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After Waterloo: Reminiscences of European Travel 1815-1819 by Major W. E Frye

Part 7 out of 8

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but I explained to the officer that I had never fallen in with any Bavarian
authority since I left Rome, and that, while at Rome, I had no intention of
going thro' Bavaria; that at Milan the Austrian authorities had _vise_ my
passport for Vienna and that I should only pass thro' Munich, without
making a longer stay than one week. He acquiesced in my argument, but
inserted my explanation on the passport. At half a quarter of a mile beyond
Mittenwald I met the raft just about to get under weigh at eleven o'clock
a.m. This raft is about as long as the length of a thirty-six gun frigate,
and formed of spars fastened together; on this is a platform about one and
a half feet high. The Isar begins its course close to Mittenwald, and the
place on which the raft stood, previous to departure, was very shallow; but
water was quickly let in from sluices to float the raft, and off we set
with a cargo of peasants, male and female, and merchandise bound for
Munich. As the river Isar rushes between immense mountains, and forms a
continual descent until the plains of Bavaria open to view, you may
conceive with what rapidity we went. We encountered several falls of water
of two, three, four and sometimes five feet which we had to _shoot_, which
no boat could possibly do without being upset. The lower part of the raft
was frequently under water in making these _shoots_ and we were obliged to
hold on fast to our seats to prevent being jerked off. Nothing can be more
romantic and picturesque than this journey, and there is something aweful
in _shooting_ these falls; these rafts are, however, so solidly constructed
that there is no danger whatever. They can neither sink nor upset. We
arrived and halted the evening at Toelz, a large village or town on the
right bank of the Isar. What gives to Toelz a remarkably singular appearance
is, that on a height at a short distance from the town, and hanging
abruptly over the river, you perceive several figures in wood, larger than
the life, which figures form groups, representing the whole history of the
passion of Jesus Christ. At a short distance, if you are not prepared for
this, you suppose that they are real men, and that a procession or
execution is going forward. On landing I immediately ascended this hill in
order to observe this curiosity, and there I beheld the following groups,
first: Christ in the midst of his disciples preaching; secondly: the
disciples asleep in a cave, and Christ watching and praying; next was Judas
betraying Christ to the soldiery; then the judgment of Christ before
Pilate; then Christ bearing his cross to the place of execution; and lastly
the crucifixion on Mount Calvary. The ground is curiously laid out so as to
represent, as much as possible, the ground in the environs of Jerusalem.
Toelz is a pretty village, but contains nothing more remarkable than the
above groups.

The next day at twelve o'clock we perceived the spires of Munich, and at
two anchored close to one of the bridges from whence, having hired a
wheelbarrow to trundle my portmanteau, I repaired to the inn called the
Golden Cross--_Zum goldenen Kreutz_. At Toelz the Rhetian Alps recede from
the view; the landscape then presents a sloping plain which is perfectly
level within four miles of Munich. The river widens immediately on issuing
from the gorges of the Tyrol and for the last five miles we were followed
by boys on the banks of the river, begging for wood, with which our raft
was laden, and we threw to them many a faggot. Wood is the great export
from the Tyrol to Bavaria, as the latter is a flat country and has not much
wood, with which on the contrary the Tyrol abounds. A sensible difference
of climate is now felt and the air is keener than in the Tyrol. The price
of a place on the raft from Mittenwald to Munich cost only one florin, and
at Toelz an excellent supper, bed and coffee in the morning cost me only one
florin.

MUNICH, 23rd July.

Munich, the capital of Bavaria, is an ancient Gothic city of venerable
appearance. The houses are very solid in structure, and the streets
sufficiently broad to give to the city a cheerful appearance. There are
some suburbs added to it, built in the modern taste, which embellish it
greatly. A large Place outside the old town, called the _Carolinen-Platz,_
presents a number of villas disposed in the form of a circus. In these
suburbs the people assemble on holidays and Sundays, to smoke and drink
beer, of which a great quantity is consumed, it being the favorite and
national beverage. From the lively scene of the lower class of the
bourgeoisie, male and female, meeting here in the _Biersschanks_ and
_Tanzsaale_ I was reminded of the lines in Faust:

Gewiss man findet hier
Die schoensten Maedchen, und das beste Bier,

which may be thus rendered:

Here let us halt! 'tis here we're sure to find
Beer of the best and maidens fair and kind!

There are other very agreeable promenades outside the town, laid out as
_jardins anglais,_ the garden of Ostenwald for instance; and should you
wish to extend your walk further, there is Nymphenburg, a royal Palace and
gardens, just one league distant from the city.

The _Residenz-schloss_ or Palace of the King is a solid building. The
interior is well worth seeing. There is a superb saloon with a vast number
of valuable miniatures appended to the wainscoating. An enormously heavy
bed, groaning with gold and silver embroidery and pearls and which is said
to weigh a ton, is to be seen here. There is a very good collection of
pictures, chiefly portraits, of the Electoral, now Royal family. There is a
fine chapel too belonging to this palace; a superb staircase of marble, and
some fine old tapestry representing the actions of Otto von Wittelsbach.
There is likewise a curious miniature copy of Trajan's column in gold and
incrusted with precious stones, besides a variety of other things of value.

There are two theatres in Munich; one called the Hof or Court theatre,
where there is a company of comedians for tragedy and comedy, the expences
of which are defrayed principally by the King. The boxes are generally let
to the nobility and the _parterre_ is open to every body on payment. I
witnessed the representation of Mozart's _Nozze di Figaro._ The King was
present and was greeted with much affection. He has a very benignant
expression of countenance. He is much beloved by his subjects, for he has
governed them paternally. He has given to them a constitution _unasked;_
for they were so contented with the old Government, that they desired no
change; but he, with his usual good sense, saw the propriety of consulting
and complying with the spirit of the age. A German writer of some eminence
at the time of the French Revolution, when the aristocrats and alarmists of
all countries were crying out against it, and proposing harsh measures to
arrest its progress, said: "Sovereigns of Europe, do you wish to set bounds
to the progress of French principles? Nothing can be more simple; you have
only to govern your people like Maximilian of Bavaria and Frederick of
Saxony, and your subjects will never desire a change."

At the German (national) theatre which is a fair sized one, I saw a tragedy
performed called _Der Wald bey Herman-stadt_ (the Forest near
Hermanstadt),[122] It was an interesting piece taken from a feudal legend.
The part of Elisene was performed by Mlle Vohs, a very good actress. I
missed very much one thing in Munich, and that is the want of _cafes_ like
those in France and Italy, which have so brilliant an appearance. They make
coffee here at the inns; and there are two or three dull places up one pair
of stairs, where they play at billiards, and make as indifferent coffee as
is made in England. The hour of dining at Munich is in general one o'clock.
A slice of ham or sausage with beer form the _gouter,_ usually taken at
five or six o'clock; and at nine follows a supper as solid as the dinner.
The Germans are not loungers as the French and Italians, who, for the most
part, spend all their spare time in coffee-houses. When I mentioned to a
Bavarian that I could find no _cafes_ in Munich resembling those in France
and Italy, he said with emphasis! _Gott bewahre_ (God forbid)! I could not
help thinking he was in the right; for those splendid _cafes_ are very
seducing to young people and tend to encourage a life of idleness and to
keep them from their studies. The lower _bourgeoisie_ and _Stubenmaedchen_
(_maidservants_) wear a singular head dress. It is made of stuff worked
with silver or gold and resembles two horns sticking out one at each ear.
This head dress must be costly. This class of women wear also on _fete_
days gold crosses, collars and earrings.

The Bavarians seem a frank, honest set of people, tho' sometimes a little
rough, in their exterior deportment. The character of Otto of Wittelsbach,
in the tragedy of that name, gives the best idea of the Bavarian character.

I have made acquaintance here with a Mr F-----, an Austrian gentleman, and
two Polish gentlemen, the one an officer and the other a medical man. They
are brothers and had both served in the French army. We have agreed to
travel to Vienna together on board of the raft which starts every week from
Munich to Vienna. This raft brings to every day between twelve o'clock and
two near some town or village on the banks of the river, in order to allow
the passengers to dine, and anchors every evening at seven o'clock near
some town or village to sup and sleep. You have only to tell the
_Flossmeister_, or Master of the Raft, at what inn you mean to put up, or
if you have no preference, he will recommend you one; and at five the next
morning he goes his rounds to the different inns to collect his passengers,
and at six gets under weigh.

VIENNA, 2nd August.

I left Munich on the 25th July and arrived on the 6th day of our journey,
30th July, at Vienna, The _Floss_, or raft, on board of which we embarked,
is about as long as the main deck of an eighty-four gun ship and about
forty feet in breadth. It is constructed of strong spars lashed together.
On the spars is constructed a large platform and on the platform several
cabins, containing tables and chairs. Mr F----, the Poles and myself hired
a cabin to ourselves. On the raft was a great deal of merchandize going to
Vienna. At Vienna the _Flossmeister_, after landing his passengers and
merchandize, sells his raft and returns on horseback to Munich. A raft is
constructed weekly at Munich from wood felled in the Tyrol and floated on
the Isar down to Munich. We arrived the first evening at Freysingen, but it
was nearly dark when we arrived; it seemed however as far as we could
observe to be a neat village; at any rate, we met with a very comfortable
inn there with good fare and good beds. We met with a very pleasant family
on board the raft, bound to Landshut; M. and Mme S. were extremely
well-informed people and their two daughters very fine girls.

We arrived the following day at twelve o'clock at Landshut, which is a very
fine town. There is an immense Gothic tower or steeple to the Church of St
Martin, about 450 feet in height. At Deckendorf, where the Isar flows into
the Danube, I saluted for the first time that noble river. We stopped the
night at Pillshofen and arrived the following day at twelve o'clock at
Passau. Passau is a large, well built and handsome city, and is situated on
the confluent of three rivers, the Inn, the Illst and the Danube; for here
the two former flow into the latter, one on each side. Each of these rivers
just before the point of juncture seem to be of different colors; for
example the Danube appears blue, the Inn white, and the Illst black. At
Passau we put up at the Wild Man (_Zum Wilden Mann_), a favorite sign for
inns in these parts.

The Cathedral and _Residenz-Schloss_ are striking buildings, and the city
has a lively and grand appearance. The women appear to be in general
handsome and well dressed. We brought to the evening at Engelhardtzell,
where the barrier, painted black and yellow, announced our return to the
Austrian territory. We underwent at the Customs house a rigid search for
tobacco: they even took away the tobacco that some passengers had in their
pouches. They were likewise very rigid about our passports. The English
passports do not please them at all, on account of the features of the
bearer not being specified therein, and as I answered their questions in
German, they supposed me to be a native of that country and asked me what
business I had with a British passport. I replied: _Weil ich ein Englaender
bin.--Sie ein Englaender? Sie 'sind gewiss aus Nord Deutschland. Sie
sprechen recht gut Deutsch.--Meine Herren, ich bin ein Englaender: viele
Englaender studieren und sprechen Deutsch, und wenn Siemit mir eine
langeUnterredung gehalten haetten, so haetten Sie bald ausgefunden durch
meine Sprachfehler, dass ich kein geborner Deutscher bin.--Aber Sie haben
unsere Fragen vollkommen gut beantwortet.--Warum nicht? man hat mir die
nehmlichen Fragen so wiederholten Malen gestellt, dass ich die dazu
gehoerigen Antworte auswendig habe, wie em Katechismus_.[123] The officer
laughed, took up a pen, _vised_ and gave me back my passport.

The whole of the country on the banks of this noble river the Danube is
picturesque and presents much variety. There cannot be a more delightful
summer tour than a descent down this river. The next town of consequence
that we arrived at was Linz, a large, populous and beautifully built city
and capital of Upper Austria. The circumjacent country is in part
mountainous. The Danube is very broad here, and there is an immensely long
wooden bridge. We put up at the inn _Zum goldenen Kreutz_ (golden cross).
Here it became indispensably necessary to change our money for Austrian
paper, for that sort of it called _Wiener Waehrung_ (Vienna security), since
neither foreign coin nor another description of Austrian paper, called
_Conventions-Muenze_ (conventional currency), are current for ordinary
purposes; and it is necessary to get them changed for the current paper
_Wiener Waehrung._To explain this matter more fully and clearly: there are
two sorts of paper money in the Austrian Dominions. One is called
_Conventions-Muenze_ (conventional currency), which is fully equivalent to
gold and sliver and cannot be refused as such throughout the whole of the
Austrian dominions; the other, called _Wiener Waehrung_ (Vienna security) is
current and payable in Austria proper only, and bears a loss, out of the
Archduchy. The value of the _Wiener Waehrung_ fluctuates considerably, but
the usual par of exchange is as 2 to 1: that means, two hundred florins
_Wiener Waehrung_ are equal to one hundred _Convenzions-Muenze_ or gold and
silver money. Even the _Convenzions-Muenze_ bears a loss, tho' trifling, out
of the Imperial Dominions. The exchange has been known to have been at 400
per cent; that is, four hundred florins _Wiener Waehrung_ were only worth
one hundred florins gold and silver; but just now it may be reckoned a
little beyond par, fluctuating from 200 to 220. In fact, the value of a
florin _Wiener Waehrung_ may be calculated at a frank in French money. All
this is exceedingly troublesome to travellers, particularly to those who do
not understand the German language; for as they cannot read the
inscription, it would be difficult for them to know the difference between
one sort of paper money and the other and they might be seriously imposed
upon. I advise therefore all travellers, before they arrive at the Austrian
frontier, whether coming from Bavaria, Saxony, or Italy, to buy up the
_Wiener Waehrung_ notes they may meet with, and which may be purchased at
great profit, probably, beyond the frontier, whereas if they defer
purchasing till they arrive within the Austrian frontier, they can only
procure the _Wiener Waehrung_ at the common rate of exchange current.

