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American Big Game in Its Haunts by Various

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MICHIGAN.

Mackinac Island State Park 103
Michigan Forest Reserve 57,000

MINNESOTA.

Minnehaha Falls State Park,
or Minnesota State Park 51
Itasca State Park 20,000
St. Croix State Park,
or the Interstate Park at
the Dalles of the St. Croix 500

NEW YORK. Acres.

The State Reservation at Niagara, or Niagara
Falls Park. (Area of Queen Victoria Niagara
Falls Park in Canada--730 Acres) 107
Adirondack Forest Preserve 1,163,414
Catskill Forest Preserve 82,330
The St. Lawrence Reservation,
or International Park 181

PENNSYLVANIA.

Twenty Reserves scattered 211,776
The Hopkins Reserve 62,000
Pike County Reservation 23,000
McElhattan Reservation 8,000

WASHINGTON.

Sanitarium Lake Reservation 193

WISCONSIN.

The Interstate Park of the Dalles of the St. Croix
600

WYOMING.

The Big Horn Springs Reservation 640

Total 1,685,023

_Canadian National Parks and Timber Reserves_

The Dominion of Canada has established a large
number of public parks and forests reserves, of which
a list has been very kindly furnished by the Dominion
Secretary of the Interior, as follows:

BRITISH COLUMBIA. Acres.

Long Lake Timber Reserve 76,800
Yoho Park (a part of Rocky Mt. Park of Can) .......
Glacier Forest Park 18,720

NORTHWEST TERRITORY. Acres.

Rocky Mountain Park of Canada 2,880,000
Foot Hills Timber Reserve 2,350,000
Waterton Lakes Forest Park 34,000
Cooking Lakes Timber Reserve 109,000
Moose Mountain Timber Reserve 103,000
Beaver Hills Timber Reserve 170,000

MANITOBA.

Turtle Mountain Timber Reserve 75,000
Spruce Woods Timber Reserve 190,000
Riding Mountain Timber Reserve 1,215,000
Duck Mountain Timber Reserve 840,000
Lake Manitoba West Timber Reserve 159,460

ONTARIO.

Algonquin Park 1,109,383
Eastern Reserve 80,000
Sibley Reserve 45,000
Temagami Reserve 3,774,000
Rondeau Park ........
Missisaga Reserve 1,920,000

QUEBEC.

Laurentides National Park 1,619,840
-----------
Total 16,769,203

Besides these, there are two or three other reservations in Quebec and
New Brunswick and Manitoba that have not as yet been finally reserved,
but which are in contemplation. Many of the timber reserves are still to
be cut over under license. On the other hand, many of them find their
chief function as game preserves, as do also to still greater extent the
national parks. A large number of these parks and timber reserves are
clothed with beautiful and valuable forests, as yet untouched by the ax.

APPENDIX

In order to be in a position to make intelligent recommendations, in
case legislation authorizing the setting aside of game refuges should be
had, the Boone and Crockett Club, in the year 1901, made some inquiry
into the game conditions on certain of the forest reservations and as to
the suitability as game refuges of these reserves.

Among the reports was one on the Black Mesa Forest Reserve. Mr. Nelson
is a trained naturalist and hunter of wide experience, and possesses the
highest qualifications for investigating such a subject. He is, besides,
very familiar with the reservation reported on. His report is printed
here as giving precisely the information needed by any one who may have
occasion to deal with a forest reserve from this viewpoint, and it may
well serve as a model for others who may have occasion to report on the
reserves. The report was made to the Executive Committee of the Boone
and Crockett Club through the editor of this volume, and was printed in
_Forest and Stream_ about two years ago. It follows:

Forest Reserves as Game Preserves

THE BLACK MESA FOREST RESERVE OF ARIZONA
AND ITS AVAILABILITY AS A GAME PRESERVE.

The Black Mesa Forest Reserve lies in central-eastern Arizona, and
contains 1,658,880 acres, is about 180 miles long in a northwesterly and
southeasterly direction and a direct continuation southeasterly from the
San Francisco Mountain Forest Reserve. On the north it contains a part
of the Mogollon Mesa, which is covered with a magnificent open forest of
Arizona yellow pine (_Pinus ponderosa_) in which there is an
abundance of bunch grass and here and there are beautiful grassy
parks. To the southeast the reserve covers a large part of the White
Mountains, one of the largest areas of generally high elevation in
Arizona. The yellow pine forest, similar in character to that on the
Mogollon Mesa, is found over a large part of the reserve between 7,000
and 8,500 feet altitude, and its general character is shown in the
accompanying view.

The Black Mesa Reserve is irregular in outline. The large compact areas
at each end are joined by a long, narrow strip, very irregular in
outline and less than a township broad at various points. It lies along
the southern border of the Great Colorado Plateau, and covers the
southern and western borders of the basin of the Little Colorado
River. Taken as a whole, this reserve includes some of the wildest and
most attractive mountain scenery in the West.

Owing to the wide separation of the two main areas of the reserve, and
certain differences in physical character, they will be described
separately, beginning with the northwestern and middle areas, which are
similar in character.

THE NORTHWESTERN SECTION OP THE BLACK MESA RESERVE.

