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American Negro Slavery by Ulrich Bonnell Phillips

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several.[11] More commonly the mitigation lay not in the laws themselves
but in the general disposition to leave to the discipline of the masters
such slave misdeeds as were not regarded as particularly heinous nor
menacing to the public security.

[Footnote 9: A.C. Goodell, Jr., _The Trial and Execution for Petit Treason
of Mark and Phillis_ (Cambridge, 1883), reprinted from the Massachusetts
Historical Society _Proceedings_, XX, 132-157.]

[Footnote 10: A.L. Cross, "Benefit of Clergy," in the _American Historical
Review_, XXII, 544-565.]

[Footnote 11: _Abridgement of the Laws in Force in Her Majesty's
Plantations_ (London, 1704), pp. 104-108.]

Burnings at the stake, breakings on the wheel and other ferocious methods
of execution which were occasionally inflicted by the colonial courts were
almost universally discontinued soon after the beginning of the nineteenth
century. The general trend of moderation discernible at that time, however,
was hampered then and thereafter by the series of untoward events beginning
with the San Domingo upheaval and ending with John Brown's raid. In
particular the rise of the Garrisonian agitation and the quickly ensuing
Nat Turner's revolt occasioned together a wave of reactionary legislation
the whole South over, prohibiting the literary instruction of negroes,
stiffening the patrol system, restricting manumissions, and diminishing the
already limited liberties of free negroes. The temper of administration,
however, was not appreciably affected, for this clearly appears to have
grown milder as the decades passed.

The police ordinances of the several cities and other local jurisdictions
were in keeping with the state laws which they supplemented and in some
degree duplicated. At New Orleans an ordinance adopted in 1817 and little
changed thereafter forbade slaves to live off their masters' premises
without written permission, to make any clamorous noise, to show disrespect
to any white persons, to walk with canes on the streets unless on account
of infirmity, or to congregate except at church, at funerals, and at such
dances and other amusements as were permitted for them on Sundays alone and
in public places. Each offender was to be tried by the mayor or a justice
of the peace after due notice to his master, and upon conviction was to be
punished within a limit of twenty-five lashes unless his master paid a fine
for him instead.[12]

[Footnote 12: D. Augustin, _A General Digest of the Ordinances and
Resolutions of the Corporation of New Orleans_ ([New Orleans], 1831), pp.
133-137.]

At Richmond an ordinance effective in 1859 had provisions much like those
of New Orleans regarding residence, clamor, canes, assemblage and demeanor,
and also debarred slaves from the capitol square and other specified public
enclosures unless in attendance on white persons or on proper errands,
forbade them to ride in public hacks without the written consent of their
masters, or to administer medicine to any persons except at their masters'
residences and with the masters' consent. It further forbade all negroes,
whether bond or free, to possess offensive weapons or ammunition, to form
secret societies, or to loiter on the streets near their churches more than
half an hour after the conclusion of services; and it required them when
meeting, overtaking or being overtaken by white persons on the sidewalks to
pass on the outside, stepping off the walk if necessary to allow the whites
to pass. It also forbade all free persons to hire slaves to themselves, to
rent houses, rooms or grounds to them, to sell them liquors by retail, or
drugs without written permits from their masters, or to furnish offensive
weapons to negroes whether bond or free. Finally, it forbade anyone to beat
a slave unlawfully, under fine of not more than twenty dollars if a white
person, or of lashes or fine at the magistrate's discretion in case the
offender were a free person of color.[13]

[Footnote 13: _The Charters and Ordinances of the City of Richmond_
(Richmond, 1859), pp. 193-200.]

Of rural ordinances, one adopted by the parish of West Baton Rouge,
Louisiana, in 1828 was concerned only with the organization and functions
of the citizens' patrol. As many chiefs of patrol were to be appointed
as the parish authorities might think proper, each to be in charge of a
specified district, with duties of listing all citizens liable to patrol
service, dividing them into proper details and appointing a commander for
each squad. Every commander in his turn, upon receiving notice from his
chief, was to cover the local beat on the night appointed, searching slave
quarters, though with as little disturbance as possible to the inmates,
arresting any free negroes or strange whites found where they had no proper
authority or business to be, whipping slaves encountered at large without
passes or unless on the way to or from the distant homes of their wives,
and seizing any arms and any runaway slaves discovered.[14] The police code
of the neighboring parish of East Feliciana in 1859 went on further to
prescribe trials and penalties for slaves insulting or abusing white
persons, to restrict their carrying of guns, and their assemblage, to
forbid all slaves but wagoners to keep dogs, to restrict citizens in their
trading with slaves, to require the seizure of self-styled free negroes not
possessing certificates, and to prescribe that all negroes or mulattoes
found on the railroad without written permits be deemed runaway slaves and
dealt with as the law regarding such directed.[15]

[Footnote 14: _Police Regulations of the Parish of West Baton Rouge (La.),
passed at a regular meeting held at the Court House of said Parish on the
second and third days of June, A.D. 1828_ (Baton Rouge, 1828), pp. 8-11.
For a copy of this pamphlet I am indebted to Professor W.L. Fleming of
Louisiana State University.]

[Footnote 15: D.B. Sanford, _Police Jury Code of the Parish of East
Feliciana, Louisiana_ (Clinton, La., 1859), pp. 98-101.]

In general, the letter of the law in slaveholding states at the middle of
the nineteenth century presumed all persons with a palpable strain of negro
blood to be slaves unless they could prove the contrary, and regarded the
possession of them by masters as presumptive evidence of legal ownership.
Property in slaves, though by some of the statutes assimilated to real
estate for certain technical purposes, was usually considered as of chattel
character. Its use and control, however, were hedged about with various
restraints and obligations. In some states masters were forbidden to
hire slaves to themselves or to leave them in any unusual way to their
self-direction; and everywhere they were required to maintain their slaves
in full sustenance whether young or old, able-bodied or incapacitated.
The manumission of the disabled was on grounds of public thrift nowhere
permitted unless accompanied with provision for their maintenance, and that
of slaves of all sorts was restricted in a great variety of ways. Generally
no consent by the slave was required in manumission, though in some
commonwealths he might lawfully reject freedom in the form bestowed.[16]
Masters might vest powers of agency in their slaves, but when so doing the
masters themselves became liable for any injuries or derelictions ensuing.
In criminal prosecutions, on the other hand, slaves were considered as
responsible persons on their own score and punishable under the laws
applicable to them. Where a crime was committed at the master's express
command, the master was liable and in some cases the slave also. Slave
offenders were commonly tried summarily by special inferior courts, though
for serious crimes in some states by the superior courts by regular
process. Since the slaves commonly had no funds with which to pay fines,
and no liberty of which to be deprived, the penalties imposed upon them
for crimes and misdemeanors were usually death, deportation or lashes.
Frequently in Louisiana, however, and more seldom elsewhere, convicted
slaves were given prison sentences. By the intent of the law their
punishments were generally more severe than those applied to white persons
for the same offenses. In civil transactions slaves had no standing as
persons in court except for the one purpose of making claim of freedom;
and even this must usually be done through some friendly citizen as a
self-appointed guardian bringing suit for trespass in the nature of
ravishment of ward. The activities of slaves were elaborately restricted;
any property they might acquire was considered as belonging to their
masters; their marriages were without legal recognition; and although the
wilful killing of slaves was generally held to be murder, the violation of
their women was without criminal penalty. Under the law as it generally
stood no slave might raise his hand against a white person even in
self-defense unless his life or limb were endangered, nor might he in his
own person apply to the courts for the redress of injuries, nor generally
give evidence except where negroes alone were involved. All white persons
on the other hand were permitted, and in some regards required, to exercise
police power over the slaves; and their masters in particular were vested
with full disciplinary power over them in all routine concerns. If they
should flee from their masters' dominion, the force of the state and of
other states into which they might escape, and of the United States if
necessary, might be employed for their capture and resubjection; and any
suspected of being fugitives, though professing to be free, might be held
for long periods in custody and in the end, in default of proofs of freedom
and of masters' claims, be sold by the authorities at public auction.
Finally, affecting slaves and colored freemen somewhat alike, and
regardless as usual of any distinction of mulattoes or quadroons from the
full-blood negroes, there were manifold restraints of a social character
buttressing the predominance and the distinctive privileges of the
Caucasian caste.