At Linz we find ourselves again in a wine country. Linz is renowned for the
beauty of its women, and we had a most favorable specimen in our landlord's
daughter, one of the most beautiful girls I ever beheld. We talked to her a
great deal, and a scene ridiculous enough occurred. She has very beautiful
arms which we all seemed to admire; and all at once, by instinct as it
were, the two Poles lifted up one arm and I the other, and our respective
lips were fastened on either arm at the same moment as if by word of
command. We apologized for the liberty we took, saying that her arms were
perfectly irresistible and that we had never seen such fine ones before.
She accepted our excuse with the utmost good nature, and laughed very
heartily. Her father is a man of information and a good classical scholar,
a thing which is by no means uncommon among the inn-keepers of Germany. We
stopped here that night, and the ensuing forenoon. We had an excellent
supper, very good wine, and we drank to the health of the fair Amalia, the
host's daughter. Our host, who was a friend of Mr F----'s, gave us the
best of every thing, and our expences did not amount to more than seven
florins _Wiener Waehrung_, for supper, bed, breakfast and dinner. We passed
the forenoon in visiting the different parts of the city and we were struck
with the appearance of opulence and industry that prevails.

Before we arrived at Moelk, which is the next important place, we passed the
town of Ens and beyond that the famous _Strudel_ or Whirlpool which is
dangerous at times for boats. Our raft was completely whirled round. This
whirlpool is caused by rocks rising abruptly out of the water. The popular
tradition is that this whirlpool is the abode of a very malicious and
spiteful _Wassernixe_, Undine or Water Goblin, who delighted in drowning
passengers. The scenery hereabouts is more wild and romantic than what we
have hitherto passed and bears a great resemblance to the landscape on the
Rhine between Mayence and Coblentz. Moelk is an Abbey and a very magnificent
edifice it is, situated on an eminence which forms the angle with the river
and rises quite _a pio_ from the water's edge; it lies quite _en face_ to
those who approach it, descending the stream, so that the river seems to be
terminated by it. It commands a noble prospect. I had only time to inspect
hastily the church. Beyond Moelk is a range of rocks that bear a great
resemblance to a wall, and jut out a great deal towards the river. It is
called the _Devil's wall_ from the tradition of the Devil having
endeavoured to make a wall to dam up the river. Above this wall is the
famous castle and vineyard called _Spitz am Platz_, and further on is the
castle of Dierenstein, situated on a mountain on the left bank of the
Danube. The ascent is very steep; this castle, now in ruins, was the place
where Richard Coeur de Lion was confined. The walls only of the castle and
part of the chapel are all that remain; we did not fail to visit a place of
such celebrity. A convent lies below it.

We brought to the night at a large village where there is an excellent inn;
and the next day, the Leopoldsberg, bursting forth to view, announced to us
the approach to Vienna. We anchored at Nussdorf, where there is a Custom
house, and from whence the distance to Vienna is about one and half mile
English. After having my trunk examined, I hired a hackney coach and drove
into Vienna. The barriers beyond the suburb are called _Lines_, and between
the Suburbs and the old town is an Esplanade. We entered the Suburbs by the
_Waehringer Linie_, and the old town by the _Rothes Thor_ (Red gate); and
from thence I repaired to the inn _Zum weissen Wolf_ (white Wolf) in the
_Altem Fleischmarkt_ (old meat-market).

VIENNA, Augt. 4.

The old town of Vienna is not very large, since you can walk round its
circumference on the ramparts in two hours. It was formerly fortified, but
the French blew up the fortifications, leaving only the rampart; and by so
doing they did a thing of great utility for the Viennese, and gave to the
Austrian government an excellent opportunity of joining the old town to the
magnificent faubourgs, by filling up the esplanade which separates them
with streets and squares, which would prevent the unpleasant effects of
dust in dry, and the mud in wet weather, for this dust and mud renders the
esplanade almost at all times a disagreeable promenade, there being a sharp
wind prevalent almost the whole year at Vienna, which blows about the dust
_en tourbillons_. Here then was an excellent opportunity, afforded by the
blowing up of the fortifications, of paving the whole of the esplanade and
filling it up with streets. But no! the Austrian government seem determined
upon restoring the fortifications, and a considerable number of workmen are
employed. This is very silly, for these fortifications are not of the least
use against a foreign enemy, inasmuch as the enemy can always erect his
batteries among the faubourgs and need only make one parallel, the
protection and cover afforded to him by the faubourgs rendering the other
two superfluous. The faubourgs are by far the finest part of the city, and
the garrison of the old town, in endeavouring to defend it, would destroy
by every shot they should fire the fine buildings on the faubourgs. Of the
folly of making such a defence they were made fully sensible in 1809. One
of the Archdukes threw himself into the old town of Vienna, with an
intention of defending it to the last and refused to surrender. Napoleon
caused batteries to be erected on the _Rennweg_ or _Corso_ covered by the
church of St Charles, the Manege and Palace of the Hungarian noble guard,
all magnificent buildings in the faubourgs. He then summoned the garrison
of the old town again to surrender saying: "Every shot fired against the
besiegers destroys your own most valuable property and finest edifices."
This argument, backed by the entreaties of the citizens, had its effect and
the capitulation was signed. This shows the perfect inutility of fortifying
the old town of Vienna against a foreign enemy. Indeed a capital city
should never be fortified; it generally contains too many things of value,
ever to be exposed to the risk of a bombardment. It would seem, however,
that the object of the Austrian government in reconstructing these works
were to keep its own subjects at Vienna in check. But in this case it would
be much more advisable to construct a fortress on the heights of Kahlenberg
or of Leopoldsberg, both of which command the city and the whole expanse
below. The Turks were encamped on the Kahlenberg at the famous siege of
Vienna.

Vienna proper, the old town, is a Gothic city, but a very handsome one. The
streets are in general broad and well paved; but the _Places_ or Squares
are small. With the exception of the _Herrengasse_, where the nobility
reside, the rest of Vienna is inhabited by shopkeepers and wholesale
dealers; and the shops are brilliant and well fitted up. The _Kaernthner
Strasse_, a long and tolerably broad street, and the _Kohlmarkt_ present
the greatest display of wealth. Indeed the _Kaernthner Strasse_ may be
considered as the principal street; this street and the _Kohlmarkt_ have a
great resemblance to the finest parts of Holborn. The _Graben_ also present
a fine display of shops and may be termed the Bond Street of Vienna. The
_Sanct Stephans Platz_ where the Cathedral church of Vienna, called _St
Stephans Kirche_, stands, is the largest _Place_ in Vienna. The Cathedral
is a very ancient and curious Gothic edifice, and the steeple is nearly 450
feet high. I happened to enter the Cathedral one day on the occasion of a
solemn requiem celebrated for the soul of Prince Metternich's father. Had
it been for the son, instead of the father, many an honorable man
persecuted at the instigation of that most machiavelic of all ministers,
might exclaim in making a slight alteration in a well known epitaph:

Cy-git M---- ah! qu'il est bien
Pour son repos et pour le mien!

Among the other striking buildings in the old town is the _Hofburg_ or
Imperial Palace, a very extensive quadrangular building, with a large court
in its centre. A Guard mounts here every day at eleven o'clock. It was in
one of the saloons of this palace that the celebrated Congress of Vienna
was held; a Congress whose labours will be long and severely felt by Europe
and duly appreciated by posterity, who will feel any other sentiment but
that of gratitude for the arrangements entered into there. The _Hofburg_
was built by Leopold VII in 1200. This building, from its being extremely
irregular and from its having received additions at intervals in the
different styles of architecture, has been aptly enough considered as the
type of the Austrian monarchy, and of its growth from a Markgraviate to an
Empire; in _this_, by the continued acquisition of foreign territories
differing from each other in manners and hi speech; in _that_, by the
continued addition of various specimens of architecture and style of
building in its augmentation.

VIENNA, Aug. 8th.

I am very well content with my abode at the _Weisser Wolf_, tho' it is not
a first-rate hotel. They are very civil people, and I have an excellent and
spacious room for two florins _Wiener Whaerung_ per diem. Lodgings are the
only things that are dear in Vienna, every other article is, however,
cheaper than in any other city I have yet been in. All kinds of Hungarian
wine may be had at the most reasonable prices. I generally breakfast at a
neighbouring _Cafe_ in the _Fleischmarkt_ for the sake of reading the
_Allgemeine Zeitung_ which is taken in there, and which is the only journal
having a shade of liberality which is permitted in the Austrian dominions.
From the hours of twelve to three, dinners _a la carte_ are served at the
_Weisser Wolf_. For two and half florins _W.W._, I get an excellent dinner
with a bottle of Offener wine. The wine of Offen resembles much that of
Bordeaux in its quality and flavor. The tariff however of the dinners and
wines varies daily a few kreutzers, in consequence of the eternal
fluctuation of the _W.W._, so that every morning a fresh tariff is affixed
to the wainscot of the saloon where the dinners are served. Supper, served
likewise _a la carte_, is at its full tide between the hours of eight and
ten o'clock; and as Vienna is renowned for the celebrity of its beefsteaks
and cutlets, called here _Rostbraten_, these and a salad seem to be the
favourite dish for supper. My mornings I have hitherto passed in lounging
about the _Kaernthner Gasse, St Stephen's Platz, Kohlmarkt_, etc. For an
hour before dinner the fashionable promenade is on the rampart in front of
the palace of Duke Albert of Saxe-Teschen; in the evening on the _Prater_,
in a carriage, on horseback, or on foot. The _Prater_ is of immense extent
and offers a great variety of amusements and sights. I generally return
home at night pretty well fatigued from my rambles.

There is another great inconvenience at Vienna, resulting from the
fluctuation of the current money, and this is that a stranger, dwelling at
an inn, is sure to be disturbed five or six times in the morning, sometimes
as early as five or six o'clock, by Jews who rap at his door to enquire if
he wants to exchange gold and silver against currency or _vice versa_. I
used to lose all patience at being so disturbed in the morning, and was
obliged in self-defence to put an affiche on the door of my room to this
effect: "_Man kauft und verkauft hier nichts; kein Wechsler darf
hereintreten_." "Here there is no buying and selling; no money changer is
allowed to come in," and I hereby recommend to all strangers not to treat
with these Jews, but on their arrival, or at any time they think fit, to go
to a banking establishment in this city, where every day after eleven
o'clock you can exchange your gold and silver for paper at the just rate of
exchange, as published at the Bourse, paying only a very slight premium,
and on leaving Vienna to go to the same establishment to change your
superfluous _Wiener Waehrung_ for _Convenzions Muenze_ or gold and silver
money. For when the Jews tell you the rate of exchange is so and so, you
conclude probably your bargain with them, and on enquiring at the Bourse
you find that the Jew has made a percentage of six or eight per cent, out
of you. _Louis d'or_ are the best foreign coin to bring into the Austrian
Dominions. Next to them in utility are the Dutch ducats, or _Geharnischte
Maenner_ as they are termed, from the figure of the man in armour upon them.
All other corns suffer a loss in proportion. The bankers in Vienna pay the
foreign bill of exchange in _Convenzions Muenze_, which you must afterwards
change for _Wiener Waehrung_, the only current money in Vienna and Austria.
But what makes it additionally troublesome is that here in Vienna there are
particular payments, which must absolutely be paid in gold or silver or
_Convenzions Muenze_, and _not Wiener Waehrung_; for instance the franking of
foreign letters at the post office, where they do not take the _Wiener
Waehrung_. In vain you may intreat them to take the _Wiener Waehrung_ at any
rate they please; no! you must go elsewhere and buy from the first person
you can meet with as much gold and silver as is required for the franking
of the letters; so bigotted are they in the Austrian dominions to the
letter of the law! This happened to me: I wanted to frank three letters for
England and I went to the post office with _Wiener Waehrung_ paper, not
being aware of this regulation, and I was obliged to return to my Hotel, to
lay hold of a Jew, and to buy from him as much gold and silver as was
requisite for the franking of the letters.

At the _Wechselbank_ or Bank of Exchange I have before mentioned, the crowd
that attends daily is immense; but the business is carried on without hurry
or confusion. You hand in your paper or your gold and silver coin, the
clerk who receives it gives you an order on paper for the amount specified,
which paper you take into another room and therein receive the amount. This
establishment, however, remains open only two hours every day, between
eleven and one I believe; so if you are too late for this interval of time,
you must apply to the brokers, Christian or Israelite.