With the exception of an area in the extreme western part, which drains
into the Rio Verde, practically all of this portion of the reserve lies
along the upper border of the basin of the Little Colorado. It is a
continuation of the general easy slope which begins about 5,000 feet on
the river and extends back so gradually at first that it is frequently
almost imperceptible, but by degrees becomes more rolling and steeper
until the summit is reached at an altitude of from 6,000 to 9,000
feet. The reserve occupies the upper portion of this slope, which has
more the form of a mountainous plateau country, scored by deep and
rugged canyons, than of a typical mountain range. From the summit of
this elevated divide, with the exception of the district draining into
the Rio Verde, the southern and western slope drops away abruptly
several thousand feet into Tonto Creek Basin. The top of the huge
escarpment thus formed faces south and west, and is known as the rim of
Tonto Basin, or, locally, "The Rim." From the summit of this gigantic
rocky declivity is obtained an inspiring view of the south, where range
after range of mountains lie spread out to the distant horizon.

The rolling plateau country sloping toward the Little Colorado is
heavily scored with deep box canyons often hundreds of feet deep and
frequently inaccessible for long distances. Most of the permanent
surface water is found in these canyons, and the general drainage is
through them down to the lower plains bordering the river. The greater
part of this portion of the reserve is covered with yellow pine forests,
below which is a belt, varying greatly in width, of pinons, cedars and
junipers, interspersed with a more or less abundant growth of gramma
grass. This belt of scrubby conifers contains many open grassy areas,
and nearer the river gives way to continuous broad grassy
plains. Nowhere in this district, either among the yellow pines or in
the lower country, is there much surface water, and a large share of the
best watering places are occupied by sheep owners.

The wild and rugged slopes of Tonto Basin, with their southerly
exposure, have a more arid character than the area just described. On
these slopes yellow pines soon give way to pinons, cedars and junipers,
and many scrubby oaks and various species of hardy bushes. The watering
places are scarce until the bottom of the basin is approached. Tonto
Basin and its slopes are also occupied by numerous sheep herds,
especially in winter.

There are several small settlements of farmers, sheep and cattle growers
within the limits of the narrow strip connecting the larger parts of the
reserve, notably Show Low, Pinetop and Linden. The wagon road from
Holbrook, on the Santa Fe Pacific Railroad, to the military post at Camp
Apache, on the White Mountain Indian Reservation, passes through this
strip by way of Show Low. The old trails through Sunset Pass to Camp
Verde and across "The Rim" into Tonto Basin traverse the northern part
of the reserve, and are used by stockmen and others at short intervals,
except in midwinter.

The climate of this section of the reserve is rather arid in summer, the
rainfall being much more uncertain than in the more elevated areas about
the San Francisco Mountains to the northwest and the White Mountains to
the southeast. The summers are usually hot and dry, the temperature
being modified, however, by the altitude. Rains sometimes occur during
July and August, but are more common in the autumn, when they are often
followed by abundant snowfall. During some seasons snow falls to a depth
of three or more feet on a level in the yellow pine forests, and remains
until spring. During other seasons, however, the snowfall is
insignificant, and much of the ground remains bare during the winter,
especially on southern exposures. As a matter of course, the lower slope
of the pinon belt and the grassy plains of the Little Colorado, both of
which lie outside of the reserve, have less and less snow, according to
the altitude, and it never remains for any very considerable time. On
the southern exposure, facing Tonto Basin, the snow is still less
permanent. The winter in the yellow pine belt extends from November to
April.

LARGE GAME IN THE NORTHERN PART OF THE BLACK MESA RESERVE.

Black-tailed deer, antelope, black and silver tipped bears and mountain
lions are the larger game animals which frequent the yellow pine forests
in summer. Wild turkeys are also common.

The black-tailed deer are still common and generally distributed. In
winter the heavy snow drives them to a lower range in the pinon belt
toward the Little Colorado and also down the slope of Tonto Basin, both
of these areas lying outside the reserve. The Arizona white-tailed deer
is resident throughout the year in comparatively small numbers on the
brushy slopes of Tonto Basin, and sometimes strays up in summer into the
border of the pine forest. Antelope were once plentiful on the plains
of the Little Colorado, and in summer ranged through the open yellow
pine forest now included in the reserve. They still occur, in very
limited numbers, in this forest during the summer, and at the first
snowfall descend to the lower border of the pinon belt and adjacent
grassy plains. Both species of bears occur throughout the pine forests
in summer, often following sheep herds. As winter approaches and the
sheep are moved out of the higher ranges, many of the bears go over "The
Rim" to the slopes of Tonto Basin, where they find acorns, juniper
berries and other food, until cold weather causes them to hibernate.
The mountain lions are always most numerous on the rugged slopes of
Tonto Basin, especially during winter, when sheep and game have left the
elevated forest.

From the foregoing notes it is apparent that the northwestern and middle
portions of the Black Mesa Reserve are without proper winter range for
game within its limits, and that the conditions are otherwise
unfavorable for their use as game preserves.

THE SOUTHEASTERN SECTION OF THE BLACK MESA RESERVE.

