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American Hand Book of the Daguerreotype by Samuel D. Humphrey

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Having duly arranged the camera, I sat for five minutes,
and the result was a profile miniature (a miniature in reality,)
or a plate not quite three-eighths of an inch square. Thus, with much
deliberation and study, passed the first day in Daguerreotype--
little dreaming or knowing into what a labyrinth such a beginning
was hastening us.

[Description of apparatus represented on pages 192 and 199:]

A.--The Box--about 4 inches long by about 2 outside diameter.
B.--The Reflector soldered to a brass screw, and mounted in the
rear of the box.
c.--The slide to regulate the focus to the plate holder.
d.--The standard to the plate holder screwed to the slide.
f.--The plate-holder frame having two small ledges, * *, for the
plate to rest upon.

[page 192]

g.--The plate resting upon the ledge., * *, and kept against the
frame by the spring h. The plates used were about 3/8 of an inch
square.
A.--The window with the sashes removed.

B and C (p. 199) are large looking-glasses mounted as plain reflectors,
the lower one C having rotary motion upon the saddle, resting upon the sill
of the window in order to direct the rays of the sun upon the reflector B,
at any hour of the day--the vertical motion of the reflector C

[amdg_12.gif]

being necessary, the sun varying in altitude so much during
the hours most favorable to the production of portraits.
The reflector C was

[page 193]

kept up to the required position by the handle lever, upright post and bolts.
Reflector B was hinged at its upper end at the top of the window frame,
the only motion being necessary was that which would reflect upon the sitter
the incident rays from reflector C--the reflector B being kept at the required
angle by the connecting lever m, etc. Suitable back-grounds were placed
behind the sitter.

The reflector B and C, had frequently to be renewed, the heat of the sun
soon destroying their brilliance or power of reflecting, light,
before renewing them, however, we resorted to the springing of them,
by which means their power was increased for a period.

The camera or reflecting apparatus, invented by Mr. Wolcott,
was, from the nature of the case, better adapted at that day
to the taking of portraits from life, than any other instruments.
After carefully examining the camera described by Daguerre,
and the time stated as necessary to produce action for an image,
it became evident to the mind of Mr. Wolcott at once, that more light
could be obtained (as the field of view required was not large)
by employing a reflector of short focus and wide aperture, than from
a lens arrangement, owing to spherical aberration and other causes.
Many experiments having been tried with the small instrument figured
(p. 199), a reflector for taking portraits from life was determined on,
having eight inches diameter, with twelve inches focal distance
for parallel rays; this was to admit plates of two inches wide
by two and a half long Mr. Wolcott having on hand reflectors
of the right diameter, for Newtonian telescopes, of eight feet
focal distance, resolved (as it was a matter of experiment)
to grind down or increase the curve for the focal distance before named--
this required time. In the mean time, many plans were pursued
for making good plates, and the means of finishing, them. As the
completion of the large reflector drew to a close, our mutual friend,
Henry Fitz, Jr., returned from England, whither he had been on a visit,
and when he heard what we were about, kindly offered his assistance;
he being well versed in optics, and having been before engaged with
Mr. Wolcott, in that and other business is offer was gladly accepted--
Mr. Wolcott himself having frequent engagement; to fill as operator
in the details of mechanical dentistry. Thus, by the aid of Mr. Fitz,
the reflector was polished, and experiments soon after tried on
plates of two by tow and a half inches, with tolerable success.
Illness on my part quite suspended further trial for nearly four weeks.