VIENNA, August 11th.

We left the old town by the _Burg-thor,_ and crossing the Esplanade,
directed our course to the _Rennweg,_ one of the suburbs, in order to view
the majestic edifice of St Charles, which is equal in the beauty of its
architecture to many of the finest churches in Rome. Its facade and cupola
render it one of the most striking buildings belonging to Vienna. We next
visited the _Manege_ and the Palace called the palace of the Hungarian
Noble Guard. They are both beautiful edifices. The faubourgs of Vienna are
built in the modern style and their buildings, both public and private,
excellent in their way and in the best state. The streets of the faubourgs
are broad but not paved. The most celebrated of these faubourgs are _Maria
Huelf_, _Leopold-stadt_, _Landstrasse_, the _Rennweg_, the _Wuehringer
Gasse_; and I am persuaded that if the old town were united to the faubourg
by means of streets and squares and the esplanade filled up with buildings,
Vienna would perhaps be the handsomest city in Europe and the fourth in
size, for the best buildings and palaces are in the faubourgs, viz., the
Military College, the Polytechnic School, St Charles' Church, the Porcelain
fabric, the Palaces of Esterhazy, Kaunitz, Stahremberg, Schwarzenberg,
Palfy, and the beautiful Palace and ground of Belvedere in which last is a
noble collection of pictures open to the public. At the Polytechnic school
one of the principal professors is a friend of Mr F------'s, and he
explained to us the nature of the establishment and the course of studies
pursued. The apparatus for every branch of science is on the grandest
scale. After dinner we repaired to the _Prater_, crossing a branch of the
Danube which here forms several islands. The _Prater_ requires and deserves
particular mention. Part of it is something in the style of the _Champs
Elysees_ at Paris, and it is fully equal to it in the variety of amusements
and enjoyments to be met with there; but it is far larger and more
beautiful on account of its landscape and the diversified manner in which
the grounds are laid out. The _Prater_, then, is an immense park, laid out
on an island of considerable extent on the Danube. The nearest faubourg to
it is the _Leopoldstadt_, which is also the most fashionable one, and a
bridge conducts you from that faubourg direct into the _Prater_. The
_Prater_ presents a mixture of garden, meadow, upland and forest; the lofty
trees arranged in avenues or in clumps give a delightful protecting shade.
On the road destined for the carriages there is every afternoon a most
brilliant display of carriages. Another avenue is destined for equestrians,
and two avenues, one on each side of these two, for pedestrians. There are
besides winding footpaths, that conduct you all over this vast extent of
ground, and circular grass plots surrounded by trees where the pedestrian
may repose and eat and drink if he will. Here are _restaurants_ in plenty,
_cafes_, Panoramas, exhibitions of wild beasts, swings, tennis courts,
places for running at the ring, do for burlesque dramatic performances,
_farceurs_, jugglers, De Bach's Equestrian Amphitheatre in the style of
Franconi, _Salles de Danse_, baths, billiard rooms, gaming tables, and even
houses appropriated to gallantry. In fact, the _Prater_ is quite the
Paradise of the bourgeoisie of Vienna, who are fond of the pleasures of the
table and take every opportunity of making dinner and supper parties. The
bourgeois of Vienna are far more sensual than spiritual and not at all
disposed to self-denial.

Excellent hams and sausages are to be had here; and the Viennese who dines
and sups heartily at his own house never fails, during his evening
promenade, to take a tolerable good portion of ham or sausage, with a
proportion of Offen wine or Maylander Beer, by way of staying his stomach
during the tedious interval between dinner and supper. I need scarce add
that smoking is universal, as indeed it is all over Germany, for I scarcely
ever see a German without a pipe either in his mouth or fastened to his
coat and a bag or pouch of tobacco either in his pocket or attached to his
button hole. In the _Prater_ dances often take place in the open air
between the grisettes of Vienna, who are in general handsome and well made,
and who dress well, and their lovers and admirers. The _Prater_ was first
opened to the public by the Emperor Joseph II. The _Au-garten_ is another
place of recreation and amusement, but on a smaller and much more tranquil
and sober scale, than the _Prater_. None of the lower classes think of
coming here, tho' it is open to every body decently dressed: there is not
that profuse eating and drinking going forward. It is more properly
speaking a promenade, and forms a garden with alleys of trees where music
is often performed and there is a superb saloon where refreshments may be
had. The _Au-garten_ is frequented chiefly by the _Noblesse_ and _Haute
Bourgeoisie_. In the morning likewise it is a fashionable resort to drink
the mineral waters. It adjoins the _Prater_, being on the same island. It
was the favourite lounge of Joseph II, who opened it to the public by
affixing this inscription on one of the gates:

Allen Menschen gewidmete Erlustigung von ihrem Schaetzer

"Place of recreation open to all Men by their esteemer."

VIENNA, Aug. 13th.

There are a great number of theatres at Vienna. Two are situated in the old
town, viz., the _Hof-theater_ and the _Burg-theater_. The _Hof-theater_ is
only open when the Court are at Vienna, and they are now at Baden, ten
leagues distant. The _Burg-theater_ is open all the year round, and may be
considered as the national theatre. It is much frequented by the
bourgeoisie and inhabitants of the old town, who do not chuse to take the
trouble to go to the _Wieden-theater_, which is situated in the faubourgs,
and which is more of a classical and fashionable theatre than the other,
inasmuch as it is more elegantly and classically built, better fitted up,
and has a far better company of comedians. At the _Burgtheater_ I saw
Kotzebue's _Edelsinn und Armuth_ performed. The Wieden theatre which is, as
I have said, in the faubourgs, is the handsomest theatre perhaps in Europe
for its size. It is not large, but it is fitted up with so much taste and
you see and hear so well; every ornament is so chaste and there is nothing
at all tawdry or superfluous. It is, I really think, a model of what every
theatre ought to be. There is a good deal of bronze about it which gives it
a classical appearance, and the boxes are supported by Caryatides in
bronze. There is a peculiarity in all the theatres at Vienna, which is,
that in the _parterre_ you must sit in the place the number of which is
marked on your ticket. These places are called _Gesperrte Sitze,_ and each
seat resembles an armchair. When not occupied, the seat is folded up and
locked to the back of the chair, until the person who holds the ticket
corresponding to its number comes to take it; so that no other but the
person holding the ticket corresponding to the number can take it, and you
are thus never likely to be shoved out of your place, as you are at most of
the theatres in Europe. There are men stationed at the doors who follow you
into the _parterre_ to unlock and let down a seat for you, and to them you
give your ticket with a slight gratification, which is however quite
optional; your ticket you previously pay for at the door.

VIENNA, Augt. 20th.

I have been to see Schoenbrunn, the usual residence of the young Napoleon;
but he is now at Baden with the Imperial family, where his mother, who is
lately arrived from Italy, is also on a visit. The young Napoleon is said
to be a remarkable fine boy, and a great favorite with his grandfather the
Emperor. Many are the anecdotes related of him. I shall mention one. He had
heard so often talk of his father, that shortly after the arrival of his
mother, he wished to see his father also and asked his attendants
repeatedly and not in a very patient tone: _Wo ist denn mein Vater?_[124]
This was told to his grandfather the Emperor; and he gave directions that
the child should be brought to him, the very next time he should put the
question. He then said to him: _Du moechtestwissen wo dein Vater ist? Er ist
in Verhaft. Man hat es mit ihm gut gemeint; weil er aber unruhig war, so
hat man ihn in Verhaft gestellt, und Dich wird man auch verhaften, wenn Du
unruhig bist._[125]

So much for this anecdote; but I did not hear what was the answer of the
young prince. The young Napoleon is, it appears, a great favorite of the
soldiers, who quite adore him, and he will sometimes go into the kitchen to
get bread and meat to give to the soldiers on Guard at the Palace. A
singular event happened lately to Maria Louisa. During her stay at
Schonbrunn, her _chatouille,_ with several things of value in it,
_bijouterie,_ etc., was stolen from her. She caused enquiries to be made,
and researches to be set on foot. Nobody has been able to find out who took
it; but it was put back in the precise place from whence it was taken, and
not a single article of the _bijouterie_ or things of value was missing. It
is supposed this theft was made for political purposes, in order to
discover the nature of her epistolary correspondence, if any existed. Had
it been taken by a vulgar thief, it is not probable that the articles of
value would have been restored. Such is the unhappy condition of that
Princess to be always an object of suspicion and espionnage.

_Journey to Prague_.

I left Vienna on the 28th August in a _Landkutsche_ and arrived at Prague
on the first of September.

These _Landkutsche_ are on the same plan and footing with the _vetture_ in
Italy, and travel in the same manner, with this difference, however; that
the _Landkutscher_ do not usually, as the _vetturini_ do, undertake to
provide for the supper and bed of their passengers. In a word, you are not
_spesato;_ and in Germany there is not the least necessity for it, for
there is no such thing as extortion on the part of the German innkeepers,
who are by far the most respectable of that profession. Besides, in most
places, everything is _tariffed,_ and where it is not, the landlord never
makes an unreasonable demand, or attempts to make foreigners pay more than
natives; whereas in Italy if you are not _spesato_ there are no bounds to
the rapacity of the innkeepers, witness mine host of Terracina. Both Italy
and Germany present the greatest convenience for travellers, as the
_Landkutsche_ or _vetture_ are continually passing from town to town. There
is however this difference between them, that the Italian _vetturini_ will
abate their price, if their carriage is full excepting one place, and that
they must start, whereas the German _Landkutscher_ never abate their price.

I paid for my journey from Vienna to Prague thirty-five florins _Wiener
Waehrung,_ and we made the journey in five days. Our first day's journey
brought us to Hoellabrunn, having stoppd to dinner at Stockeran. The road is
excellent and the several towns and villages we past thro' clean and well
built. The landscape was either a plain, or gently undulating and extremely
well cultivated.

Bohemia resembles Moravia, being an exceedingly rich corn country,
generally open; not many trees about the country near the road side, except
at the _Chateau_ and farm houses. The language is a dialect of the
Sclavonic, mixed with some German; but at the inns there is always one or
two servants who speak German. In Bohemia a traveller not speaking German,
and who has no interpreter with him, would find himself greatly
embarrassed. The Bohemians call themselves in their own language
_Cherschky_, and the Hungarians call themselves _Magyar_.

[117] Tasso, _Gerusalemme liberata_, canto XV, ottave 31, 32:

Un uom della Liguria avra ardimento
All' incognito corao esporsi in prima...
Tu spiegherai, Colombo, a un nuovo polo
Lontane si le fortunate antenne...--ED.

[118] Ariosto, Orlando Furioso, XL, 31, 1.--ED.

[119] See reference to Eustace p. 131.

[120] Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_, XXVIII, 38, 7.--ED.

[121] Boileau, _Satires_, XI, v. 117.

[122] The drama, _Der Wold bei Hermannstadt,_ is the work of Johanna
Fraenul von Weissenthurn (1773-1847), a celebrated Viennese actress
and authoress. An opera was written on the same text by W. Westmeyer,
--ED.

[123] Because I am an Englishman--You are an Englishman? you are certainly
a North-German; you speak very correct German.--Gentlemen, I tell you
I am an Englishman; many English study and speak the German language
and if you had held a long conversation with me, you would soon have
perceived from my faults in speaking, that I am not a German.--But you
have answered our questions so correctly.--Why not, the same questions
have been put to me so often that I have all the necessary answers by
heart like a catechism.

[124] Where is my father?

[125] "You wish to know where your father is? He is under arrest; people
were well disposed to him; but he is placed under arrest, because he
was unruly, and if you are unruly you will be placed under arrest
likewise."

CHAPTER XVII

SEPTEMBER 1818-MARCH 1819

The splendid city of Prague--The German expression, "To give the
basket"--Journey from Prague to Dresden--Journey from Dresden to Berlin--A
description of Berlin--The Prussian Army--Theatricals--Peasants talk about
Napoleon--Prussians and French should be allies--Absurd policy of the
English Tories--Journey from Berlin to Dresden--A description of
Dresden--The battle of Dresden in 1813--Clubs at Dresden--Theatricals--
German beds--Saxon scholars--The picture gallery--Tobacco an ally of
Legitimacy--Saxon women--Meissen--Unjust policy of Europe towards the King
of Saxony.

PRAGUE, 4 Sept.

