Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Books, poems, drama…

Analyzing Character by Katherine M. H. Blackford and Arthur Newcomb

Part 7 out of 8

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 0.9 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

These are some of the indications of deliberation: dark coloring, with an
inclination to pallor; a long, strong, prominent chin and well-developed
jaw; large size; medium or coarse texture; hard consistency; a long,
square head; long, knotty fingers, with square tips; slow, deliberate,
rhythmical movements; a calm, poised expression, and either an absence of
gesture or gesture of a slow, graceful character.

Looking around amongst your friends and acquaintances, you will readily
see that few, if any, have all of the characteristics of impulsiveness in
a marked degree, and an equally small number all of the characteristics of
deliberation in a marked degree. The majority of people probably have a
combination of these characteristics--some indications of impulsiveness
and some of deliberation. In such cases, the question is answered by a
preponderance of evidence.

OBSTINATE PEOPLE

Some people are remarkably obstinate. If given their own way, they are
agreeable and amiable, but when opposed, they are exceedingly difficult to
persuade. If such persons are of the positive type and like to feel that
they are doing the thing and that no one else is influencing or coercing
them, then they must be handled by an adroit suggestion similar in
principle to that described in the case of the automobile salesman on page
380. On the other hand, in case these obstinate people are somewhat
negative in character, without much initiative or aggressiveness but with
a very large degree of stubbornness, then care must be taken not to
antagonize them or to oppose them--always gently to lead them and never to
try to drive them.

Argument is probably the most useless waste of energy possible in
attempting persuasion. Your own experience teaches you that argument only
leaves each party to the controversy more strongly convinced than ever
that he is right. This is true no matter what the character of the arguers
be. It is especially and most emphatically true when either one or the
other, or both, who participate in the argument are of the obstinate type.

The obstinate person may be amenable to reason if reasons are stated
calmly, tactfully, and without arousing his opposition. His emotions of
love, sympathy, generosity, desire for power and authority may be
successfully appealed to and he may be gently led to a decision by way of
minor and seemingly insignificant points.

INDICATIONS OF OBSTINACY

These are the indications of obstinacy: dark coloring; a prominent chin; a
head high in the crown; hard consistency; a rigidity of the joints,
especially of the joints in the hands and fingers. Perhaps the most
important and most easily recognized indication of a domineering,
obstinate, determined will is the length of line from the point of the
chin to the crown of the head. When this line greatly exceeds in length
that from the nape of the neck to the hair line at the top of the
forehead, you have an individual who desires to rule and bitterly resents
any attempt on the part of others to rule him.

The indications of a positive, aggressive, dominating will are these:
blonde color; prominent chin; a large, bony nose, high in the bridge;
high forehead, prominent at the brows and retreating as it rises; medium
or small size; medium fine, medium or coarse texture; hard consistency,
rigid joints; a head wide just above and also behind the ears and high in
the crown; a keen, penetrating, intense expression of the eyes, and
positive, decided tones of voice, movements and gestures.

The individual who is negatively stubborn may have a small or sway-back
nose; may have a high forehead, flat at the brows and prominent above; may
have elastic or soft consistency; may have a head narrow above and behind
the ears. Obstinacy will be shown in the length of line from the point of
chin to the crown of head and in the rigidity of the joints of the hands
and fingers.

THE INDECISIVE

The gentleman mentioned at the opening of this chapter belongs to the
indecisive class. They are like those of whom we sing in the old hymn:

"But timorous mortals start and shrink
To cross that narrow sea
And linger, shivering, on the brink
And fear to launch away."

We have often watched boys in swimming. In every crowd there are always a
few of these timorous mortals who "shiver on the brink and fear to launch
away." As a general rule, some of their companions usually come up behind
them and give them a strong push, after which they are pleased and happy
enough in the water. We have seen boys who seemed to be waiting for
someone to push them in. No doubt they were. Certain it is that grown up
men and women who suffer in an agony of indecision usually like to have
someone take the matter out of their hands.

In the case of the gentleman to whom we have referred in the opening of
this chapter, the real estate agent one day walked into his office, laid a
contract down on the desk in front of him, and said, very impressively:
"This thing has got to be settled up to-day. Just sign your name right
there." And, with a feeling of intense relief and satisfaction, our friend
did sign his name "right there." To the best of our knowledge and belief,
he has been glad of it ever since.

HOW ONE SALESMAN OVERCAME INDECISION

We once knew a salesman of the positive, domineering type. He was selling
an educational work. Now, education is a thing everyone needs but few will
take the trouble and find the money to purchase unless they are very
strongly persuaded. Men who would readily spend fifty or seventy-five
dollars for a night's carousal will hesitate, and find objections, and
back and fill for weeks, or even for months, before they spend thirty or
forty dollars on a bit of education which they well know they ought to
have. Our friend, therefore, was met over and over again with the
temporizing excuse: "Well, I will have to think this matter over. I cannot
decide it to-day, but you come in and see me again." Almost without
exception, this excuse means that the man who makes it knows, deep down in
his heart, that he ought to make his decision--that he will profit by it
in many ways. He fully intends to make his decision some time, or else he
would not ask the salesman to come back and see him again. But he is a
little weak-kneed. He lacks something in decisiveness. Our friend treated
practically all of these indecisive prospects of his in the same way.

"I am sorry," he would say, "but I can't come back to see you again. My
time is limited. There are plenty of people who want to know about my
proposition and who are eager to take it. I must get around and see them.
I can't afford to go back on my track and spend time with people to whom I
have already explained the whole thing. You want this and you know you
want it. You intend to have it, or you would not ask me to come back and
see you again. There is no good reason why you should not have it now, and
you know there is not. Furthermore, if you do not take it now and I do not
come back to see you--and I won't--then you will never take it. That's
plain enough. You feel more like taking it right now, to-day, while I am
talking to you, than you will later, when you have forgotten half of what
I have said. If there is any question you want to ask about this, ask me
now and I will answer it. But there isn't any, because I have already
answered your questions. You are satisfied. Your mind is made up. There is
no reason for delay--just sign your name right there, please." And only
about four per cent of those to whom he talked that way refused to sign
when he told them to.

The indecisive person wants someone always to decide for him. If you are
trying to persuade such a person, then you must decide for him. Do it as
tactfully as you can. Sometimes these people want others to decide for
them and, at the same time, to make the situation look as if they had
decided for themselves. They realize their own indecisiveness. They are
ashamed of it, and they do not like to be reminded of it.

INDICATIONS OF INDECISION

These are the indications of indecisiveness: brunette coloring; moderately
square and prominent chin--sometimes a long, narrow chin; small, snub or
sway-back nose; high forehead, flat at the brows and prominent above; soft
consistency; great flexibility of the joints of hands and fingers; a head
narrow above and behind the ears and square in the back; a timid,
apprehensive expression; rather aimless movements and gestures, and a
small thumb, set high on the hand. Rare, indeed, is the person who has all
of these indications. So rare, in fact, that he is scarcely a normal being
if he has them all in a marked degree.

THE BALANCED TYPE

There are some people of an evenly balanced type. They are neither
violently impulsive nor ponderously deliberate. They are interested in
facts and pass their judgment upon them, but they are also interested in
theories and willing to listen to them. They are practical and
matter-of-fact, but they also have ideals. They have clean, powerful
emotions, fairly well controlled, and yet, when their judgment has been
satisfied, they are perfectly willing to act in response to their
feelings. They are neither easy, credulous and impulsive nor suspicious,
obstinate and procrastinating. The way to persuade them is first to
present the facts and show them the reasons why. Then, by suggestion and
word-painting, to stimulate their desire and give them an opportunity to
decide and act. Such people are medium in color, with forehead, nose,
mouth and chin inclining to the straight line; medium in size; medium in
build; fine or medium fine in texture; elastic in consistency; moderately
high, wide, long, square head; a pleasant but calm and sensible expression
of face and eyes; quiet, well-timed walk and gestures; well-modulated
voice.

THE EASY MARK

When the person to be persuaded is indecisive and also has large,
wide-open, credulous eyes; a hopeful, optimistic, turned-up nose, and a
large, round dome of a head just above the temples, he is the living image
of the champion easy mark. What he needs is not so much to be persuaded as
to be protected against himself. He, and the greedy, grasping, cunning but
short-sighted individual, who is always trying to get something for
nothing, constitute that very large class of people of whom it has been
said that there is one born every minute.

ADVANTAGE OF PERSUADER'S POSITION

In closing this chapter, we cannot forego the opportunity for a word of
counsel to you in your efforts to persuade others. Remember that if you do
your work well in securing favorable attention, arousing interest, and
creating desire, the person with whom you are dealing is like a man
standing on one foot, not quite knowing which way he will go. Even if he
is more or less obstinate and should be on both his feet, he is at least
standing still and considering which direction he will take. If this is
not true, then you have failed to create a desire, or, having created it,
have not augmented it until it is strong enough. But, granting that this
is true, do you not see what an advantage it gives you? The man who is
standing on one foot, undecided, is quickly pulled or pushed in the way
you want him to go if you yourself vigorously desire it. Even the man who
stands obstinately on both feet is at a disadvantage if he does not know
which way to go, and you very decidedly know which way you want him to go.

THE VALUE OF COURAGE

We have seen more sales skillfully brought up to the point of desire and
then lost through the indecision, the wavering, the fear, or the
hesitation of the salesman than for any other one cause. Of all of the
qualities and characteristics which contribute to success in the
persuasion of others, there is, perhaps, none more powerful than that
courage which gives calmness, surety of touch, decisiveness, and
unwavering, unhesitating action.

Some years ago we saw a huge mob surround a building in which a political
speaker was trying to talk upon an unpopular subject. The longer the mob
remained waiting for their victim to come out, the more violent and the
more abusive it became. There was an angry hum, sounding above the
occasional cries and shouts, which betokened trouble. Presently a large
man scrambled upon the pedestal of a statue in front of the building and
began to harangue the crowd. He argued with them, he pleaded with them, he
threatened them, he tried to cajole them. But through it all he could
scarcely make himself heard and the mob remained solidly packed about the
door. Then the police were brought and attempted to force a passageway for
the escape of the speaker, whose address inside the building was nearing a
close. But the police were powerless and some of them were badly hurt.

Then a quiet little man came down the steps of the building. He was
dressed in ordinary clothing and was unarmed. His open hands hung idly at
his side. He stood near the bottom step, where he could just look over the
heads of the crowd. He stood perfectly still, perfectly calm, and yet with
a look of such iron resolution on his countenance as we have seldom seen.
Those next him grew strangely quiet. Then the semi-circle of silence
spread until the entire mob stood as if holding its breath waiting to see
what this man would do.