On my recovery, early in January, 1840, our experiments were
again resumed with improved results, so much so as to induce
Mr. Wolcott and myself to entertain serious thoughts of making
a business of the taking of likenesses from life, intending to
use the reflecting apparatus invented by Mr. Wolcott, and for
which he obtained Letters Patent, on the 8th day of May, 1840.
Up to January 1st, 1840, all experiments had been tried on
an economical scale, and the apparatus then made, was unfit
for public exhibition; we resolved to make the instruments as
perfect as possible while they were in progress of manufacture.
Experiments were made upon mediums for protecting the eyes from
the direct light of the sun, and also upon the best form and
material for a back-ground to the likenesses. The length of time
required for a "sitting," even with the reflecting apparatus,
was such as to render the operation anything but pleasant.
Expedients were ever ready in the hands of Wolcott: blue glass
was tried and abandoned in consequence of being, at that time,
unable to procure a piece of uniform density and surface:
afterwards a series of thin muslin screens secured to wire
frames were prepared as a substitute for blue glass.
The objections to these screens, however, were serious,
inasmuch as a multiplication of them became necessary to lessen
the intensity of the light sufficiently for due protection
to the eyes, without which, the likenesses, other than profiles,
were very unpleasant to look upon. Most of the portraits,
then of necessity were profiles formed upon back-grounds,
the lighter parts relieved upon black, and the darker parts upon
light ground; the back-ground proper being of light colored
material with black velvet so disposed upon the light ground,
this being placed sufficiently far from the sitter, to produce
harmony of effect when viewed in the field of the camera.
Other difficulties presented themselves seriously to the
working of the discovery of Daguerre, to portrait taking--
one of which was the necessity for a constant and nearly
horizontal light, that the shaded portions of the portrait
should not be too hard, and yet, at the same time,
be sufficiently well developed without the "high light"
of the picture becoming overdone, solarized or destroyed.
In almost all the early specimens of the Daguerreotype,
extremes of light and shade presented themselves,
much to the annoyance of the early operators, and seriously
objectionable were such portraits. To overcome this difficulty,
Mr. Wolcott mounted, with suitable joints, upon the top
of his camera, a large looking-glass or plane reflector,
in such a manner that the light of the sun (as a strong light
was absolutely necessary), when falling upon the glass could
be directed upon the person in an almost horizontal direction.

Early in February, 1840, Mr. Johnson, Sen., (since deceased) sailed for
Europe with a few specimen likenesses taken with the instruments
completed as above, with the intention of patenting the invention.
On his arrival a joint arrangement was effected with Mr. Richard Beard,
of London, in patenting and working the invention in England.
Up to February, 1840, but few friends had been made acquainted
with the progress of the art in the hands of Mr. Wolcott and myself.
From time to time reports reached us from various sources
of the success of others, and specimens of landscapes,
etc., were exhibited at Dr. James R. Chilton's laboratory,
in Broadway, much to the gratification of the numerous visitors
and anxious expectants for this most wonderful discovery.
Dr. Chilton, Professor J. J. Mapes, Professor J. W. Draper.
Professor S. F. B. Morse, all of this city; Mr. Cornelius,
Dr. Goddard and others of Philadelphia; Mr. Southworth,
Professor Plumbe, and numerous others were early in the field;
all, however, using the same description of camera as that of Daguerre,
with modification for light, either by enlargement by lens
and aperture for light, or by shortening the focal distance.

At a conversational meeting of the Mechanics' Institute, Professor J. J. Mapes
being present, a question was asked if any one present could give
information relative to portraiture from life by the Daguerreotype.
Mr. Kells, a friend of Mr. Wolcott and a scientific and practical man
(sinced deceased), at once marked out upon the black-board, the whole
as contrived by Mr. Wolcott. This gave publicity to the invention
of Mr. Wolcott. Shortly after, Professor Mapes, Dr. Chilton,
and many others, sat for their portraits, and were highly gratified.
Professor Morse also came and proposed to Mr. Wolcott to join him
in the working of the invention, etc.

From this time much interest was manifested by our friends in our progress.
Rooms were obtained in the Granite Buildings, corner of Broadway
and Chambers street, and fitted for business. The rooms being small,
it was soon found impracticable to use the arrangement of looking-glass,
as previously spoken of; a new plan became necessary, to introduce which,
the sashes were removed,

[page 199]

and two large looking-glasses were mounted in proper frames, thus:--

[amdg_13.gif]

Just in front, and between the sitter and

[page 200]