[Footnote 16: _E. g_., Jones, _North Carolina Supreme Court Reports_, VI.
272.]

It may fairly be said that these laws for the securing of slave property
and the police of the colored population were as thorough and stringent as
their framers could make them, and that they left an almost irreducible
minimum of rights and privileges to those whose function and place were
declared to be service and subordination. But in fairness it must also
be said that in adopting this legislation the Southern community largely
belied itself, for whereas the laws were systematically drastic the
citizens in whose interest they were made and in whose hands their
enforcement lay were in practice quite otherwise. It would have required a
European bureaucracy to keep such laws fully effective; the individualistic
South was incapable of the task. If the regulations were seldom relaxed in
the letter they were as rarely enforced in the spirit. The citizens were
too fond of their own liberties to serve willingly as martinets in the
routine administration of their own laws;[17] and in consequence the
marchings of the patrol squads were almost as futile and farcical as the
musters of the militia. The magistrates and constables tended toward a
similar slackness;[18] while on the other hand the masters, easy-going as
they might be in other concerns, were jealous of any infringements of their
own dominion or any abuse of their slaves whether by private persons or
public functionaries. When in 1787, for example, a slave boy in Maryland
reported to his master that two strangers by the name of Maddox had whipped
him for killing a dog while Mr. Samuel Bishop had stood by and let them do
it, the master, who presumably had no means of reaching the two strangers,
wrote Bishop demanding an explanation of his conduct and intimating that
if this were not satisfactorily forthcoming by the next session of court,
proceedings would be begun against him[19]. While this complainant might
not have been able to procure a judgment against a merely acquiescent
bystander, the courts were quite ready to punish actual transgressors.
In sustaining the indictment of a private citizen for such offense the
chief-justice of North Carolina said in 1823: "For all purposes necessary
to enforce the obedience of the slave and render him useful as property the
law secures to the master a complete authority over him, and it will
not lightly interfere with the relation thus established. It is a more
effectual guarantee of his right of property when the slave is protected
from wanton abuse by those who have no power over him, for it cannot be
disputed that a slave is rendered less capable of performing his master's
service when he finds himself exposed by law to the capricious violence
of every turbulent man in the community. Mitigated as slavery is by the
humanity of our laws, the refinement of manners, and by public opinion
which revolts at every instance of cruelty towards them, it would be an
anomaly in the system of police which affects them if the offense stated in
the verdict [the striking of a slave] were not indictable."[20] Likewise
the South Carolina Court of Appeals in 1850 endorsed the fining of a public
patrol which had whipped the slaves at a quilting party despite their
possession of written permission from their several masters. The Court said
of the quilting party: "The occasion was a perfectly innocent one, even
meritorious.... It would simply seem ridiculous to suppose that the safety
of the state or any of its inhabitants was implicated in such an assemblage
as this." And of the patrol's limitations: "A judicious freedom in the
administration of our police laws for the lower order must always have
respect for the confidence which the law reposes in the discretion of the
master."[21]

[Footnote 17: _E. g_., Letter of "a citizen" in the Charleston _City
Gazette_, Aug. 17, 1825.]

[Footnote 18: _E. g., L'Abeille_ (New Orleans), Aug. 15, 1841, editorial.]

[Footnote 19: Letter signed "R.T.," Port Tobacco, Md., Aug. 19, 1787. MS.
in the Library of Congress.]

[Footnote 20: The State _v_. Hale, in Hawks, _North Carolina Reports_, V,
582. See similarly Munford, _Virginia Reports_, I, 288.]

[Footnote 21: The State _v_. Boozer _et al_., in Strobhart, _South Carolina
Law Reports_, V, 21. This is quoted at some length in H.M. Henry, _Police
Control of the Slave in South Carolina_, pp. 146-148.]

The masters were on their private score, however, prone to disregard the
law where it restrained their own prerogatives. They hired slaves to the
slaves themselves whether legally permitted or not; they sent them on
responsible errands to markets dozens of miles away, often without
providing them with passes; they sanctioned and encouraged assemblies under
conditions prohibited by law; they taught their slaves at will to read and
write, and used them freely in forbidden employments. Such practices as
these were often noted and occasionally complained of in the press, but
they were seldom obstructed. When outside parties took legal steps to
interfere in the master's routine administration, indeed, they were
prompted probably as often by personal animosity as by devotion to the
law. An episode of the sort, where the complainants were envious poorer
neighbors, was related with sarcasm and some philosophical moralizing by
W.B. Hodgson, of whose plantation something has been previously said, in
a letter to Senator Hammond: "I am somewhat 'riled' with Burke. The
benevolent neighbors have lately had me in court under indictment for cruel
treatment of my fat, lazy, rollicking sambos. For fifty years they have
eaten their own meat and massa's too; but inasmuch as rich massa did not
_buy_ meat, the _poor Benevolens_ indicted him. So was my friend Thomas
Foreman, executor of Governor Troup. My suit was withdrawn; he was
acquitted. I have some crude notions about that thing slavery in the end.
Its tendency, as with landed accumulations in England, or Aaron's rod, is
to swallow up other small rods, and inevitably to attract the benevolence
of the smaller ones. You may have two thousand acres of land in a body.
That is unfeeling--land is. But a body of a thousand negroes appeals to the
finer sentiments of the heart. The agrarian battle is hard to fight. But
'_les amis des noirs_' in our midst have the vantage ground, particularly
when rejected overseers come in as spies. _C'est un peu degoutant, mon cher
ami_; but I can stand the racket."[22]

[Footnote 22: Letter of W.B. Hodgson, Savannah, Ga., June 19, 1859, to J.H.
Hammond. MS. among the Hammond papers in the Library of Congress. "Burke"
is the county in which Hodgson's plantation lay.]