The southeastern portion of the reserve remains to be considered. The
map shows this to be a rectangular area, about thirty by fifty miles in
extent, lying between the White Mountain Indian Reservation and the
western border of New Mexico, and covering the adjacent parts of Apache
and Graham counties. It includes the eastern part of the White
Mountains, which culminate in Ord and Thomas peaks, rising respectively
to 10,266 feet and to 11,496 feet, on the White Mountain Indian
Reservation, just off the western border of the Forest Reserve. This
section of the reserve is strikingly more varied in physical conditions
than the northern portion, as will be shown by the following
description:

The northwestern part of this section, next to the peaks just mentioned,
is an elevated mountainous plateau country forming the watershed between
the extreme headwaters of the Little Colorado on the north and the Black
and San Francisco rivers, tributaries of the Gila, on the south. The
divide between the heads of these streams is so low that in the midst of
the undulating country, where they rise, it is often difficult to
determine at first sight to which drainage some of the small tributaries
belong. This district is largely of volcanic formation, and beds of lava
cover large tracts, usually overlaid with soil, on which the forest
flourishes.

The entire northern side of this section is bordered by the sloping
grassy plains of the Little Colorado, which at their upper border have
an elevation of 6,500 to 7,500 feet, and are covered here and there with
pinons, cedars and junipers, especially along the sides of the canyons
and similar slopes. At the upper border of this belt the general slope
becomes abruptly mountainous, and rises to 8,000 or 8,500 feet to a
broad bench-like summit, from which extends back the elevated plateau
country already mentioned. This outer slope of the plateau is covered
with a fine belt of yellow pine forests, similar in character to that
found in the northern part of the reserve. Owing to the more abrupt
character of the northerly slope of this belt, and its greater humidity,
the forest is more varied by firs and aspens, especially along the
canyons, than is the case further north. Here and there along the upper
tributaries of the Little Colorado, small valleys open out, which are
frequently wooded and contain beautiful mountain parks.

The summit of the elevated plateau country about the headwaters of the
Little Colorado and Black rivers (which is known locally as the "Big
Mesa"), is an extended area of rolling grassy plain, entirely surrounded
by forests and varied irregularly by wooded ridges and points of
timber. This open plain extends in a long sweep from a point a few miles
south of Springerville westward for about fifteen miles along the top of
the divide to the bases of Ord and Thomas peaks. These elevated plains
are separated from those of the Little Colorado to the north by the belt
of forests already described as covering the abrupt northern wall of the
plateau. On the other sides of the "Big Mesa" an unbroken forest
extends away over the undulating mountainous country as far as the eye
can reach. The northerly slopes of the higher elevations in this section
are covered with spruce forest.

The most varied and beautiful part of the entire Black Mesa Reserve lies
in the country extending southeasterly from Ord and Thomas peaks and
immediately south of the "Big Mesa." This is the extreme upper part of
the basin of Black River, which is formed by numerous little streams
rising from springs and wet meadows at an elevation of from 8,500 to
9,500 feet. The little meadows form attractive grassy openings in the
forest, covered in summer with a multitude of wild flowers and
surrounded by the varied foliage of different trees and shrubs. The
little streams flow down gently sloping courses, which gradually deepen
to form shallow side canyons leading into the main river. Black River is
a clear, sparkling trout stream at the bottom of a deep, rugged box
canyon, cut through a lava bed and forming a series of wildly picturesque
views. The sides of Black River Canyon and its small tributaries are well
forested. On the cool northerly slope the forest is made up of a heavy
growth of pines, firs, aspens and alder bushes, which give way on the
southerly slope, where the full force of the sun is felt, to a thin
growth of pines, grass and a little underbrush.

At the head of Black River, between 8,000 and 9,000 feet, there are many
nearly level or gently sloping areas, sometimes of considerable extent.
These are covered with open yellow pine forests, with many white-barked
aspens scattered here and there, and an abundance of grasses and low
bushes. This was once a favorite summer country for elk, and I have
seen there many bushes and small saplings which had been twisted and
barked by bull elk while rubbing the velvet from their horns.

Immediately south and east of Black River lies the Prieto Plateau, a
well wooded mountain mass rising steeply from Black River Canyon to a
broad summit about 9,000 feet in altitude. The northerly slopes of this
plateau, facing the river, are heavily forested with pines, firs, aspens
and brushy undergrowth, and are good elk country. The summit is cold and
damp, with areas of spruce thickets and attractive wet meadows scattered
here and there. Beyond the summit of the plateau, to the south and east,
the country descends abruptly several thousand feet, in a series of
rocky declivities and sharp spur-like ridges, to the canyon of Blue
River, a tributary of the San Francisco River. This slope, near the
summit, is overgrown with firs, aspens and pines, which give way as the
descent is made, to pinons, cedar and scrubby oak trees and a more or
less abundant growth of chaparral. Small streams and springs are found
in the larger canyons on this slope, while far below, at an altitude of
about 5,000 feet, lies Blue River.

The country at the extreme head of Blue River forms a great mountain
amphitheater, with one side so near the upper course of Black River that
one can traverse the distance between the basins of the two streams in a
short ride. The descent into the drainage of Blue River is very abrupt,
and is known locally as the "breaks" of Blue River. The scenery of these
breaks nearly, if not quite, equals that on "The Rim" of Tonto Basin in
its wild magnificence. The vegetation on the breaks shows at a glance
the milder character of the climate, as compared with that of the more
elevated area about the head of Black River. In the midst of the
shrubbery growth on the breaks there is a fine growth of nutritious
grasses, which forms excellent winter forage.