"Make a passageway there," he said in a matter-of-fact tone of voice;
"there is a carriage coming through."

Instantly the crowd parted, a carriage was driven up to the steps, the
speaker came down and entered it, and it was driven rapidly away, followed
only by a few hisses and cat-calls.

When all is said and done, that is the spirit which secures the decision
and action of others.

CHAPTER V

EFFICIENT AND SATISFACTORY SERVICE

Marshall Nyall was an excellent workman. He was keen, quick of
comprehension, practical in his judgment, and unusually resourceful. He
was energetic, industrious, and skillful. Being blessed with considerable
idealism, he took pride and pleasure in putting a fine artistic finish on
everything he did. He studied his work in all its aspects and was alert in
finding ways of saving time, materials, energy, and money. He was,
therefore, personally efficient. As an employee of the Swift Motor
Company, he rose rapidly until he became superintendent. In that position
he made a good record. So valuable was he that the White Rapids Motor
Company coveted him and its president and general manager began to lay
plans to entice him away. Negotiations were begun and continued over a
period of weeks. Larger and larger grew the inducements offered by the
White Rapids Motor Company until, finally, Nyall's employers felt that
they could not afford to meet them any longer, and this highly efficient
man became works manager for the White Rapids Motor Company, at a very
greatly increased salary.

Now, the White Rapids Motor Company was larger and wealthier than the
Swift Motor Company. The position of works manager was a more important
and responsible position than that of superintendent. Nyall was
accordingly delighted and had high ambitions as to his career with his new
employers.

HOW THE TROUBLE STARTED

"You have a reputation," said the president and general manager to Nyall,
"for efficiency. Efficiency is what we want in the works here, and if you
can put these factories on as efficient a basis as you did the shops of
the Swift Motor Company, your future is assured."

"I can do that all right, Mr. Burton," Nyall replied confidently,
"provided I get the right kind of co-operation from the front office."

"Call on us for anything you want, Nyall," returned the president sharply.
He was a proud, positive man. He loved power. He had the ability to lead
and to rule, and he resented even the slightest imputation that any lack
of co-operation on his part might defeat his plans for efficient
management.

A few days later Nyall made some changes in the plan of routing the work
through the factories. These changes were rather radical and sweeping and
necessitated a considerable initial expense. Naturally, Burton was not
long in hearing about it. Instantly he summoned his works manager.

"Haven't you begun your work here in a rather drastic manner?" he
inquired. "Surely you have not studied this situation carefully enough in
a few days to justify you in making such sweeping changes in the system
which we have built up here after years of patient study and research. I
have given the routing of the work through the factories days and nights
of careful study, Nyall, during the years that we have been standardizing
it. I believe that it was just as nearly perfect as it can be just as we
had it."

"Your system was all wrong, and I can prove it to you," returned Nyall.
"Just wait a minute until I bring you in my charts."

RUBBING IT IN

Stepping into his office, he secured a number of charts and also several
sheets of tabulated figures. The charts were beautifully executed and in a
most admirable manner made graphically clear the sound reasoning upon
which Nyall had ordered the changes made. The tabulated figures proved
that his reasoning had been correct. He was positive, forceful, and
insistent in driving home his argument and in compelling his superior to
admit their force and cogency. When it was all admitted and Burton,
fighting to the last ditch, had been over-whelmed, Nyall's unconcealed air
of triumph was keenly and painfully exasperating to the defeated man.

This was only the first of the clashes between these two positive minds.
Ordinarily, perhaps, Burton would have preferred efficiency in the factory
to the triumph of his own opinions and ideas, much as it hurt him to be
found in error, But Nyall's disposition to wring the last drop of personal
triumph out of every victory was more than the good man could endure. With
his highly-strung nature, and goaded as he was by intense irritation, the
passion to prove Nyall in the wrong overrode all other considerations.
Thus he began to "cut off his nose to spite his face," as Nyall expressed
it--to conspire against Nyall's success.

If you have ever witnessed a fight for supremacy between two positive,
powerful, high-strung natures, with unusual resources of intellect and
capacity on both sides, we do not need to describe to you what happened in
the White Rapids Motor Company during the months that followed. Nyall
simply could not understand why Burton should jeopardize the success, and
even the solvency, of his enterprise by plotting against his own works
manager. To his friends he confided: "Honestly, I think the old man is
going crazy. The things he says and the things he does are not the product
of a sane, normal mind." Similarly, Burton could not understand, to save
his life, why Nyall should jeopardize the brilliant future which lay
before him "by bucking his president and general manager," as he put it.
"It is rule or ruin with him," he told his friends. "I never saw a more
stubborn man in my life. He is crazy to have his own way. He wants to take
the bit in his teeth, and if he were permitted to do it, he would run away
and smash himself and everything else."

BOTH BELLIGERENT AND STUBBORN

Why did not Nyall resign or, in default of his resignation, why did not
Burton discharge him? Such action was obvious for both men from a mere
common sense point of view, under the circumstances. The answer is that
both men were so obstinate and so set upon winning the fight upon which
they had entered, that neither of them would give up. It all ended when
the board of directors finally took a hand and removed Nyall in order to
save the institution from shipwreck.

Naturally enough, the word went out that Nyall could not stand prosperity;
that when placed in a position of authority and responsibility, he had
lost his head and had nearly wrecked the concern for which he worked. He
found that he could not go back to his old position with the Swift Motor
Company and that his reputation had suffered so seriously that he had to
be satisfied for a long time with a minor position in a rather obscure
concern.

THE KEY TO THE DIFFICULTY

Nyall was efficient--unusually efficient--but he did not give satisfaction
with the White Rapids Motor Company. Perhaps we do not need to point to
the moral of this tale. If Nyall had understood his superior and had
conducted himself accordingly, he might himself have been president and
general manager of the White Rapids Motor Company to-day. He would have
known that Burton was not a man to be brow-beaten, not a man to be defied,
not a man to be proven in the wrong. With a little tact and diplomacy, he
could have effected all of the changes he wished without even the
semblance of a clash with his chief. He might even have insisted upon the
first ones he advocated without serious trouble if he had done it in the
right way and if he had not permitted his feeling of personal triumph to
show itself so plainly.

WHAT MIGHT HAVE BEEN

In the first place, if he had known Burton as he should, he would have
gone to him before making any changes and said: "Mr. Burton, I understand
that you have given a great deal of time and thought to the routing of
work through the factories; that you have personally directed the building
up of the present system. I usually begin my work by studying the routing,
but if you feel satisfied with this routing, as a result of your study;
and experience, I will devote my time to something else." Approached in
this way, Burton would unquestionably have directed the new works manager
to make a complete study of the routing system and to suggest any
possible improvements.

This story is typical of many others which we have observed more or less
in detail. Nyall was a great success in the Swift Motor Company because
the chief executive of that company was a little mild, good-natured,
easy-going fellow, who not only needed the spur and stimulus of a positive
nature like Nyall's, but was quite frankly delighted with it. If Nyall had
approached him with questions and suggestions and a spirit of constant
bowing to his authority, he would have been as exasperated in his own
quiet way as Burton was with the opposite treatment. His constant
injunction to his subordinates was: "Do not come to me with details. Use
your own judgment and initiative. Go ahead. Do it in your own way. I hold
you responsible only for results."

ALWAYS "SOME OTHER WAY"

In his "Message to Garcia," Elbert Hubbard has the following to say:

"You, reader, put this matter to a test:

"You are sitting now in your office--six clerks are within call. Summon
any one of them and make this request: 'Please look in the encyclopedia
and make a brief memorandum for me concerning the life of Correggio.'

"Will the clerk quietly say, 'Yes, sir,' and go do the task?

"On your life, he will not. He will look at you out of a fishy eye and ask
one or more of the following questions:

"'Who was he?'

"'Which encyclopedia?'

"'Where is the encyclopedia?'

"'Was I hired for that?'

"'Don't you mean Bismarck?'

"'What's the matter with Charlie doing it?'

"'Is he dead?'

"'Is there any hurry?'

"'Shan't I bring you the book and let you look it up yourself?'

"'What do you want to know for?'

"And I will lay you ten to one that after you have answered the questions,
and explained why you want it, the clerk will go off and get one of the
other clerks to help him try to find Garcia--and then come back and tell
you there is no such man. Of course, I may lose my bet, but, according to
the Law of Average, I will not."

Now, there are many executives so constituted that they are not only
willing, but glad, to explain the why and the wherefore of the orders they
give. When they give the order, they are oftentimes willing to listen to
suggestions, and oftentimes to adopt them. These are men of the
deliberate, calm, reflective, rather mild type, with only a moderate
development of the crown of the head which shows a love of authority.
Oftentimes, also, they are men of the erratic, impulsive type who realize
their impulsiveness and are rather glad than otherwise to be picked up by
queries and suggestions from their subordinates. But for the man of the
positive, incisive, decided, domineering type these questions and
suggestions, this attitude which proposes that something else ought to be
done, or that the thing ought to be done in "some other way," are
exasperating in the extreme. Since this is the usual type of man to be
found in industrial business, it is not strange that so many employees,
perhaps efficient enough otherwise, fail to give satisfaction. It is
because they seemingly cannot overcome their itch to do the thing "some
other way." There is the best of all psychological reasons why every
employee should read and take to heart Elbert Hubband's "Message to
Garcia."

Over and over again, young men and young women have come to us saying: "I
wish you would tell me why I cannot hold a position. I know I do the work
well enough, but, somehow or other, I seem to be unfortunate. I have
trouble with everyone I work for and cannot remain in any one position for
very long." In practically every case the trouble has been that the young
man or the young woman did not understand the simple principles of human
nature.

HOW TO TAKE DISCIPLINE

Many sensitive souls do not understand that a wide-headed man of the bony
and muscular type, with high, retreating forehead, prominent brows, large
nose, high in the bridge, prominent teeth and mouth, and somewhat
retreating chin, is intensely energetic, practical and impatient--that he
wants to see things done--that he demands results and cannot wait for
them. He is inclined to be nervous and irritable. When things go wrong, or
he thinks they go wrong, he says things, says them with brutal frankness
and considerable vigor. He may even use profanity and call names. He is
especially impatient with and exasperated by excuses, since his passion is
for results. An excuse to him is like a red rag flaunted in a bull's face.
His irritation is relieved by speech. Afterward he passes on and probably
forgets all about the incident. Certainly he does not hold it against the
employee personally.