Prague is a far more striking and splendid city than Vienna, without its
faubourgs. The streets are broader; and it has a more cheerful and less
confined appearance than the old town of Vienna. The position of Prague too
is very romantic and picturesque, part of it lying on a mountain and part
on a plain; and it stands on the confluent of two rivers, the Mulda and the
Braun. The upper part of the city, called Oberburg, stands on a height
called Ratschin, and on this height stands a most magnificent palace and
other stately buildings. There is a beautiful panoramic view from this part
of Prague. In this part of the city too is the cathedral of St Wenzel or
Wenceslaus, who was its founder. His tomb and that of St John Nepomucene, a
favorite saint of the Bohemians, is in this church. The Cathedral is of
extreme solidity, but little ornamented, having been plundered by the
Swedes in 1648. The canopy over the shrine of St John Nepomucene has a
profusion of votive offerings appended to it. The lower part of Prague is
divided into two parts by the Mulda. The bridge across the Mulda is one of
the finest in Europe. It has twenty-four arches, its length is 1700 feet
and its breadth 35. Among several statues on this bridge is a very
remarkable one of Jesus Christ, made of bronze gilt, which cost a large sum
of money to its founder, a Jew! There is a Latin inscription on it which
explains the paradox. There stood on the same spot a wooden statue of
Christ in the XVI century. One day an opulent Jew, on passing by, made some
scoffing or contemptuous remark on it. He was overheard by some of the
people, accused of blasphemy and condemned to die; but on expressing great
contrition and offering to pay a fine to any amount, he was pardoned, on
the condition of his promising to erect a bronze statue gilt of Jesus
Christ on the same spot, at his own expense, with an inscription explaining
the reason of its construction; which promise he punctually performed.
Prague abounds in Jews. Two-thirds at least of its population are of that
persuasion. In the lower town the most striking edifices are the palace of
the Wallenstein family, descendants of the famous Wallenstein, so
distinguished in the Thirty Years war. Annexed to this Palace is a spacious
garden, which is open to the public as a promenade. It is well laid out.
There is a large aviary. This Palace covers a vast extent of ground. The
Colloredo family, who are descended from Wenceslaus, have a superb Palace
in this city; and there is a stable belonging to it, partly in marble and
of rich architecture, capable of containing thirty-six horses. No traveller
who comes to Prague should omit visiting these two Palaces of Wallenstein
and Colloredo. On the bridge over the Mulda before mentioned, is the statue
in bronze of St John Nepomucene, on the spot from whence he was thrown into
the river by his brother saint, King Wenceslaus, for refusing to divulge
the gallantries of his (Wenceslaus') wife, to whom he was confessor. A
favorite promenade on Sundays is on the _Faerber Insel_ or Dyers island,
which is a small island on the Mulda. Here the young men of the town come
to dance with the _grisettes_ and milliner girls of Prague, who are
renowned for their beauty and complaisance.

The Jewish burying ground is a curiosity for a person who has never visited
the Oriental countries. The tombstones are stowed thick together. Everybody
recollects the anecdote of the ingenious method adopted by Joseph II for
squeezing a large sum of money from the Jews of Prague, by giving out that
he intended to claim this cemetery, in order to build therein a Palace. The
Jews who, like all the Orientals, have the most profound veneration for the
spot where their ancestors are buried, presented a large sum of money to
the Emperor, to induce him to renounce his design.

The _Stadt-Haus_ (Hotel de Ville) is a fine building; and the _Marktplatz_
(market square) is very spacious, and contributes much to the beauty of the
town. In the centre of it stands an ancient fountain of a dodecagonal form.
The basin is of red marble, and near it stands a large stone column, with a
statue of the Virgin, bronze gilt, on its summit. A well supplied market,
or rather fair, is carried on here every day in the week. The Theatre is a
fine building and is of immense size. I witnessd the representation of a
burlesque tragedy called _Die Belagerung von Ypsilon_ (the siege of
Ypsilon), but I could not at all comprehend the cream of the jest. Madame
Catalani, who is here, sang at this theatre one night. The theatre was
completely filled and the price of admission to the boxes and _parterre_ a
ducat. The street adjoining to the theatre was crowded by people
endeavoring to catch the sweet sounds. Immense hommage has been paid to
Catalani by the authorities here.

The balls of the _bourgeoisie_ of Prague are splendid and well attended.
The _bourgeoisie_ is very opulent in this city. There are but few residents
_Noblesse_. The expences at the inns here are rather greater than those at
Vienna, wine being a foreign commodity and beer the national beverage. My
daily expences here for lodging, dinner, supper and breakfast amounted to
four florins _Convenzions Muenze_, about nine franks nearly, French money.
The country environing Prague is rich and abounding in corn; there are
likewise hops. The walls of Prague still bear the marks made by Frederic's
shot when he blockaded Prague.

PRAGUE, 7th Sept.

To-morrow I shall start for Dresden, The diligence goes off only once a
week, but I have engaged a car or rather light basket waggon drawn by two
horses (a vehicle very common in Germany) to convey me to Dresden in two
days and half. I am to pay for half of the waggon, and another traveller
will pay for the remaining half.

Before I leave Prague I must tell you that I have found out the origin of
the German phrases _Jemand den Korb zu geben (to give the basket)_, which
means a refusal of marriage. Thus when a young lady refuses an offer of
marriage on the part of her admirer, the phrase is: _Sie hat ihm den Korb
gegeben_ (_She has given him the basket_). Hitherto I have not met with any
one who could explain to me satisfactorily the origin of so singular a
phrase; but on reading lately a volume of the _Volksmaehrchen_ (_Popular
tales_) I found not only the derivation of this phrase, but also that of
the name of the city of Prague. Both are connected in the same story, and
both concern the history of Prague. The story is as follows.

Libussa, Duchess of Bohemia, had three lovers, two of whom were not
remarkably intelligent, but the third possessed a great deal of talent and
was her favorite. She was much importuned by the rival suitors. She
appeared before them one day with a basket filled with plums in her hand;
and said she would give her hand in marriage to whoever of them should
guess the following arithmetical riddle. She said: "One of you shall take
half the plums that are in this basket, and one over: another shall take
half of what remains, and one over: the third shall take half of what still
remains and three over, and then all the plums will have been taken. Now
tell me how many plums there are in the basket." Her favorite was the only
one who could guess the number of plums which was _thirty_. To him
therefore she gave her hand and the plums, and to the other suitors the
empty basket. Hence the phrase. The solution of the question is as follows:

A takes half of the plums in the basket (30) and one
over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 + 1 = 16
B half of what remained (14) and one over . . . . . 7 + 1 = 8
C half of what remained (6) and three over . . . . . 3 + 3 = 6
---
Total 30

Now with regard to the origin of the city of Prague. The former residence
was much too small, and Libussa directed her workmen to build a town on the
spot, where they should find at midday a man making the _best use of his
teeth_. They began their research and one day at that hour discovered a
carpenter sawing a block of wood. It struck them that this laborious man
was making a better use of his teeth (viz., teeth of his saw) than the mere
feeder and they judged that this ought to be the place where the town
should be built. They therefore proceeded to trace with a plough the
circumference of the town. On asking the carpenter what he was about to
make with the block he was sawing, he said " A threshold for a door," which
is called _Prah_ or _Praha_ in the Bohemian language and Libussa gave to
the city the name of _Praha_ or _Prag_.

BERLIN, 24th Sept.

Berlin has a splendid and cheerful appearance, with fine broad streets,
superb white buildings and Palaces, for the most part in the Grecian taste;
it has quite the appearance in short of an Italian city. Nearly all the
streets are at right angles; they are kept very clean and the shops make a
brilliant display. I felt so much pain in my legs, from the effect of my
pedestrian journey, that I was obliged to remain in my chamber one entire
day. There is a very good _table d'hote_ at my bin for twelve _Groschen_.
Wine is paid for extra, and at the rate of from 12 to 18 _Groschen_ the
bottle. The sort usually drunk here is the Medoc. The prices of articles of
prune necessity are dearer in Berlin than either at Dresden or Vienna;
particularly the article of washing, which is dearer than in any country I
have yet visited.

The next morning I began my rambles, and directed my course to the favorite
and fashionable promenade of the _beau monde_, at all hours of the day, I
mean in the fine street or alley _Unter den Linden_, so called from it
being planted with lime trees. There is a range of elegant buildings on
each side, and at the end, near the _Thier Garten_ (Park), is a superb gate
called the _Brandenburger Thor_ in the shape of a triumphal arch ornamented
with a statue of Peace, with an olive branch in her hand, standing on a car
drawn by four horses abreast, the whole groupe being of bronze and of
exquisite workmanship. The four horses are imitated from the Corinthian
horses at Venice and yield to them in nothing but antiquity. Indeed they
have a much more pleasing and striking effect, in being thus attached to a
car, than standing by themselves, as the Venetian ones do, on the top of
the facade of a church. This _Brandenburger Thor_ is constructed after the
model of the Propylaeum of Athens.

The Opera House, a building in the Grecian taste erected by Frederic the
Great with the inscription _Apollini et Musis_, and after that the Academy
of the Fine Arts engaged my attention. Both these buildings are remarkable,
and they are near the _Linden_. The old town is much intersected by canals
communicating with the Spree which divides it. I call it the old town, to
distinguish it from the quarter composed of streets of recent construction
between the former _enceinte_ of the town and the Brandenburger Thor. The
Hotel of the Invalides, a ponderous building, bears the following
inscription: _Laesis non victis_. The Bank and the Arsenal next engaged my
attention, as also a Guard House of recent construction in the shape of a
Doric temple. The Royal Palace is an immense building, partly in the Gothic
and partly in the Grecian style. It is very heavy but imposing. The
interior of this Palace is royally fitted up, except the little room
occupied by the great Frederic, which is left in the same state as when he
occupied it; and you know he was not fond of superfluous ornament. In the
green before the Palace stands the statue of the Prince of Anhalt Dessau,
the founder of the Prussian Infantry system, and at a short distance from
this, on the _Lange Bruecke,_ stands the colossal equestrian statue in
bronze of the Great Elector.

The _Koenigstrasse_ is the principal street and a very fine one it is; next
to it in point of beauty is the _Franzoesische_ _Strasse_. The _Wilhelm
Platz_ is adorned with the statues in marble of Schwerin, Seidlitz, Keith,
Winterfeld, and Ziethen. But I cannot enumerate all the splendid public
establishments and fine things to be seen in this beautiful city. The most
striking church is that of St Hedwig. I call it the most striking from its
resemblance to the Pantheon at Rome. The Cathedral is perhaps a finer
building. 'Tis in this last that the Electoral and Royal remains are
deposited.

The streets 'here swarm with military, and indeed the profession of arms
seems to have too much sway in the Prussian dominions. The subalterns and
young men of the Prussian Army are said to have republican sentiments, and
they, in common with all the burghers, desire a constitution. It galls them
to see one enjoyed by the Bavarians, whom they affect to look upon as
inferior to them in intelligence, and that it should be refused to them.
Most of the nobility and the greater part of the General and field officers
are however inveterate aristocrats.

You have heard, I dare say, of the attempt made by some officers among the
nobility to exclude from the service, after the peace, those officers who
were not noble. When it is considered that their best and most zealous
officers sprung from the burghers, and that Prussia, when abandoned by her
King and nobles, was saved from permanent subjection only by the
unparalleled exertions of her burghers and peasantry, one is shocked at
such ingratitude and absurdity. But the officers of the Royal Guard went so
far as to draw up a petition to the King, requesting him to dismiss all the
officers of the corps who were not noble, and Blucher was applied to to
present this petition to the King. Blucher read the paper and ordered all
the officers to assemble on the parade and thus addressed them: "Gentlemen,
I have received your paper and read its contents with the utmost
astonishment. All the remarks that I shall permit myself to make on the
subject of this petition, are, that it makes me ashamed of being myself a
noble." He then tore the petition in pieces and dismissed them.

I have been once at the theatre. _Lodoiska_ was performed. I saw a number
of fine women in the boxes. Formerly gallantry and pleasure were the order
of the day at Berlin; but now, the Court assuming the exterior of rigid
morality and strictly exercised religious devotion, mystic cant and
dullness is the order of the day. The death of the Queen of Prussia threw a
great damp over the amusements of the Court. At Charlottenburg, which is a
short distance from Berlin, in the grounds there, they point out to you her
favourite spots. She was a most amiable Princess, and united to great
personal beauty so much grace and fascination and so many good qualities
that she was beloved by all, and the breath of calumny never ventured to
assail her.

The alley _Unter den Linden_ in the evening presents a great assemblage of
Cyprian nymphs, who promenade up and down; they dress well and are
perfectly well behaved. There is a superb establishment of this kind at
Berlin, which all strangers should visit out of curiosity. It is not
indispensably necessary to sacrifice to the Goddess whose worship is
carried on there; but you may limit yourself to admire the temple, call for
refreshments and contemplate the priestesses.

There is the utmost moral and political freedom at Berlin, and tho' the
Government is despotic in form, freedom of speech is allowed. An army of
200,000 men admirably disciplined and armed, of these a garrison of 15,000
men in Berlin and as many at Potsdam, are quite sufficient to keep in check
all attempts to put political theories and speculations into practice.
Indeed, it would be very difficult to excite a revolt; the various German
governments are carried on very paternally and the government is scarcely
felt; habits of obedience have taken deep root among the people, and a
German peasant as long as he gets enough to eat and drink, does not
conceive himself unhappy, or thinks of a change. I could not help laughing
the other day, at a little village near Berlin, when I heard some peasants
talking of Napoleon; one of them, who seemed to have some partiality for
him, exclaimed, meaning to blame him for leaving Elba: _Aber warum verliess
er seine Insel? Er hatte doch zu essen und trinken so viel er wolte_ (Why
did he leave Elba? He had surely plenty to eat and drink). This good
peasant could not conceive that a man blessed with these comforts should
like to change his situation or run any risks to do so.