The entire southern part of the reserve lying beyond the Prieto Plateau
is an excessively broken mountainous country, with abrupt changes in
altitude from the hot canyons, where cottonwoods flourish, to the high
ridges, where pines and firs abound.

The northeastern part of the section of the reserve under consideration
is cut off from the rest by the valley of Nutrioso Creek, a tributary of
the Little Colorado, and by the headwaters of the San Francisco
River. It is a limited district, mainly occupied by Escudilla Mountain,
rising to 10,691 feet, and its foothills. Escudilla Mountain slopes
abruptly to a long truncated summit, and is heavily forested from base
to summit by pines, aspens and spruces. On the south the foothills merge
into the generally mountainous area. On the north, at an altitude of
about 8,000 feet, they merge into the plains of the Little Colorado,
varied by grassy prairies and irregular belts of pinon timber.

The upper parts of the Little Colorado and Black Rivers, above 7,500
feet, are clear and cold, and well stocked with a native species of
small brook trout.

Owing to the generally elevated character of the southeastern section of
the Black Mesa Reserve, containing three mountain peaks rising above
10,000 feet, the annual precipitation is decidedly greater than
elsewhere on the reserve. The summer rains are irregular in character,
being abundant in some seasons and very scanty in others; but there is
always enough rainfall about the extreme head of Black River to make
grass, although there is always much hot, dry weather between May and
October. The fall and winter storms are more certain than those of
summer, and the parts of the reserve lying above 8,000 feet are usually
buried in snow before spring--frequently with several feet of snow on a
level. The amount of snow increases steadily with increase of
altitude. Some of the winter storms are severe, and on one occasion,
while living at an altitude of 7,500 feet, I witnessed a storm during
which snow fell continuously for nearly two days. The weather was
perfectly calm at the time, and after the first day the pine trees
became so loaded that an almost continual succession of reports were
heard from the breaking of large branches. At the close of the storm
there was a measured depth of 26 inches of snow on a level at an
altitude of 7,500 feet. A thousand feet lower, on the plains of the
Little Colorado, a few miles to the north, only a foot of snow fell,
while at higher altitudes the amount was much greater than that
measured.

The summer temperatures are never excessive in this section, and the
winters are mild, although at times reaching from 15 to 20 degrees below
zero. Above 7,500 feet, except on sheltered south slopes, snow
ordinarily remains on the ground from four to five months in sufficient
quantity to practically close this area from winter grazing. Cattle, and
the antelope which once frequented the "Big Mesa" in considerable
numbers, appeared to have premonitions of the coming of the first snow
in fall. On one occasion, while stopping at a ranch on the plains of the
Little Colorado, just below the border of the Big Mesa country, in
November, I was surprised to see hundreds of cattle in an almost endless
line coming down from the Mesa, intermingled with occasional bands of
antelope. They were following one of the main trails leading from the
mountain out on the plains of the Little Colorado. Although the sun was
shining at the time, there was a slight haziness in the atmosphere, and
the ranchmen assured me that this movement of the stock always foretold
the approach of a snowstorm. The following morning the plains around the
ranch where I was stopping were covered with six inches of snow, while
over a foot of snow covered the mountains. Bands of half-wild horses
ranging on the Big Mesa show more indifference to snow, as they can dig
down to the grass; but the depth of snow sometimes increases so rapidly
that the horses become "yarded," and their owners have much difficulty
in extricating them.

The southerly slopes leading down from the divide to the lower altitudes
along the Black River and the breaks of the Blue, are sheltered from the
cold northerly winds of the Little Colorado Valley, while the greater
natural warmth of the situation aids in preventing any serious
accumulation of snow. As a result, this entire portion of the reserve
forms an ideal winter game range, with an abundance of grass and edible
bushes. The varied character of the country about the head of Black
River makes it an equally favorable summer range for game, and that this
conjunction of summer and winter ranges is appreciated by the game
animals is shown by the fact that this district is probably the best
game country in all Arizona.

LARGE GAME IN THE SOUTHEASTERN PART OF TUB BLACK MESA RESERVE.

The large game found in this section of the reserve includes the elk,
black-tailed deer, Arizona white-tailed deer, black and silver-tipped
bears, mountain lions and wildcats, timber wolves and coyotes.

Elk were formerly found over most of the pine and fir forested parts of
this section of the reserve, but were already becoming rather scarce in
1885, and, although they were still found there in 1897, it is now a
question whether any survive or not. If they still survive, they are
restricted to a limited area about the head of Black River from Ord Peak
to the Prieto Plateau. Black-tailed deer are still common, and their
summer range extends more or less generally over all of the forested
part of this section above 7,500 feet. In winter only a few stray
individuals remain within the reserve on the Little Colorado side, but a
number range out into the pinon country on the plains of the Little
Colorado. The country about the head of Black River is a favorite summer
range of this deer, but in winter they gradually retreat before the
heavy snowfalls to the sheltered canyons along Black River and the breaks
of the Blue. In September and October the old males keep by themselves
in parties of from four to ten and range through the glades of the
yellow pine forest.