The courts exercising jurisdiction over slaves were of two sorts, those of
inferior grade and amateurish character which dealt with them as persons,
and those of superior rank and genuine magisterial quality which handled
them as property and sometimes, on appeal, as persons as well. These
lower courts for the trial of slave crimes had vices in plenty. They were
informal and largely ignorant of the law, and they were so quickly convened
after the discovery of a crime that the shock of the deed had no time to
wane. Such virtues as they sometimes had lay merely in their personnel.
The slaveholders of the vicinage who commonly comprised the court were
intimately and more or less tolerantly acquainted with negro nature in
general, and usually doubtless with the prisoner on trial. Their judgment
was therefore likely to be that of informed and interested neighbors, not
of jurors carefully selected for ignorance and indifference, a judgment
guided more by homely common sense than by the particularities of the law.
Their task was difficult, as anyone acquainted with the rambling, mumbling,
confused and baffling character of plantation negro testimony will easily
believe; and the convictions and acquittals were of course oftentimes
erroneous. The remodeling of the system was one of the reforms called for
by Southerners of the time but never accomplished. Mistaken acquittals by
these courts were beyond correction, for in the South slaves like freemen
could not be twice put in jeopardy for the same offense. Their convictions,
on the other hand, were sometimes set aside by higher courts on appeal, or
their sentences estopped from execution by the governor's pardon.[23] The
thoroughness with which some of the charges against negroes were considered
is illustrated in two cases tried before the county court at Newbern, North
Carolina, in 1826. In one of these a negro boy was acquitted of highway
robbery after the jury's deliberation of several hours; in the other the
jury on the case of a free negro woman charged with infanticide had been
out for forty-six hours without reaching a verdict when the newspaper
dispatch was written.[24]

[Footnote 23: The working of these courts and the current criticisms of
them are illustrated in H.M. Henry _The Police Control of the Slave in
South Carolina_, pp. 58-65.]

[Footnote 24: News item from Newbern, N.C., in the Charleston _City
Gazette_, May 9, 1826.]

The circuit and supreme courts of the several states, though the slave
cases which they tried were for the most part concerned only with such dry
questions as detinue, trover, bailment, leases, inheritance and reversions,
in which the personal quality of the negroes was largely ignored,
occasionally rendered decisions of vivid human interest even where matters
of mere property were nominally involved. An example occurred in the case
of Rhame _vs_. Ferguson and Dangerfield, decided by the South Carolina
Court of Appeals in 1839 in connection with a statute enacted by the
legislature of that state in 1800 restricting manumissions and prescribing
that any slaves illegally set free might be seized by any person as
derelicts. George Broad of St. John's Parish, Berkeley County, had died
without blood relatives in 1836, bequeathing fourteen slaves and their
progeny to his neighbor Dangerfield "in trust nevertheless and for this
purpose only that the said John R. Dangerfield, his executors and assigns
do permit and suffer the said slaves ... to apply and appropriate
their time and labor to their own proper use and behoof, without the
intermeddling or interference of any person or persons whomsoever further
than may be necessary for their protection under the laws of this state";
and bequeathing also to Dangerfield all his other property in trust for the
use of these negroes and their descendants forever. These provisions were
being duly followed when on a December morning in 1837 Rebecca Rhame, the
remarried widow of Broad's late brother-in-law, descended upon the Broad
plantation in a buggy with John J. Singletary whom she had employed for the
occasion under power of attorney. Finding no white person at the residence,
Singletary ordered the negroes into the yard and told them they were seized
in Mrs. Rhame's behalf and must go with him to Charleston. At this juncture
Dangerfield, the trustee, came up and demanded Singletary's authority,
whereupon the latter showed him his power of attorney and read him the laws
under which he was proceeding. Dangerfield, seeking delay, said it would be
a pity to drag the negroes through the mud, and sent a boy to bring his
own wagon for them. While this vehicle was being awaited Colonel James
Ferguson, a dignitary of the neighborhood who had evidently been secretly
sent for by Dangerfield, galloped up, glanced over the power of attorney,
branded the whole affair as a cheat, and told Dangerfield to order
Singletary off the premises, driving him away with a whip if necessary, and
to shoot if the conspirators should bring reinforcements. "After giving
this advice, which he did apparently under great excitement, Ferguson rode
off." Singletary then said that for his part he had not come to take or
lose life; and he and his employer departed. Mrs. Rhame then sued Ferguson
and Dangerfield to procure possession of the negroes, claiming that she had
legally seized them on the occasion described. At the trial in the circuit
court, Singletary rehearsed the seizure and testified further that
Dangerfield had left the negroes customarily to themselves in virtually
complete freedom. In rebuttal, Dr. Theodore Gaillard testified that the
negroes, whom he described as orderly by habit, were kept under control
by the trustee and made to work. The verdict of the jury, deciding the
questions of fact in pursuance of the judge's charge as to the law, was in
favor of the defendants; and Mrs. Rhame entered a motion for a new trial.
This was in due course denied by the Court of Appeals on the ground that
Broad's will had clearly vested title to the slaves in Dangerfield, who
after Broad's death was empowered to do with them as he pleased. If he, who
was by the will merely trustee but by law the full owner, had given up
the practical dominion over the slaves and left them to their own
self-government they were liable to seizure under the law of 1800. This
question of fact, the court concluded, had properly been put to the jury
along with the issue as to the effectiveness of the plaintiff's seizure of
the slaves; and the verdict for the defendants was declared conclusive.[25]

[Footnote 25: Rebecca Rhame _vs_. James Ferguson and John R. Dangerfield,
in Rice, _Law Reports of South Carolina_, I, 196-203.]

This is the melodrama which the sober court record recites. The female
villain of the piece and her craven henchman were foiled by the sturdy
but wily trustee and the doughty Carolina colonel who, in headlong,
aristocratic championship of those threatened with oppression against
the moral sense of the community, charged upon the scene and counseled
slaughter if necessary in defense of negroes who were none of his. And
in the end the magistrates and jurors, proving second Daniels come to
judgment, endorsed the victory of benevolence over avarice and assured
the so-called slaves their thinly veiled freedom. Curiously, however, the
decision in this case was instanced by a contemporary traveller to prove
that negroes freed by will in South Carolina might be legally enslaved by
any person seizing them, and that the bequest of slaves in trust to an
executor as a merely nominal master was contrary to law;[26] and in later
times a historian has instanced the traveller's account in support of his
own statement that "Persons who had been set free for years and had no
reason to suppose that they were anything else might be seized upon for
defects in the legal process of manumission."[27]

[Footnote 26: J.S. Buckingham, _Slave States in America_, II, 32, 33.]