If, in addition to his other characteristics, this man also has a high
crown, he is inclined to be domineering and exacting. Since his whole
intention in his sharp speeches is to stimulate his employees to greater
efficiency, and since the farthest thing from his thoughts or his
intentions is to hurt their personal feelings, there is probably nothing
that will so quickly and thoroughly arouse his resentment as any
expression, word or act of wounded pride on the part of his employee.

Most employees make the serious mistake of taking criticism or censure as
a personal matter. They should reflect that their employer has no interest
in hurting their feelings--that what he wants is efficient service,
profitable not only to himself but to the employee, and that, according to
his type and his knowledge, he is taking the best possible means to secure
it.

When an employee enters an organization, he becomes an integral part of a
complicated service-rendering and profit-making machine. If he has any
tender personal feelings, he should wrap them up carefully in an envelope
of indifference and lock them away safely in the strong box of ambition.
Then he is perfectly willing to let his employer call him a blockhead,
provided the result is increased efficiency and profit.

TOO MUCH DIGNITY

A young man of our acquaintance once went to work as assistant to the
manager of an insurance company. This young man was quiet, hard-working,
dependable, and efficient. With his self-effacing modesty and the
remarkable accuracy and care with which he attended to every detail of his
work, he would have made an ideal assistant to most employers. The manager
of this insurance company, however, was jovial, friendly, social, witty,
and companionable. At first he was delighted with his new assistant. As
time went on, however, the young man's solemnity, his taciturnity, and the
quiet, dignified way in which he permitted all attempts at sociability and
jocularity to pass over his head, as it were, unnoticed, began to get on
his employer's nerves.

"If I don't get that young man out of the office, I will either murder him
or commit suicide," he told us. "Efficient? Lord, yes! I never knew
anybody so damnably efficient. Dependable? He is so dependable that he is
uncanny. I would rather have a human being around who is willing to smoke
a cigar with me once in a while, to crack a joke, or at least to laugh at
my jokes. Just to break the monotony, I would be perfectly willing to have
him make a few mistakes, to forget something. I have lots of faults--too
many, I guess, to be comfortable around such a paragon of perfection as
that boy."

Now, the truth of the matter was, as we well knew, that this young man,
while serious-minded and efficient, had a keen sense of humor, appreciated
a good joke, and was at times very merry with his own companions. He had
in his mind, however, a certain ideal conduct for a business man. And to
the best of his ability, he lived up to this ideal, no matter what the
personality of his employer.

"FAMILIARITY BREEDS CONTEMPT"

Many employees make the mistake of attempting familiarity with employers
whose dignity is largely developed and whose sociability and sense of
humor are only moderate or even deficient. The man whose head shows its
longest line from point of chin to crown, who has a long face with long,
vertical lines, whose lips are rather thin, whose forehead is rather
narrow and somewhat retreating, and whose back-head is only moderately
developed or even deficient, is not a man to slap on the back. He will
resent any familiarity or any jocular attempt to draw him down on a plane
of equality with his employees. If such a man is also fine-textured, he is
very sensitive and must be treated with deference and respect. If he has a
short upper lip, he is amenable to flattery, but the flattery must be
delicate and deferential.

Even when these characteristics are not extreme and the habitual attitude
of an employer is one of geniality, with a certain amount of jocularity,
employees should be on their guard, especially if the executive has a
square head behind. Such a man, like Cousin Egbert, in Harry Leon Wilson's
story, "Ruggles of Red Gap," "can be pushed just so far." It is dangerous
to try to push him any further. He has a very true and proper sense of
dignity and, while he is perfectly willing to be sociable and to live with
his employees upon terms of friendliness, he knows well how to check any
exuberance which tends to trench upon familiarity.

THE "NAPOLEONIC" EXECUTIVE

There is a type of employer who has a high, well-rounded, long head; his
head is also wide above the ears, but rather narrow back of the ears. He
is usually light in complexion, fine textured--a good combination of the
bony and muscular type and the fat man type. This man's eyes are the
neither round, wide-open eyes of simple credulity nor the long, narrow,
somewhat oblique slits of secretiveness, avarice, shrewdness and
suspicion. His face tends to roundness, curves and dimples, and his lips
are rather full. His head is especially high and dome-shaped just above
the temples and behind the hair line. His chin may be fairly well formed
or it may be narrow and retreating. If it is of the narrow and retreating
variety, then some of the characteristics are accentuated.

This man is a man of intense enthusiasm, great energy, a desire to
accomplish things and to be the head of whatever he undertakes. He is
eager, responsive, emotional, ambitious, and erratic. He is often
brilliant, nearly always resourceful, conceives large projects, attempts
big things, makes friends with important people, and often secures a very
enviable reputation, at least for a time. But this man has his faults. He
is emotional and enthusiastic. He throws himself intensely into the
accomplishment of one ambitious plan after another. He has not the
calmness of dispassionate judgment and the deliberateness necessary to be
a good judge of men. He lacks real courage and therefore attempts to cover
up his deficiency by bluff and bluster. Because of his poor judgment in
regard to human nature, he frequently selects employees on the impulse of
the moment, absolutely without reference to their fitness for the work he
wants them to do. The ruling emotion which prompts him in selection may be
any one of a dozen. We have seen men like this select important
lieutenants because of their personal attractiveness, because someone else
wanted them, because of similarity of tastes in matters wholly irrelevant,
because the fellows knew how to flatter, out of sympathy for their
families, and, in one pathetic case, because the young man thus chosen had
painstakingly read through an immense set of books supposed to be
representative of the world's best literature.

INJUSTICE TO EMPLOYEES

In many cases, enthusiasm and optimism on the part of such executives have
placed men in positions far beyond their capacity and loaded them with
responsibilities for which they had no aptitudes. Oftentimes such rapid
promotion and such sudden increase of income have utterly turned the head
of the victim, setting him back years in his normal development and his
pursuit of success.

Because the sudden infatuations of such executives are based upon emotion
and not judgment, they flicker out as quickly as the emotion evaporates.
Then ensues a period of suspicion, oftentimes wholly unjust. Because the
executive lacks real courage, every word and every act of the employee
makes him afraid that there is something sinister and dangerous behind it.
This is accentuated by the fact that, deep down in his own heart, the
executive knows that he does not understand men. When this condition of
affairs arises, both the executive and his employee are utterly miserable
unless the employee, being a man of judgment, and understanding the
situation in its essence, has the good sense either to bring the executive
willy-nilly to a complete readjustment of their relations or to resign.
Oftentimes, however, the employee has a larger salary than he ever
received before--he also feels certain that if he resigns, he cannot
secure so large a salary in any other place--and so he hangs on, hoping
against hope that the attitude of his superior will change. The executive,
on his part, feels that he ought to discharge the employee. He is not
satisfied with him. He is suspicious of him. He is afraid of him. He
realizes that he has used bad judgment in selecting him. But he lacks the
courage to discharge the man and oftentimes, for this reason, resorts to a
series of petty persecutions in an attempt to make him resign.

HOW TO STEER A DIFFICULT COURSE

The employee who is suddenly taken up, flattered, and offered an unusually
good position by a man of this type would do well to hesitate long before
accepting. If he does accept, he should take care that he does not attempt
anything beyond his powers and that he does not accept a larger salary
than he is able to earn. Once in his position, he should be modest,
efficient, and do his best to keep out of cliques and inside politics. At
the same time, he should take great care not to offend those who are
powerful. The employees of every "Napoleonic" executive are, by the very
nature of the organization, forced into politics. Tenure of office,
promotion, and increase in pay all depend, not upon real service--although
real service counts; not upon efficiency and merit--although these also
count; but primarily upon the whims and caprices of an employer of this
type. Every employee of any importance, therefore, does his best, first,
to keep his own relations to his employer on a frank, easy, confidential
basis; second, in so far as in him lies, to be at peace with all his
fellow employees. We have seen some of the most valuable men of their kind
we have ever met suddenly discharged without a word of explanation by
employers of this type. The trouble was that someone who could get a
hearing carried a bit of scandal, perhaps without the slightest foundation
in fact, to the ever-suspicious ears of the boss. The boss, because he
lacked the courage to admit that he had listened to such gossip, removed a
man who had served him satisfactorily for years without a word of warning,
and without a hearing.

Unless you understand human nature, and if you are at all responsive to
appreciation, there is probably no greater pleasure than to work for such
a man as we have described, so long as the sunshine of his favor falls
upon you. But, as a general rule, we find their employees anything but
happy. Almost without exception they feel that their tenure of office
hangs by the slenderest of threads and that it is necessary to regard all
of their fellow employees with suspicion. Some men enjoy working in this
fevered atmosphere. If you are one of them, there are excellent
opportunities for you in the employ of a man of this type. But you will do
well always to have a good safe place prepared in which to land if you
should suddenly be dropped.

THE BLUFFER

In all of your dealings with the man who lacks real courage, remember that
his blustering and show of bravery is only an assumption to cover up his
deficiencies and that if you yourself have the courage to face him and, in
the language of the street, "to call his bluff," he will quiet down and be
perfectly amenable to reason. But be sure to observe your man carefully
and accurately before trying to call his bluff.

SUCCESS AS AN EMPLOYEE

The ultimate success of every employee depends, first of all, upon his
selection of the kind of work for which he is pre-eminently fitted;
second, his selection, so far as possible, of the kind of employer and
superior executive under whom he can do his best work; third, upon his
study and mastery of every possible resource of knowledge and training
connected with the technical and practical aspects of his work; fourth,
upon his careful and scientific development of all of the best and most
valuable assets in his character; fifth, upon a thorough understanding and
application of the principles of personal efficiency; sixth, upon an
accurate knowledge of the character, disposition and personal
peculiarities of his employer or employers and superior executives;
seventh, upon an intelligent and diplomatic adjustment of his methods of
work, his personal appearance, his personal behavior, his relationship
with his fellow employees and with his employers, to the end of building
up and maintaining permanently the highest possible degree of confidence
in him and satisfaction with his service.

PART FOUR

PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF CHARACTER ANALYSIS

CHAPTER I

THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF CHARACTER ANALYSIS

A few years ago we were content to guess, to follow tradition, and to
charge up to the caprices of fate or an all-wise Providence the failures
we experienced as a result of our ignorance. Then someone, less bound by
tradition than the average, discovered that exact knowledge was obtainable
about most subjects. Scientific research took the place of guess-work or
mere haphazard leaps in the dark. We began to observe, classify, measure,
weigh, test, and record, instead of guess. Thus science was born.