French as well as German is commonly spoken in Berlin, and I am glad to see
that the prejudice against the French is wearing off. If the French and
Prussians could understand one another, and knew their own interests, or if
the French had a liberal national Government, I mean, one more identified
with the interests of the people than the present one is, what advantage
might not rise therefrom? They are natural allies, and united they might be
able effectually to humble the overbearing insolence and political
coxcombry of the Czar, shake to its centre the systematic despotism and
light-fearing leader of Austria, and keep in check the commercial
greediness, monopolizing spirit and Tory arrogance of England. The German
political writers duly appreciate the illiberal policy of England towards
the continental nations, by which she invariably helps to crush liberty on
the Continent in the hopes of paralysing their energies and industry, in
order to compel them to buy English manufactures, and in fine to make them
dependent on England for every article of consumption. England, ever since
the beginning of the reign of George III to the present day, has been
always ready to lend a hand to crush liberty, to perpetuate abuses and to
rivet the fetters of monarchial, feudal and ecclesiastical tyranny.

These are facts and cannot be denied. The English people have been taxed to
the last farthing to support a war of privileges against Freedom; and
Europe is in consequence prostrate at the feet of an unprincipled
coalition, thro' England's arms and England's gold; and then an English
minister, and his vile hireling journals, tell you that the continental
nations are not ripe for and do not deserve liberty. Even the Pope and
Grand Turk, both so much dreaded by our pious ancestors, have been
supported, caressed and subsidized, in order to help to put down all
efforts made to obtain rational liberty, which the courtiers always affect
to stigmatize with the name of "Jacobinism," while a number of needy
individual have enriched themselves by the public plunder and byaiding and
abetting the system, all _novi homines_, men who, had there been more to
gain on the other side than by espousing Toryism, would not have been
backward; men who are Jacobins in the real sense of the word, however they
cloak themselves under the specious names of Church and King men; upholders
of Pitt and his system, for which they affect a veneration they are far
from really feeling; men, in fact, whose political scruples of whatever
nature they be, would soon melt away.

DRESDEN, 5th October.

I have been fortunate in getting into very comfortable lodgings, having two
rooms and as much firing as I chuse for eight _Reichsthalers_ per month.
Coffee is made for me at home in the morning, and I generally dine and sup
at a _restaurant_ close by near the bridge. The _Platz_ in the Neustadt is
close to my lodgings, and being very large and well paved and lined with
trees, it affords a very agreeable promenade. Rows of elegant houses line
the sides of this Plata, among which the _Stadthaus_ is particularly
remarkable. The famous _Japan Palace_, as it is called, is also in the
_Neustadt_, and but a short distance from the _Platz_. The gardens of Count
Marcolini afford also a pleasant promenade; but by far the most agreeable
walk, in my opinion, is on the _Zwinger_, a sort of terrace on the left
bank of the Elbe in the old town, adjoining the palace and gardens of Count
Bruhl. From this place you have a noble view of a long reach of the Elbe.
It is besides the favorite promenade of the ladies. On the _Zwinger_ too is
a building containing a fine collection of paintings. Here are _cafes_
likewise and a _restaurant_. The evening promenades are in the gardens of
the _Linkischer Bad_ (Bath of Link) on the banks of the Elbe, where there
is a summer theatre. This is the favourite resort of the _bourgeoisie_ on
Sundays and _jours de fete; gouters_ and supper parties are formed here and
very good music is heard. The Elbe bridge is of beautiful structure, and
there is a good regulation with respect to those who pass over this bridge;
which is that one side of the bridge is reserved for those going from the
new to the old town, and the other side for those going from the old to the
new town, and if you attempt to go on the wrong side you are stopped by a
sentry, so that there is no jostling nor lounging on this bridge. An arch
of this bridge was blown up by Marshal Davoust in order to arrest the
progress of the Russians, and a great deal of management was necessary to
effectuate it, for the worthy Saxons have a great veneration for this
bridge, and in order to inforce the execution of this resolution on the
part of the Marshal, the personal order of the King and the employment of
Saxon troops were necessary. It has been rebuilt since, and no one would
know that the arch had ever been blown up, but from the extreme whiteness
of the new arch, contrasting with the darker color of the old ones.

In the old town or Dresden proper, the finest buildings are: the Catholic
church, standing near the bridge, an edifice yielding in beauty but to few
in Italy and to none in other countries. Here you hear excellent music
during the church service; and the King and Royal family, all of whom are
Catholics, attend constantly. The Royal Palace is very near the church and
not far from it is the theatre. Saxony being a Lutheran country, the public
exercise of the Catholic religion was not permitted until Napoleon's time,
when he proposed an arrangement to permit to the King and all other
Catholics the public celebration of their religion, which proposition was
acceded to with universal approbation on the part of the Protestants, and
now the Host is frequently displayed in the streets. There are however but
few Catholics in Dresden among the natives. So great is the respect for
usages and customs in Germany, that the Electors of Saxony, on going over
to Catholicism, never thought even of requesting the indulgence of
exercising their religion publicly, and the granting it has produced no
evil consequence, liberalism and the most unreserved toleration in matters
of religion being the order of the day.

The Royal Palace is a very fine and extensive building and the interior is
well worth seeing, particularly the superb _Riesen-Saal_ where Augustus II
used to give his magnificent _fetes_. One of the last and most brilliant
_fetes_ given here was that given by the King of Saxony to the Emperor
Napoleon just before the Russian campaign, at which the Emperor and Empress
of Austria and most of the Sovereigns of Germany assisted, to do hommage to
the great Conqueror.

The _Schloss-gasse_ or Castle Street leads from the Palace into the _Markt
Platz_ where the markets and fairs are held. In this place, in the
_Schloss-gasse_ and in another street parallel to it, that leads from the
porcelain Manufactory to the _Grosser Platz_ (_Grande Place_), are the
finest shops and greatest display of wealth. On the _Grosser Platz_ stands
the _Frauen-Kirche_, a superb Protestant church, and which may be
considered as the cathedral church of Dresden. The _Platz_ is large. There
is great cleanliness in all the streets of Dresden, and the houses are well
built and uniform; but there are few other very prominent edifices except
those I have mentioned. On going outside the town by the gate of Pirna
stands, almost immediately on the right, on turning down a road, the
Gardens and Palace of Prince Anthony. Leaving this on your right and
proceeding along the _chaussee_ or high road which is nearly parallel to
the river, at the distance of three-quarters mile from the Gate, stands the
Palace and Gardens called _Der Grosse Garten_ (grand garden), which you
leave on your right, if you continue your route on the _chaussee_ towards
Pirna. I have not yet visited the _Grosse Garten_. There is likewise a fine
promenade on the banks of the Elbe, but quite in an opposite direction to
the Pirna gate, for to arrive at it from this gate, you must traverse the
Pirna street and _Grosser Platz_; and on arrival near the bridge direct
your course to the left, which will lead you out of one of the gates into
an immensely long avenue of elm trees parallel to the river which forms the
promenade.

DRESDEN, Oct. 10th.

I have been to see the Palace and grounds of the _Grosser Garten_. The
garden and park, for it unites both, is of great extent, and beautifully
laid out; but a number of fine trees have been knocked down and mutilated
by cannon shot during the battle of Dresden in 1818, when this garden was
occupied by the Allied troops and exposed to a heavy fire of fifty pieces
of cannon, from a battery erected by Napoleon on the opposite side of the
river, which completely commanded and enfiladed the whole range of the
garden. How the Palace itself escaped being knocked to pieces is wonderful;
but I suppose Napoleon must have given orders to spare it as much as
possible. This Palace is of beautiful structure and in the style of an
Italian villa; statues of the twelve Caesars and bas-reliefs adorn the
exterior. The columns and pilasters are of the Corinthian order. As for the
interior, it is unfurnished, and has been so since the Seven Years' war,
when it was plundered by the enemy, and has never since been inhabited by
the Electoral family. There is a superb rectangular basin of water in this
garden. These gardens are delightfully laid out; why they are not more
frequented I cannot conceive, but I have hitherto met with very few people
there, tho' they are open to all the world. They will form my morning's
promenade, for I prefer solitude to a crowd in a morning walk. But one of
the gardeners here tells me that on Sunday evening there is generally a
good deal of company, who come to listen to the music which is played in a
building fitted up for the purpose at one side of the garden. Wine, coffee,
beer and other refreshments are to be had; but beer is the favorite
beverage. Smoking is universal among the young men; the most ardent
admirers of the fair sex never forget their pipe. During the courtship the
surest sign that the fair one does not intend to _give_ her lover _the
basket_ is when she presents him with a bag to hold his tobacco. Her
consent is implied thereby.

During the battle of Dresden, the slaughter in this garden was immense, and
the Allies were finally driven out of it. The gardener related to me an
affecting story of a young lady of Dresden, whose lover was killed in this
battle and buried in the _Grosser Garten_. She has taken it so much to
heart that she comes here three or four times in the week to visit this
grave and strew flowers over it. She remains for some time absorbed in
silent meditation and then withdraws. She has a settled melancholy, but it
has not yet affected her understanding.

DRESDEN, Oct. 15th.

I met with my old friend, Sir W.I., who was travelling to Berlin, with the
idea of passing the winter there and of proceeding in the summer to Moscow.
Thro' the interests of my friends, Col. D------ and Baron de F------ I have
been ballotted for and admitted a member of a club or society here called
the _Ressource_. It is held in a large house on the _Markt Platz_, and is
indeed a most agreeable resource to all foreigners; for 'tis in this
society that they are likely to meet and form acquaintance with the
_noblesse_, principal _bourgeoisie_ and _litterati_. It is conducted on the
most liberal scale and not confined to those of birth and fortune. Good
character, polite behaviour and litterary requirements will ensure
admittance to a candidate. This society consists of members and honorary
members; among the honorary members are foreigners and others whose stay in
Dresden is short; but whoever remains for more than one year must cease to
be an honorary member and must be ballotted for in order to become a
permanent member, and should he be blackballed he ceases to belong to the
society altogether. This is a very good regulation. A year is a sufficient
time of proof for the character and conduct of a person, and should he
during this interval prove himself obnoxious to the members of the society,
they can at its expiration exclude him for ever afterwards.

No enquiry is made as to the character and conduct of a person who is
admitted as an honorary member: it is sufficient that he be recommended by
a permanent member, which is deemed a sufficient guarantee for his
respectability. In this society there are dining rooms, billiard rooms,
card rooms, a large reading room. Here too is a small but well chosen
library and three or four newspapers in every European language; all the
German newspapers and reviews and the principal periodical works in the
German, French, English and Italian languages. The English papers taken in
here are the _Times, Courier_ and _Chronicle_. Of the French, the
_Moniteur, Journal des Debats, Constitutionel, Journal du Commerce, Gazette
de France_ and _Gazette de Lausanne_, and of the Italian the _Gazette di
Milano, di Venezia, di Firenze_ and _di Lugano_. Every German newspaper is,
I believe, to be found here. The Society lay in their stock of wine, which
is of the best quality; good cooks and servants are kept. Dinners go
forward from one to three. You dine _a la carte_ and pay the amount of what
you call for to the waiters. Coffee, liqueurs and all sorts of refreshments
are likewise to be had. Supper, likewise _a la carte_, goes forward between
nine and eleven. The evening before supper may be employed, if you chuse,
in cards, billiards, or reading. Very pleasant and useful acquaintances are
made at the _Ressource_, since if a foreigner renders himself agreeable to
the gentlemen who frequent this society, they generally propose taking him
to their houses and introducing him to their families. After an
introduction, you may go at any hour of the evening you please: but morning
visits are not much in fashion, since the _toilette_ is seldom made till
after dinner, which is always early in Germany. There is no getting dinner
after three o'clock in any part of Dresden. Besides the _Ressource_ there
are several other Clubs here, such as the _Harmonic_ and others. The public
balls are given at the _Hotel de Pologne_ twice a week, viz., one for the
_Noblesse_ and one for the _Bourgeoisie_. None of the female _Bourgeoisie_
are admitted to the balls and societies of the _Noblesse_, and only such of
the males as occupy posts or employments at Court or under Government such
as _Koenigs-rath_, _Hof-rath_, or officers of the Army. It is therefore
usual, when the Sovereign wishes to introduce a person of merit among the
_Bourgeoisie_ into the upper circles, that he gives him the title of _Rath_
or Counsellor; but this priviledge of being presentable at Court does not
extend to their wives and daughters. All the Military officers, from
whatever class of life they spring, have introduction _de jure_ into the
balls and societies of the _Noblesse_, and are always in uniform. But when
they attend the balls of the _Bourgeoisie_, it is the etiquette for them to
wear plain clothes: at the balls of the _Bourgeoisie_, therefore, not an
uniform is to be seen. I observed by far the prettiest women at the balls
of the _Bourgeoisie_, and very many are to be found there who in education
and accomplishments fully equal those of the _Noblesse_, and this is no
small merit, for the women in Saxony of the higher classes are extremely
well educated; most of them are proficient in music and are versed in
French and Italian litterature. They seem amiable and goodnatured and by no
means _minaudieres_, as Lady Mary Wortley Montague has rather unjustly
termed them; for they appear to me to be the most frank, artless creatures
I ever beheld, and to have no sort of _minauderie_ or _coquetterie_ about
them. Beauty is the appanage of the Saxon women, hence the proverb in
rhyme:

Darauf bin ich gegangen nach Sachsen,
Wo die schoenen Maedchen auf den Bauemen wachsen.