[Footnote 27: A.B. Hart, _Slavery and Abolition_ (New York, 1906), p. 88.]

Now according to the letter of certain statutes at certain times, these
assertions were severally more or less true; but if this particular case
and its outcome have any palpable meaning, it is that the courts connived
at thwarting such provisions by sanctioning, as a proprietorship valid
against the claim of a captor, what was in obvious fact a merely nominal
dominion.

Another striking case in which the severity of the law was overridden by
the court in sanction of lenient custom was that of Jones _vs_. Allen,
decided on appeal by the Supreme Court of Tennessee in 1858. In the fall of
the preceding year Jones had called in his neighbors and their slaves to
a corn husking and had sent Allen a message asking him to send help. Some
twenty-five white men and seventy-five slaves gathered on the appointed
night, among them Allen's slave Isaac. After supper, about midnight, Jones
told the negroes to go home; but Isaac stayed a while with some others
wrestling in the back yard, during which, while Jones was not present, a
white man named Hager stabbed Isaac to death. Allen thereupon sued Jones
for damages on the ground that the latter had knowingly and unlawfully
suffered Isaac, without the legally required authorization, to come with
other slaves upon his premises, where he had been slain to his owner's
loss. The testimony showed that Allen had not received Jones' message and
had given Isaac no permission to go, but that Jones had not questioned
Isaac in this regard; that Jones had given spirituous liquors to the slaves
while at work, Isaac included, but that no one there was intoxicated except
Hager who had come drunk and without invitation. In the trial court, in
Rutherford County where the tragedy had occurred, the judge excluded
evidence that such corn huskings were the custom of the country without the
requirement of written permission for the slaves attending, and he charged
the jury that Jones' employment of Isaac and Isaac's death on his premises
made him liable to Allen for the value of the slave. But on Jones' appeal
the Supreme Court overruled this, asserting that "under our modified form
of slavery slaves are not mere chattels but are regarded in the two-fold
character of persons and property; that as persons they are considered by
our law as accountable moral agents; ... that certain rights have been
conferred upon them by positive law and judicial determination, and other
privileges and indulgences have been conceded to them by the universal
consent of their owners. By uniform and universal usage they are
constituted the agents of their owners and sent on business without written
authority. And in like manner they are sent to perform those neighborly
good offices common in every community.... The simple truth is, such
indulgences have been so long and so uniformly tolerated, the public
sentiment upon the subject has acquired almost the force of positive law."
The judgment of the lower court was accordingly reversed and Jones was
relieved of liability for his laxness.[28]

[Footnote 28: Head's _Tennessee Reports_, I, 627-639.]

There were sharp limits, nevertheless, to the lenity of the courts. Thus
when one Brazeale of Mississippi carried with him to Ohio and there set
free a slave woman of his and a son whom he had begotten of her, and then
after taking them home again died bequeathing all his property to the
mulatto boy, the supreme court of the state, in 1838, declared the
manumission void under the laws and awarded the mother and son along with
all the rest of Brazeale's estate to his legitimate heirs who had brought
the suit.[29] In so deciding the court may have been moved by its
repugnance toward concubinage as well as by its respect for the statutes.

[Footnote 29: Howard's _Mississippi Reports_, II, 837-844.]

The killing or injury of a slave except under circumstances justified by
law rendered the offender liable both to the master's claim for damages
and to criminal prosecution; and the master's suit might be sustained even
where the evidence was weak, for as was said in a Louisiana decision, the
deed was "one rarely committed in presence of witnesses, and the most that
can be expected in cases of this kind are the presumptions that result from
circumstances."[30] The requirement of positive proof from white witnesses
in criminal cases caused many indictments to fail.[31] A realization of
this hindrance in the law deprived convicted offenders of some of the
tolerance which their crimes might otherwise have met. When in 1775, for
example, William Pitman was found guilty and sentenced by the Virginia
General Court to be hanged for the beating of his slave to death, the
_Virginia Gazette_ said: "This man has justly incurred the penalties of
the law and we hear will certainly suffer, which ought to be a warning to
others to treat their slaves with more moderation."[32] In the nineteenth
century the laws generally held the maiming or murder of slaves to be
felonies in the same degree and with the same penalties as in cases where
the victims were whites; and when the statutes were silent in the premises
the courts felt themselves free to remedy the defect.[33]

[Footnote 30: Martin, _Louisiana Reports_, XV, 142.]

[Footnote 31: H.M. Henry, _Police Control of the Slave in South Carolina_,
pp. 69-79.]

[Footnote 32: _Virginia Gazette_, Apr. 21, 1775, reprinted in the _William
and Mary College Quarterly_, VIII, 36.]

[Footnote 33: The State _vs_. Jones, in Walker, _Mississippi Reports_, p.
83, reprinted in J.D. Wheeler, _The Law of Slavery_, pp. 252-254.]

Despite the ferocity of the statutes and the courts, the fewness and the
laxity of officials was such that from time to time other agencies were
called into play. For example the maraudings of runaway slaves camped in
Belle Isle swamp, a score of miles above Savannah, became so serious and
lasting that their haven had to be several times destroyed by the Georgia
militia. On one of these occasions, in 1786, a small force first employed
was obliged to withdraw in the face of the blacks, and reinforcements
merely succeeded in burning the huts and towing off the canoes, while the
negroes themselves were safely in hiding. Not long afterward, however,
the gang was broken up, partly through the services of Creek and Catawba
Indians who hunted the maroons for the prices on their heads.[34] The
Seminoles, on the other hand, gave asylum to such numbers of runaways as to
prompt invasions of their country by the United States army both before
and after the Florida purchase.[35] On lesser occasions raids were made by
citizen volunteers. The swamps of the lower Santee River, for example, were
searched by several squads in 1819, with the killing of two negroes, the
capture of several others and the wounding of one of the whites as the
result.[36]

[Footnote 34: _Georgia Colonial Records_, XII, 325, 326; _Georgia Gazette_
(Savannah), Oct. 19, 1786; _Massachusetts Sentinel_ (Boston), June 13,
1787; _Georgia State Gazette and Independent Register_ (Augusta), June 16,
1787.]

[Footnote 35: Joshua R. Giddings, _The Exiles of Florida_ (Columbus, Ohio,
1858).]

[Footnote 36: Diary of Dr. Henry Ravenel, Jr., of St. John's Parish,
Berkeley County, S.C. MS. in private possession.]

More frequent occasions for the creation of vigilance committees were the
rumors of plots among the blacks and the reports of mischievous doings by
whites. In the same Santee district of the Carolina lowlands, for instance,
a public meeting at Black Oak Church on January 3, 1860, appointed three
committees of five members each to look out for and dispose of any
suspicious characters who might be "prowling about the parish." Of the
sequel nothing is recorded by the local diarist of the time except the
following, under date of October 25: "Went out with a party of men to take
a fellow by the name of Andrews, who lived at Cantey's Hill and traded with
the negroes. He had been warned of our approach and run off. We went on and
broke up the trading establishment."[37]

[Footnote 37: Diary of Thomas P. Ravenel, which is virtually a continuation
of the Diary just cited. MS. in private possession.]

Such transactions were those of the most responsible and substantial
citizens, laboring to maintain social order in the face of the law's
desuetude. A mere step further in that direction, however, lay outright
lynch law. Lynchings, indeed, while far from habitual, were frequent enough
to link the South with the frontier West of the time. The victims were not
only rapists[38] but negro malefactors of sundry sorts, and occasionally
white offenders as well. In some cases fairly full accounts of such
episodes are available, but more commonly the record extant is laconic.
Thus the Virginia archives have under date of 1791 an affidavit reciting
that "Ralph Singo and James Richards had in January last, in Accomac
County, been hung by a band of disguised men, numbering from six to
fifteen";[39] and a Georgia newspaper in 1860 the following: "It is
reported that Mr. William Smith was killed by a negro on Saturday evening
at Bowling Green, in Oglethorpe County. He was stabbed sixteen times. The
negro made his escape but was arrested on Sunday, and on Monday morning
a number of citizens who had investigated the case burnt him at the
stake."[40] In at least one well-known instance the mob's violence was
directed against an abuser of slaves. This was at New Orleans in 1834 when
a rumor spread that Madame Lalaurie, a wealthy resident, was torturing her
negroes. A great crowd collected after nightfall, stormed her door, found
seven slaves chained and bearing marks of inhuman treatment, and gutted
the house. The woman herself had fled at the first alarm, and made her way
eventually to Paris.[41] Had she been brought before a modern court it may
be doubted whether she would have been committed to a penitentiary or to
a lunatic asylum. At the hands of the mob, however, her shrift would
presumably have been short and sure.

[Footnote 38: For examples of these see above, pp. 460-463.]

[Footnote 39: _Calendar of Virginia State Papers_, V, 328.]

[Footnote 40: _Southern Banner_ (Athens, Ga.), June 14, 1860. Other
instances, gleaned mostly from _Niles' Register_ and the _Liberator_, are
given in J.E. Cutler, _Lynch Law_ (New York, 1905), pp. 90-136.]

[Footnote 41: Harriett Martineau, _Retrospect of Western Travel_ (London,
1838), I, 262-267; V. Debouchel, _Histoire de la Louisiane_ (New Orleans,
1841), p. 155; Alcee Fortier, _History of Louisiana_, III, 223.]

The violence of city mobs is a thing peculiar to no time or place. Rural
Southern lynch law in that period, however, was in large part a special
product of the sparseness of population and the resulting weakness of legal
machinery, for as Olmsted justly remarked in the middle 'fifties, the whole
South was virtually still in a frontier condition.[42] In _post bellum_
decades, on the other hand, an increase of racial antipathy has offset the
effect of the densification of settlement and has abnormally prolonged the
liability to the lynching impulse.

[Footnote 42: F.L. Olmsted, _Journey in the Back Country_, p. 413.]

While the records have no parallel for Madame Lalaurie in her systematic
and wholesale torture of slaves, there were thousands of masters and
mistresses as tolerant and kindly as she was fiendish; and these were
virtually without restraint of public authority in their benevolent rule.
Lawmakers and magistrates by personal status in their own plantation
provinces, they ruled with a large degree of consent and cooperation by the
governed, for indeed no other course was feasible in the long run by men
and women of normal type. Concessions and friendly services beyond the
countenance and contemplation of the statutes were habitual with those
whose name was legion. The law, for example, conceded no property rights
to the slaves, and some statutes forbade specifically their possession
of horses, but the following characteristic letter of a South Carolina
mistress to an influential citizen tells an opposite story: "I hope you
will pardon the liberty I take in addressing you on the subject of John,
the slave of Professor Henry, Susy his wife, and the orphan children of my
faithful servant Pompey, the first husband of Susy. In the first instance,
Pompey owned a horse which he exchanged for a mare, which mare I permitted
Susy to use after her marriage with John, but told them both I would sell
it and the young colt and give Susy a third of the money, reserving the
other two thirds for her children. Before I could do so, however, the
mare and the colt were exchanged and sent out of my way by this dishonest
couple. I then hoped at least to secure forty-five dollars for which
another colt was sold to Mr. Haskell, and sent my message to him to say
that Susy had no claim on the colt and that the money was to be paid to me
for the children of Pompey. A few days since I sent to Mr. Haskell again
who informed me that he had paid for the colt, and referred me to you. I do
assure you that whatever Susy may affirm, she has no right to the money.
It is not my intention to meddle with the law on the occasion, and I
infinitely prefer relying on you to do justice to the parties. My manager,
who will deliver this to you, is perfectly acquainted with all the
circumstances; and [if] after having a conversation with him you should
decide in favor of the children I shall be much gratified."[43]

[Footnote 43: Letter of Caroline Raoul, Belleville, S.C., Dec. 26, 1829, to
James H. Hammond. MS. among the Hammond papers in the Library of Congress.]

Likewise where the family affairs of slaves were concerned the silence and
passiveness of the law gave masters occasion for eloquence and activity.
Thus a Georgian wrote to a neighbor: "I have a girl Amanda that has your
servant Phil for a husband. I should be very glad indeed if you would
purchase her. She is a very good seamstress, an excellent cook--makes cake
and preserves beautifully--and washes and irons very nicely, and cannot be
excelled in cleaning up a house. Her disposition is very amiable. I have
had her for years and I assure you that I have not exaggerated as regards
her worth.... I will send her down to see you at any time."[44] That offers
of purchase were no less likely than those of sale to be prompted by such
considerations is suggested by another Georgia letter: "I have made every
attempt to get the boy Frank, the son of James Nixon; and in order to
gratify James have offered as far as five hundred dollars for him--more
than I would pay for any negro child in Georgia were it not James'
son."[45] It was therefore not wholly in idyllic strain that a South
Carolinian after long magisterial service remarked: "Experience and
observation fully satisfy me that the first law of slavery is that of
kindness from the master to the slave. With that ... slavery becomes a
family relation, next in its attachments to that of parent and child."[46]

[Footnote 44: Letter of E.N. Thompson, Vineville, Ga. (a suburb of Macon),
to J.B. Lamar at Macon, Ga., Aug. 7, 1854. MS. in the possession of Mrs.
A.S. Erwin, Athens, Ga.]