the reflector, upon a proper stand, were used those paper
muslin screen before described; also screens of tissue paper.
These screens. however, when they were used, required so much
time for a sitting, that some other medium, as a protection
to the eyes, became absolutely necessary. The most plausible
thing that suggested itself was blue glass; but, as this could
not be found, numerous were the expedients proposed by the
friends of the art, who from time to time visited our rooms.
At the suggestion of Professor Mapes (who is ever ready to assist
those in perplexity), a trough of plate glass s, about twenty-eight
inches square in the clear, and from three to four inches thick,
was filled with a solution of ammonia sulphate of copper,
and mounted on the frame as in the sketch, which, for a time,
answered extremely well; soon, however, decomposition of this
solution became apparent from the increased length of time
required for a sitting, although to the eye of an observer,
no visible cause for such long sittings could be pointed out.
Professor Mapes being appealed to, suggested that to the above
solution a little acid be added which acted like a charm--
shortening the time for a sitting from six, eight, or ten
minutes to that of about one. Decomposition, however, would go
on by the action of light and heat through the solution.
New solutions were tried, when the whole were finally
abandoned as being, too uncertain and troublesome.
(The reflecting apparatus R, was placed upon the stand
as in the sketch, with a wedge for elevating the camera,
between it and the table, to obtain the image properly upon
the plate.) A quantity of blue window glass was next obtained,
and holes drilled through the corners of it, and several sheets
were wired together to increase the size, and, when complete,
was suspended from the ceiling in its proper place, and so arranged
that when a person was sitting, this sheet of glass could be moved
to and from, the object of which was to prevent shadows on the face
of the sitter produced from the uneven surface of the glass.
This latter contrivance was used until a perfect plate
of glass was procured.

The number of persons desirous of obtaining, their miniatures,
induced many to entertain the idea of establishing themselves in the Art
as a profession, and numerous were the applications for information;
many persons paying for their portraits solely with the view of seeing
the manner of our manipulations, in order that they might obtain
information to carry on likeness-taking as a business.

The reflecting camera being a very troublesome instrument
to make, and difficulties besetting us from every source,
but little attention could be given to teaching others;
and, indeed, as the facts seemed to be at this time,
we knew but little of the necessary manipulations ourselves.
In course of time, several established themselves.
The first one, after ourselves, who worked the discovery
of Daguerre for portrait taking in this city, was a Mr. Prosch;
followed soon after by many others, in almost all cases copying
the reflecting arrangement for light, as figured above,
many using it even after we had long abandoned that arrangement
for a better one.

Innumerable obstacles to the rapid advance of the daguerreotype,
presented themselves almost hourly, much to the annoyance
of ourselves, and those dependent upon our movements for
their advancement. Among the most difficult problems of the day,
was the procuring of good plates. Messrs. Corduran & Co.
were among the first to supply the trade; at that early day,
however, it was a very rare thing, to be able to procure an even
perfect surface, from the fact that a pure surface of silver
could scarcely be obtained, the manufacturers deeming it too
much trouble to prepare silver plated copper with pure silver--
the result was, that in attempting to polish perfectly
such plated metal as could be procured, the plates would
become cloudy, or colored in spots, from the fact of having
more or less alloy, according as more or less of the silver
surface was removed in polishing the plate fit for an impression.
To explain more clearly, it was the practice of most silver
platers to use an alloy for silver-plating. In the reduction
of the ingot to sheet metal, annealing has to be resorted to,
and acid pickles to remove oxides, etc. The number of times
the plated metal is exposed to heat and acid in its reduction
to the required thickness, produces a surface of pure silver.
The most of this surface is, however, so rough as to be
with difficulty polished, without in places removing entirely
this pellicle of pure metal, and exposing a polished surface
of the alloy used in plating. Whenever such metal was used,
very unsightly stains or spots frequently disfigured the portraits.
The portrait, or portion of it, developed upon the pure silver,
being much lighter or whiter than that developed upon the alloy;
it therefore appeared that the purer the silver, the more
sensitive the plate became. Accordingly, we directed Messrs.
Scovills, of Connecticut, to prepare a roll of silver-plated metal,
with pure silver; it fortunately proved to be a good article,
but, unfortunately, a pound of this metal (early in 1840)
cost the round sum of $9. Like descriptions of metal,
the same gentlemen would be glad to furnish, at this time,
for $4. Soon after this, some samples of English plated metal,
of a very superior quality, came to our possession, and relieved
us from the toil of making and plating one plate at a time,
an expedient we were compelled to resort to, to command material
to meet the pressing demands for portraits.