In English:

Behold me landed now on Saxon ground,
Where lovely damsels on the trees are found.

A taste for litterature is indeed general throughout the whole nation; and
this city is considered as the Athens of Germany.

DRESDEN, Nov. 8th.

I have been at the theatre and witnessed the representation of a tragedy
called _Die Schuld_, written by Adolphus Muellner. It is a most interesting
piece, and the novelty of it has made a striking impression on me. It is
written in the eight-footed trochaic metre, similar to that in which the
Spanish tragedies are written. It hinges on a prophecy made by a Gipsey, in
which the person to whom the prophecy is made, in endeavoring to avert it,
hastens its accomplishment. The piece is full of interest and the
versification harmonious. I have been twice at the Italian opera, where I
saw the _Gazza Ladra_ and _Il Matrimonio secreto_. I came here with the
idea of giving myself up entirely to the study of the German language; but
such is the beauty of the country environing Dresden that, though winter
has commenced I employ the greatest part of the day in long walks. For
instance I have been to Pillnitz, which is on the right bank of the Elbe
about seven miles from Dresden, ascending the river. The road is on the
bank of the river the whole way. The Palace at Pillnitz is vast and well
built. During a part of the year the Royal family reside there. Pillnitz
will remain "damn'd to everlasting fame" as the place where the famous
treaty was signed, the object of which was to put down the French
Revolution, which Mr Pitt and the British ministry knew of and sanctioned,
tho' they pretended ignorance of it and professed to have no desire to
interfere with the affairs of France.

Every thing pleases me at Dresden except the beds. I wish it were the
fashion to use blankets and _edredons_ for the upper covering instead of
the _lits de plumes_; for they are too heavy and promote rather too intense
a perspiration, and if you become impatient of the heat, and throw them off
you catch an intense cold. You know how partial I am to the Germans, and
can even put up with their eternal smoking, tho' no smoker myself, but to
their beds I shall never be reconciled. A German bed is as follows: a
_paillasse_, over that a mattress, then a featherbed with a sheet fastened
to it, and over that again another featherbed with a sheet fastened to it;
and thus you lie between two featherbeds; but these are not always of
sufficient length, and you are often obliged to coil up your legs or be
exposed to have them frozen by their extending beyond the featherbeds; for
the cold is very great during the winter.

The more I see of the people here, the more I like them. The national
character of the Germans is integrity, tho' sometimes cloaked under a rough
exterior as in Bavaria and Austria; but here in Saxony it is combined with
a suavity of manners that is very striking, for the Saxons are the Tuscans
of Germany in point of politeness, and they are far more accomplished
because they take more pains in cultivating their minds.

A savant in Italy is a man who writes a volume about a coin, filled with
hypotheses, when, with all his learning forced into the service, he proves
nothing; and this very man is probably ignorant in the extreme of modern
political history, and that of his own times, and has more pedantry than
taste. Such a man is often however in Italy termed a _Portento_, but in
Dresden and in most of the capitals of Germany where there are so many of
science and deep research, a man must not only be well read in antiquities,
but also well versed in political economy and in analysis before he can
venture to give a work to the public. Latin quotations, unsupported by
reason and philosophical argument will avail him nothing, for the German is
a terrible _Erforscher_ and wishes to know the _what_, the _how_ and the
_when_ of every thing; besides an Italian _savant_ is seldom versed in any
other tongue than his own and the Latin, with perhaps a slight knowledge of
French; whereas in Germany it is not only very common to find a knowledge
of French, English, Italian, Latin and Greek united in the same person, but
very many add Hebrew, Arabic and even Sanscrit to their stock of Philology.
As a specimen for instance of German industry, I have seen, at the club of
the _Ressource_, odes on the Peace in thirty-six different languages, and
all of them written by native Saxons. This shows to what an extent
philology is cultivated in Germany; indeed, it is quite a passion and a
very useful one it is. I know that many people regard it as a loss of time,
and say that you acquire only new words, and no new ideas; but I deny this.
I maintain that every new language learned gives you new ideas, as it puts
you at once more _au fait_ of the manners and customs of the people, which
can only be thoroughly learned by reading popular authors in their original
language: for there are several authors of the merit of whose style it is
impossible to form an adequate idea in a translation, however correct and
excellent it be. Indeed I wonder that the study of the German language is
not more attended to in England, France, and Italy; but to the English,
methinks, it is indispensable. All the customs and manners of Europe are
taken from the German; all modern Europe bears the Teutonic stamp. We are
all the descendants of the Teutonic hordes who subjugated the Roman Empire
and changed the face of Europe; 'tis they who have given and laid down the
grand and distinguishing feature between modern Europe and ancient Europe
and Asia: I mean the respect paid to women. To what nation, I say, is due
the chivalrous respect to women which is the surest sign of civilization,
and which was unknown to the ancient Greeks and Romans, except to the
Germans, who even in their most uncivilized state paid such veneration to
their women as to consult them as oracles on all occasions and to admit
them to their councils? Tacitus particularly mentions this; and speaking of
the Germans of his time, he says, "They have an idea that there is
something divine about a woman."[126] It is this feeling, handed down to us
from our Teutonic ancestors, that contributes mainly to make the European
so superior to all the Asiatic nations, where woman still remains a
degraded being, and 'tis this feeling that gives to us the palm above all
Greek and Roman glory. What are the modern European nations, the English,
French, Italians, Switzers, even Spanish and Portuguese, but the
descendants of these warlike Teutonic tribes who swept away the effeminate
Romans from the face of the earth? and do we not see the Teutonic policy
and usages, defective and degenerated as they sometimes are, the best
safeguard of liberty against the insidious interpretation of the Roman law,
which is founded on the pretended superiority of one nation, the inferred
inferiority of all the rest?

With regard to theatricals, I have witnessed the representation of a
tragedy, lately published, called _Sappho_, by a young poet of the name of
Grillparzer. This tragedy is strictly on the Greek model. Its versification
in iambics is so beautiful that it is regarded as the triumph of the
_Classics_ over the _Romantics_; and by this piece Grillparzer has proved
the universality of his genius; for he wrote a short time ago a dramatic
piece in the _romantic_ style and in the eight rhymed trochaic metre called
_die Anhfrau_ (the ancestress) where supernatural agency is introduced.
This I have read; it is a piece full of interest; still it was thought too
_outre_ by the _Classiker_. It was supposed that this was the peculiar
style of the author, and that he adopted it from inability to compose in
the classic taste, when behold! by way of proving the contrary, he has
given us a drama simple in its plot, where all the unities are preserved,
and where the subject one would think was too well known to produce much
interest; he has given, I say, to this piece (Sappho), from the extreme
harmony of its versification and the pathos of the sentiments expressed
therein, an effect which I doubt any tragedy of Euripides or Sophocles
surpasses. The character of Sappho and her passion for Phaon; his
indifference to her and attachment to the young Melitta, an attendant and
slave of Sappho's, and Sappho throwing herself into the sea after uniting
Phaon and Melitta, constitute the plot of the drama. But simple as the
plot, and old as the story is, it excites the greatest interest, and never
fails to draw tears from the audience. What can be more artless and
pathetic, for instance, than these lines of the young Melitta when she
regrets her expatriatioa:

Kein Busen schlaegt mlr bier in diesem Lande,
Und meine Freunden wohnen weit von hier.

In English:

No bosom beats for me in this strange land,
And far from here my friends and parents dwell.

I have no doubt that some of these days _Sappho_ will be translated into
the idiom of modern Greece and acted in that country. The actress, who did
the part of Sappho, gave it full effect, and the part of the young Melitta
was fairly performed; but I did not approve of the acting of the performer
who played Phaon. He overstepped the modesty of nature and the intention of
the author; for he was in his gesture and manner grossly rude and insolent
to poor Sappho, whereas, tho' his love to Melitta was paramount, he ought
to have shown no ordinary struggle in stifling his gratitude to his
benefactress Sappho.

I admire the German word _Gebieterinn_ (mistress). It is majestic and
harmonious, and the only word, in any modern language that I know of,
poetic enough to render aptly the Greek word [Greek: Despoina].

DRESDEN, Decr. 1st.

I have been to visit the famous Gallery of paintings here; but you must not
expect from me a description. I shall send you a catalogue. It would be
endless to describe the various _chefs-d'oeuvre_ which are contained in
this valuable collection. Dresden has always been considered as the
Florence of Germany and has always been renowned for its Gallery of
paintings; hence the almost innate taste of the Saxons for the _Beaux Arts_
and the great encouragement given to them at all tunes by this Government.
It is here and at Meissen that the best German is thought to be spoken,
tho' Hanover disputes this prerogative with Dresden.

I have been to see the antiquities and curiosities of the _Japanischer
Palast_ (Palace of Japan), as it is called. In this Palace is a quantity of
ancient armour and the most superb collection of porcelain I believe in
Europe. The collection of precious stones is also immense; and I never in
my life saw such a profusion of diamonds, emeralds, turquoises, sapphirs,
amethysts and topazes. In this Museum are three statues found in
Herculaneum on its first discovery or excavation, viz., an Athlete, an
Esculapius, and a Venus. Here too, and from this circumstance, the Palace
takes its name, is a collection of Japanese antiquities and ornaments,
lacker work in gold and silver, which is unique in the world. From the
Royal Library, a foreigner, on being recommended, may have at his own house
all such books to read as can be replaced if lost or spoiled; but the
manuscripts and scarce and valuable editions are not permitted to be taken
out of the Library. Any person once admitted on recommendation may go to
read in this Library at stated hours and may consult any book or manuscript
he pleases on applying to the librarian.

A person fond of music will be in a continual state of enjoyment at
Dresden. Besides the fine music in the Royal Chapel, the band of the King's
Guard is composed of first rate musicians, who attend regularly at Guard
mounting and play for an hour together. There is also a band of music every
evening during the summer months that plays in the gardens of the
_Linkischer Bad_. Then there are various other places of recreation and
amusement, at all of which musicians are in attendance; for a Saxon cannot
enjoy his repast or his pipe without music and good music too to facilitate
his digestion. There is a custom in Dresden that on the occasion of the
death of a person the young choristers of the Cathedral are sent for to
sing hymns, standing in a semi-circle round the door of the house of the
defunct. These choristers are all dressed in black and their style of
singing is melodious, solemn and impressive.

Smoking is so prevalent here and in all parts of Germany that if you wish
to denote one of the male sex, _smoker_ would be quite a synonymous word.
Such is the passion for this enjoyment that even at the balls the young
men, the moment they have finished the waltz, quit the hands of their
partners and rush into another room in order to smoke; nor would the beauty
of Venus nor the wit of Minerva be powerful enough to restrain the young
German from giving way to his darling practise. Smoking tobacco has I think
this visible effect, that it serves to calm all tumultuous passions, and
what confirms me in this idea is, that most young Germans, in commencing
life as adults, are full of enthusiastic and even exaggerated notions of
liberty and equality. They are romantic to a degree that is difficult to be
conceived, and seem to be restrained by no selfish or worldly ideas. This
you would suppose would tend to render them rather turbulent subjects,
under an autocratical government; but all this _Schwaermerey_ evaporates
literally in smoke: they take to their pipe, and by degrees the fumes of
tobacco cause all these lofty ideas to dissipate: the pipe becomes more and
more necessary to their existence, and consoles them for their wrongs real
or imaginary; and in three or four years they sit down contentedly to their
several occupations, as strait-forward, painstaking, plodding men, quite
satisfied to follow the routine chalked out for them, and either totally
forget all ambitious views, or become too indolent to make any sacrifice to
obtain them, and this _virtue comes from tobacco_!! The German Hippogriff
becomes an Ox, dull and domestic, and treads out the corn placed before
him, content to have his share thereof in peace and quietness.

The German Governments, which are mild and paternal, are fully aware of
this and allow the utmost liberty of speech; well knowing that, thanks to
that friend and ally of Legitimacy, tobacco, the romantic visionary and
somewhat refractory youth will subside into a tranquil _ganz alltaeglicher
Mann_ and become totally averse to any innovation which demands the
sacrifice of repose.

The pipe which has this sedative effect on political effervescence, has a
still stronger similar effect, it is said, on the passion of love; hence
the German husbands are proverbially sluggish. But the ladies, none of whom
smoke, preserve their romanticity during their whole lives, and would, if
they had their choice, give their hands to foreigners, who are more
attentive to them than their own countrymen.

The young ladies here are, 'tis said, extremely romantic in their ideas of
love and capable of the strongest attachment. They think that any thing
should be pardoned to sincere passion. It has been related to me that some
time ago a young man, who was devotedly attached to a girl, on the father
refusing his consent to the marriage, stabbed the girl and then himself. An
immense number of young ladies attended their funeral, to throw flowers
over the grave of the two lovers. Assuredly the young man was only a
noviciate in smoking.