The Arizona white-tailed deer is not found on the part of the reserve
drained by the Little Colorado River, but is abundant in the basin of
Blue River, and ranges in summer up into the lower part of the yellow
pine forest along Black River. They retreat before the early snows to
the breaks of the Blue, where they are very numerous. During hunting
trips into their haunts in October and November, I have several times
seen herds of these deer numbering from thirty to forty, both before and
after the first snowfall. Antelope formerly ranged up in summer from the
plains of the Little Colorado over the grassy Big Mesa country and
through the surrounding open pine forest, retreating to the plains in
the autumn, but they are now nearly or quite exterminated in that
section. Bears of both species wander irregularly over most of the
reserve in summer, but are most numerous on the breaks of the Blue and
about the head of Black River. In autumn, previous to their hibernation,
they descend along the canyon of the Black River and among the breaks of
the Blue, where acorns and other food is abundant.

Mountain lions also wander over all parts of the reserve, but are common
only in the rough country along the Blue. Wildcats are rather common and
widely distributed, but are far more numerous on the Black and the Blue
rivers. Timber wolves were once rather common, but are now nearly
extinct, owing to their persecution by owners of sheep and
cattle. Coyotes occur in this district occasionally in summer. Wild
turkeys are found more or less generally throughout this section of the
reserve, retreating in winter to the warmer country along the breaks of
the Blue and the canyon of Black River, where they sometimes gather in
very large flocks.

NOTES ON SETTLEMENTS, ROADS AND OTHER MATTERS.

The greater part of this section of the Black Mesa Reserve is unsettled,
but the northeastern corner, along Nutrioso Creek and the head of San
Francisco River, is traversed by a wagon road leading to
Springerville. Within the limits of the reservation on this road are two
small farming villages of Nutriose and Alpine. The owners of the small
farms along the valleys of these streams also raise a limited number of
cattle and horses on the surrounding hills. A few claims are also held
at scattered points along the extreme northern edge of the reserve
between Springerville and Nutrioso. Between 1883 and 1895 several herds
of cattle were grazed on the head of Black River, and ranged in winter
down on the breaks of the Blue and the canyons of Black River; but I
understand that these ranges have since been abandoned by the cattle
men. For some years the sheep men have grazed their flocks in summer
over the Big Mesa country and through the surrounding open forest. In
addition to the damage done by the grazing of the sheep, the
carelessness of the herders in starting forest fires has resulted in
some destruction to the timber. Fortunately, the permanent settlers on
this section of the reserve are located in the northeastern corner,
which is the least suitable portion of the tract for game. In addition
to the wagon road from Springerville to Nutrioso another road has been
made from Springerville south across the Big Mesa to the head of Black
River. Trails run from Nutrioso and Springerville to the head of Blue
River and down it to the copper mining town of Clifton, but are little
used. At various times scattered settlers have located along the Blue,
and cultivated small garden patches. The first of these settlers were
killed by the Apaches, and I am unable to say whether these farms are
now occupied or not. In any case, the conditions along the tipper Blue
are entirely unsuited for successful farming.

Perhaps the most serious menace to the successful preservation of game
on this tract is its proximity to the White Mountain Indian
Reservation. This reservation not only takes in some of the finest game
country immediately bordering the timber reserve, including Ord and
Thomas peaks, but is often visited by hunting parties of Indians.

During spring and early summer, all of the yellow pine and fir country
in this section is subjected to a plague of tabano flies, which are
about the size of large horse-flies. These flies swarm in great numbers
and attack stock and game so viciously that, as a consequence, the
animals are frequently much reduced in flesh. The Apaches take advantage
of this plague to set fire to the forest and lie in wait for the game,
which has taken shelter in the smoke to rid itself from the flies. In
this way the Indians kill large numbers of breeding deer, and at the
same time destroy considerable areas of forest. While on a visit to this
district in the summer of 1899 Mr. Pinchot saw the smoke of five forest
fires at different places in the mountains, which had been set by
hunting parties of Indians for the purpose. The only method by which not
only the game but the forest along the western side of this reserve can
be successfully protected will be to have the western border of the
forest reserve extended to take in a belt eight to twelve miles wide of
the Indian reservation. This would include Ord and Thomas peaks, and
would serve efficiently to protect the country about the headwaters of
the rivers from these destructive inroads.

The northern border of this section of the reserve is about one hundred
miles by wagon road from the nearest point on the Santa Fe Pacific
Railroad. Seven miles from its northern border is the town of
Springerville, with a few hundred inhabitants in its vicinity engaged in
farming, cattle and sheep growing. From Springerville north extends the
plains of the Little Colorado to St. Johns, the county seat of Apache
county, containing a few hundred people. To the south and east of the
reserve there are no towns for some distance, except a few small
settlements along the course of the San Francisco River in New Mexico,
which are far removed from the part of the reserve which is most
suitable for game. The fact that deer continue abundant in the district
about the head of Black River, although hunted at all seasons for many
years, and the continuance there of elk for so long, under the same
conditions, is good evidence of the favorable conditions existing in
that section for game.

_E.W. Nelson_.

Constitution of the Boone and Crockett Club

FOUNDED DECEMBER 1887.

Article I.

This Club shall be known as the Boone and Crockett Club.

Article II.

The objects of the Club shall be:

1. To promote manly sport with the rifle.

2. To promote travel and exploration in the wild and unknown, or but
partially known, portions of the country.

3. To work for the preservation of the large game of this country, and,
so far as possible, to further legislation for that purpose, and to
assist in enforcing the existing laws.

4. To promote inquiry into, and to record observations on, the habits
and natural history of the various wild animals.

5. To bring about among the members the interchange of opinions and
ideas on hunting, travel and exploration; on the various kinds of
hunting rifles; on the haunts of game animals, etc.

Article III.

No one shall be eligible for regular membership who shall not have
killed with the rifle, in fair chase, by still-hunting or otherwise, at
least one individual of each of three of the various kinds of American
large game.

Article IV.

Under the head of American large game are included the following
animals: Black or brown bear, grizzly bear, polar bear, buffalo (bison),
mountain sheep, woodland caribou, barren-ground caribou, cougar,
musk-ox, white goat, elk (wapiti), prong-horn antelope, moose, Virginia
deer, mule deer, and Columbian black-tail deer.

Article V.

The term "fair chase" shall not be held to include killing bear or
cougar in traps, nor "fire hunting," nor "crusting" moose, elk or deer
in deep snow, nor "calling" moose, nor killing deer by any other method
than fair stalking or still-hunting, nor killing game from a boat while
it is swimming in the water, nor killing the female or young of any
ruminant, except the female of white goat or of musk-ox.

Article VI.

This Club shall consist of not more than one hundred regular members,
and of such associate and honorary members as may be elected by the
Executive Committee. Associate members shall be chosen from those who by
their furtherance of the objects of the Club, or general qualifications,
shall recommend themselves to the Executive Committee. Associate and
honorary members shall be exempt from dues and initiation fees, and
shall not be entitled to vote.

Article VII.

The officers of the Club shall be a President, five Vice-Presidents, a
Secretary, and a Treasurer, all of whom shall be elected annually. There
shall also be an Executive Committee, consisting of six members, holding
office for three years, the terms of two of whom shall expire each
year. The President, the Secretary, and the Treasurer, shall be
_ex-officio_ members of the Executive Committee.

Article VIII.

The Executive Committee shall constitute the Committee on
Admissions. The Committee on Admissions may recommend for regular
membership by unanimous vote of its members present at any meeting, any
person who is qualified under the foregoing articles of this
Constitution. Candidates thus recommended shall be voted on by the Club
at large. Six blackballs shall exclude, and at least one-third of the
members must vote in the affirmative to elect.

Article IX.

The entrance fee for regular members shall be twenty-five dollars. The
annual dues of regular members shall be five dollars, and shall be
payable on February 1st of each year. Any member who shall fail to pay
his dues on or before August 1st, following, shall thereupon cease to be
a member of the Club. But the Executive Committee, in their discretion,
shall have power to reinstate such member.

Article X.

The use of steel traps; the making of "large bags"; the killing of game
while swimming in water, or helpless in deep snow; and the killing of
the females of any species of ruminant (except the musk-ox or white
goat), shall be deemed offenses. Any member who shall commit such
offenses may be suspended, or expelled from the Club by unanimous vote
of the Executive Committee.

Article XI.

The officers of the Club shall be elected for the ensuing year at the
annual meeting.

Article XII.

This Constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the members
present at any annual meeting of the Club, provided that notice of the
proposed amendment shall have been mailed, by the Secretary, to each
member of the Club, at least two weeks before said meeting.

By-Laws Rules of the Committee on Admission

1. Candidates must be proposed and seconded in writing by two members of
the Club.

2. Letters concerning each candidate must be addressed to the Executive
Committee by at least two members, other than the proposer and seconder.

3. No candidate for regular membership shall be proposed or seconded by
any member of the Committee on Admissions.

4. No person shall be elected to associate membership who is qualified
for regular membership, but withheld therefrom by reason of there being
no vacancy.

Additional information as to the admission of members may be found in
Articles III, VI, VIII and IX of the Constitution.

Former Officers Boone and Crockett Club

_President_.

Theodore Roosevelt, 1888-1894.
Benjamin H. Bristow, 1895-1896.
W. Austin Wadsworth, 1897-

_Vice-Presidents,_

Charles Deering, 1897-
Walter B. Devereux, 1897-
Howard Melville Hanna, 1897-
William D. Pickett, 1897-
Frank Thomson, 1897-1900.
Owen Wister, 1900-1902.
Archibald Rogers, 1903-

_Secretary and Treasurer._

Archibald Rogers, 1888-1893.
George Bird Grinnell, 1894-1895.
C. Grant La Farge, 1896-1901.

_Secretary_.

Alden Sampson, 1902.
Madison Grant, 1903-

_Treasurer._

C. Grant La Farge, 1902-

_Executive Committee_.

W. Austin Wadsworth, 1893-1896.
George Bird Grinnell, 1893.
Winthrop Chanler, 1893-1899, 1904-
Owen Wister, 1893-1896, 1903-
Charles F. Deering, 1893-1896.
Archibald Rogers, 1894-1902.
Lewis Rutherford Morris, 1897-
Henry L. Stimson, 1897-1899.
Madison Grant, 1897-1902.
Gifford Pinchot, 1900-1903.
Caspar Whitney, 1900-1903.
John Rogers, Jr., 1902-
Alden Sampson, 1903-
Arnold Hague, 1904-

_Editorial Committee_.

George Bird Grinnell, 1896-
Theodore Roosevelt, 1896-

Officers
of the Boone and Crockett Club
1904

_President_.

W. Austin Wadsworth Geneseo, N.Y.

_Vice-Presidents_.

Charles Deering Illinois.
Walter B. Devereux Colorado
Howard Melville Hanna Ohio.
William D. Pickett Wyoming.
Archibald Rogers New York.

_Secretary_.

Madison Grant New York City.

_Treasurer_.

C. Grant La Farge New York City.

_Executive Committee_.

W. Austin Wadsworth, _ex-officio_, Chairman,
Madison Grant, _ex-officio_,
C. Grant La Farge, _ex-officio_,
Lewis Rutherford Morris, To serve until 1905.
John Rogers, Jr.,
Alden Sampson, To serve until 1906.
Owen Wister,
Arnold Hague, To serve until 1907.
Winthrop Chanler,

_Editorial Committee_.

George Bird Grinnell New York.
Theodore Roosevelt Washington, D.C.

List of Members
of the Boone and Crockett Club, 1904

Regular Members.

MAJOR HENRY T. ALLEN, Washington, D.C.
COL. GEORGE S. ANDERSON, Washington, D.C.
JAMES W. APPLETON, New York City.
GEN. THOMAS H. BARBER, New York City.
DANIEL M. BARRINGER, Philadelphia, Pa.
F. S. BILLINGS, Woodstock, Vt.
GEORGE BIRD, New York City.
GEORGE BLEISTEIN, Buffalo, N.Y.
W. J. BOARDMAN, Washington, D.C.
WILLIAM B. BOGERT, Chicago, Ill.
WILLIAM B. BRISTOW, New York City.
ARTHUR ERWIN BROWN, Philadelphia, Pa.
CAPT. WILLARD H. BROWNSON, Washington, D.C.
JOHN LAMBERT CADWALADER, New York City.
ROYAL PHELPS CARROLL, New York City.
WINTHROP CHANLER, New York City.
WILLIAM ASTOR CHANLER, New York City.
CHARLES P. CURTIS, JR., Boston, Mass.
FRANK C. CROCKER, Hill City, S.D.
DR. PAUL J. DASHIELL, Annapolis, Md.
E. W. DAVIS, New York City.
CHARLES STEWART DAVISON, New York City.
CHARLES DEERING, Chicago, Ill.
HORACE K. DEVEREUX, Colorado Springs, Col.
WALTER B. DEVEREUX New York City.
H. CASIMIR DE RHAM, Tuxedo, N.Y.
DR. WILLIAM K. DRAPER, New York City.
J. COLEMAN DRAYTON, New York City.
DR. DANIEL GIRAUD ELLIOT, Chicago, I11.
MAJOR ROBERT TEMPLE EMMET, Schenectady, N.Y.
MAXWELL EVARTS, New York City.
ROBERT MUNRO FERGUSON, New York City.
JOHN G. FOLLANSBEE, New York City.
JAMES T. GARDINER, New York City.
JOHN STERETT GITTINGS, Baltimore, Md.
GEORGE H. GOULD, Santa Barbara, Cal.
MADISON GRANT, New York City.
DE FOREST GRANT, New York City.
GEORGE BIRD GRINNELL, New York City.
WILLIAM MILNE GRINNELL, New York City.
ARNOLD HAGUE, Washington, D.C.
HOWARD MELVILLE HANNA, Cleveland, Ohio.
JAMES HATHAWAY KIDDER, Boston, Mass.
DR. WALTER B. JAMES, New York City.
C. GRANT LA FARGE, New York City.
DR. ALEXANDER LAMBERT, New York City.
COL. OSMUN LATROBE, New York City.
GEORGE H. LYMAN, Boston, Mass.
FRANK LYMAN, Brooklyn, N.Y.
CHARLES B. MACDONALD, New York City.
HENRY MAY, Washington, D.C.
DR. JOHN K. MITCHELL, Philadelphia, Pa.
PIERPONT MORGAN, JR., New York City.
CHESTON MORRIS, JR., Springhouse, Pa.
DR. LEWIS RUTHERFORD MORRIS, New York City.
HENRY NORCROSS MUNN, New York City.
LYMAN NICHOLS, Boston, Mass.
THOMAS PATON, New York City.
HON. BOIES PENROSE, Washington, D.C.
DR. CHARLES B. PENROSE, Philadelphia, Pa.
R. A. F. PENROSE, JR., Philadelphia, Pa.
COL. WILLIAM D. PICKETT, Four Bear, Wyo.
HENRY CLAY PIERCE, New York City.
JOHN JAY PIERREPONT, Brooklyn, N.Y.
GIFFORD PINCHOT, Washington, D.C.
JOHN HILL PRENTICE, New York City.
HENRY S. PRITCHETT, Boston, Mass.
A. PHIMISTER PROCTOR, New York City.
PERCY RIVINGTON PYNE, New York City.
BENJAMIN W. RICHARDS, Philadelphia, Pa.
DOUGLAS ROBINSON, New York City.
ARCHIBALD ROGERS, Hyde Park, N.Y.
DR. JOHN ROGERS, JR., New York City.
HON. THEODORE ROOSEVELT, Washington, D.C.
HON. ELIHU ROOT, New York City.
BRONSON RUMSEY, Buffalo, N.Y.
LAWRENCE D. RUMSEY, Buffalo, N.Y.
ALDEN SAMPSON, Haverford, Pa.
HON. WILLIAM CARY SANGER, Sangerfield, N.Y.
PHILIP SCHUYLER, Irvington, N.Y.
M. G. SECKENDORFF, Washington, D.C.
DR. J. L. SEWARD, Orange, N.J.
DR. A. DONALDSON SMITH, Philadelphia, Pa.
DR. WILLIAM LORD SMITH, Boston, Mass.
E. LE ROY STEWART, New York City.
HENRY L. STIMSON, New York City.
HON. BELLAMY STORER, Washington, D.C.
RUTHERFORD STUYVESANT, New York City.
LEWIS S. THOMPSON, Red Bank, N.J.
B. C. TILGHMAN, JR., Philadelphia, Pa.
HON. W. K. TOWNSEND, New Haven, Conn.
MAJOR W. AUSTIN WADSWORTH, Geneseo, N.Y.
SAMUEL D. WARREN, Boston, Mass.
JAMES SIBLEY WATSON, Rochester, N.Y.
CASPAR WHITNEY, New York City.
COL. ROGER D. WILLIAMS, Lexington, Ky.
FREDERIC WINTHROP, New York City.
ROBERT DUDLEY WINTHROP, New York City.
OWEN WISTER, Philadelphia, Pa.
J. WALTER WOOD, JR., Short Hills, N.J.

Associate Members.

HON. TRUXTON BEALE, Washington, D.C.
WILLIAM L. BUCHANAN, Buffalo, N.Y.
D. H. BURNHAM. Chicago, Ill.
EDWARD NORTH BUXTON, Knighton, Essex, Eng.
MAJ. F. A. EDWARDS, U.S. Embassy, Rome, Italy.
A. P. GORDON-GUMMING, Washington, D.C.
BRIG.-GEN. A. W. GREELY, Washington, D.C.
MAJOR MOSES HARRIS, Washington, D.C.
HON. JOHN F. LACEY, Washington, D.C.
HON. HENRY CABOT LODGE, Washington, D.C.
A. P. LOW, Ottawa, Canada.
PROF. JOHN BACH MACMASTER, Philadelphia, Pa.
DR. C. HART MERRIAM, Washington, D.C.
HON. FRANCIS G. NEWLANDS, Washington, D.C.
PROF. HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN, New York City.
HON. GEORGE C. PERKINS, Washington, D.C.
MAJOR JOHN PITCHER, Washington, D.C.
HON. REDFIELD PROCTOR, Washington, D.C.
HON. W. WOODVILLE ROCKHILL, Washington, D.C.
JOHN E. ROOSEVELT, New York City.
HON. CARL SCHURZ, New York City.
F. C. SELOUS, Worpleston, Surrey, Eng.
T. S. VAN DYKE, Los Angeles, Cal.
HON. G. G. VEST, Washington, D.C.

Regular Members, Deceased.

ALBERT BIERSTADT, New York City.
HON. BENJAMIN H. BRISTOW, New York City.
H. A. CAREY, Newport, R.I.
COL. RICHARD IRVING DODGE, Washington, D.C.
COL. H. C. McDOWELL, Lexington, Ky.
MAJOR J. C. MERRILL, Washington, D.C.
DR. WILLIAM H. MERRILL, New York City.
JAMES S. NORTON, Chicago, Ill.
WILLIAM HALLETT PHILLIPS, Washington, D.C.
N. P. ROGERS, New York City.
E. P. ROGERS, New York City.
ELLIOTT ROOSEVELT, New York City.
DR. J. WEST ROOSEVELT, New York City.
DEAN SAGE, Albany, N.Y.
HON. CHARLES F. SPRAGUE, Boston, Mass.
FRANK THOMSON, Philadelphia, Pa.
MAJ.-GEN. WILLIAM D. WHIPPLE, New York City.
CHARLES E. WHITEHEAD, New York City.

Honorary Members, Deceased.

JUDGE JOHN DEAN CATON, Ottawa, Ill.
FRANCIS PARKMAN, Boston, Mass.
GEN. WILLIAM TECUMSEH SHERMAN, New York City.
GEN. PHILIP SHERIDAN, Washington, D.C.

Associate Members, Deceased.

HON. EDWARD F. BEALE, Washington, D.C.
COL. JOHN MASON BROWN, Louisville, Ky.
MAJOR CAMPBELL BROWN, Spring Hill, Ky.
HON. WADE HAMPTON, Columbia, S.C.
MAj.-GEN. W. H. JACKSON, Nashville, Tenn.
CLARENCE KING, New York City.
HON. THOMAS B. REED, New York City.

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