Having it now in our power to obtain good plated metal,
a more rapid mode of polishing than that recommended by Daguerre
was attempted as follows:

This metal was cut to the desired size, and having a pair of "hand rolls"
at hand, each plate, with its silvered side placed next to the highly
polished surface of a steel die, was passed and repassed through the rolls
many times, by which process a very smooth, perfect surface was obtained.
The plates were then annealed, and a number of plates thus prepared
were fastened to the bottom of a box a few inches deep a foot wide,
and eighteen inches long; this box was placed upon a table and attached
to a rod connected to the face plate of a lathe, a few inches from
its centre, so as to give the box a reciprocating motion. A quantity
of emery was now strewn over the plates, and the lathe set in motion.
The action produced wag a friction or rubbing of the emery over the surface
of the plates.

When continued for some time, a greyish polish was the result.
Linseed, when used in the same manner, gave us better hope
of success, and the next step resorted to was to build
a wheel and suspend it after the manner of a grindstone.
The plates being secured to the inner side of the wheel or case,
and as this case revolved, the seeds would constantly keep to
the lower level, and their sliding over the surface of the plates
would polish or burnish their surfaces. This, with the former,
was soon abandoned; rounded shots of silver placed in the same
wheel were found not to perform the polishing so well as linseed.
Buff-wheels of leather with rotten-stone and oil, proved to be far
superior to all other contrivances; and, subsequently, at the suggestion
of Professor Draper, velvet was used in lieu of buff leather,
and soon superseded all other substances, both for lathe and
hand-buffs, and I would add, for the benefit of new beginners
that those who are familiar with its use, prefer cotton velvet.
The only requisite necessary is, that the buffs made of cotton
velvet should be kept dry and warm.

The greater number of operators, with whose practice I am familiar,
use, for polishing plates, prepared tripoli, imported from France,
or Browne's rotten-stone. The former of these articles is
very objectionable, inasmuch as there is no positive certainty of being
enabled to procure or make the article of uniform grit--the nature
of the substance rendering, it impossible to reduce it to varying degrees
of evenness, by the well known process of washing, for that purpose,
and the burning of rotten-stone changes its chemical nature somewhat,
at the same time rendering, this invaluable article harsh and gritty.
And especially, no reliance can be placed upon burned rotten stone
if purchased from those who do not give very great attention and care
to its preparation; and the same remarks apply to rouge.

The best article for polishing Daguerreotype plates is
rotten-stone, such as can be procured in any town, prepared after
the following manner: Procure, say half a dozen wide-mouthed bottles,
of suitable dimensions, numbering each from one to six.
Put into No. 1 about half a pound of rotten-stone. and nearly fill
the bottle with water. Then, with a proper stick or spatule,
mix well the rotten-stone and water; after which, let No. 1 rest for,
say one minute, then carefully pour off into bottle No. 2
(or, what would be better, draw off by a syphon) as much of the
floating particles of rotten-stone as is suspended in the water.
Again fill bottle No. 1 with water, agitate it as before,
and decant it to bottle No. 2, care being taken to draw off
only the suspended particles of rotten-stone.

When a sufficient quantity of washings from bottle No. 1 is collected into
bottle No. 2, a similar process must be gone through. as above stated,
for No. 1; the difference being in the care required, and in the time
allowed between the stirring or mixing the rotten-stone and water.
The floating particles of rotten-stone, after four minutes' subsiding, will be
found fine enough for the finest Daguerreotype polishing required.

A quantity of such washings may be collected in a large bottle,
and allowed to stand a few hours, when all the rotten-stone will
have settled. The water may be poured off and the rotten-stone put
into an evaporating dish, and while being dried, must be constantly
stirred to obtain an impalpable powder.

Further washings may in like manner be resorted to for finer
qualities of rotten-stone. In my practice, I have used
the articles at two and four minutes' settling, and occasionally
have prepared it after standing for eight minutes.
So fine a quality as this, however, is seldom required.
In using, rotten-stone, I mix with it, for polishing,
fine olive oil, until I obtain a thin paste--and the best of all
methods for polishing (well planished) Daguerreotype plates,
is one like that used for glass by lens polishers; that is,
by using a disc or buff-wheel, and having, a suitable holder
by which to secure the plate, and then by pressing the plate
against the revolving buff, well saturated with the mixed
oil and rotten-stone, a very good surface is obtained.
A quantity of plates may be prepared in this way, and all
the adhering oil, etc., may be removed by a clean hand,
or lathe buff, after which each plate must be heated to the point
necessary to burn off the remaining oil great care being required
not to overheat the plate. A very slight excess of temperature
will at once destroy all the polish previously obtained.
The test for ascertaining the right temperature is at hand;
the adhering oil will be driven from the plate in the form
of smoke when the right temperature is reached. The moment
the smoke ceases to rise from the plate, the heat must he removed,
and the plate quickly cooled upon a piece of iron.

A quantity of plates thus prepared may be kept on hand for
any required time, and the labor of one minute, with a lathe
or hand-buff with dry charcoal, or rather, prepared lampblack,
will perfectly polish the surface ready for indexing, etc.
This lampblack also requires some care in preparing.
Take a small-size crucible, properly temper it by a slow fire,
that it may not be cracked after which, fill it with common lampblack,
cover it over with a piece of soap-stone, and again replace it
in the fire. Build a good hard coal fire around it continue the heat
for two or three hours, being careful not to raise the cover
till the crucible be quite cold. Pulverize when using it.
It is very desirable to keep this lampblack dry and warm.
Some operators use much rouge I would recommend the above in preference;
but those who feel that they cannot dispense with the use of rouge,
had better try a large addition of prepared lampblack to a small
one of rouge, as this latter article, unless great pains
be taken in its preparation, will adhere and work itself into
the body of the surface, so that it cannot be removed therefrom;
and I have seen many specimens of Daguerreotype very much
injured in effect from this rouge tint disseminated throughout
their shaded features, at the same time that the whole
general effect of such pictures is that of a want of life.
It is true that with the use of rouge a very high degree of polish
may be obtained, but probably not higher than can be produced
with many other substances of a less objectionable nature.

From the announcement of the discovery by Daguerre to the beginning
of the year 1840, I am not aware of any attempt to lessen the time for
the action of an image, or an impression, other than that of the reflecting
camera invented by Mr. Wolcott. Early, however, in 1840, Mr. Wolcott
was desirous to be enabled to further shorten the time for a sitting,
and having some knowledge of bromine and its action, by request,
Dr. Chilton prepared a small quantity; but Mr. Wolcott did not succeed
very well with it, he having invariably used too much in combination with
iodine to produce that sensitive coating now well known to the profession.
Professor Morse, of this city, Dr. Goddard, of Philadelphia, and others,
in the years 1840 and 1841, were acquainted with the use of bromine.
N. Griffing, of this city, or myself, used with tolerable success,
iodine in large excess to nitric acid and water; and, subsequently, to nitro
muriatic acid (which reacted and formed a peculiar chloride of iodine);
this latter combination proved to be preferable to simple iodine,
at the same time somewhat more sensitive, and was used by me in this city up
to the time of my leaving for London (October 1, 1840). On arriving in London,
I instituted a series of experiments in the various chemical combinations,
solely with the view to be enabled to obtain more speedily a portrait
than it was practicable to do with any known chemicals at that date.
The high latitude, and the winter season of the year rendering but a
feeble light at best, the greater the necessity for a more sensitive
chemical preparation to the shortening the time for a sitting.
Near the beginning of the year 1841, I discovered and practically applied,
chloride of iodine to great advantage, and, as far as memory serves me,
I believe the first used in this country was some made and shipped, Messrs.
Harnden & Co., from London, to Mr. Wolcott, in New York.

About the same time, Mr. John Goddard, of London (who was associated
with myself), discovered a rather valuable combination of chemicals,
consisting of a mixture of iodine, bromine, iodus, and iodic acid,
and a proper combination of those bodies gave an action somewhat
more sensitive than chloride of iodine--but the "high lights"
of the portraits would become solarized or overdone, more frequently
with this combination than with the chloride of iodine.
Throughout the year 1841, I used, with great success, chloride of iodine,
applied as one coating--occasionally in conjunction with Mr. Wolcott,
attempting the use of iodine, bromine, and chlorine, and at times
with more or less success. The difficulty of exactly combining,
the three elements above mentioned, in order to produce a certainty
of result with harmony of effect, was the work of many months,
with great labor and study, the slightest modification requiring
a long, series of practical experiments, a single change consuming,
frequently, an entire day in instituting comparisons, etc., etc.

Early in the year, 1842, I discovered a combination of chemicals
(now known in London as "Wolcott's Mixture," in hermetically sealed bulbs)
of exceeding uniform character, very sensitive to the action of light,
and specimens produced in 1842-3, with this combination, will bear
comparison with the best specimens produced at this late date.