Everybody must, I think, admire the Saxon women. They are in general
handsome and have fine shapes; they are warm hearted and affectionate; and
they are almost universally well educated. Indeed the whole Saxon people
are so amiable that foreigners find themselves so happy here that they are
unwilling to quit the country. Very many form matrimonial attachments. In
short, this people fully merit the epithet a celebrated English traveller
(Sherlock)[127] has bestowed on them when he called them a _herrliches
Volk_.

DRESDEN, Jan. 8d, 1819.

I have made an excursion to Meissen which lies on the same bank of the
river with the old town of Dresden at a distance of twelve miles. As there
is no road on the left bank of the river to Meissen, you must cross the
river twice to arrive at it, viz., once at Neustadt and once at Meissen,
the road being on the right bank. I put up at the _Hirsch_ (Stag), a very
comfortable inn. I went to Meissen with a view of seeing the Russian
contingent pass the Elbe on their return from France, which has been
evacuated in consequence of the arrangement at Aix-la-Chapelle. They
appeared a fine body of men, clothed _a la francaise_ and seemed in high
spirits. They seem to have imbibed liberal ideas during their residence in
France, for some of the officers who dined at the inn at Meissen spoke very
freely on passing events.

The return of the Saxon contingent is expected in Dresden in a day or two,
and there will no doubt be a great deal of rejoicing among the military and
their relations to meet their old comrades and friends; and potent
libations of _Doppel Bier_ will no doubt be made. Meissen is said to be
famous for the beauty of its women and the few that I saw in the streets
did not contradict this reputation.

DRESDEN, Jany. 5th, 1819.

We have had several balls here. Waltzing is the only sort of dance in
fashion at Dresden, excepting now and then a Polonaise.

I have witnessed an interesting spectacle in the _Grosser Garten_. The pond
or basin is completely frozen over, and a Russian Prince, Gallitzin, who is
here, has fitted up a sort of _Montagnes Russes_ as they are called. Blocks
of ice are placed on an inclined plane to the top of which you mount by
means of a staircase; and then, seating yourself in a sort of sledge, you
slide down the inclined plane with immense velocity. The Prince often
persuades a lady to sit on this sleigh on his lap and descend together; and
this no doubt serves to _break the ice_ of many an amorous intrigue. This
construction of the Prince Gallitzin has contributed to fill the _Grosser
Garten_ with the _beau monde_, every day from twelve to two o'clock; so
that you see we are in no want of amusements at Dresden.

The King frequently attends the theatre; he is a tall, fine looking man,
and is usually dressed in the uniform of his Foot-Guards, which is scarlet
faced with yellow. The poor King has taken much to heart the injustice with
which he has been treated by the coalition, and no doubt will not easily
forget the ill-bred and insolent letter of Castlereagh to the Congress,
wherein he said that the King of Saxony deserved to lose his dominions for
adhering to Napoleon. But how the King of Saxony could act otherwise I am
at a loss to find: so little could he possibly deserve this treatment for
adhering to Napoleon, that had his advice been taken in the year 1805, the
French would never have been able to extend their conquests so far, nor to
dictate laws to Germany. But Lord Castlereagh seems to have either never
known or wilfully forgotten the anterior political conduct of Saxony. Had
he been more versed in German affairs, or had studied with more accuracy
the events passing before his eyes, it would have been a check upon his
arrogance; but here was a genuine disciple of the Pitt school (that school
of ignorance and insolence), who sets himself up as the moral regenerator
of nations and as a distributor of provinces, while he is grossly ignorant
of the political system of the country on whose destinies he pretends to
decide so peremptorily. Had Castlereagh paid attention to what was going
forward in Germany in 1805, he would have seen too that of all powers
Prussia was the very _last_ who with any _shadow of justice_ could pretend
to an indemnification at the expense of Saxony. In the year 1805, the King,
then Elector of Saxony, strongly advised the Prussian Cabinet to forget its
ancient rivalry and jealousy of Austria and to coalesce with the latter
power, in resisting the encroachments of Napoleon, in order to prevent the
latter from attempting the overthrow of the whole fabric of the
constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, with the intricacy and fragility of
which no prince in Germany was better acquainted than the Elector of
Saxony. Prussia however was still reluctant to engage in the contest and
gave no support whatever to Austria. Napoleon defeats the Austrians at
Austerlitz and dictates peace. Six months after the Prussian Cabinet,
excited by a patriotic but rash and ill-calculating party, has recourse to
arms, not from any generous policy, but because she sees herself outwitted
by Napoleon, who refuses to cede to her Hanover in perpetuity. Prussia
begins the war and calls on Saxony, who always moved in her orbit, to join
her. To the Elector of Saxony this war (in 1806) appeared then ill-timed
and too late; but with that good faith, nevertheless, which invariably
characterized him, he remained faithful to his engagement and furnished his
quota of troops to Prussia. The Saxon troops fought nobly at the battle of
Jena. This battle annihilates all the power of Prussia, and lays Saxony
entirely at the mercy of the Conqueror; but Napoleon not only treats Saxony
with moderation, but with rare generosity; he does not take from her a
single village, but aggrandizes her and gives to her the Duchy of Warsaw
and to her Sovereign the title of King. Saxony becomes in consequence a
member of the confederation of the Rhine and is bound to support the
Protector in all his wars offensive and defensive. The Russian war in 1812
begins: every German state, Austria and Prussia in the number, furnishes
its contingent of troops. The campaign is unsuccessful, the climate of
Russia having annihilated the French Army, and Napoleon returns to Paris.
Saxony is now exposed to invasion and harassed by the incursions of the
Cossacks. The King of Saxony is perplexed in what manner to act, so as to
ensure to his subjects that protection which was ever uppermost in his
thoughts; feeling however with his usual sagacity that every thing would
ultimately depend on the dispositions of Austria, he repairs himself to
Prague, in order to have an interview with one of the Austrian ministers,
and to sound that Cabinet. Austria however still vacillates and declines
stating what her intentions are. Napoleon returns from Paris, defeats the
Prussians and Russians at Bautzen and re-occupies all Saxony. He then
writes to the King of Saxony to desire him to return immediately to his
dominions and to fulfil his engagements. What was the King to do? Austria
still refusing to declare herself, was he to sacrifice his crown and
dominions uselessly to the vengeance of Napoleon, to please the Emperor of
Russia and King of Prussia, who for aught he knew might patch up a peace
the next day? and this was the more probable from their having been beaten
at Bautzen, which circumstance also might with equal probability induce
Austria to coalesce with, instead of against France. All the other members
of the Confederation of the Rhine remained staunch to Napoleon and poured
their contingents into Saxony; was he to be the only unfaithful ally and
towards a Monarch who had always treated him with the strongest marks of
attachment and regard? and when neither Russia nor Prussia were likely to
give him the least assistance? He therefore returned to Dresden; and
Napoleon took up his grand position the whole length of the Elbe, from the
mountains of Bohemia to Hamburgh, thus covering the whole of Saxony with
his army. Austria however at last comes forward to join the coalition.
Fortune changes; the Saxon troops, tired of beholding their country the
perpetual theatre of war and trusting to the generosity of the Allies, go
over to them in the middle of a battle, and decide, thereby, the fate of
the day at Leipzig. The King of Saxony is made a prisoner, and then he is
punished for what he could not help. Why was he to be punished more than
any other member of the Confederation of the Rhine? One would think that
the seasonable defection of his troops at Leipzig should have induced the
Allies to treat him with moderation. The other States of the Confederation
did not abandon Napoleon until after he was completely beaten at Leipzig;
and Austria refused to accede to the coalition until a _carte blanche_ was
given her to help herself in Italy.

Let every impartial man therefore review the whole of this proceeding and
then say whether the King of Saxony, so proverbial for his probity, so
adored by his subjects, deserved to be insulted by such an unfeeling letter
as that of Castlereagh. No! the King of Saxony better deserves to reign
than any King of them all. Would they had even a small share of his
virtues! Another proof and a still stronger one of the great integrity and
honor of this excellent Prince, is, that when Napoleon offered to mediatize
in his favor the various ducal Houses in Saxony, such as Weimar, Gotha,
Cobourg, etc., and to annex these countries to his dominions, he declined
the offer. Would Prussia, Austria, or Hanover have been so scrupulous?

The young ladies here, tho' well versed and delighting in various branches
of litterature, cannot overcome that strong national propensity to tales
and romances wherein the _terrific and supernatural_ abounds; in all their
romances accordingly this taste prevails strongly; nay, even in some of the
romances, where the scene is laid in later times, there is some such
anachronism as the story of a spectre.

I recollect reading a novel, the scene of which is laid in Italy about the
time of the battle of Marengo, wherein a ghost is introduced who
contributes mainly to the unravelling of the piece. A young lady here of
considerable talent and of general information confessed to me, when I
asked her, what subjects pleased her most in the way of reading, that
nothing gave her so much delight as "_Geistergeschichten_." Lewis' romance
of "_The Monk_" is a great favorite in Germany.[128] By the bye, his
poetical tale of _Alonzo and Imogen_ is evidently taken from a similar
subject in the _Volks-maehrchen_.

The weather has set in very cold and the Elbe is nearly frozen over. It is
impossible to go out of the house without a _Pelz_ or cloak lined with fur;
for otherwise, on leaving a room heated by a stove, the effect of the cold
is almost instantaneous and brings on an ague fit. This I attribute to the
excessive heat kept up in the rooms and houses by the stoves. As smoking is
so prevalent here, this contributes much also to keeping the body in a
praeternatural heat and rendering it still more obnoxious to cold on
removal from a room to the open air. It has been remarked by a medical
author, in the Russian campaign in 1812, that the soldiers of the southern
nations and provinces, viz., Provencaux, Gascons, Italians, Spaniards, and
Portuguese, endured the cold much better and suffered less from it than the
Germans and Hollanders. The reason is sufficiently obvious: the former live
in the open air even in the middle of winter and seldom make use of a fire
to warm themselves; whereas the Germans and Dutch live in an atmosphere of
stove-heat and smoke and seldom like to stir abroad in the open air during
winter, unless necessity obliges them. Hence they become half-baked, as it
were; their nerves are unstrung, their flesh flabby and they become so
chilly, as to suffer from the smallest exposure to the atmosphere. In the
houses in Germany, on account of the stoves, the cold is never felt,
whereas it is very severely in Italy and Spain where many of the houses
have no fireplaces. On this account I prefer Germany as a winter residence,
for I think there is no sensation so disagreeable as to feel cold in the
house. In the open air I do not care a fig for it, for my cloak lined with
bearskin protects me amply. The climate here in winter is a dry cold, which
is much more salubrious and agreeable to me than the changeable, humid
climate of Great Britain, where, though the cold is not so great, it is
much more severely felt.

[126] Tacitus, _Germania_, C, VIII.--ED.

[127] Martin Sherlock (d. 1797), author of _Lettres d'un voyageur anglais_,
which were published in Paris 1779 and, the year after, in London.

[128] Matthew Gregory Lewis, 1775-1818, published _Ambrosio or the Monk_ in
1795.--ED.

CHAPTER XVIII

MARCH-APRIL 1819

Journey from Dresden to Leipzig--The University of Leipzig--Liberal
spirit--The English disliked in Saxony--The English Government hostile to
liberty--Journey to Frankfort--From Frankfort to Metz and Paris--A.F.
Lemaitre--_Bon voyage_ to the Allies--Return to England.

I left Dresden on the 2nd March, 1819. A _Landkutsche_ conveyed me as far
as Leipzig in a day and half, stopping the first night at Oschaly, where
there is a good inn. At Leipzig I put up at the _Hotel de Baviere_ and
remained five days. Leipzig is a fine old Gothic city. It is, as everybody
knows, famous for its University and its Fair, which is held twice a year,
in spring and in autumn, and which is the greatest mart for books perhaps
in the world. The University of Leipzig and indeed all the Universities of
Germany are in bad repute among the _Obscuranten_ and _eteignoirs_ of the
day, on account of the liberal ideas professed by the teachers and
scholars. In the University of Leipzig every thing may be learned by those
who chuse to apply, but those who prefer remaining idle may do so, as there
is less compulsion than at the English Universities. There is however such
a national enthusiasm for learning, in all parts of Germany, that the most
careless and ill-disposed youth would never be about to support the
ridicule of his fellow students were he backward in obtaining prizes, but
after all I have heard of the dissipation, lawlessness, and want of
discipline at Leipzig, I can safely affirm that all these stories are
grossly exaggerated: and I fancy there is little other dissipation going
forward than amours with _Stubenmaedchen_. I do not hear of any drunkenness,
gaming or horse racing; nor do the professors themselves, who ought to be
the best judges of what is going on, complain of the insubordination of
their pupils. But what I principally admire in this, and indeed in other
German Universities, is that there are no distinctions of rank, such as
gold tassels, etc., no servile attention paid to sprigs of nobility, as in
the Universities in England, where the Heads of Colleges and Fellows are
singularly condescending to the son of a Peer, a Minister, or a Bishop.
Perfect equality prevails in Leipzig and the son of the proudest
_Reichsgraf_ is allowed no more priviledges than the son of a barber; nor
do the professors make the least difference between them. In fact, in spite
of the vulgar belief in England respecting the _hauteur_ of the German
_noblesse_ and the vassalage of the other classes, I must say, from
experience, that the German nobility show far less _hauteur_ and have in
general more really liberal ideas than most part of our English
aristocracy, and a German burgher or shop-keeper would disdain to cringe
before a nobleman as many shopkeepers, aye, and even gentry, are sometimes
known to do in England. Another circumstance too proves on how much more
liberal a footing Leipzig and other German Universities are than our
English ones, which is, that in England none but those who profess the
religion of the Church of England, or conform to its ritual, are admitted;
but here all sects are tolerated and admitted, and all live in perfect
harmony with each other. The students are at liberty to chuse their place
of worship and the sermons that are preached in the Catholic as well as the
Protestant churches are such as sensible men of whatever opinion might
listen to with profit, and without being shocked by absurdities or
intolerant ideas.

Mysteries, theologic sophistry and politics are carefully avoided, and a
pure morality, a simple theosophy, comprehensible to the meanest
understanding, pervades these simple discourses. The consequence of this
toleration and liberal spirit is that an union between the Lutheran and
Calvinistic churches has been effected.

I met a number of mercantile people at the _table d'hote_ at Leipzig in the
_Hotel de Baviere_, and I entered a good deal into conversation with them;
but when they discovered I was an Englishman, I could see a sudden coldness
and restraint in their demeanour, for we are very unpopular in Germany,
owing to the conduct of our Cabinet, and they have a great distrust of us.
The Saxons complain terribly of our Government for sanctioning the
dismemberment of their country and of the insolent letter of Castlereagh.
It is singular enough that Saxony is the only country where English goods
are allowed to be imported free of duty; but our great and good ally the
King of Prussia (as these goods must pass thro' his territory) has imposed
a tolerably heavy transit duty. I am glad of it; this is as it should be. I
rejoice at any obstacles that are put to British commerce; I rejoice when I
hear of our merchants suffering and I quite delight to hear of a
bankruptcy. They, the English merchants, contributed with their gold to
uphold the corrupt system of Pitt and to carry on unjust, unreasonable and
liberticide wars. Yes! it is perfectly fit and proper that the despotic
governments they have contributed to restore should make them feel their
gratitude. If the French since their Revolution have not always fought for
liberty, they have done so invariably for science; and wherever they
carried their victorious arms, abuses were abolished, ameliorations of all
kinds followed, and the arts of life were improved. Our Government since
the accession of George III has never raised its arm except in favor of old
abuses, to uphold despotism and unfair privileges, or to establish
commercial monopoly. Our victories so far from being of beneficial effect
to the countries wherein we gained them, have been their curse. We can
interfere and be prodigal of money and blood to crush any attempt of the
continental nations towards obtaining their liberty; but when it is
necessary to intercede in favour of oppressed patriots, then we are told
that we have no right to interfere with the domestic policy of other
nations. We can send ships to protect and carry off in safety a worthless
Royal family, as at Naples in 1799, but we can view with heartless
indifference, and even complacency, the murders committed in Spain by the
infamous Ferdinand and his severities against those to whom he owes his
crown, all of whom had the strongest daim to our protection as having
fought with us in the same cause and contributed to our success.

The _Platz_ at Leipzig is large and here it is that the fair is held. The
theatre is an elegant building and lies just outside one of the gates of
the city. Innumerable shops of booksellers are here and it is astonishing
at how cheap a rate printing in all languages is carried forward.

There are some pleasant promenades in the environs of Leipzig; but this is
not a time of the year to judge of the beauty of the country. I went,
however, to view the house occupied by Napoleon on the eve of the battle of
Leipzig. A monument is to be erected to the memory of Poniatowsky in the
spot where he perished.

I started from Leipzig on 7th March at eleven o'clock. I was five days en
route from Leipzig to Frankfort, tho' the distance does not exceed
forty-five German miles. I travelled in the diligence, but had I known that
the arrangements were so uncomfortable, I should have preferred going in a
_Landkutsche_, which would have made the journey in seven days and afforded
me an opportunity of stopping every night to repose; whereas in the
diligence, tho' they go _en poste_, they travel exceedingly slow and it is
impossible to persuade the postillion to accelerate his usual pace. He is
far more careful of his horses than of his passengers. This I however
excuse; but it is of the frequent stoppages and bad arrangement of them
that I complain. Instead of stopping at some town for one whole night or
two whole nights out of the five, they stop almost at every town for three,
four and five hours; so that these short stoppages do not give you time
enough to go to bed and they are besides generally made in the day time or
early in the morning and evening. We passed thro' the following cities and
places of eminence, viz., Lutzen; the spot where Gustavus Adolphus was
killed is close to the road on the left hand with a plain stone and the
initials G.A. inscribed on it. Weimar is a very neat city and where I
should like much to have staid; but I had only time to view the outside of
the Palace and the _Stadthaus_. Erfurt and Gotha are both fine looking
cities. In Gotha I had only time to see the outside of the _Residenz
Schloss_ or Ducal Palace, which is agreeably situated on an eminence, and
to remark in the _Neumarkt Kirche_ the portrait of Duke Bernard of Saxe
Weimar and the monuments of the princes of that family. At Erfurt there is
the tomb of a Count Gleichen who was made prisoner in the Holy Land, in the
time of the Crusades, and was released by a Mahometan Princess on condition
of his espousing her. The Count was already married in Germany and there he
had left his wife; but such was his gratitude to the fair Musulmane, that
he married her with the full consent of his German wife and they all three
lived happily together. Fulda, where we stopped four hours, appears a fine
city, and is situated on an eminence commanding a noble view of a very
fertile and extensive plain. The Episcopal Palace and the churches are
magnificent, and the general appearance of the town is striking. The
Bishopric of Fulda was formerly an independent ecclesiastical state, but
was secularised at the treaty of Luneville and now forms part of the
territory of Hesse-Cassel.

The _Feld-zeichen_ of Hesse-Cassel is green and red. After passing thro'
Hanau, where we halted three hours, which gave me an opportunity of viewing
the field of battle there, we proceeded to Frankfort and arrived there at
twelve o'clock the 12th of March. I put up at the _Swan_ inn. In summer
time the country about Fulda and in general between Fulda and Frankfort
must be very pleasing from the variety of the features of the ground. We
lived very well and very cheap on the road. The price of the diligence from
Leipzig to Frankfort was eleven _Reichsthaler_.

After remaining three days to repose at Frankfort I took my place to
Mayence and from thence to Metz and Paris. In the diligence from Mayence
and indeed all the way to Paris I found a very amusing society. There were
two physicians and M. L[emaitre], a most entertaining man and of
inexhaustible colloquial talent; for, except when he slept, he never ceased
to talk. His conversation was however always interesting and entertaining,
for he had figured in the early part of the French Revolution and was well
known in the political and litterary world as the editor of a famous
journal called _Le Bonhomme Richard_.[129]

Metz is a large, well built and strongly fortified city. Verdun, thro'
which we passed, became quite an English colony during the war from the
number of _detenus_ of that nation who were compelled to reside there. At
Epernay we drank a few bottles of Champagne and a toast was given by one of
the company, which met with general applause. It was _Bon voyage_ to the
Allies who have now finally evacuated France to the great joy of the whole
nation, except of the towns where they were cantoned, where they
contributed much towards enriching the shopkeepers and inhabitants.

I remained in Paris six days and then proceeded to England.

[129] _Le bonhomme Richard aux bonnes gens_ was not a "famous journal," as
only two numbers appeared in 1790 (M. Tourneux, _Bibliographie de
l'histoire de Paris pendant la Revolution_, vol. 11, p. 585, n. 10,
511). The publisher, Antoine-Francois Lemaitre, whom Major Erye
mentions in this passage, was the author of some other revolutionary
pamphlets, e.g., _Lettres bougrement patriotiques_, etc.--ED.

INDEX

Acheron, Lake.
Adam, Major-General commands Light Brigade of General
Sir H. Clinton's division.
Aix-la-Chapelle:
Hotel-de-Ville;
Cathedral;
relics of Charlemagne;
Napoleon's benefactions;
overbearing demeanour of Prussian soldiers;
Faro bank;
interesting Tyrolese girl;
baths.
Albanot Villa Doria,
ancient monument.
Albany, Countess of,
her claim to be the legitimate Queen of England;
Alfieri's attachment to.
Alexandria: Austrian Government destroys fortifications of
Alfieri: compared with Shakespeare, Schiller, and Voltaire,
monument erected to, by Canova;
his sonnet to Countess of Albany.
Alsace-Lorraine: severance of, from France anticipated by Prussian
officers.
Andernach: ruins of palace of Kings of Austrasia,
church containing embalmed body of Emperor Valentinian;
crossing of Rhine by Julius Caesar at.
Angouleme, Duchesse d': temperament and religious fanaticism of.
Antwerp: English families fly from Brussels to.
Archenholz: historian of the Seven Years' War.
Army of the Loire: exemplary conduct of, when disbanded.
Arona: colossal statue of St Charles Borromeus at.
Austria: fluctuations in the value of the paper currency of
Napoleon's policy as regarded.
Avernus, Lake.

Baciocchi, Princess Elise: sister of Napoleon and Sovereign of Lucca.
Baffo, Venetian poet.
Baiae: baths of Nero,
ruins of temples;
the Styx;
Elysian Fields.
Belgium:
dislike to severance from France;
feeling towards Holland;
attachment to Napoleon;
preparations for the Campaign;
all inhabitants requisitioned for the repair of fortifications.
Berlin: occupation of, after Jena,
excellent conduct of French troops of occupation;
excesses committed by troops of Rhenish Confederation;
insolent conduct of troops raised by Prince of Isenburg;
art treasures of, respected by French Republican Armies;
Unter den Linden;
Brandenburger Thor;
public buildings;
streets;
statues of great men in the Wilhelm Platz;
Churches;
the officers of the Army;
anecdote of Blucher.
Bern: attempts in 1815 to regain possession of the Canton de Vaud.
Bigottini: fine performance at the Grand Opera, Paris.
Bingen: Mausethurm,
Bishop Hatto.
Blacas, Vicomte de: at Court of Louis XVIII at Ghent.
Blucher: popularity of, in London,
encourages the excesses of his soldiery;
nicknames of;
narrowly escapes capture at Ligny;
saves English at Hougoumont;
anecdote related of.
Bohemia: dialect of.
Bologna: arcades,
remarkable picture in gallery of Count Marescalchi;
leaning tower;
lady-professor of Greek;
Carbonari;
theatre;
women;
barbarous dialect.
Bonn:
Electoral palace;
Roman antiquity;
legends of the Sieben Gebirge;
Das Heimliche Gericht.
Bordas, M, politics of.
Borgo San Donino, remarkable highway robbery at.
Borromean Islands, splendid villa in Isola Bella.
Bourbons, the: want of patriotism of the Duc de Berri,
their injudicious conduct;
Louis XVIII and Monsieur at Ghent;
amusing nickname of Louis XVIII;
dislike of the French people to;
their atrocious policy;
send emissaries to South of France from Coblentz;
unpopularity of;
fulsome adulation of;
cause removal of Sismondi from Geneva;
character of royal families of France, Spain, and Naples.
Brussels: description of,
historical associations;
Place du Sablon, celebrated fountain;
theatres;
humanity of inhabitants of, to the wounded after Waterloo.

Caffarelli, Statue of, in Palais du Luxembourg.
Canova, works of, in St Peter's,
master-pieces in his atelier in Rome;
character of his genius.
Capellen, Baron de,
proclamation of, to the inhabitants of Brussels.
Capua,
thievishness of lower classes of.
Carbonari, degrees and initiation,
object;
meaning of name.
Castlereagh, Lord: insolent letter of, respecting King of Saxony.
Catalani: singing of.
Ceylon: Frye's travels in.
Chalon: affection felt for Napoleon in,
Austrian officers in.
Charleroy: defeat of Prussian army at.
Chateaubriand: at the Court of Louis XVIII at Ghent.
Chatham, Earl of: indignation of, at employment of Indians in the War
of Independence.
Clermont: Peter the Hermit preaches First Crusade in,
petrifying well;
Swiss regiment;
anonymous denunciations;
method of cleansing town.
Coblentz: monument to Marceau,
Bourbon intrigues with Jacobins and Brissotins.
Code Napoleon: simplicity and advantages of, as compared with
English criminal law.
Cologne: Cathedral,
the three kings;
the eleven thousand virgins;
etymology of the name;
Jean-Marie Farina.
Cremona: Gothic buildings,
Campanile of Cathedral.
Consalvi, Cardinal: character and abilities of.
Campagna: limbs of quartered malefactors hung up on roadsides,
armed peasants;
the malaria.

David: pictures by, in Palais du Luxembourg.
De l'Epee, Abbe: founder of the Institution of the _Sourds-Muets_.
Dessaix: Statue of, in Palais du Luxembourg.

Book of the day: