahuiac
xochitl, tlazohuelic xochitl ahuach quequentoc,
ayauhcozamalotonameyotimani, oncan nechilhuia, xixochitetequi, in
catlehuatl toconnequiz, ma mellelquiza in ticuicani, tiquinmacataciz
in tocnihuan in teteuctin in quellelquixtizque in tlalticpaque.

4. They led me within a valley to a fertile spot, a flowery spot,
where the dew spread out in glittering splendor, where I saw various
lovely fragrant flowers, lovely odorous flowers, clothed with the
dew, scattered around in rainbow glory, there they said to me, "Pluck
the flowers, whichever thou wishest, mayest thou the singer be glad,
and give them to thy friends, to the nobles, that they may rejoice on
the earth."

5. Auh nicnocuecuexantia in nepapan ahuiacxochitl, in huel
teyolquima, in huel tetlamachti, nic itoaya manozo aca tohuanti hual
calaquini, ma cenca miec in ticmamani; auh ca tel ye onimatico
nitlanonotztahciz imixpan in tocnihuan nican mochipa
tiqualtetequizque in tlazo nepapan ahuiac xochitl ihuan ticuiquihui
in nepapan yectliyancuicatl ic tiquimellelquixtizque in tocnihuan in
tlalticpactlaca in tepilhuan quauhtliya ocelotl.

5. So I gathered in the folds of my garment the various fragrant
flowers, delicate scented, delicious, and I said, may some of our
people enter here, may very many of us be here; and I thought I
should go forth to announce to our friends that here all of us should
rejoice in the different lovely, odorous flowers, and that we should
cull the various sweet songs with which we might rejoice our friends
here on earth, and the nobles in their grandeur and dignity.

6. Ca moch nicuitoya in nicuicani ic niquimicpac xochiti in tepilhuan
inic niquimapan in can in mac niquinten; niman niquehuaya yectli
yacuicatl ic netimalolo in tepilhuan ixpan in tloque in nahuaque, auh
in atley y maceuallo.

6. So I the singer gathered all the flowers to place them upon the
nobles, to clothe them and put them in their hands; and soon I lifted
my voice in a worthy song glorifying the nobles before the face of
the Cause of All, where there is no servitude.

7. Can quicuiz? Can quitlaz in huelic xochitl? Auh cuix nohuan aciz
aya in xochitlalpan, in tonacatlalpan, in atley y macehuallo in
nentlamati? Intla y tlacohua in tlalticpac ca can quitemacehualtica
in tloque in nahuaque, in tlalticpac; ye nican ic chocan noyollo
noconilnamiquia in ompa onitlachiato y xochitlalpana nicuicani.

7. Where shall one pluck them? Where gather the sweet flowers? And
how shall I attain that flowery land, that fertile land, where there
is no servitude, nor affliction? If one purchases it here on earth,
it is only through submission to the Cause of All; here on earth
grief fills my soul as I recall where I the singer saw the flowery
spot.

8. Auh nic itoaya tlacazo amo qualcan in tlalticpac ye nican, tlacazo
occecni in huilohuayan, in oncan ca in netlamachtilli; tlezannen in
tlalticpac? tlacazo occecni yoliliz ximoayan, ma ompa niauh, ma ompa
inhuan noncuicati in nepapan tlazototome, ma ompa nicnotlamachti
yectliya xochitl ahuiaca xochitl, in teyolquima, in zan tepacca,
teahuiaca yhuintia, in zan tepacca, ahuiaca yhuintia.

8. And I said, truly there is no good spot here on earth, truly in
some other bourne there is gladness; For what good is this earth?
Truly there is another life in the hereafter. There may I go, there
the sweet birds sing, there may I learn to know those good flowers,
those sweet flowers, those delicious ones, which alone pleasurably,
sweetly intoxicate, which alone pleasurably, sweetly intoxicate.

II.