About the same time, I discovered that however much overdone a
Daguerreotype might be, the means were at hand to save or redeem it.
It has long, since been known to operators, that if a plate be
exposed to light after being coated, unless it be again coated,
a clear and distinct picture could not be obtained upon the same plate
without first repolishing and recoating the same, care being taken
that no light fall upon the prepared surface. To prevent solarization,
coat a plate as usual, expose to the action of light any required time
(according to circumstances), say from quarter to one half more
time than would be required in the ordinary method of procedure;
observe, before putting the plate in the mercury box, place it over
the vapor of iodine, bromine, or chlorine, etc. (carefully excluding
the light), for a very brief period, great care being required to have
the selected vapor very much diluted with air, in order to success.
Many experiments will be required ere arriving at satisfactory results.
Specimens now unknown to general operators, for harmony of effect,
have been, and may again be produced by the method pointed out above.
I have found the best general effect, and the most certain result
to follow from the use of the vapor of chlorine--but this requires
more than ordinary care. I would, therefore, recommend the use
of iodine. Thus: to a few grains of iodine, add an ounce of warm
water (which will become tinged with iodine); when cold, to half a pint
of pure water in a new and clean coating box, put, of the above,
fifty drops; stir and mix well this small quantity of iodine
in with the water; in ten minutes this box will be ready for use.
Great care and judgment will be required in the application of this
vapor to the plate; if the plate remain over the vapor too long.
the developed picture will have a faint and misty appearance;
if not exposed long enough, the "high light" will be solarized.
I have great hope of the ultimate use of this process, as it is
the only means yet discovered to be enabled to secure specimens
of extremes of light and shade, yet producing harmony of effect;
and I would call the attention of the profession to the fact,
that a plate may be exposed to the action of light for any length of time
(a thousand times longer than required to act for the lesser quantity
of mercury to deposit itself, or that amount necessary to form a perfect
specimen), and be restored by the application of any of the vapors
above mentioned, remarking that for extremes for solarization,
denser vapors will be required. Much remains to be done with this
discovery to the application of the Daguerreotype.

HUMPHREY'S JOURNAL OF THE DAGUERREOTYPE & PHOTOGRAPHIC ARTS.

The above-named publication is well known as the best and most
valuable one devoted to the Photographic Science in this country.
Humphrey's Journal made its appearance November 1st, 1850, and consequently
is the first and oldest serial offered to the Photographic world.

The art of producing Portraits and Landscapes by means of Light,
has recently taken a new and enlivening impulse, which will
in all probability lead to important and interesting results.
No practical Daguerreotypist, Photographer, or amateur,
should be without the means at hand for securing all of
the information upon this subject. Each should be ready to
receive and apply the improvements as they may be developed.
In order to accomplish this, it is a matter of great importance
to the Practitioner or Experimenter that he should have
a reliable medium through which he can obtain information.
In what source can the inquirer better place his confidence than
in a regular Journal, whose editor is literally a practical person,
and familiar with the manipulations necessary for producing
Portraits upon "Daguerreotype Plates," and upon glass and paper?
Such is the conductor of Humphrey's Journal.

This Journal is published once every two weeks, and contains all
the improvements relating to the Art, and is the only American
Journal whose editor is practically acquainted with the process
for producing Daguerreotypes, Ambrotypes, and Photographs.
The first No. of Vol. X. is dated May 1st, 1858. The terms
(Two Dollars per annum) are trifling compared with the vast
amount of information furnished.

AMBROTYPES.--Humphrey's Journal contains everything novel which appears upon
this subject, and has already presented more new, important, and original
matter than can be found in any other place.

Many are the letters we have received during the term of the last volume,
in which the writer has stated that a single number of Humphrey's Journal has
contained information of more value to him than "several times the amount
paid for the entire volume."

Our resources have grown up around us, and our facilities for procuring,
as well as distributing, all such facts and improvements as will benefit
as well as instruct all who have the progress of the Art at heart,
are as ample as they can well be made.

The future volumes will be abundantly furnished with original
writings from persons of standing in the scientific world;
and the practical Photographer will here find a full account
of such improvements as may from time to time develop themselves.

From the editor's long practical experience in the Heliographic Science,
he will be enabled to present the subject in a plain, clear,
and concise manner.

Read what the Editors say of Humphrey's Journal:--

"We have received a copy of a valuable Journal (Humphrey's) published
in New York, which has reached the 18th number of Vol. VI.....We now
have the pleasure of quoting from our trans-atlantic coadjutor."--
Liverpool Photographic Jour.

"Humphrey's Journal is practical as well as scientific in character."--
American Journal of Science and Arts.

"It treats the subject knowingly and with force."--New York Tribune.

"It is both a popular and interesting publication."--Mechanics' Magazine.

"It is highly useful to all who practice 'shadow catching.'"--
Ohio State Journal.

"The work is neatly gotten up, and contains many interesting
varieties in this new field of science."--Times.

"It should be hailed and encouraged, not only by Daguerreotypists themselves,
but by every lover of Science and Art."--The Democrat.

"We cannot too strongly urge all artists, and those persons
who feel an interest in the Heliographic Arts and Sciences,
to take a copy of the work."--Sentinel.

"It is indicative of talent worthy of the important Art it is designed
to elevate."--American.

"This Art is entitled to its own organ, which could not have fallen into
better hands than those of the editor of 'Humphrey's Journal.'"--Transcript.

"It is a scientific work of interest and usefulness."--
Star of the North.

"This Journal answers many points heretofore regarded as inexplicable."--
Hudson River Chronicle.

"It is rich with interest."--North American.

"It contains all the 'Improvements.'"--Delta.

"It teaches us how to take our own portraits."--Bee.

"It will cultivate a taste for Daguerreotypes."--Commercial Advertiser.

"It should be in the hands of all."--Reveille.

"It is the Daguerreotypist's friend."--London News.

"It should be found in every library."--Evening Journal.

From some of our Subscribers

"Humphrey's Journal has been the means of saving much time and money,
for by its instruction I have been enabled to produce some of the finest
Paper Pictures I have ever seen." W. P.

"Don't fail to send me the Journal, for I would not be
without it for five times the amount of subscription.
It is the only publication I can depend upon." A. G. R.

"Your treatment of the humbugs and humbugging members of the profession,
is of the most valuable importance to us practical Daguerreans. Go on.
God speed! Here is the amount for the renewal of my subscription."
E. F. S.

"How can any Operator offord to be without it?"
L. L. H.

"Here are five dollars: send me Humphrey's Journal to this amount.
I will not be without it." M. S.

"It is my best friend." J. E. W.

We might quote like commendatory extracts enough to more than ten
times fill this page.

Humphrey's Journal contains 16 octavo pages of reading matter.

TERMS.

One copy per annum, in advance . . . . . . $2 00
Three copies, do. do. . . . . . . $5 00
Six copies, do. do. . . . . . . $9 00

The thousands who read it cannot be induced to remain without it.
All who desire to keep up with the improvements should subscribe
for a copy.

Subscription price Two Dollars per year.

Don't fail to become a subscriber. Address S. D.
HUMPHREY
Office, 37 Lispenard Street, NEW YORK.

THE PRACTICAL MANUAL OF THE COLLODION PROCESS.
BY S. D. HUMPHREY.
THIRD EDITION

This Edition contains all the Improvements in the Art made public
up to the day of publication, and gives complete Practical
Instructions for making Collodion Positives or Ambrotypes,
Collodion Negatives, Printing, etc., etc. The quick, great and
unprecedented sale of the first and second editions demonstrates,
more than the strongest language could possibly do,
the extraordinary and increasing popularity of this work.
The Third Edition contains two hundred and sixteen 12mo.
pages, of a larger size and in smaller type than either
of the preceding editions, and is illustrated with numerous
wood-cuts. It is intended to be the best practical work extant;
substantially bound in cloth, price One Dollar; forwarded by mail
(postage prepaid). Address

S. D. HUMPHREY, New York

A GUIDE TO PHOTOGRAPHY,

Containing simple and concise directions for obtaining Views, Portraits,
etc., by the chemical agency of Light, by W. H. Thornthwaite,
author of "Photogenic Manipulations," etc. Illustrated with numerous
wood-cuts. The Book contains more than one hundred 12mo pages,
bound in board, and is sold at twenty-five cents per copy, or five
copies for one dollar. Address

S. D. HUMPHREY, New York

HOLMES, BOOTH & HAYDENS,
MANUFACTURERS OF
DAGUERREOTYPE CASES,
PLATES, CAMERAS,

MATTINGS, PRESERVERS, ETC., ETC.

MANUFACTURERS AND IMPORTERS OF EVERY VARIETY OF AMBROTYPE,
AND PHOTOGRAPHIC GOODS,

Of the Best and most approved Quality.

ESPECIAL ATTENTION GIVEN T0 THE FURNISHING OF EVERY ARTICLE USED
IN THE PRACTICE OF THE DAGUERREOTYPE

Depot 81 Chambers and 63 Reade St., New York.

Manufactory at Waterbury, Conn.

HOLMES, BOOTH & HAYDENS' CAMERAS

From 1/4 to the Mammoth size. These CAMERAS are of the most superior make,
and all subjected to the most thorough test before being offered for sale.

VIEW CAMERAS, made expressly for taking views: an entirely new article.

DAGUERREOTYPE PLATES, OF EVERY VARIETY. AND WE WOULD CALI.
PARTICULAR. ATTENTION TO THE

Wreath, and H. B. & H. Eagle 40 Plates, AS HAVING NO EQUALS IN THE MARKET.

SOLE AGENTS FOR THE CELEBRATED H. B. AND N. P. FRENCH PLATES.

Always on hand a complete assortment of Ambrotype and Photographic goods.

SOLE AGENTS FOR THE Patent solid glass corner Plate Holders.

All orders will receive prompt attention, and be forwarded with dispatch.

HOLMES, BOOTH & HAYDENS,
81 Chambers, and 63 Reade St.
New York.

SCOVILL MANUFACTURING CO.

MANUFACTURER OF
DAGUERREOTYPE PLATES,
MATTINGS,
PRESERVERS, CASES,
APPARATUS, etc., etc.

Importers and Dealers in every description of Daguerreotype,
Photographic, AND AMBROTYPE GOODS,

The SCOVILL MANUFACTURING COMPANY flatter themselves that an experience
of nearly twenty years in the business and the most extensive
variety of the above Goods in the United States, entitle them
to the continuance of orders for the Domestic and Foreign trade,
which will receive the most careful attention.

Park Building, New York. Entrances--36 Park Row, 4 Beekman,
and 141 Nassau Street.

SCOVILL MANUFACTURING CO.

Would call especial attention to their large variety of

CASES,

Embracing many Fancy Styles made only by themselves, and to which they
are constantly adding New Designs.

Union Cases,
Of all sizes, with Riveted Hinges.
AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF
C. C. HARRISON'S CAMERAS,

with improvements, which we are now prepared to sell at
reduced prices, and warranted to give better satisfaction
than ever before DAGUERREOTYPE PLATES, H. B.--N. P.--
Star and other brands PLATE GLASS,

embracing three-quarters white: Crown and all other varieties.
We would call particular attention to our Black Glass,
made expressly for Ambrotypes.

CHEMICALS,
for the Daguerreotype and Photographic Art.
Iodized and Plain COLLODION. Gun Cotton, etc., etc.
Tagliabue's Collodiometres and Actino-Hydrometres, for
testing Chemicals.

APPARATUS OF EVERY VARIETY.

Gutta Percha, Porcelain, and Glassware of all kinds used in the Art.

A large assortment of Gilt Frames always on hand and made to order.

Ambrotype Shields, with solid corners of a new style.

All orders will meet with prompt attention

SCOVILL MANUFACTURING CO.,
PARK BUILDING
New York
36 Park Row, 4 Beckman, and
141 Nassau Street.

HARDWICH'S PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMISTRY
AMERICAN EDITION.

A MANUAL of
PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMISTRY,

INCLUDING THE PRACTICE OF THE COLLODION PROCESS.

BY

T. FREDERICK HARDWICH,

LECTURER ON PHOTOGRAPHY IN KINGS COLLEGE, LONDON;
LATE DEMONSTRATOR OF CHEMISTRY IN KING'S COLLEGE.

Last Edition,

The above is the title of this new and valuable work.
It is too well known to need any further comment in this place.
This volume contains nearly 300 large duodecimo pages.
bound in red cloth, $1.00. Copies to be forwarded by mail,
$1.18, postage pre-paid.

S. D. HUMPHREY,
Photographic
Book Publisher,
37 LISPENARD
STREET, NEW YORK,

N.B. Postage stamps taken.

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