As far back as human records go men have made observations upon others,
have formed certain conclusions as a result of these observations, and
have recorded them. Some were accurate and valuable; others merely
ludicrous and misleading. Tens of thousands of men and women have
attempted to analyze human character, but most of them became lost in a
maze of apparent contradictions and gave up in despair, content to follow
impression and intuition. Though they became discouraged and abandoned the
field, each of these workers contributed something of value to the
subject, and to-day we have a science of character analysis exact enough
to add very greatly to our wisdom in dealing with humanity and its
problems.

LIMITATIONS OF THE SCIENCE

We do not wish you to misunderstand our claims for the science. Character
analysis is not a science in the mathematical sense. As we said in our
introduction, we cannot place a man on the scales and determine that he
has so many milligrams of industry, or apply measurements and prove that
he has so many centimeters of talent for salesmanship. Nor can we, using
the method of the chemist, apply the litmus to his stream of consciousness
and get his psychical reaction in a demonstrable way. We are glad we
cannot, else humanity might lose the fine arts of coquetry and conquest.
Perhaps we never shall be able to do these things, but that is small cause
for discouragement. What we do claim for the science of character analysis
is that it is classified knowledge based upon sound principles; that it is
as accurate as the science of medicine; that it can be imparted to others;
and, best of all, that anyone can test it for himself beyond any question
of doubt.

TESTS SHOW UNTRAINED JUDGMENT UNRELIABLE

"Oh, I'm a pretty good judge of men," people say to us. We have heard this
declaration thousands of times in the last seventeen years. Occasionally
it was, no doubt, true, but more often not, even when the statement was
made in the greatest sincerity. So we determined to test the ability of
the public to analyze men. The first test appeared in a number of
magazines, giving a profile and full-face view, showing the hands of a
young man. A few simple questions were asked concerning him, such as
these:

"Would you employ this man?

"If so, would you employ him as salesman, executive, cashier, clerk,
chemist, mechanic?

"Is he healthy, honest, industrious, aggressive?

"Would you choose him as a friend?"

Of 5,000 replies but 4.1 per cent were right or nearly right. Some of the
replies were astounding. One manager of a big business wrote: "This man
would be an exceptionally honest and trustworthy cashier or treasurer."
One sales manager replied: "I would like to have this man on my sales
force. He would make a hummer of a salesman, if I am any judge of men. His
hands are identical with my own," etc., etc. But the climax was reached
with this letter from a young lady: "He would be a devoted husband and
father. I would like him as a friend."

Our own analysis of this man, from photographs on a test, was as follows:

"We would not employ this man.

"He is not healthy.

"He is intelligent.

"He is not honest.

"He is not industrious.

"He is aggressive in a disagreeable way.

"We would not choose him as a friend.

"John Doe is a natural mechanic who has had very little training in that
line of work. Being exceedingly keen and intelligent, without right moral
principles, he has used his natural mechanical ability in illegitimate
lines."

Here is a brief sketch of John Doe, furnished by a gentleman who
befriended him and has followed his career for years:

"John is thirty-one years of age and has just been released from a term in
Sing Sing Prison. The crime for which he served sentence was burglary. He
made a skeleton key with which he gained access to a loft where were
stored valuable goods. He stole three thousand dollars worth of these from
his employer. He admits that he has committed other crimes of forgery and
theft. Perhaps the cleverest of these was forgery which was never
discovered. He is exceedingly friendly and makes friends easily. He is,
however, very erratic and irritable in disposition and often quarrelsome.
He is a fair example of a common type which has intelligence and skill but
has not learned to direct his activities along constructive lines."

A more complicated advertisement followed this first one, giving the
portraits of nine men, each successful in his chosen work because well
fitted for it by natural aptitude as well as by training. People were
asked to state the vocation of each. Out of 4,876 replies but three were
correct.

SOME FUNDAMENTAL TRUTHS

Surely, when the untrained judgment of intelligent people goes so wide of
the mark, it is worth while to inquire whether or not science can come to
the rescue. Perhaps a brief examination of some well-established truths
about human beings will aid in finding an answer to our query.

The science of character analysis by the observational method is based
upon three very simple scientific truths:

First, man's body is the product of evolution through countless ages, and
is what it is to-day as the result of the combined effect upon it of
heredity and environment.

Second, man's mind is also the product of evolution through countless
ages, and is what it is to-day as the result of the effect upon it of the
same heredity and the same environment as have affected his body.

Third, man's body and man's mind profoundly affect each other in all of
their actions and reactions and have affected each other through all the
centuries of their simultaneous evolution.

EVOLUTION OF BLONDES AND BRUNETTES

Men's bodies differ from one another in many ways. A little scientific
investigation soon proves to us that these differences are the result of
differences in heredity and environment. Men's minds differ from one
another in countless ways. Scientific investigation also proves that these
mental differences, or differences in character, are also the result of
differences in heredity and environment.

For example, people whose ancestors, through countless ages, lived in the
bright sunlight and tropical luxuriance of the warmer climes, have dark
eyes, dark hair, and dark skin because nature found it necessary to supply
an abundance of pigmentation in order to protect the delicate tissues of
the body from injury by the actinic rays of the sun. The same soft
luxuriance of their environment has made these people slow, easy-going,
hateful of change, introspective, philosophical and religious. On the
other hand, people whose ancestors dwelt for centuries in the cold, dark,
cloudy and foggy climate of Northwestern Europe have less need for
pigmentation and are, therefore, flaxen-haired, blue-eyed and
white-skinned.

The hardships and rigors of this Northern climate made these people
aggressive, active, restless, fond of variety, and, because of their
fierce struggle for existence, exceedingly practical, matter-of-fact, and
material.

WHY NOSES DIFFER IN SIZE AND SHAPE

Another example illustrates this truth clearly: The type of human nose
evolved in warm, humid climates is low and flat, with large, short
passageways directly to the lungs. People living in such a climate have
little need for great energy and activity, since there is food in
abundance all around them. On the other hand, the type of nose evolved in
a cold, dry climate is high in the bridge, with thin nostrils, so that the
air may be both warmed and moistened before reaching the lungs. People
living in such a climate have great need for activity, both in order to
secure the means of subsistence and in order to keep themselves warm. Thus
we find that the low, flat nose is everywhere the nose of indolence and
passivity, while the large nose, high in the bridge, is everywhere an
indication of energy and aggressiveness.

WHY SOME HEADS ARE HARD, OTHERS SOFT

In brief, then, darkness of color is not the cause of deliberation and
conservatism, but both darkness of color and conservatism are results of
the same causes, namely, a heredity and environment which produce these
characteristics. Blonde coloring is not a cause of restless activity, but
both the color and the activity are the result of evolution in a cold,
dark, rigorous climate.

A striking example of the working out of the three truths which we have
given is seen in the consistency of the body. Hard hands, hard muscles,
and, in general, a dense, compact, unyielding consistency of fiber, are
both inherited and acquired as the result of hard physical labor and the
enduring of hardships. As is well known, those who spend their lives in
grinding toil in the midst of hard conditions care little for the finer
sentiments and sympathies of life. They have no time for them, no energy
left for them. By the very necessities of their lot they are compelled to
be hostile to change, free from all extravagance, and largely impervious
to new ideas. Therefore, wherever we find hardness of consistency we find
a tendency to narrowness, parsimony, conservatism, and lack of sympathy.
Looking at this fact from a little different angle, we see that, since the
body affects the mind and the mind the body so profoundly, the body of
hard fiber, being impervious to physical impressions, will yield but
slowly and meagerly to those molecular changes which naturally accompany
emotional response and intellectual receptivity.

These are but a few examples of the truths upon which the science of
character analysis by the observational method is based. Many others may
occur to you. Many others have been observed, traced and verified in our
work upon this science.

A BRIEF RECAPITULATION

Briefly recapitulating, we see that for every physical difference between
men there is a corresponding mental difference, because both the physical
differences and the mental differences are the result of the same heredity
and environment. We see, further, that these physical and mental
differences are not only results of the same environment affecting the
individual through his remote ancestry, but that they are tied together by
cause and effect in the individual as he stands to-day.

BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION

We have told you that the science of character analysis is classified
knowledge. It is clear to you by this time that the knowledge which lies
at the basis of this science is knowledge concerning physical and mental
differences and their correspondences. In this science, therefore, since
we are to observe physical differences and from them to determine
differences in intellect, in disposition, in natural talents, in character
in general, our first classification must deal with these physical
differences.

Men differ from one another in nine fundamental ways These ways are:
color, form, size, structure, texture, consistency, proportion,
expression, and condition. Let us consider each of them briefly.

COLOR

Color is, perhaps, the most striking variable. You instantly observe
whether a person is white or black, brown or yellow. Indeed, so striking
are these variations that they were formerly the basis upon which humanity
was divided into races.

We have already briefly touched upon the cause for pigmentation and the
indications of differences in color. For many years anthropologists were
at a loss to understand exactly why some men were black and others white.
About twenty years ago, however, Von Schmaedel propounded the theory that
pigmentation in the hair, eyes and skin was Nature's way of protecting the
tissues from injury by the actinic or ultra-violet rays of the sun, which
destroy protoplasm. Following the enunciation of Von Schmaedel's theory,
prolonged experimentation was made by many anthropologists, chief among
whom was our own late Major Charles E. Woodruff, of the U.S. Army. In
Major Woodruff's book, "The Effects of Tropical Light Upon White Men," are
to be found, set forth in a most fascinating way, evidences amounting
almost to proof of the correctness of Von Schmaedel's theory.

Since Major Woodruff's book appeared, many other anthropologists have
declared their acceptance of the theory, so that to-day we may assert with
confidence that the black man is black because of the excessive sunlight
of his environment, and that the white man is white because he and his
ancestors did not need protection from the sun. Mountain climbers cover
their faces and hands with a mixture of grease and lamp-black in order to
prevent sunburn. When in India we wore actinic underwear, dark glasses,
and solar topees to protect us from the excessive light.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BLONDES AND BRUNETTES

Now, in regard to differences in character between the dark races and the
white races, you have only to consider the languorous air of the tropics
and sub-tropics, the abundance of food, the small need for fuel, clothing
and shelter--in general, everything in the environment which tends to make
man indolent and to give him plenty of time for introspection, philosophy,
theology, and the occult.

The dweller in Northern climes has had to wrestle with rapid changes,
demands for food, clothing, shelter and fuel, relative scarcity of all
these and difficulty of securing them--in short, nearly every possible
element in his surroundings which would compel him to get out and hustle,
to take an active interest in material things, to be constantly on the
alert both mentally and physically--in a word, to master and conquer his
environment.

These are some of the differences between the dark and the white races. We
find the same differences in proportion between blondes and brunettes in
the white races.

HAVELOCK ELLIS ON BLONDES AND BRUNETTES

The noted anthropologist Havelock Ellis says, in regard to this:

"It is clear that a high index of pigmentation, or an excess of fairness,
prevails among the men of restless and ambitious temperament; the
sanguine, energetic men; the men who easily dominate their fellows and who
get on in life, and the men who recruit the aristocracy and who doubtless
largely form the plutocracy. It is significant that the group of low-class
men--artisans and peasants--and the men of religion, whose mission in life
it is to preach resignation to a higher will, are both notably of dark
complexion; while the men of action thus tend to be fair, men of thought,
it seems to me, show some tendency to be dark."

The practical application of this truth is seen in the fact that the white
races of the earth seem to have a genius for government, for conquest, for
exploration, and for progress; while the dark races of the earth seem to
have a genius for art, for literature, for religion, and for conservatism.
Not long ago we read the conclusions of several anthropologists on this
subject. One declared that the first men were undoubtedly brunette, and
that the blonde was an abnormality and rapidly becoming extinct. Another
was equally sure that the pure white blonde was a special creation but
little lower than the angels, and that all the dark races were so colored
by their sins. This is a matter upon which we hesitate to speculate. It
would, however, be of some interest to know the respective coloring of
these two investigators.

PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF LAW OF COLOR

Color has its commercial application. The active, restless, aggressive,
variety-loving blonde is found in large proportions amongst speculators,
promoters, organizers, advertising men, traveling salesmen; while the more
stable and constant brunette predominates amongst the plodders, the
planners, the scientists, the administrators, and the conservators. Even
the poets bring out the difference. They sing of the fickle, light-hearted
coquette with golden hair and azure eyes, and of the faithful, constant,
true, undying affection of the lady with soft, brown eyes.

FORM

The second variable--Form--refers to form of face and features as seen in
profile. The sharp face, with the long, pointed nose, prominent eyes,
retreating forehead, prominent teeth and retreating chin, is the extreme
convex form. The hammock-shaped face, with high, prominent forehead, flat
brows, deep-set eyes, small snubbed or sway-back nose, retreating teeth
and long, prominent chin, is the extreme concave in form of profile.

It would involve much dry, technical writing to explain in detail the
scientific reasons why the extreme convex in profile indicates extreme
energy, quickness, impatience, impulsiveness, keenness and alertness of
intellect, and great rapidity in action. The large nose, high in the
bridge, however, indicating, as you have already seen, great energy, is
one of the scientific reasons for this. In a similar way it would take me
too long to tell in detail why the extreme concave of profile indicates
just the opposite qualities.

It is a scientific fact that that which is sharp is penetrating and moves
quickly; that which is blunt is non-penetrating and of necessity moves
slowly. The needle darts through the cloth more quickly than the bodkin.
The greyhound is swifter than the bulldog. The stiletto does quicker work
than the bludgeon. This, of course, is only a symbolism which may make
vivid the truth that the convex man works more rapidly than the concave.

In commercial work, the man who is successful in positions requiring quick
decision and quick action has a convex profile, while the man whose duties
call for patience, deliberation, reflection, and the ability to plod
should have some modification of the concave form of profile.

SIZE

It is an old saying that large bodies move slowly. It would be more
scientifically correct to say that large bodies get under way slowly.
Difference in physical size between men is important in many ways. If, as
William James says, "the causes of emotion are indubitably physiological,"
then the smaller the physical bulk which must be affected in order to have
an intense emotion, the more quickly and easily is that intense emotion
aroused.

Other things being equal, the small man is more excitable and becomes
angry more easily than the large man. He also cools down more quickly.
When the huge bulk of the big man becomes thoroughly aroused, thoroughly
wrought up, it is time to get out of the way and stand from under.

STRUCTURE

Hall Caine, the novelist, has an immense head, a slender jaw, and a small,
fragile body. James J. Jeffries, the pugilist, has a comparatively small
head, a large jaw, and huge bones and muscles. Ex-President Taft has a
comparatively small head, round face, round body, round arms and legs.
These are differences in structure.

Hall Caine is of the mental type. He is by nature unfitted to be either a
pugilist, a hammer-thrower, an explorer, a banker, or a judge. He is,
however, pre-eminently fitted to dream dreams of truth and beauty, to
construct those dreams into stories and plays. James J. Jeffries is by
nature and physique fitted for the trade of boiler-maker, for the sport of
pugilism, and for physical and manual accomplishment in general.
Ex-President Taft is by nature and physique fitted to sit quietly in a big
chair and direct the work of others, to administer affairs, to sit upon
the bench and weigh impartially causes of dispute between his fellow men.
As you see, these three are our old friends, the physically frail, the man
of bone and muscle, and the fat man.

The assignment of vocation according to structure is but common sense. The
dreamer has too slender a body for manual labor and is both too nervous
and too impatient of confinement to sit in an easy chair or on the bench.
The big, corpulent man enjoys the good things of life. He is well
nourished and free from anxiety. He is, therefore, especially well fitted
to judge calmly, deliberately and impartially. The man of bone and muscle
is too busy with his physical activities for dreams and too impatient of
confinement to sit in an easy chair or on the bench.

TEXTURE

Men also differ from one another very markedly in texture. This is easily
observable in the texture of hair, skin, features, general body build,
hands and feet. According to Prof. Ernst Haeckel, the skin is the first
and oldest sense organ. Indeed, all the other sense organs and the nervous
system and brain which have evolved in the use of them, are simply
inturned and specialized skin cells. This being true, the texture of the
entire organism, and especially the brain and nervous system, is
accurately indicated by the texture of the skin and its appendages, the
hair and nails.

Even the most casual observer notes the differences between the man with
coarse hair, coarse skin, rugged features, large, loosely-built limbs,
hands and feet, and the man with fine skin, silky hair, delicate, regular
features, slender limbs, and finely moulded hands and feet. The individual
of fine texture is sensitive and naturally refined. He loves beauty. He
does his best work when he is creating something or handling something
which is fine and beautiful. The coarse-textured individual is strong,
vigorous, virile, and enduring. He can do hard, unpleasant work, can go
through hardships, and can remain cheerful even in the midst of grimy,
unpleasant and unlovely surroundings. For these reasons, fine-textured
people do their best work in such lines as art, literature, music,
jewelry, dry goods, millinery, and fine, delicate tools, machinery and
materials; while we must rely upon coarse-textured people to do the heavy,
hard, rough, pioneering and constructive work of the world. Even in art
and literature coarse-textured people produce that which is either
vigorous and virile or gruesome and horrible.

Because of their refined sensibilities, fine-textured people usually
sympathize with the classes, the aristocracy; the coarse-textured people
with the masses. It is a remarkable fact that practically all of our great
liberators, radicals and revolutionists have been and are men of coarse
texture. There is a great scientific truth underlying the saying amongst
the people that certain ideas or books are "too fine-haired" for them.

PROPORTION

One of the most important of all the nine fundamental variables is
proportion. This refers to proportion of one part of the body to another,
of one part of the head to another. Each part of the body and of the head
has its own particular function. Nature is orderly and systematic in all
her work. She does not, therefore, try to digest food with the feet or
pump blood with the hands. She does not try to use our stomachs as means
of locomotion. Neither does she try to make us think with the backs of our
heads.

No one needs to be told that the long, slender, wiry legs of the deer were
made for swiftness, or that the huge, square, powerful jaw of the bulldog
was made to shut down with a vise-like grip that death itself can scarcely
relax. These are crude examples of proportion. In our study and research
we have learned to associate many fine gradations of differences in
proportion with their corresponding differences in mental aptitudes and
character.

EXPRESSION

Everything about a man indicates his character. Color, form, size,
structure, texture, consistency, and proportion indicate almost entirely
the man's inherent qualities. It is important for us to determine,
however, in sizing up men, what they have done with their natural
qualifications. This we do by observing Expression and Condition.

The cruder, simpler emotions are so frankly expressed that even a child or
an animal can tell instantly whether a man is happy or loving, grieved or
angry. These emotions show themselves in the voice, in the eyes, in the
expression of the mouth, in the very way the man stands or sits or walks,
in his gestures--in fact, in everything he does. In the same way, all of
the finer and more elusive thoughts and emotions express themselves in
everything a man says or does. Even when he does his best to mask his
feelings, he finds that, while he is controlling his eyes and his voice,
his posture, gestures, and even handwriting are giving him away. No living
man can give attention to all of the modes of expression at once, and the
trained observer quickly learns to discriminate between those which are
assumed for the purpose of deception and those which are perfectly
natural.

Transient emotions have transient expression, but the prevailing modes of
thought and feeling leave their unmistakable impress just as surely as
does a prevailing wind mould the form of all the trees growing in its
path. The man who is sly, furtive, secretive, and fundamentally dishonest
need not deceive you with his carefully manufactured expression of
open-eyed frankness and honesty. If you have ever been "taken in" by a
confidence man or a swindler, you either gave very slight attention to
his expression or, what is more likely, suspected him but hoped to "beat
him at his own game."

CONDITION

Discriminating employers long ago learned to observe carefully the
condition of every applicant. It is now a pretty well accepted fact that
the accountant who neglects his finger nails will probably also neglect
his entries; that the clerk who is slovenly about his clothes will also be
slovenly about his desk and his papers; that the man who cannot be relied
upon to keep his shoes shined and his collar clean is a very weak and
broken reed upon which to lean for anything requiring accuracy and
dependability.

HOW THE SCIENCE IS VERIFIED

We have presented to you, in a brief way, the fundamental principles of
the science of character analysis and the nine fundamental variables in
man to which those principles apply. Are we not justified in saying that a
body of knowledge which has been so classified and organized that the main
fundamental facts of it can be presented in a few pages, is, indeed, a
science? Add to this the fact that every conclusion is not only based upon
these fundamental scientific principles, but has been carefully verified
by investigation and observation in not only hundreds but thousands of
cases, and has been used daily for years under the trying conditions of
actual commercial practice, and this science has passed out of the merely
experimental stage.

CHAPTER II

HOW TO LEARN AND APPLY THE SCIENCE OF CHARACTER ANALYSIS

There are two ways to learn any science.

The first is to begin by collecting all possible facts, recording them and
verifying them under all possible conditions, until they are as thoroughly
established as any facts can be in our imperfect human understanding. The
collection of facts in this way requires the most painstaking research,
oftentimes including many thousands of observations. When all the facts
have been thus collected and verified, they are classified. Then they are
carefully analyzed and an effort is made to find some of the laws which
underlie them. Perhaps, instead of a definite law, all that can be at
first advanced is a hypothesis or theory. This hypothesis or theory having
been formulated, many thousands of observations are taken in an effort to
establish it as a definite law or a principle. Oftentimes whole new realms
have to be explored before this can be determined. Sometimes, after a
theory is advanced, perhaps seems to be approaching complete
establishment, some fact or set of facts is discovered which compels the
setting aside of all old theories and the formulation of a new one. When a
theory has been definitely established as a law, other laws are sought in
the same way until, finally, there are enough laws established to form the
basis of a general principle. Then more laws and more principles are added
in the same way until, finally, the body of knowledge has become
sufficiently accurate, sufficiently definite and sufficiently organized
and classified to be called a science.

HOW SCIENCE SLOWLY EVOLVES

This is the way in which all of the sciences known to man were first
learned; that is to say, they were learned by their formulators coincident
with the process of their formulation. This is a slow and laborious
process of learning. Few, if any, sciences have ever been thus mastered by
any one individual. Indeed, the certain establishment of a very few facts,
or, perhaps, only one important fact, the formulation of a theory, or the
final statement of a law is usually the limit of the contribution of any
one person to any science.

No science is independent. The science of physics, for example, could
never have reached its present-day state of development if it had not laid
heavy tribute upon the sciences of mathematics, astronomy, chemistry,
geography, mechanics, optics, and others. In a similar way, the science of
character analysis has derived many of its facts, laws, and even
principles, from the sciences of physics, chemistry, biology,
anthropology, ethnology, geography, geology, anatomy, physiology,
histology, embryology, psychology, and others. Since this is true, it is
obvious that the work of collecting, verifying, classifying, analyzing,
and organizing the facts upon which the science of character analysis is
based has been going on from the very dawn of civilization. Many
investigators, students and scholars, in many branches of knowledge, have
labored, added their little mite to the sum total, and passed on. The net
result of all their work, all their thousands of years of research,
investigation, study and thought, can now be gathered together and
presented in so simple a form that it can be learned by anyone of
intelligence in a few months. It took humanity untold thousands of years
to learn the scientific truth that the earth is an oblate spheroid. Many
men gave their lives to establish the truth. As a result, to-day every
schoolboy learns and understands the fact within a very few days after his
first opening of a text book on geography. Thousands of scholars have been
working on the science of physics from the dawn of human intelligence down
to the present date. Now a high school student learns all of its
essentials and fundamentals in a short term of fourteen weeks.

A SHORT CUT TO KNOWLEDGE

The second method of learning a science, therefore, is to take advantage
of all that has been done and, instead of beginning with facts and working
up to principles, begin with principles and work down to a practical
application amongst facts.

There are many ways of learning principles. One may memorize them from
books, or have them set forth and explained by an instructor or lecturer,
or stumble upon them in general reading, or work out a series of carefully
prescribed experiments in a laboratory, leading up to an enunciation of
the principles or, through its intelligent application in the world of
work, establish it in one's consciousness.

The student who learns his laws and principles out of books may have a
very clear and definite understanding of them. He may be able to add to
them or to teach them. But he has little skill in their practical
application as compared with the student who learns them in a laboratory.
Furthermore, the laboratory student is at a disadvantage, probably, as
compared with the man who makes intelligent application of the laws and
principles to his daily work. So well recognized by educators is this
truth that no attempt is made in our colleges and universities and, for
the most part, even in our high schools, to teach sciences involving
observation, logical reasoning and sound judgment purely out of books.
Medicine, surgery, agriculture, horticulture, mechanics and other such
sciences are now taught almost entirely by a combination of text books and
actual practice. This rule also applies to the science of character
analysis.

LEARN THE PRINCIPLES

The first step in the mastery and practical use of the science of
character analysis is to learn the principles and the laws which underlie
them. These principles and laws are comparatively few in number and
comparatively simple. They are all classified under and grouped around the
nine fundamental variables, a list of which was given in the preceding
chapter.

The best way to learn a principle is not to memorize it, but to
understand it. Learn, if possible, the reason for its existence, at least
in a general way; the laws which underlie it, and the facts upon which it
is based. The student who memorizes the words, "all bodies attract one
another directly in proportion to their mass and inversely in proportion
to the square of the distance between them," knows little or nothing about
the law of gravitation, while the student who understands just what those
words mean, whether he is able to repeat them correctly or not, does know
the law of gravitation, and, if necessary, can probably apply it. The boy
who learns that any object weighs less on a mountain-top than at the sea
level learns an interesting and perhaps valuable fact. The man who learns
that the law involved in this fact is the law of gravitation has learned
something which he may be able to apply in a thousand ways. The man who,
in the future, may learn _why_ the law of gravitation operates as it does,
may open untapped reservoirs of power for himself, for all humanity, and
for all future generations. Therefore, in learning a principle, learn not
only to understand it, but, if possible, _why_.

DEMONSTRATE AND VERIFY

Having gained as complete as possible an understanding of the laws and
principles of the science of character analysis, the next step is to
demonstrate to your own satisfaction that they are sound. This process
will also enable you to understand them even more definitely and
specifically than before.

When you learn, for example, that a blonde is more volatile, more fond of
change and variety, more inclined to pioneering and government, than the
brunette, you have learned an important law. When you study carefully the
history of the evolution of the blonde and brunette races, you know why
the law is as it is. But when you have gone out and observed several
hundred blondes and several hundred brunettes and have seen them manifest
dispositions, aptitudes and characteristics in accordance with the law,
you have not only demonstrated the law to your own satisfaction, but you
understand it even better than before. Furthermore, you are far better
able than ever to determine the characteristics of the people you meet, as
indicated by their color.

ANALYZE YOURSELF

There are many good reasons why the very first application of the
knowledge of the principles and laws of character analysis should be to
yourself. While, in one sense, you know your own thoughts and feelings and
innermost desires and ambitions better than anyone else does, in another
and very important sense, your friends and relatives probably understand
you far better than you understand yourself. If you need any demonstration
of this truth, look for it amongst your relatives and friends. You may
have a relative, for example, who is very modest, retiring and diffident,
who lacks self-confidence, who imagines that he is unattractive,
unintelligent, and below the average in ability. You and all the rest of
his friends, on the other hand, know that he has genuine talent, that he
has an unusually attractive personality once his self-consciousness has
been laid aside, that he is intelligent and far above the average in
ability. Contrariwise, you may know someone who vastly over-estimates
himself, whose own opinion of himself is at least fifty per cent higher
than that of his relatives and immediate acquaintances. If other people,
therefore, do not understand themselves, is it not at least probable that
you do not understand yourself? So universal is this lack of self-under
standing that the poet expressed a real human longing when he said:

"Oh, wad some power the giftie gie us
To see oursels as others see us!
It wad frae mony a blunder free us
And foolish notion:
What airs in dress and gait wad lea'e us
And even devotion!"

Careful analysis of yourself, however, with your own intimate knowledge of
the depths of your being will do more than give you an understanding of
your own character. It will give you a better understanding of some, at
least, of the laws and principles of character analysis. For this reason,
it will also give you a far more intimate understanding of others.

COMPARE INDICATIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS

When you have learned what certain physical characteristics indicate,
practise observing these indications amongst the people whom you know
well. Try your skill at making the connection between the indication and
the characteristics which, according to the science, it indicates. For
example, go over in your mind all of the blondes you know and trace in
their dispositions and characters, as you know them, the evidences of
volatility, love of variety, eagerness, exuberance, positiveness, and
other such characteristics. Take careful note as to how these qualities
manifest themselves; observe differences in degrees of blondness, and
corresponding differences in the degrees in which the characteristics
indicated show themselves. Observe, also, how the various characteristics
manifest themselves in combination. For example, note the difference
between a blonde with a big nose and a blonde with a small nose.

ANALYZE, CHECK UP AND VERIFY

When you have analyzed yourself and your relatives, friends and
acquaintances, you will be ready to begin on the analysis of people
previously unknown to you. You will find them everywhere--in street-cars,
in stores, on the streets, in churches and theaters, on athletic fields,
in offices, in factories, in schools and in colleges. When you have
analyzed them as carefully as you can and, if possible, have written down
a brief outline of your analysis of them, check up and verify; find out
how far you have been right. If, in any case, you find that you have been
mistaken, find out why--study the case further. You have already
demonstrated and verified your principles; therefore, either you have made
an error in your observation or you have reasoned illogically in drawing
your conclusions. Find out which it is and correct your analyses--then
verify them.

This is a practice which, if you are at all interested in human nature,
you will find intensely fascinating. It is one which you can pursue for
years and not find it monotonous. Not a day will pass, if you are diligent
in this practice, in which you will not learn something new, something
interesting, something valuable. Those who have studied and practised this
science for many years are, almost without exception, the ones who are
most eager and enthusiastic about making these observations, analyses and
verifications.

STUDY TYPES

Perhaps one of the most interesting and valuable forms of exercise in the
practical application of this science is the study of types and their
variations. Anyone who has observed humanity knows that, while no two
persons are exactly alike, practically all human beings can be classified
satisfactorily into comparatively a few general types. We have considered
some of these types at length in earlier chapters of this book. It is by a
study and comparison of people belonging to these general types, the
careful noting of resemblances and differences, that the science of
character analysis becomes almost as easy as the reading of a book. If you
see a man for the first time who resembles in many important particulars
of appearance some man you know well, study him to see whether he will not
manifest in much the same way the same characteristics as your friend.
This kind of observation, intelligently made, is the basis of accuracy and
swiftness in making analyses.

KEEP ACCURATE AND ADEQUATE RECORDS

The human mind is an excellent storehouse of knowledge, but it should not
be over-burdened. One of the first principles of efficiency as enunciated
by Mr. Harrington Emerson is: "If you would find the best, easiest and
quickest ways to the desirable things of life, keep and use immediate,
reliable, adequate, and permanent records."

The complete record of an analysis should show the name, address, sex,
exact age, height, weight, and all other essential physical
characteristics of the person analyzed, classified under the head of the
nine fundamental variables. It should show your conclusions as to his
ability, disposition, aptitudes and character in general. It should also
show the result of any further observations for the purpose of verifying
your conclusions, and should be so kept that, if, at any time in the
future, the individual should speak or act in any way which is either a
striking verification of the analysis or in striking disparity with it,
these incidents may be recorded and their relationship to what has gone
before on the record studied.

Such records as these are valuable in many ways. When you have collected a
large number of them, they become the basis of statistics, averages, and
other interesting and important collections of facts.

STICK TO THE PRINCIPLES

It has been our universal experience amongst practitioners of this science
that those who adhere most closely and most faithfully to its principles
are most successful. There is always a strong inclination, especially on
the part of those who are just beginning and those who are unusually
emotional and sympathetic, to make exceptions. It is very difficult for
some people of exceedingly sympathetic and responsive natures to analyze
correctly. The personality of the individual being analyzed appeals to
them either favorably or unfavorably. Perhaps his words make a strong
impression upon them. All these things cloud the analyst's judgment and,
instead of applying the principles rigidly, he falls back upon the old,
unreliable method of analyzing by means of his "intuitions."

The laws and principles of the science of character analysis are based
upon scientific truths regarding the development, evolution, history,
anatomy and psychology of the human race. They have been verified by
hundreds of thousands of careful observations. They have stood the test of
years of practical use in the business world. They are now being
successfully applied in commerce, in industry, in education, and in the
professions, by thousands of people. They can be relied upon, therefore,
to give you an intimate knowledge of the ability, disposition, aptitudes,
and character in general of every human being who comes under your careful
observation.

CHAPTER III

USES OF CHARACTER ANALYSIS

The old-time farmer planted his potatoes "in the dark of the moon." He
probably took good care not to plant them on Friday, never planted a field
of thirteen rows, and would have been horrified at putting them into the
ground on the same day when he has spilled salt or broken a mirror. By
taking all of this superstitious care to insure a good crop, he probably
counted himself lucky if he got 100 bushels to the acre. Eugene Grubb, out
in Wyoming, by throwing superstition to the four winds and depending,
instead, upon exact scientific knowledge, leaves luck out of the question
and knows that he will net 1,000 bushels to the acre.

One thousand years ago or more, our educational methods stiffened and set
in the rigid moulds of tradition. For nine hundred years civilization and
progress stood still. Then here and there men began to break the moulds
with hammers of scientific knowledge. Education, instead of blindly
following traditional forms, began to shape itself more and more to exact
knowledge of the child nature and its needs--very slowly, cautiously and
tentatively at first, but, as knowledge grew, with more and more boldness
and freedom. This is one of the reasons why the last one hundred years has
seen greater progress toward our dominion over the earth than all of the
thousand years before it.

For more than four thousand years--perhaps more than five thousand--men
have been constructing buildings with bricks. Brick-laying was a trade, a
skilled occupation, almost a profession, but its methods were based upon
traditions handed down from father to son, from journeyman to apprentice,
unbroken throughout that entire four-thousand-year period.

Then a bricklayer and his wife defied the heavens to fall, threw aside
traditions and began to apply exact knowledge to brick-laying. As a
result, they learned how to lay bricks three times as rapidly as the best
workman had ever been able to before--and with less fatigue.

SCIENCE TAKES THE PLACE OF GUESSWORK

Fifty years ago, the merchant and the manufacturer guessed at their costs
and fixed their prices with shrewd estimates as to their probable profits.
They also guessed as to which departments of their business paid the most
profit, how much and what kind of material they should buy, where the best
markets were to be found, what would be the best location for their stores
and factories, and many other important factors of profitable enterprise.
Some of these old worthies were good guessers. They built up fairly large
business institutions and made some very comfortable fortunes.

The business men of to-day--who are, indeed, of to-day and not a relic of
yesterday and the day before yesterday--have an exact and detailed
knowledge of their costs, determine prices scientifically, know definitely
where are the best markets and what are the best locations for their
factories, forecast with a reasonable degree of accuracy their need for
materials, determine in a laboratory just which materials will best supply
their needs, and in many other ways walk upon solid highways of exact
information rather than upon the quaking bog of guesswork. Partly because
of this, they have built up a multitude of institutions, each of them far
larger than the largest of the olden days and have made fortunes which
make the big accumulations of other days seem like mere pocket money. In
making these fortunes for themselves, they have enabled millions not only
to enjoy far larger incomes than people of their class and situation ever
received before, but to enjoy conveniences and luxuries beyond even the
dreams of the rich men and kings of olden days.

RANDOM METHODS YIELD TO SCIENTIFIC

In the old-time factories the various departments of work, machinery and
equipment in each of the departments were arranged almost at random. Even
a few years ago we sometimes saw factories in which the materials worked
upon were moved upstairs, then downstairs, then back upstairs, hither and
yon, until a diagram of their wanderings looked like a tangle of yarn.
Even in offices, desks were placed at random and letters, orders,
memoranda, and other documents and papers were moved about with all of the
orderliness and method of a school-girl playing "pussy wants a corner."
Modern scientific management, horrified at the waste of time and energy,
makes accurate knowledge take the place of this random, helter-skelter,
hit-or-miss basis of action and multiplies profits.

If the old-time farmer rotated his crops at all, he did it at random. He
was, therefore, a little more likely than not, perhaps, to put a crop into
a field which had been exhausted of the very elements that crop most
needed. By this method and by other superstitious, guesswork, traditional,
random, and neglectful methods, he struggled along on an average of about
twenty bushels of corn to the acre, proudly defying anybody to teach him
anything about farming out of books, or any white-collared dude from an
agricultural college to show him anything about raising corn. Hadn't he
been raising corn for nigh on forty years? How could there, then, be
anything more for him to learn about its production?

But a little twelve-year-old boy down in what had always been supposed to
be the poor corn lands of Alabama, by the painstaking application of a
little simple knowledge, produced 232 and a fraction bushels of corn on
one acre of land. Other boys in all parts of the South and of the corn
belt began producing from 100 to 200 bushels of corn to the acre in the
same way.

SCIENCE TAKES THE PLACE OF SUPERSTITION

Because man has lacked accurate knowledge about the world around him, he
has been the credulous victim of countless generations of swindlers,
fakers, fortune-tellers, mountebanks, and others experienced in chicanery.
Speculators used to consult clairvoyants, crystal gazers, astrologists
and card-readers for a forecast of business conditions. To-day, through
accurate knowledge based upon statistics relative to fundamental factors
in the business situation, they forecast the future with remarkable
accuracy.

The practice of medicine was once a combination of superstition,
incantation, ignorance and chicanery. In those days people were swept into
eternity by the millions on account of plague, cholera, and other
pestilences. To-day medical practice is based upon knowledge, and people
who are willing to order their lives in accordance with that knowledge not
only recover from their illnesses, but are scarcely ever ill. The ignorant
man pays $1.00 for a small bottle of colored alcohol and water which some
mountebank has convinced him is a panacea for all ills. In his blindness
he hopes to drink health out of that bottle. The man who knows eats
moderately, drinks moderately--if at all--smokes moderately--if at
all--does work for which he is fitted and in which he can be happy,
secures recreation and exercise according to his own particular needs, and
almost never thinks of medicine. Should he need treatment, however, he
goes to a man who has scientific knowledge of diagnosis and materia
medica. The first man, in all likelihood, goes to an early grave,
"stricken down by the hand of a mysterious Providence." The second man
lives to a ripe old age and enjoys life more at eighty than he did at
eight or eighteen.

Fifty years ago, mothers relied upon tradition and maternal instinct in
the care of their babies. More than one-half of all the babies born died
before they were five years old. The wise mother of to-day knows what she
is doing, and, as a result, infant mortality amongst the babies in her
hands becomes an almost negligible quantity.

NEGLECT YIELDS TO SCIENCE

Because we did not know how to take care of them, we neglected our forests
until they became well nigh extinct. To-day, by means of the science of
forestry, we are slowly winning back the priceless heritage we almost
threw away. Because of our ignorance, we neglected the by-products of our
fields, our mines, and our industries, and no one can compute the fortunes
we lost. Through scientific knowledge, we have begun to utilize these
by-products. Some of the greatest of modern industries, and the fortunes
which have grown out of them, are the result.

Selling and advertising used to be done partly by tradition and partly by
instinct, so called. To-day, while they have, perhaps, not been reduced to
exact sciences, they are based more and more upon exact knowledge, so that
merchandizing has become less and less a gamble and more and more a
satisfaction.

Since, through scientific knowledge, man has wrought such miracles in
agriculture, construction, education, commerce, industry, finance,
medicine, war, mining, and practically all of his other activities, it is
time he applied the same scientific methods to that without which all
these wonderful things would never have been executed, namely, his mind
and soul.

SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE OF SELF

In Part One of this book we have attempted to show the benefits which
follow upon self-knowledge as to vocation. But this is only one phase,
after all, of your life and activity. Obedience to the injunction, "know
thyself," will help, also, to solve many of the hard problems you meet in
education, social life, religion, morality, and family relations. The man
who, through character analysis, has a scientific knowledge of himself,
has therein a valuable guide to self-development and self-improvement. He
knows which qualities to cultivate and which to restrain. He knows what
situations and associations to avoid so that his frailties and weaknesses
will handicap him as little as possible.

SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE IN EMPLOYMENT

In Part Two we have shown briefly the application of knowledge of human
nature to the selection, assignment and management of employees. In
common with so many other important matters, this has been left in the
past very largely to superstitious traditions, guesswork, random,
hit-or-miss methods, chicanery, and so-called intuition. Now, for the sake
of his profits, and also for the sake of the fellow human beings with whom
he deals, the wise employer is seeking for and, in many cases, using exact
knowledge.

SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE IN PERSUASION

In Part Three we have referred to the use of character analysis in
persuasion. Without this knowledge, it is the most natural thing in the
world for the man who seeks to persuade others to present to them the
arguments and suggestions which would appeal to him. Long ago some wise
man said: "If you would persuade another, put yourself in his place; look
at the matter through his eyes." 'Twas easier said than done. You cannot
put yourself in another's place or see things from his point of view
unless you know him accurately, which is possible only through the science
of character analysis. We have often found people who have lived together
for a lifetime who neither knew nor understood each other.

SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE IN SOCIAL RELATIONS

Man's fundamental needs are food, drink, clothing, shelter, work,
companionship, and rest. If one of man's fundamental needs is
companionship, then he needs to know how to be successful socially. Most
people deeply feel this need. One of the most frequent questions we are
called upon to answer is: "How can I be a greater social success?" Social
success depends upon personal attractiveness in the broadest sense of that
term and upon a desire to make the most of that attractiveness. Many
people have great social ambitions but, for some reason or other, are so
unattractive that they are social failures. There are others who have
pleasant personalities but who, because of other interests, neglect their
social opportunities.