_XOPANCUICATL, OTONCUICATL, TLAMELAUHCAYOTL._

_A SPRING SONG, AN OTOMI SONG, A PLAIN SONG._

1. Onihualcalac nicuicani nepapan xochitlalpan, huel
teellelquixtican, tetlamachtican, oncan ahuach tonameyoquiauhtimani,
oncan cuicuica in nepapan tlazototome, on cuicatlaza in coyoltototl
cahuantimani inin tozquitzin in quellelquixtia in tloque in nahuaque
yehuan Dios, ohuaya, ohuaya.

1. I, the singer, have entered many flower gardens, places of
pleasaunce, favored spots, where the dew spread out its glittering
surface, where sang various lovely birds, where the coyol birds let
fall their song, and spreading far around, their voices rejoiced the
Cause of All, He who is God, ohuaya! ohuaya!

2. Oncan nicaqui in cuicanelhuayotl in nicuicani, tlacazo amo
tlalticpac in peuh yectli yancuicatl, tlacazo ompa in ilhuicatl itic
hual caquizti in conehua in tlazocoyoltototl in quimehuilia in
nepapan teoquecholme zacuantototl, oncan tlacazo quiyectenehua in
tloque in nahuaque, ohuaya, ohuaya.

2. It is there that I the singer hear the very essence of song;
certainly not on earth has true poesy its birth; certainly it is
within the heavens that one hears the lovely coyol bird lift its
voice, that the various quechol and zacuan birds speak together,
there they certainly praise the Cause of All, ohuaya! ohuaya!

3. Niyolpoxahua in nicaquia ni cuicani, acoquiza in notlalnamiquilizo
quin pepetlatiquiza in ilhuicame, nelcicihuiliz ehecayotiuh in
iquinalquixtia in ompa ontlatenehua in zacuanhuitzitzil in ilhuicatl
itic, ohuaya, ohuaya.

3. I, the singer, labor in spirit with what I heard, that it may lift
up my memory, that it may go forth to those shining heavens, that my
sighs may be borne on the wind and be permitted to enter where the
yellow humming bird chants its praises in the heavens, ohuaya!
ohuaya!

4. Auh nohuiampa nictlachialtia in noyollo auh tlacazo nelli in amo
ixquich quehua in tlazotototl, tlacazo ye oc tlapanahuia in ilhuicatl
itic y yollo in tloque in nahuaque mochiuhtica, ca intlacamo
teuhyotiuh in notlalnamiquiliz azo huelquinalquixtica ittazo in
tlamahuizolli in ilhuicac ic papaqui in ilhuicac tlazototome ixpan in
tloque nahuaque, ohuaya, ohuaya.

4. And as in my thoughts I gaze around, truly no such sweet bird
lifts its voice, truly the things made for the heavens by the Cause
of All surpass all others, and unless my memory tends to things
divine scarcely will it be possible to penetrate these and witness
the wondrous sights in heaven, which rejoice the sweet heavenly birds
before the face of the Cause of All.

5. Quenin ah nichocaz in tlalticpac? ye nican onca nemoaya
ninoztlacahuia, nicitoa aco zan ye ixquich in nican in tlalticpac
ontlamian toyolia, macuele ehuatl in tloque in nahuaque, ma ompa
inhuan nimitznocuicatili in ilhuicac mochanecahuan ca noyollo ehua
ompa nontlachia in monahuac in motloc tipalnemohua, ohuaya, ohuaya.

5. How much, alas, shall I weep on earth? Truly I have lived here in
vain illusion; I say that whatever is here on earth must end with our
lives. May I be permitted to sing to thee, the Cause of All, there in
the heaven, a dweller in thy mansion, there may my soul lift its
voice and be seen with Thee and near Thee, Thou by whom we live,
ohuaya! ohuaya!

6. Ma xicaquin nocuic in tinocniuh xochihuehuetl inic tzotzonaya
ilhuicacuicatl in nicchuaya, ic niquimellelquixtia in teteucti,
xochicueponi in noyollo izqui xochitl nictzetzelohuaya ic malitiuh in
no cuicatzin ixpan in tloque in nahuaque, ohuaya, ohuaya.

6. List to my song, thou my friend, and to the flower-decked drum
which kept time to the heavenly song which I sang, that I might make
glad the nobles, raining down before them the flowery thoughts of my
heart as though they were flowers, that my noble song might grow in
glory before the face of the Cause of All, ohuaya! ohuaya!

III.

_OCCE AL MISMO TONO TLAMELAUHCAYOTL._

_ANOTHER PLAIN SONG, TO THE SAME TUNE._

1. Xochicalco nihualcalaquia in nicuicani, oncan icac in
chalchiuhuehuetl, oncan chialon ipalnemohuani in teteuctin xochitl
tzetzeliuhtimani, tolquatectitla, xoyacaltitlan, onahuiaxtimani in
xochicopal tlenamactli huel teyolquima, cahuia ca ihuintia in toyollo
ixpan in tloque in nahuaque.

1. I, the singer, entered into the house strewn with flowers, where
stood upright the emerald drum, where awaiting the Giver of Life the
nobles strewed flowers around, the place where the head is bowed for
lustration, the house of corrupt odors, where the burning fragrant
incense spreads and penetrates, intoxicating our souls in the
presence of the Cause of All.

2. Ic motoma tocuic xochiahuia ca ihuinti in toyollo? Aoc ticmati
inic nepapan xochicuicatl ic ticcecemeltia in tloque nahuaque quen
ahtontlaelehuian; tinocniuh ma nohuehuetitlan ximoquetzaya nepapan
xochitl ic ximopanaya chalchiuh ocoxochitl mocpac xicmanaya
xicehuayan yectli yancuicatl ic melelquixtia in tloque in nahuaque.

2. Where shall we obtain the fragrance which intoxicates our souls?
We do not yet know the various flower-songs with which we may rejoice
the Cause of All, however desirous we are; thou my friend, would that
thou bring to my instrument various flowers, that thou shouldst
clothe it in brilliant oco flowers, that thou shouldst offer them,
and lift thy voice in a new and worthy song to rejoice the Cause of
All.

3. Tleymach tiquilnamiquia can mach in nemian moyollo ic timoyol
cecenmanaya ahuicpa tichuica timoyol popoloaya in tlalticpac? Ca mach
titlatiuh xihualmocuepaya xiccaquin yectli yancuicatl ximoyolciahuaya
xochiaticaya onahuiaxtimani oncan nicehuaya in yectli yancuicatl
nicuicani ic nicellelquixtia in tloque in nahuaque.

3. Wherefore should we recall while the soul is in life that our
souls must be scattered hither and thither, and that wherever we go
we are to be destroyed on earth? Rather let us hide it, turn from it,
and listen to some worthy new song; delight thy soul with the
pervading fragrance of flowers, as I the singer lift my voice in a
new song that I may rejoice the Cause of All.

4. Xihuallachian tinocniuh in oncan icayan xochihuehuetl tonameyo
ontotonauhtimani quetzal ecacehuazticaya on xopaleuhtimani in oncan
ic chialo ic malhuilo inipetl in icpal in tloque in nahuaque; xic
cahuaya in mixtecomatla xihualmocuepaya tohuan, xic ehua in
yancuicatl nicuicani ic niquellelquixtia in tloque in tlaneciz inic
moyollo caltitlan.

4. Come hither, thou my friend, to where stands the drum, decked with
flowers, gleaming with brightness, green with the outspread plumes of
the quetzal bird, where are looked for and cared for the seats near
the Cause of All; leave the place of night and clouds, turn hither
with us, lift thy voice in the new song I sing so that I may rejoice
the Cause of All, as the dawn approaches in the house of thy heart.

5. Tlecannen in nicyocoya in nitlaocolcuica inic niquimilnamiqui in
tepilhuan, in tlazomaquiztin, in tlazoteoxiuhme, in quetzaltotome, in
moteyotico, in motleyotico in tlalticpac? in ocnoma caquizti inin
tenyo, inin cahuanca, campa neltiazque? Ca zan titlacatico ca ompa
huel tochan in canin ximoayan inocapa in yolihuayan aic tlamian.

5. Of what use is it that I frame my sad songs, that I recall to mind
the youths, the beloved children, the precious relatives, the dear
friends, famous and celebrated as they were on earth? Who now hears
their fame, their deeds? Where can they find them? All of us are but
mortal, and our home is there in the Hereafter, where there is life
without end.

IV.

_MEXICA OTONCUICATL._

_AN OTOMI SONG OF THE MEXICANS._

1. Nicchalchiuhtonameyopetlahuaya, nictzinitzcanihuicaloaya,
niquilnamiquia nelhuayocuicatla, nic zacuanhuipanaya yectli
yancuicatl nicuicani, nicchalchiuhtlazonenelo ic nichualnextia in
xochicueponallotl ic nicellelquixtia in tloque in nahuaque.

1. I, the singer, polished my noble new song like a shining emerald,
I arranged it like the voice of the tzinitzcan bird, I called to mind
the essence of poetry, I set it in order like the chant of the zacuan
bird, I mingled it with the beauty of the emerald, that I might make
it appear like a rose bursting its bud, so that I might rejoice the
Cause of All.

2. Zacuantlazoihuiticaya tzinitzcan tlauquechol ic nicyaimatia,
nocuicatzin teocuitlatzitzilini nocuic nitoz; miahuatototl nocuica
cahuantimania, nicehuaya xochitzetzelolpa ixpan in tloque nahuaque.

2. I skillfully arranged my song like the lovely feathers of the
zacuan bird, the tzinitzcan and the quechol; I shall speak forth my
song like the tinkling of golden bells; my song is that which the
miaua bird pours forth around him; I lifted my voice and rained down
flowers of speech before the face of the Cause of All.

3. Qualli cuicanelhuayotlo, teocuitlaquiquizcopa nicehuaya, ilhuicac
cuicatlo nictenquixtia, nitoz miahuatototl, chalciuhtonameyotica,
niccueponaltia yectli yancuicatlo, nicehuaya xochitlenamaquilizticaya
ic nitlaahuialia nicuicani ixpan in tloque nahuaque.

3. In the true spirit of song I lifted my voice through a trumpet of
gold, I let fall from my lips a celestial song, I shall speak notes
precious and brilliant as those of the miaua bird, I shall cause to
blossom out a noble new song, I lifted my voice like the burning
incense of flowers, so that I the singer might cause joy before the
face of the Cause of All.

4. Teoquecholme nechnananquilia in nicuicani coyolicahuacaya yectli
yacuicatlan, cozcapetlaticaya chachalchiuhquetzalitztonameyo
xopaleuhtimania xopan xochicuiatl onilhuica ahuiaxtimanio,
xochiahuachtitlan nihualcuicaya nicuicani.

4. The divine quechol bird answers me as I, the singer, sing, like
the coyol bird, a noble new song, polished like a jewel, a turquoise,
a shining emerald, darting green rays, a flower song of spring,
spreading celestial fragrance, fresh with the dews of roses, thus
have I the poet sung.

5. Nictlapalimatia nicxoxochineloaya yectli yancuicatlan
cozcapetlaticaya, etc.

5. I colored with skill, I mingled choice roses in a noble new song,
polished like a jewel, etc. (as in v. 4).

6. Nocontimaloaya nocontlamachtiao xochiteyolquima cuicatlan
poyomapoctli ic ye ahuian ye noyollo, nihualyolcuecuechahuaya,
nicinecuia ahuiaca, xocomiqui in noyolia, nicinecuia yectliya
xochitla netlamachtiloyan, xochi ye ihuinti noyolia.

6. I was glorified, I was enriched, by the flower-sweet song as by
the smoke of the poyomatl, my soul was contented, I trembled in
spirit, I inhaled the sweetness, my soul was intoxicated, I inhaled
the fragrance of delicious flowers in the place of riches, my soul
was drunken with the flowers.

V.

_OTRO MEXICA TLAMELAUHCACUICAYOTL._

_ANOTHER PLAIN SONG OF THE MEXICANS._

1. Zanio in xochitl tonequimilol, zanio in cuicatl ic huehuetzi in
tellel in Dios ye mochan.

1. I alone will clothe thee with flowers, mine alone is the song
which casts down our grief before God in thy house.

2. In mach noca ompolihuiz in cohuayotl mach noca in icniuhyotl in
ononoya in ye ichan; ye nio Yoyontzin on cuicatillano ye
ipalnemohuani.

2. True it is that my possessions shall perish, my friendships, their
home and their house; thus I, O Yoyontzin, pour forth songs to the
Giver of Life.

3. Ma xiuhquechol xochi, zan in tzinitzcan malintoca zan miqui huaqui
xochitl zan ic tonmoquimiloa can titlatoani ya ti Nezahualcoyotl.

3. Let the green quechol birds, let the tzinitzcan twine flowers for
us, only dying and withered flowers, that we may clothe thee with
flowers, thou ruler, thou Nezahualcoyotl.

4. Ma yan moyoliuh quimati in antepilhuan in anquauhtin amo celo ca
mochipan titocnihuan, zancuel achic nican timochitonyazque o ye
ichano.

4. Ye youths and ye braves, skilled in wisdom, may you alone be our
friends, while for a moment here we shall enjoy this house.

5. Ca ye ompolihuiz in moteyo Nopiltzin, ti Tezozomoctli aca ca ye in
mocuica? aye a nihualchocao ca nihualicnotlamatica notia ye ichan.

5. For thy fame shall perish, Nopiltzin, and thou, Tezozomoc, where
are thy songs? No more do I cry aloud, but rest tranquil that ye have
gone to your homes.

6. An ca nihuallaocoya onicnotlamati ayo quico, ayoc quemanian,
namech aitlaquiuh in tlalticpac y icanontia ye ichan.

6. Ye whom I bewailed, I know nevermore, never again; I am sad here
on earth that ye have gone to your homes.

VI.

_OTRO CHALCAYOTL, CANTO DE TETLEPAN QUETZANITZIN._

_ANOTHER CHALCO-SONG, A POEM OF TETLEPAN QUETZANITZIN._

1. Aua nocnihue ninentlamatia zan ninochoquilia in monahuac aya
yehuan Dios, quexquich onmitzicnotlamachtia momacehual cemamanahuac
ontonitlanililo in ic tontlahuica tontecemilhuitiltia in tlalticpac.

1. Alas, my friend, I was afflicted, I cried aloud on thy account to
God. How much compassion hast thou for thy servant in this world sent
here by thee to be thy subject for the space of a day on this earth!

2. Macazo tleon xoconyoyocoya ti noyollo, yehua cuix ic nepohualoyan
in oncan nemohua yehua, in atle tlahuelli in antecocolia huel on
yecnemiz in tlalticpac.

2. However that may be, mayst thou so dispose my heart, that it may
pass through this place of reckoning, without anger, without injury,
and live a good life on earth.

3. In quimati noyollo nichoca yehua huel eza ye nelli in titicnihuan,
huellenelli nemoa in tlalticpac in tonicniuh tlatzihuiz yehuan Dios.

3. My heart knows how truly I weep for my friend, how truly as it
lives on earth it cries aloud for thee, my friend, to God.

4. Xontlachayan huitztlampayan, iquizayan in tonatiuh,
ximoyollehuayan oncan manian teoatl tlachinolli, oncan mocuica in
teucyotl in tlatocayotl yectliya xochitl in amo zannen mocuia, in
quetzallalpilo niaya macquauhtica, chimaltica neicaloloyan in
tlalticpac ic momacehuaya in yectliya xochitl in tiquelehuia in
ticnequia in tinocniuh in quitemacehualtia in quitenemactia in tloque
in nahuaque.

4. Let thy soul awake and turn toward the south, toward the rising of
the sun, rouse thy heart that it turn toward the field of battle,
there let it win power and fame, the noble flowers which it will not
grasp in vain; adorned with a frontlet of quetzal feathers I went
forth armed with sword and shield to the battlefield on earth, that I
might merit these noble flowers with which we may rejoice as we wish
our friends, as the Cause of All may reward and grant to us.

5. Nentiquelehuia in tictemoaya in tinocniuh yectliya xochitl can
ticuiz intlacamo ximicaliya, melchiquiuhticaya, mitonalticaya
ticmacehuaya in yectliyaxochitla, yaochoquiztli ixayoticaya in
quitemacehualtica in tloque in nahuaque.

5. Vainly, O friends, do we desire and seek where we may cull those
noble flowers unless we fight with bared breasts, with the sweat of
the brow, meriting these noble flowers, in bitter and painful war,
for which the Cause of All will give reward.

VII.

_OTRO._

_ANOTHER._

1. Tleinmach oamaxque on in antocnihuan in an Chiapaneca Otomi,
omachamelelacic: in ic oamihuintiqueo octicatl in oanquique ic
oamihuintique, xicualcuican, in amo ma in anhuehuetztoqueo,
ximozcalicano in antocnihuan nipatiazque in tochano, xopantlalpan ye
nican, ma quiza in amihuintiliz, on xitlachiacano ohuican ye
anmaquia, O!

1. What have you done, O you our friends, you Chiapanecs and Otomis,
why have you grieved, that you were drunken with the wine which you
took, that you were drunken? Come hither and sing: do not lie
stretched out; arise, O friends, let us go to our houses here in this
land of spring; come forth from your drunkenness, see in what a
difficult place you must take it.

2. Ca yeppa yuhqui in tizaoctli in tlalticpac, quitemacao ohuican ic
tecalaquiao teoatl tlachinolli quitoao texaxamatzao teopopoloao on
canin xaxamanio in tlazochalchihiuitl, in teoxihuitl, in maquiztli
tlazotetl in tepilhuan in coninio in xochitizaoctlio cuel can in
antocnihuan in tonicahuacao.

2. For formerly it was so on earth that the white wine was taken in
difficult places, as on entering the battlefield, or, as it was said,
where the stones were broken and destroyed, where were broken into
fragments the lovely emeralds, the turquoises, the honored precious
stones, the youths, the children; therefore take the flowery white
wine, O friends and brothers.

3. Ma ye ticiti in xochitlalpan in tochan xochitlalticpacilhuicacpaco
in huel ic xochiamemeyallotl on ahuiaxtimani, teyolquima yoliliz
ahuach xochitl in tochan in Chiappan, oncan timalolo in teucyotl in
tlatocayotl in chimalxochitl oncuepontimani tonacatlalpan.

3. Let us drink it in the flowery land, in our dwelling surrounded by
the flowery earth and sky, where the fountains of the flowers send
their sweetness abroad; the delicious breath of the dewy flowers is
in our homes in Chiapas; there nobility and power make them glorious,
and the war-flowers bloom over a fertile land.

4. Quemach in amo antlacaquio in antocnihuan tohuian tohuiano
xicahuacano, in tizaoctlio teoatlachinoloctli; ma ye ticiti in ompa
tinectilo in tochan xochiahuachoctli, zan ic ahuiaca ihuinti in
toyollo, tetlamachtio teyolquimao tixochiachichinatihui
netlamachtiloyan in toquizayan xochitlalpan tonacatlalpan: tlemach
oamaxqueo? xichualcaquican in tocuic in tamocnihuan, etc.

4. Is it possible, oh friends, that you do not hear us? Let us go,
let us go, let us pour forth the white wine, the wine of battle; let
us drink where the wine sweet as the dew of roses is set forth in our
houses, let our souls be intoxicated with its sweetness; enriched,
steeped in delight, we shall soak up the water of the flowers in the
place of riches, going forth to a land of flowers, a fertile spot.
What have you done? Come hither and listen to our songs, O friends.

VIII.

_OTRO, QUEUH CE TLATOHUANI IN QUIMILNAMIQUI IN TLATOQUE._

_COMPOSED BY A CERTAIN RULER IN MEMORY OF FORMER RULERS._

1. Tlaocolxochi ixayoticaya ic nichuipana in nocuic nicuicani,
niquimilnamiqui in tepilhuan, in teintoque, in tlacotitoque in campa
in ximohuaya, in oteuctico, in otlatocatico in tlallia icpac, in
quetzalhuahuaciuhtoque in chalchiuhteintoque in tepilhuan, in maoc
imixpan in maoc oquitlani; in ye itto in tlalticpac iximachoca in
tloque in nahuaque.

1. Weeping, I, the singer, weave my song of flowers of sadness; I
call to memory the youths, the shards, the fragments, gone to the
land of the dead; once noble and powerful here on earth, the youths
were dried up like feathers, were split into fragments like an
emerald, before the face and in the sight of those who saw them on
earth, and with the knowledge of the Cause of All.

2. Y yo ya hue nitlaocolcuicaya in niquimilnamiqui in tepilhuan, ma
zan itla ninocuepa, ma niquimonana, ma niquinhualquixti in ompa in
ximoayan, ma oc oppa tihua in tlalticpac, ma oc quimahuizoqui in
tepilhuan in ticmahuizoa, azo huel yehuantin tlatlazomahuizozquia in
ipalnemohualoni, quemmach tomazehual in tlazaniuh ticmatican in
ticnopillahueliloque ic choca in noyollo nino tlalnamiquiliz huipana
in nicuicani choquiztica tlaocoltica nitlalnamiquia.

2. Alas! alas! I sing in grief as I recall the children. Would that I
could turn back again; would that I could grasp their hands once
more; would that I could call them forth from the land of the dead;
would that we could bring them again on earth, that they might
rejoice and we rejoice, and that they might rejoice and delight the
Giver of Life; is it possible that we His servants should reject him
or should be ungrateful? Thus I weep in my heart as I, the singer,
review my memories, recalling things sad and grievous.

3. Manozo zan nicmati in nechcaquizque intla itla yectli cuicatl
niquimehuili in ompa ximohuayan, ma ic niquipapacti, ma ic
niquimacotlaza inin tonez inin chichinaquiliz in tepilhuan. Cuix on
machiaz? Quennel nihualnellaquahua? Aquen manian ompa niquimontocaz?
Ano niquin nonotztaciz in ye yuh quin in tlalticpac.

3. Would only that I knew they could hear me, there in the land of
the dead, were I to sing some worthy song. Would that I could gladden
them, that I could console the suffering and the torment of the
children. How can it be learned? Whence can I draw the inspiration?
They are not where I may follow them; neither can I reach them with
my calling as one here on earth.

IX.

_OTRO TLAOCOLCUICA OTOMITL._

_AN OTOMI SONG OF SADNESS._

1. In titloque in tinahuaque nimitzontlaocolnonotzaya, nelcicihuiliz
mixpantzinco noconiyahuaya, ninentlamati in tlalticpac ye nican
nitlatematia, ninotolinia, in ayc onotechacic in pactli, in
necuiltonolli ye nican; tlezannen naicoyc amo y mochiuhyan, tlacazo
atle nican xotlacueponi in nentlamachtillia, tlacazo zan ihuian in
motloc in monahuac; Macuelehuatl ma xicmonequilti ma monahuactzinco
oc ehuiti in noyolia, ninixayohuatzaz in motloc monahuac
tipalnemohuani.

1. To thee, the Cause of All, to thee I cried out in sadness, my
sighs rose up before thy face; I am afflicted here on earth, I
suffer, I am wretched, never has joy been my lot, never good fortune;
my labor has been of no avail, certainly nothing here lessens one's
suffering; truly only to be with thee, near thee; may it be thy will
that my soul shall rise to thee, may I pour out my tears to thee,
before thee, O thou Giver of Life.

2. Quemachamiqueo in motimalotinemi co y in tlalticpac in ayac
contenmatio in atlamachilizneque o tlacazo can moztla cahuia on in
[)a]mitztenmati in titloque in tinahuaque inic momatio ca mochipa
tlalticpac, nemizqueo ninotlamatli motlaliao niquimittao, tlacazo
mixitl tlapatl oquiqueo ic nihualnelaquahua in ninotolinia o tlacazo
ompa in ximohuayan neittotiuh o, cazo tiquenamiqueo quiniquac ye
pachihuiz ye teyolloa.

2. Happy are those who walk in thy favor here on earth, who never
neglect to offer up praise, nor, leaving till to-morrow, neglect
thee, thou Cause of All, that thou mayest be known in all the earth;
I know that they shall live, I see that they are established,
certainly they have drunk to forgetfulness while I am miserable,
certainly I shall go to see the land of the dead, certainly we shall
meet where all souls are contented.

3. Ma cayac quen quichihuaya in iyollo in tlalticpac ye nican in
titlaocaxtinemi in tichocatinemia, ca zacuel achic ontlaniizoo,
tlacazo zan tontlatocatihuio in yuho otlatocatque tepilhuan, ma ic
ximixcuiti in tinocniuh in atonahuia in atihuelamati in tlalticpac o;
ma oc ye xim[)a]pana in tlaocolxochitl, choquizxochitl, xoyocatimalo
o xochielcicihuiliztlio in ihuicpa toconiyahuazon in tloque in
nahuaque.

3. Never were any troubled in spirit on the earth who appealed to
thee, who cried to thee, only for an instant were they cast down,
truly thou caused them to rule as they ruled before: Take as an
example on earth, O friend, the fever-stricken patient; clothe
thyself in the flowers of sadness, in the flowers of weeping, give
praises in flowers of sighs that may carry you toward the Cause of
All.

4. Ica ye ninapanao tlaocolxochicozcatlon, nomac ommanian
elcicihuilizchimalxochitlon, nic ehuaya in tlaocolcuicatloo,
nicchalchiuhcocahuicomana yectli yancuicatl, nic ahuachxochilacatzoa,
yn o chalchiuhuehueuhilhuitl, itech nictlaxilotia in nocuicatzin in
nicuicani ye niquincuilia in ilhuicac chanequeo zacuantototl,
quetzaltzinitzcantototl teoquechol inon tl[)a]toa quechol in qui
cecemeltia in tloque, etc.

4. I array myself with the jewels of saddest flowers; in my hands are
the weeping flowers of war; I lift my voice in sad songs; I offer a
new and worthy song which is beautiful and melodious; I weave songs
fresh as the dew of flowers; on my drum decked with precious stones
and plumes I, the singer, keep time to my song, as I take it from
those dwellers in the heavens, the zacuan bird, the beautiful
tzinitzcan, the divine quechol, those melodious birds who give joy to
the Cause of All.

X.

_MEXICA XOPANCUICATL TLAMELAUHCAYOTL._

_A SPRING SONG OF THE MEXICANS, A PLAIN SONG._

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