[Footnote 45: Letter of Henry Jackson, Jan. 11, 1837, to Howell Cobb. MS.
in the possession of Mrs. A.S. Erwin, Athens, Ga.]

[Footnote 46: J.B. O'Neall in J.B.D. DeBow ed., _Industrial Resources of
the South and West_, II (New Orleans, 1852), 278.]

On the whole, the several sorts of documents emanating from the Old
South have a character of true depiction inversely proportioned to their
abundance and accessibility. The statutes, copious and easily available,
describe a hypothetical regime, not an actual one. The court records are on
the one hand plentiful only for the higher tribunals, whither questions of
human adjustments rarely penetrated, and on the other hand the decisions
were themselves largely controlled by the statutes, perverse for ordinary
practical purposes as these often were. It is therefore to the letters,
journals and miscellaneous records of private persons dwelling in the
regime and by their practices molding it more powerfully than legislatures
and courts combined, that the main recourse for intimate knowledge must be
had. Regrettably fugitive and fragmentary as these are, enough it may be
hoped have been found and used herein to show the true nature of the living
order.

The government of slaves was for the ninety and nine by men, and only for
the hundredth by laws. There were injustice, oppression, brutality and
heartburning in the regime,--but where in the struggling world are these
absent? There were also gentleness, kind-hearted friendship and mutual
loyalty to a degree hard for him to believe who regards the system with a
theorist's eye and a partisan squint. For him on the other hand who has
known the considerate and cordial, courteous and charming men and women,
white and black, which that picturesque life in its best phases produced,
it is impossible to agree that its basis and its operation were wholly
evil, the law and the prophets to the contrary notwithstanding.

INDEX

Acklen, Joseph A.S.,
plantation home of
rules of, for overseers
Africa, West, _see_ Guinea
Agriculture, _see_ cotton, indigo, rice, sugar and tobacco
culture
Aiken, William, rice plantation of
Aime, Valcour, sugar plantation of
Amissa, enslaved and restored to Africa
Angolas,
tribal traits of
revolt of
Antipathy, racial,
Jefferson's views on
in Massachusetts
in North and South compared
Northern spokesmen of
Arabs, in the Guinea trade
Asiento
Azurara, Gomez E.

Baltimore, negro churches in
Barbados,
emigration from,
to Carolina
to Jamaica
founding of
planters' committee of
slave laws of,
sugar culture in
Belmead plantation
Benin
Black codes,
administration of
attitude of citizens toward
local ordinances
origin of,
in Barbados
in the Northern colonies
in Louisiana
in South Carolina
in Virginia
tenor of,
in the North
in the South
Bobolinks, in rice fields
Bonny
Bore, Etienne de, sugar planter
Bosman, William, in the Guinea trade
Branding of slaves
Bristol, citizens of, in the slave trade
Burial societies, negro
Burnside, John, merchant and sugar planter
Butler, Pierce,
the younger,
slaves of, sold

Cain, Elisha, overseer
Cairnes, J.E., views of, on slavery
Calabar, New
Calabar, Old
Cape Coast Castle
Capers, William, overseer
Capital, investment of, in slaves
Charleston, commerce of,
free negroes in
industrial census of
racial adjustments in, problem of
slave misdemeanors in
Denmark Vesey's plot
Churches,
racial adjustments in,
rural
urban
Clarkson, Thomas, views of, on the effects of closing the slave trade
Columbus, Christopher, policy of
Concubinage
Congoes, tribal traits of
Connecticut,
slavery in,
disestablishment of
Cooper, Thomas, views of, on the economics of slavery
Corbin, Richard, plantation rules of
Coromantees, conspiracy of,
tribal traits of
Corporations, ownership of slaves by
Cotton culture,
sea-island
introduction of,
methods and scale of
upland,
engrossment of thought and energy by
improvements in
methods and scale of
stimulates westward migration
Cotton gin, invention of
Cotton mills
slave operatives in
Cotton plantations, _see_ plantations, cotton
Cotton prices, sea-island,
upland,
chart facing
Cottonseed,
oil extracted from
used as fertilizer
Covington, Leonard, planter, migration of
Creoles, Louisiana
Criminality among free negroes
among slaves
Cuba

Dabney, Thomas S., planter, migration of
Dahomeys
Dale, Sir Thomas
Davis, Joseph and Jefferson, plantation policy of
Delaware,
slaves and free negroes in
forbids export of slaves
Depression, financial,
in Mississippi
in Virginia
Dirt-eating, among Jamaica slaves
Discipline, of slaves
Diseases,
characteristic,
in Africa
among Jamaica slaves
venereal
Doctors, black,
in Jamaica
in South Carolina
in Virginia
"Doctoress," slave, in Georgia
Drivers (plantation foremen)
Driving of slaves to death, question of
Dutch, in the slave trade
Dutch West India Company

Early, Peter, debates the closing of the foreign slave trade
East India Company, in the slave trade
Eboes, tribal traits of
El Mina
Elliott, William, planter
economic views of
Ellsworth, Oliver
Emancipation, _see_ manumission
Encomiendia system, in the Spanish West Indies
England, policy of, toward the slave trade
Epitaph of Peyton, a slave
Evans, Henry, negro preacher

Factorage, in planters' dealings
Factorage, in the slave trade,
in American ports
in Guinea
Farmers,
free negro
white,
in the Piedmont
in the plantation colonies
segregation of
in the westward movement
Federal Convention
Festivities, of slaves
Fithian, Philip V., observations by
Foremen, plantation
Foulahs
Fowler, J.W.,
cotton picking records of
plantation rules of
Franklin and Armfield, slave-dealers
Free negroes,
antipathy toward
criminality among
discriminations against
emigration projects of
endorsements of
kidnapping of
legal seizure of, attempts at
mob violence against
occupations of, in Augusta
in Charleston
in New Orleans and New York
prominent characters among
processes of procuring freedom by
qualities and status of
reenslavement of
secret societies among
slaveholding by
French, in the slave trade
Fugitive slaves, _see_ slaves, runaway,
rendition, in the Federal Constitution,
act of 1793
Funerals, negro

Gaboons, tribal traits of
Gabriel, insurrection led by
Gadsden, Christopher
Gambia, slave trade on the
Gang system, in plantation work
Genoese, in the slave trade
Georgia, founding of,
free negress visits
slave imports forbidden in,
permitted in
restricted by
uplands, development of
Gerry, Elbridge
Gibson, Arthur H., views of, on the economics of slavery
Godkin, Edwin L., on the migration of planters
Gold Coast
Goodloe, Daniel R., views of, on slavery
Gowrie, rice plantation
Grandy King George, African chief, wants of
Guiana, British,
invites free negro immigration
cotton culture in
Dutch
Guinea,
coastal explorations of
life and institutions in
slave exports from, beginnings of,
volume of
tribal traits in
_See also_ negroes and slave trade

Hairston, Samuel, planter
Hammond, James H., planter and writer
Hampton, Wade, planter
Harrison, Jesse Burton, views of, on slavery
Hawkins, Sir John, adventures of, in the slave trade
Hayti (Hispaniola)
Hearn, Lafcadio, on sugar-cane harvesting
Helper, Hinton R., views of, on slavery
Hemp
Henry, Patrick
Henry, Prince, the Navigator
Heyward, Nathaniel, planter
Hodgson, W.B., planter
Holidays, of slaves,
plantation
urban
Hundley D.R., on slave traders

Immigrants, in the South
_See also_ Irish
Importations of slaves
prohibition of
Indians, enslaved,
in New England
in South Carolina
in West Indies, subjugated by Spaniards
Indigo culture,
introduction of,
in Georgia
in South Carolina
methods of
Insurrection of slaves, _see_ slave plots
Irish, labor of, on plantations

Jamaica,
capture and development of
maroons of
nabobs, absentee
plantations in
runaway slaves in, statistics of
Jefferson, Thomas,
on the foreign slave trade
on negroes and slavery
Jennison, Nathaniel, prosecution of
Job Ben Solomon, enslaved and restored to Africa
Joloffs

Kentucky, settlement of
Kidnapping of free negroes
King, Rufus
Kingsley, Z., plantation experience of

Lace, Ambrose, slave trader
Lalaurie, Madame
Lamar, John B., planter
Las Casas, Bartholomeo de la
Laurens, Henry, factor and planter
Liberia
Lincecum, Gideon, peregrinations of
Lindo, Moses, indigo merchant
Liverpool,
in the slave trade,
types of ships employed
Loango
Lodges, negro
London, in the slave trade
London Company
Loria, Achille, views of, on slavery economics
Louisiana, cotton culture in,
slave laws of
sugar culture in
L'Ouverture, Toussaint
Lucas, Eliza
Lynchings

M'Culloch, J.R., views of, on slavery
McDonogh, John, manumission by, method of
Macon, Nathaniel
Madagascar, slaves procured from
Malaria,
in Africa
in South Carolina
Mandingoes, tribal traits of
Manigault, Charles, planter
rules of
Manors in Maryland
Manumission, of slaves
Maroons, negro, in Jamaica
on the Savannah River
Martinique
Maryland,
founding of
free negroes in
manors in
plantations in
slave imports prohibited by
slaveholdings in, scale of
slavery in, projects for the disestablishment of
Massachusetts,
in the slave trade
slavery in
abolition of
Matthews, Samuel, planter
Medical attention to slaves
Mercer, James, planter
Merolla, Jerom, missionary
Middle passage, _see_ slave trade, African
Midwives, slave
Migration
Mill, John Stuart, views of, on slavery
Miller, Phineas, partner of Eli Whitney
Misdemeanors of slaves, in Charleston
Missouri,
decline of slavery in
settlement of
Mississippi,
depression in
product of long-fibre cotton in
sale of slaves from
Mobs, violence of, toward free negroes
Mocoes, tribal traits of
Molasses
Moore, Francis, Royal African Company factor
Moors
Mulattoes
Mules

Nagoes, tribal traits of
Negro traits,
American
Angola
Congo
Coromantee
Ebo
Gaboon
Mandingo
Nago
Paw Paw
Whydah
Negroes, _see_ antipathy, black codes, church adjustments, free
negroes, funerals, plantation labor, plantation life, slave plots
slave trade, slaveholdings, slavery, slaves
New England,
in the slave trade,
type of ships employed
slavery in,
disestablishment of
New Jersey,
slavery in,
disestablishment of
New Netherlands, slavery in
New Orleans, as a slave market,
free negroes in
New York,
negro plots in
slavery in,
disestablishment of
Nicholson, J.S., views of, on slavery
Nobility, English, as Jamaica plantation owners
North Carolina,
early conditions in
sentiment on slavery
Northrup, a kidnapped free negro, career of
Northwest Territory, prohibition of slavery in

Oglethorpe, James,
administers the Royal African Company
founds Georgia
restores a slave to Africa
Olmsted, Frederick L., observations by
Overseers, plantation, functions, salaries, and experiences of

Panics, financial, effects on slave prices
Park, Mungo, in Guinea
"Particular plantations," in Virginia
Paths, in Guinea, character of
Paw Paws, tribal traits of
Pennsylvania, slavery in,
disestablishment of
Peyton, a slave, epitaph of
Philips, Martin W.,
planter and writer
slave epitaph by
Pickering, Timothy
_Plantation and Frontier_, citation of title in full
Plantation labor
Plantation life
Plantation management
Plantation mistress
Plantation rules
Plantation system,
cherishment of slaves in
as a civilizing agency
gang and task methods in
severity in, question of
soil exhaustion in
towns and factories hampered in growth by
westward spread of
Plantation tendencies
Plantations, cotton, sea island
Plantations,
cotton,
upland,
J.H. Hammond estate
Retreat
indigo
rice,
Butler's Island
Gowrie and East Hermitage
Jehossee Island
sugar,
in Barbados,
Drax Hall
in Jamaica,
Worthy Park
in Louisiana,
Valcour Aime's estate
tobacco,
Belmead
James Mercer's estate
Planters,
absenteeism among
concern of, for slaves
dietary of
exemplified,
in J.A.S. Acklen
in William Aiken
in John Burnside
in Robert Carter
in Christopher Codrington
in Thomas S. Dabney
in Jefferson and Joseph Davis
in Samuel Hairston
in James H. Hammond
in Wade Hampton
in Nathaniel Heywood
in W.B. Hodgson
in Z. Kingsley
in John B. Lamar
in Henry Laurens
in Charles Manigault
in Samuel Matthews
in James Mercer
in A.H. Pemberton
in Martin W. Philips
in George Washington
in David R. Williams
gentility of
homesteads of
innovations by
management by
migration of
purchases of slaves by
rules of
sales of slaves by
sports of
temper of
Poor whites,
in the South,
Cairnes' assertions concerning
Portugal, activities of, in Guinea,
an appandage of Spain
negroes in
Preachers, negro
Procter, Billy, a slave, letter of
Providence, "Old," a Puritan colony in the tropics, career of
Puritans, attitude of, toward slavery

Quakers, relationship of, to slavery
Quincy, Josiah

Railroad companies, slave ownership by
Randolph, Edmund, disrelishes slavery
Randolph, John, of Roanoke,
on the coasting trade in slaves
on depression in Virginia
manumits his slaves
Randolph, Richard, provides for the manumission of his slaves
Rape, by negroes in the ante-bellum South
Rats, a pest in Jamaica
Rattoons, of sugar cane
Religion, among slaves,
rural
urban
Retreat, cotton plantation
Revolution, American,
doctrines of
effects of, on slavery
Negroes in
radicalism of, waning of
Rhode Island,
in the slave trade
resolution advocating the stoppage of the slave trade
slavery in,
disestablishment of
Rice birds (bobolinks), damage from
Rice culture,
introduced into Georgia
into South Carolina
methods of
plantations in,
scale of
Rishworth, Samuel, early agitator against slavery
Rolfe, John, introduces tobacco culture into Virginia
Roustabouts, Irish,
qualities of
negro
Royal African Company
Ruffin, Edmund,
advocates agricultural reforms
views of, on slavery
Rum,
product of, in Jamaica
rations issued to slaves,
in Jamaica
in South Carolina
use of, in the Guinea trade
Runaway slaves,
general problem
of George Washington
in Georgia
in Jamaica
in Mississippi
Russell, Irwin, "Christmas in the Quarters,"
Sabine Fields, rice plantation
Sahara, slave trade across
Saluda factory, slave operatives in
San Domingo,
emigration from, to Louisiana
revolution in
Say, J.B., views of, on slavery
Sea-island cotton,
introduced into the United States
methods and scale of culture
Seasoning of slaves, in Jamaica
Secret societies, negro
Senegal, slave trade in
Senegalese, tribal traits of
Senegambia
Serfdom
Servants,
white indentured,
in Barbados
in Connecticut
in Jamaica
in Maryland
in Massachusetts
in Pennsylvania
in South Carolina and Georgia
in Virginia
revolts by
Servitude, indentured, tendencies of
Shackles, used on slaves
Shenendoah Valley
Ships, types of, in the slave trade
Sierra' Leone
Slave Coast
Slave felons
Slave plots and insurrections,
general survey of
disquiet caused by
Gabriel's uprising
in "Old" Providence
in New York
proclivity of Coromantees toward
San Domingan revolution
Stono rebellion
Nat Turner's (Southampton), revolt
Denmark Vesey's conspiracy
Slave trade, African,
the asiento
barter in
chieftains active in
closing of, by various states,
by Congress
effects of
drain of funds by
Liverpool's prominence in
the middle passage
reopening, project of
Royal African Company
ships employed in,
types of
care and custody of slaves on
tricks of
Yankee traders in
Slave trade,
domestic,
beginnings of
effects of
methods in
to Louisiana
scale of
Slave traders,
domestic,
Franklin and Armfield
methods and qualities of
reputations of, blackened
maritime
Slaveholding, vicissitudes of
Slaveholdings,
by corporations
by free negroes,
scale of, in the cotton belt
in Jamaica
in Maryland
in New York
in towns
in Virginia
on the South Carolina coast
Slavery,
in Africa
in the American Revolution
in ancient Rome
in the British West Indies
in Europe
in Georgia
in Louisiana
in the North
disestablishment of
in South Carolina
in Spanish America
in Virginia
_See also_ black codes, negroes, and plantation labor, life
and management
Slaves, negro,
artizans among
as factory operatives
birth rates of
branding of
"breaking in" of
breeding, forced, question of
capital invested in
children, care and control of
church adjustments of
conspiracies of, _see_ slave plots and insurrections
crimes of
crops of, private
dealers in, _see_ slave traders
discipline of
diseases and death rates of
driving of, to death, question of
earnings of private
felons among, disposal of
festivities of
food and clothing of
foemen among
hiring of
to themselves
holidays of
hospitals for
labor of, schedule of
laws concerning
life insurance of
manumission of
marriages of
annulment of
medical and surgical care of
plots and insurrections of
police of
preachers among
prices of
property of
protection of, from strain and exposure
punishments of
purchases of
by themselves
drain of funds, caused by
quarters of
sanitation of
rape by
religion among
revolts of, _see_ slave plots and insurrections
rewards of
rum allowances to
running away by
sales of
shackling of
social stratification among
speculation in
stealing of
strikes by
suicide of
suits by, for freedom,
concerning
temper of
torture of
town adjustments of
undesirable types of
wages of
in the westward movement
women among, care and control of
work, rates of
working of, to death, question of
Smart, William, views of, on slavery
Smith, Adam, views of, on slavery
Smith, Captain John
Smith, Landgrave Thomas
Snelgrave, William, in the maritime slave trade
Soil exhaustion
Southampton insurrection
South Carolina,
closing and reopening of the foreign slave trade in
cotton culture in
emigration from
founding of
indigo culture in
rice culture in
slave imports,
prohibited by
reopened by
slave laws of
slaveholdings in, scale of
uplands, development of
Spain,
annexation of Portugal by
asiento instituted by
negroes in
police of American dominions by
policy of, toward Indians and negroes
Spaulding, Thomas, planter
Spinners, on plantations
Spratt, L.W., views of, on conditions in South Carolina
Staples, _see_ cotton, hemp, indigo, rice, sugar and tobacco culture
and plantations
Steamboat laborers,
Irish
negro
Sugar culture,
in Barbados
in Jamaica
in Louisiana
methods and apparatus of
plantations in,
scale of
types of
in the Spanish West Indies

Task system, in plantation industry
Taylor, John, of Caroline, agricultural writings of
Telfair, Alexander,
plantations of
rules of
Tennessee, settlement of
Texas
Thomas, E.S., bookseller, experience of
Thorpe, George, Virginia colonist
Tobacco culture,
in Maryland
method of
in North Carolina
plantations in,
scale of
types of
in the uplands of South Carolina and Georgia
in Virginia
Towns, Southern,
growth of, hampered
slaves in
Tucker, St. George, project of, for extinguishing slavery in Virginia
Turner, Nat, insurrection led by

Utrecht, treaty of, grants the asiento to England

Van Buren, A. de Puy, observations by
Venetians, in the Levantine slave trade
Vermont, prohibition of slavery by
Vesey, Denmark, conspiracy of
Vigilance committees
Virginia,
founding and early experience of
free negroes in
plantations in,
"particular"
private
servants, indentured, in
slave crimes in
slave imports, prohibited by
slave laws of
slave revolts in
slaveholdings in, scale of
slavery,
introduced in
disestablishment in, projects of
tobacco culture in

Walker, Quork, suits concerning the freedom of
Washington, George
apprehensions of, concerning slave property
desires the gradual abolition of slavery
imports cotton
as a planter
West Indies,
British,
prosperity and decline in, progression of
servile plots and insurrections in
slave prices in, on the eve of abolition
Spanish,
colonization of
negro slavery in, introduction of
Weston, P.C., plantation rules of
Westward movement
Whitney, Eli, invents the cotton gin
Whydahs, tribal traits of
Williams, David R., planter
Williams, Francis, a free negro, career of
Women, slave,
care of, in pregnancy and childbirth
difficulties in controlling
Working of slaves to death, question of
Worthy Park, Jamaica plantation, records of

Yeomanry, white, in the South

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