Personal attractiveness depends, first, upon the development of those
elements which are pleasing to others, such as intelligence, judgment,
reason, memory, sympathy, kindliness, courtesy, tactfulness, refinement, a
sense of humor, decision, adaptability, self-confidence, proper personal
pride, dignity, and perhaps others; second, upon a knowledge of each
individual with whom one comes in contact, so that one knows best how to
gain that person's favorable attention, to arouse his interest, and to
give him pleasure.

Many people are shy, diffident, self-conscious, and painfully embarassed
in the presence of strangers. They feel these deficiencies keenly. They
long, perhaps with an intensity which the naturally self-possessed person
will never know, for that social ease which they so greatly admire. Their
self-consciousness, diffidence and timidity in the presence of others is
very largely the result, first, of a lack of knowledge of themselves and
how to make the most of their own good qualities socially; second, of a
lack of knowledge of other people. It is a human trait deeply ingrained
and going back to the very beginning of life to be afraid of that which we
do not understand. Courage, self-confidence, and self-possession always
come with complete understanding. Therefore, these timid, bashful ones may
find, and many of them have found, greater social ease through a knowledge
of themselves and of others, gained through a study of character analysis.

LOVE AND MARRIAGE

We shall probably not be disputed when we state that, aside from religion,
at least, the most momentous problem in the life of every man and woman is
that of love and marriage.

Says Edward Carpenter: "That there should exist one other person in the
world toward whom all openness of interchange should establish itself,
from whom there should be no concealment; whose body should be as dear to
one, in every part, as one's own; with whom there should be no sense of
Mine or Thine, in property or possession; into whose mind one's thoughts
should naturally flow, as it were, to know themselves and to receive a new
illumination; and between whom and one's self there should be a
spontaneous rebound of sympathy in all the joys and sorrows and
experiences of life; such is, perhaps, one of the dearest wishes of the
soul. For such a union Love must lay the foundation, but patience and
gentle consideration and self-control must work unremittingly to perfect
the structure. At length, each lover comes to know the complexion of the
other's mind; the wants, bodily and mental; the needs; the regrets; the
satisfactions of the other, almost as his or her own--and without
prejudice in favor of self rather than in favor of the other; above all,
both parties come to know, in course of time, and after, perhaps, some
doubts and trials, that the great want, the great need, which holds them
together is not going to fade away into thin air, but is going to become
stronger and more indefeasible as the years go on. There falls a sweet, an
irresistible trust over their relation to each other, which consecrates,
as it were, the double life, making both feel that nothing can now divide;
and robbing each of all desire to remain when death has, indeed (or at
least in outer semblance) removed the other.

"So perfect and gracious a union--even if not always realized--is still, I
say, the bona fide desire of most of those who have ever thought about
such matters."

A HEAVEN ON EARTH

In such a union as the author quoted has here described men and women find
life's deepest and truest joys and satisfactions. In it there is solace
for every sorrow, balm for every wound, renewal of life for every
weariness, comfort for every affliction, a multiplication of every joy, a
doubling of every triumph, encouragement for every fond ambition, and an
inspiration for every struggle. Those who are thus mated and married have
found a true heaven on earth. But such a mating and such a marriage is
not, as many fondly suppose, based solely upon the incident of "falling in
love." If we have no other advice to give the young man or the young woman
than that which has so often been given, "let your heart decide," we
have, indeed, little to offer.

MARRIAGE A PRACTICAL PARTNERSHIP

The marriage relationship is not wholly, or even chiefly, a romantic and
ethereal social union far above and unaffected by material and practical
considerations. While this spiritual union is an essential part of every
true marriage, it cannot exist unless there is also a true union upon
intellectual and physical planes. Marriage is, in one sense, a business
partnership. In another sense, it is an intellectual companionship, and in
still another sense, it is a friendly, social relationship.

A man and a woman are, therefore, mated in the true sense of the word, not
alone by a mysterious and intangible spiritual identity, but by mutual
beliefs, mutual ideas and ideals, mutual or harmonious tastes, mutual
physical attractiveness, and mutual respect and admiration each for the
other's talents, disposition, aptitudes, and character in general. One of
the reasons why there are so many unhappy marriages is because a blind
instinct, which may be purely physical or purely intellectual or purely
psychical, which may be a mere passing fancy, which oftentimes is based
upon the flimsiest and shallowest possible knowledge of each other's
characteristics, is mistaken for love. Many marriages, of course, are
consummated without even the existence of an imagined love--marriages for
convenience, marriages because of pique, marriages arranged by parents or
others. When such a marriage is a happy one, it is, indeed, by virtue of
great good fortune, a happy accident.

KNOWLEDGE THE BASIS OF CHOICE

Since a true marriage, therefore, must encircle with its golden band and
harmonize all of the psychical, intellectual and physical qualities,
activities and interests of two people, it follows that it must be based
upon knowledge as well as intuition. He who would choose a mate must,
first of all, understand himself, so that he may know what qualities will
be most agreeable to him. This may seem unnecessary, but, unfortunately,
it is not. Any man who will compare his youthful tastes and judgment in
regard to women with his mature inclinations will see the truth.

Second, he ought to know before he reaches the point of falling in love,
the disposition and character of those to whom his fancy turns. When
propinquity and mere physical attraction have aroused the emotions of a
young couple, the ardor of their excitement so obscures observation and
judgment that any careful analysis of each other's characteristics is
impossible. Even if such an analysis were possible, one could not be
intelligently made by a mere observation of behavior and conversation,
even under the most advantageous circumstances. As a general rule, young
people associate together in their "company clothes and company manners."
Every possible endeavor is made to show forth that which is considered to
be most desirable and to conceal, so far as possible, that which may be
undesirable. Even traits and tendencies which do manifest themselves do so
under disguise, as it were, and their full seriousness is not recognized.
In fact, many a young man and young woman have found the very
characteristics which appeared most charming in a lover or sweetheart the
ugly rock upon which marital happiness was wrecked.

"CHARMS" WHICH PROVE DEADLY

For example, many girls admire rather fast young men. But few wives find
happiness with drunken, gambling, unfaithful husbands. Many young women
experience a delightful thrill of interest in the young man who is
inclined to be somewhat authoritative. But few wives submit with pleasure
to the exactions of a domineering husband. Some young women find a gay,
careless irresponsibility charming in a lover but bitterly resent having
to shoulder all the burdens of financing and maintaining a home.

In a similar way, some men admire dimpled, pouting girls, but they
cordially detest whimpering, whining wives. Most men are flattered by an
air of helpless dependence in a sweetheart, but they soon grow tired of a
wife who cannot think and act for herself and who is, perhaps, an
imaginary or real invalid.

These characteristics in both men and women may be mere affectations and
mannerisms, assumed for the purpose of imagined allurement and charm. Or
they may be bedded deep in the character. Only a scientific knowledge of
human nature will reveal the truth.

KNOWLEDGE IN MARITAL RELATIONS

No matter how truly mated a man and woman may be, life-long happiness in
the marriage relation depends upon mutual understanding. Many a noble ship
of matrimony has been wrecked hopelessly upon the jagged rocks of
misunderstanding. Character analysis opens the eyes, reveals tendencies
and motives and offers true knowledge as a guide to the making of one's
self truly lovable, and the finding and bringing out in the other of
lovable qualities.

An intelligent woman of thirty once said to us: "I could never get along
with my father. As soon as I began to have a mind of my own, he and I
clashed, notwithstanding the fact that I loved him and he idolized me.
After I had married and left home, my love for him frequently drew me back
under his roof for a visit. But before I had been there a week we had
somehow managed to have a bitter quarrel and separated in anger. After I
learned to apply the principles of character analysis, I returned home on
a visit and the first thing I did was to analyze father. For the first
time in my life I understood him. Since that time we have never clashed,
and my visits with him are a great joy to me as well as to him."

We have in our files a sheaf of letters from both men and women telling of
the regaining of a lost paradise through mutual knowledge and mutual
understanding.

THE SCIENCE OF CHARACTER ANALYSIS NOT A CURE-ALL

We do not offer the science of character analysis as a panacea. We have
already emphasized the fact that mere knowledge of one's true vocation is
not enough for an unqualified success in it. We do not believe that
character analysis alone will solve the age-long problem of capital and
labor, nor do we hold forth the promise that a scientific knowledge of
human nature will enable every individual who obtains it to be uniformly
successful in selling, advertising, public speaking legal practice, and
other forms of persuasion. The serious and intricate puzzles of social
life will find no golden key which unlocks them all in the science of
character analysis. The supreme problems of love, marriage, marital
relations, divorce, and family life are far beyond the limited scope of
character analysis for their complete solution. Human life; human
efficiency; human mental, moral, and physical development; human
civilization in all of its aspects, are a matter of slow evolution, with
many a slip backward. He is either self-deceived or a charlatan who claims
to have found that which will enable the race to arrive at perfection in a
single bound.

On the other hand, just so far as even one spark of true knowledge is a
light on the way, to the degree in which one little adjustment helps men
to harmonize with nature and her eternal forces, and in the measure in
which one solid step adds to the causeway which man is building out of the
mire of ignorance to the heights of wisdom--in so much is the science of
character analysis an aid to man and his striving toward perfection and
happiness.

THE END

APPENDIX

REQUIREMENTS OF THE PRINCIPAL VOCATIONS

NOTE.--In the following lists the principal physical, intellectual,
emotional and volitional qualifications needful for success in a number of
representative vocations are given. The list of vocations is general, not
detailed, and is by no means exhaustive. The qualifications suggested are
also somewhat general in their nature. The list, therefore, is a valuable
guide to the general vocation for which an individual may be fitted, but
should be supplemented with much more detailed and specific analysis in
order to determine his exact place in that vocation. We have used the
words "Activity" and "Inactivity" in listing physical requirements. These
refer to the man of bone and muscle, in the first case; to the physically
frail or the fat man, in the second.

ADVERTISING

Good Health
PHYSICAL Exuberant Vitality
Energy

Originality
Practical Judgment
Keen Observation
Appreciation of Form, Color, and Proportion
Resourcefulness
Mental Industry
INTELLECTUAL Foresight
Knowledge of Human Nature
Constructive Ability
Command of Language
Analytical Powers
Critical Faculties
Method, Orderliness
Sense of Humor

Optimism
Ambition
Sympathy
Friendliness
EMOTIONAL Courage
Love of Beauty
Honesty
Enthusiasm
Ideals

Decision
Initiative
VOLITIONAL Persistence
Thoroughness
Aggressiveness
Self-control

Book of the day: