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Account of a Tour in Normandy, Vol. II. (of 2) by Dawson Turner

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spoiled, and robbed it without mercy, and won great riches; for it was
the chief place in all Normandy for drapery, and was full of
merchandize."--And, in the subsequent warfare of the fifteenth century,
this town, like the others in the duchy, was taken by our countrymen,
under Henry Vth, and lost by them under his successor.--Hither the
Norman parliament retired when the Huguenots were in possession of
Rouen; and here they remained till the recapture of the capital.--It was
probably owing in a great measure to this circumstance, that Louviers
was induced to distinguish itself by a devoted attachment to the party
of the league, for which it suffered severely in 1591, when it was
captured and pillaged by the royalists shortly after their victory at
Ivry. The town was then taken through the treachery of a priest of the
name of Jean de la Tour, who received, as a recompence, a stall in the
cathedral at Evreux, but was so much an object of abhorrence with his
brethren, that he scarcely ever ventured to appear in his place. During
the holy week, however, he attended; and it once happened, that while he
was so officiating, all the canons contrived to leave the church towards
the close of the psalm, which immediately precedes the _Benedictus_ at
_Laudes_, so that the anthem, _Traditor autem_, which is sung with that
hymn, necessarily fell to the part of de la Tour, who found himself
compelled to chaunt it, to his own extreme confusion, and the infinite
amusement of the congregation. Irritated and mortified, the poor priest
preferred his complaints to the king; but it was one thing to love the
treason, and another to love the traitor; and his appeal obtained no
redress.

From Louviers our next stage was Gaillon, on our road to which we passed
some vineyards, the most northern, I believe, in Normandy. The vines
cultivated in them are all of the small black cluster grape; and the
wine they produce, I am told, is of very inferior quality,--No place
can appear at present more poverty-stricken than Gaillon; but the case
was far otherwise before the glories of royal and ecclesiastical France
were shorn by the revolution. Ducarel, who visited this town about the
year 1760, dwells with great pleasure upon the magnificence of its
palace and its Carthusian convent and church. Of the palace the remains
are still considerable; and, after having been suffered to lie in a
state of ruin and neglect from an early period in the revolution, they
are now fitting up as a prison. The long inscription formerly over the
gate might with great propriety be replaced by the hacknied phrase, "Sic
transit gloria mundi;" for the vicissitudes of the fortune of noble
buildings are strikingly illustrated by the changes experienced by this
sumptuous edifice, long proverbial throughput France for its splendor.

Philip Augustus conferred the lordship of Gaillon upon one of his
captains of the name of Cadoc, as a reward for his activity in the
conquest of Normandy. Louis IXth afterwards, early in the thirteenth
century, ceded the town in perpetuity to the Archbishop of Rouen. St.
Louis here received by way of exchange the Chateau of Pinterville, which
he bestowed upon William d'Aubergenville, whose uncle, the Bishop of
Evreux, had, while chancellor of France, done much service to him and to
Queen Blanche, his mother. From that time to the revolution the
archbishops had their country seat at Gaillon, and enjoyed the sole
right of trying civil and criminal causes within the town and its
liberties. Their palace, which was destroyed during the wars of Henry
Vth, in 1423, was rebuilt about a century afterwards by the munificence
of the first cardinal Georges d'Amboise, one of whose successors in the
prelacy, Colbert, expended, as it is said, more than one hundred
thousand livres towards the embellishment of it.--Another archbishop,
the Cardinal of Bourbon, founded the neighboring monastery, in the year
1571. The conventual church was destroyed by fire, through the
carelessness of some plumbers, shortly after Ducarel visited it; and
with it perished the celebrated monument of one of the counts of Bourbon
Soissons, said to have been a master-piece of sculpture.

The limits assigned to Normandy by the treaty of Louviers, made Gaillon
a frontier town of the duchy; and here therefore I should take my leave
of you, but that, in the prouder days of its history, Vernon was
likewise swayed by the ducal sceptre. Vernon also seems peculiarly
connected with England, from the noble family of the same name still
flourishing, agreeably to their well-known punning motto, on your side
of the water. This motto is in the highest degree inapplicable to the
present state of the town, whose old and ruinous appearance looks as if
it had known neither improvement nor repair for centuries. Better things
might have been expected from the situation of Vernon, on the banks of
the Seine, in a singularly beautiful valley, and from its climate, which
is reported to be so extraordinarily healthy, that instances of
individuals attaining in it the age of one hundred are not unfrequent.

The royal palace, formerly here, is now wholly swept away; and of the
ancient fortifications there remains little more than a tower,
remarkable for the height and thickness of its walls, a part of the
castle, which, in the reign of Henry IInd, was held by the service of
sixteen knights for its defence[102].--Prior to the revolution, Vernon
contained five religious houses, three of them founded by St. Louis, who
is said to have regarded this town with peculiar favor, and probably on
that account assigned it as a jointure to his queen, an honor which it
has received upon more than one other occasion.

The present parish church of Vernon was collegiate. It was founded about
the year 1052, by William of Vernon, and was endowed by him, at the time
of its dedication, with the property called, _La Couture du Pre de
Giverny_, and with a fourth part of the forest of Vernon, all which the
dean and canons continued to enjoy till the revolution. This William
appears to have been the first of the family who adopted the surname of
Vernon. His son, Richard, by whom the foundation was formally confirmed,
attended the Conqueror to England, and obtained there considerable
grants. One of their descendants ceded the town in 1190 to the King of
France, accepting in return other lands, according to a treaty still
preserved in the royal library at Paris. The tombs of the founder, and
of his namesake, Sir William de Vernon, constable of England, who died
in 1467, and of many others of the family, among the rest the stately
mausoleum of the Marechal de Belle Isle, were destroyed during the reign
of jacobinism and terror. The portraits, however, of the Marshal and of
the Duc de Penthievre, both of them very indifferent performances, were
saved, and are now kept in the sacristy. The only monument left to the
church is that of Marie Maignard, whose husband, Charles Maignard, was
Lord of Bernieres and president of the parliament of Normandy. She died
in 1610. Her effigy in white marble, praying before a fald-stool, has
also been spared.

[Illustration: Elevation of the West Front of _La Delivrande_]

The church itself is a spacious building, consisting of a nave and two
aisles, with chapels beyond, separated by lofty pointed arches,
supported on clustered pillars, to each of which is still attached a
tabernacle; but the statues have been destroyed. The choir is altogether
in a different style of architecture: that portion of it which
immediately surrounds the altar, is early Norman, and most probably
belonged to the original structure. Its arches vary remarkably in width.
The most narrow among them are more decidedly horseshoe-shaped, than any
others which I recollect to have seen.--The west front, though much
mutilated, is still handsome. It is flanked by two small, very short
turrets, richly ornamented.--The square central tower, capped by a
conical roof, does not even equal the height of the nave, which is
greatly superior to that of the choir.--Upon an eminence in the
immediate vicinity of Vernon, are the remains of a Roman encampment.

With Vernon we quitted ancient Normandy: our ride thence to Mantes has
been delightful; and this town, for the excellence of its buildings, for
neatness, and for a general air of comfort, far excels any other which
we have seen in the north of France. The name of Mantes also recals the
memory of the Duc de Sully, and recals that of the Conqueror, whose
life fell a sacrifice to the barbarous outrage of which he was here
guilty.--But, I now lay down my pen, and take my leave of Normandy,
happy, if by my correspondence during this short tour, I have been able
to impart to you a portion of the gratification which I have myself
experienced, while tracing the ancient history, and surveying the
monuments of that wonderful nation, who, issuing from the frozen regions
of the north, here fixed the seat of their permanent government, became
powerful rivals of the sovereigns of France, saw Sicily and the fairest
portion of Italy subject to their sway, and, at the same time that they
possessed themselves of our own island, by right of conquest, imported
amongst us their customs, their arts, and their institutions, and laid
the basis of that happy constitution, under which, by the blessing of
God, Britain is at this moment the pride and envy of the world!

* * * * *

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 96: _Antiquites Nationales_, IV. No. 48.]

[Footnote 97: _Antiquites Nationales_, II. No. 17.]

[Footnote 98: _Histoire de la Haute Normandie_, II. p. 332.]

[Footnote 99: _Histoire d'Evreux_, p. 161.]

[Footnote 100: _Antiquites Nationales_, IV. No. 40.]

[Footnote 101: This mode of divination by the Bible and key, is also to
be found among the superstitions of our own country.--See _Ellis'
edition of Brand's Popular Antiquities_, II. p. 641.]

[Footnote 102: _Ducarel's Anglo-Norman Antiquities_, p. 93.--Respecting
Vernon, see also _Millin, Antiquites Nationales_, III. No. 26, in which
four plates, and near fifty pages of letter-press, are devoted to this
town.]

APPENDIX I.

* * * * *

The printing of this work was just concluded, when the author was
favored with drawings, accompanied with short descriptions, of the
chapel of our _Lady of the Delivrande_, near Caen, and of an ancient
font at Magneville, near Valognes. For the former he is indebted to
Mr. Cohen, to whom he has so often in the course of the work, had
occasion to express his obligations; for the latter, to M. de
Gerville, an able antiquary at Valognes. Both these subjects are of
such a nature, that he is peculiarly happy to be able to add them to
his imperfect account of the Antiquities of Normandy: the whole duchy
does not contain a religious building more celebrated for its
sanctity than the chapel; and while ancient fonts of any description
are rare in the province, he doubts if another is to be found like
that of Magneville, ornamented with sculpture and an inscription.

* * * * *

Some historians suppose, that the country situated between Caen and the
sea, formed at least, a part of the Saxon shore of Neustria. Amongst the
other ancient buildings which are found in this district, the chapel of
Notre Dame de la Delivrande, to which the Normans have resorted in
pilgrimage during the last eight hundred years, is, perhaps, the most
remarkable.

When the philosophers of the revolution envied the religious enjoyments
of the common man, all pilgrimages were forbidden, and the road leading
to our Lady's Chapel, and which, indeed, is the only high road in this
part of the country, became almost impassable. Under the Emperor it was
thoroughly repaired, and, as they say, by his especial order; and since
the accession of the present French king, the fathers of the mission,
who lose no favorable opportunity of fostering the spirit of devotion,
have erected roods and tabernacles, at due distances, all along the way
side.

After leaving Caen, the traveller will not fail to linger on the little
hill which he ascends just after passing by the first crucifix. Hence he
enjoys a lovely prospect, such as delighted the old masters. In the
foreground is the lofty cross, standing on a quadrangular pyramid of
steps. The broken hollow path bending upwards round the base, is always
occupied by a grotesque group of cripples and beldames, in rags and
tatters, laughing and whining and praying. The horizon is bounded by
long lines of grey and purple hills, nearer are fields and pastures,
whilst the river glitters and winds amidst their vivid tints. Nearer
still, the city of Caen extends itself from side to side, terminated at
each extremity by the venerable abbeys of William and Matilda. There are
no traces of work-shops and manufactories, or of their pollution; but
the churches with their towers and spires rise above the houses in bold
architectural masses, and the city assumes a character of quiet monastic
opulence, comforting the eye and the mind.

About four miles farther on from Caen, we reached Cambre, one of the
many seignories which belonged to the very noble family of Mathan. There
was a Serlo de Mathan, who appears as a witness to one of the
Conqueror's charters, and the family is now represented by the present
Marquis, who has recovered his chateau, and a fragment of his domain.
Cambre is also the residence of the Abbe de la Rue, by whom the Marquis
was educated. When they both took refuge in England, the Abbe was the
only protector of his pupil, who now returns the honorable obligation.
It is well known that the Abbe has devoted his life to the investigation
of the antiquities both of Normandy and of the Anglo-Normans. Possessing
in a high degree the acute and critical spirit of research which
distinguished the French archaiologists of the Benedictine school, we
have only to regret, that the greater part of his works yet remain in
manuscript. His _History of Anglo-Norman Poetry_, which is quite ready
for the press, would be an invaluable accession to our literature; but
books of this nature are so little suited to the taste of the French
public, that, as yet, he has not ventured upon its publication. The
collections of the Abbe, as may be anticipated, are of great value; they
relate almost wholly to the history of the duchy. The chateau escaped
spoliation. The portraits of the whole line of the Mathans, from the
first founder of the race, in his hauberk, down to the last Marquis, in
his _frisure_, are in good preservation; and they are ancient specimens
of the sign-post painting usually found in old galleries. The Marquis
has also a finely-illuminated missal, which belonged to a Dame de
Mathan, in the fourteenth century, and which has been carefully handed
down in the family, from generation to generation.

The church of Douvre, the next village, is rather a picturesque
building. The upper story of the tower has two pointed windows of the
earliest date. A pediment between them rests on the archivolt on either
side. This is frequently seen in buildings in the circular style. The
other stories of the tower, and the west front of the church are Norman;
the east end is in ruins. The British name of the village may afford
ground for much ethnigraphical and etymological speculation.

Saint Exuperius is said to have founded the Chapel of La Delivrande,
some time in the first century. The tradition adds, that the chapel was
ruined by the Northmen,--and the statue of the Virgin, which now
commands the veneration of the faithful, remained buried until the
appointed time of resuscitation, in the reign of Henry Ist, when it was
discovered, in conformity to established usage and precedent in most
cases of miraculous images, by a lamb. Baldwin, Count of the Bessin and
Baron of Douvre, was owner of the flock to which the lamb belonged. The
Virgin would not remain in the parish church of Douvre, in which she was
lodged by the Baron, but she returned every night to the spot where she
was disinterred. Baldwin therefore understood that it was his duty to
erect a chapel for her reception, and he accordingly built that which is
now standing, and made a donation of the edifice to the Bishop of
Bayeux, whose successor receives the mass-pennies and oblations at this
very day. Some idea of the architecture of the building may be formed
from the inclosed sketch of the western front. During the morning mass,
the chapel was crowded with women, young and old, who were singing the
litany of the Virgin in a low and plantive tone. A hymn of praise was
also chaunted. It was composed by the learned Bishop Huet, and it is
inscribed upon a black marble tablet, which was placed in the chapel by
his direction. The country women of the Saxon shore possess a very
peculiar physiognomy, denoting that the race is unmixed. The
Norman-Saxon damsel is full and well made, her complexion is very fair,
she has light hair, long eyelashes, and tranquil placid features; her
countenance has an air of sullen pouting tenderness, such as we often
find in the women represented in the sculptures and paintings of the
middle ages. And all the girls are so much alike, that it might have
been supposed that they all were sisters. As to our Lady, she is gaily
attired in a Cashemire shawl, and completely covered with glaring amber
necklaces and beads, and ribband knots, and artificial flowers. Many
votive offerings are affixed round her shrine. The pilgrim is
particularly desired to notice a pair of crutches, which testify the
cure of their former owner, who lately hobbled to the Virgin from
Falaise, as a helpless cripple, and who quitted her in perfect health.
Of course the Virgin has operated all the usual standard miracles,
including one which may be suspected to be rather a work of
supererogation, that of restoring speech to a matron who had lost her
tongue, which had been cut out by her jealous husband. Miracles of every
kind are very frequently performed, yet, if the truth must be told, they
are worked, as it were, by deputy, for the real original Virgin suffered
so much during the revolution, that it has been thought advisable to
keep her in the sacristy, and the statue now seen is a restoration of
recent workmanship. In order to conciliate the sailors and fishermen of
the coast, the Virgin has entered into partnership with St. Nicholas,
whose image is impressed on the reverse of the medal representing her,
and which is sold to the pilgrims.

The country about La Delivrande is flat, but industriously cultivated
and thickly peopled. The villages are numerous and substantial. From a
point at the extremity of the green lane which leads onward from La
Delivrande, six or eight church spires may be counted, all within a
league's distance. By the advice of the Abbe de la Rue, we proceeded to
Bernieres, which is close to the sea. The mayor of the commune offered
his services with great civility, and accompanied us to the church,
which, as he told us, was built by Duke William. We easily gave credit
to the mayor's assertion, as the interior of the nave is good Norman.
The pillars which support the groining of the roof are square; this
feature is rather singular. The tower and spire are copied from Saint
Peter, at Caen. Those of Luc, Courseilles, Langrune, and the other
neighboring villages, are upon the same model. Many instances of the
same kind of affiliation occur at home, which shew how easily a fashion
was set in ecclesiastical architecture.

* * * * *

[Illustration: Font at Magneville]

APPENDIX II.

* * * * *

The most remarkable among the ancient inscriptions found in that part of
Normandy, which is now comprised in the Department of La Manche, are
upon an ancient altar, at Ham, on a medallion attached to the outside of
the church of Ste. Croix, at St. Lo, and upon the font at Magneville,
near Valognes. The first of these has generally been referred to the
seventh century; the second seems to be of the ninth; and the last may
with safety be considered as of the latter part of the tenth, or
beginning of the eleventh, at which period, the choir of the church of
Magneville appears also to have been erected. Of the sculpture upon the
font, as well as of the inscription, an accurate idea may be formed,
from the annexed drawing: the most remarkable character of the
inscription seems to be in its punctuation. The letters upon the altar,
at Ham, touch one another, and there is no separation of any kind
between the words: here, on the contrary, almost all the words are
divided by three or four points placed in a perpendicular direction,
except at the end of the phrases, where stops are wholly wanting. At
Ham, also, the letters are cut into the stone, while at Magneville they
are drawn with a brush, with a kind of black pigment.

G.

INDEX.

A.

_Abbey_, of Ardennes,
Bec,
Bernay,
Bonport,
Cormeilles,
Ducler,
Jumieges,
Preaux,
St. Evroul,
St. Georges de Bocherville,
St. Stephen, at Caen,
St. Taurinus,
Trinity at Caen.
_Academy of Druids_, at Bayeux.
_Academy of Sciences_, at Caen.
_Agnes Sorel_, buried at Jumieges,
her statue destroyed by the Huguenots,
her tomb destroyed at the revolution,
inscription upon.
_Amphitheatre, Roman_, found near Lisieux.
_Amyot, Mr_. his paper on the Bayeux tapestry.
_Andelys_, origin of the name,
history of,
seat of an early monastery,
great house at,
birth-place of Poussin.
_Andromeda polifolia_, found near Jumieges.
_Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury_, a monk at Bec.
_Aqueduct, Roman_, remains of, at Vieux.
_Archbishops of Rouen_, their palace at Gaillon.
_Arches, trefoil-headed_, early specimen of, at Jumieges.
_Ardennes_, abbey of, near Caen.
_Arlette, mother of the Conqueror_, native of Falaise.
_Arnulf_, bishop of Lisieux.
_Arthur, Prince_, knighted at Gournay.
_Asselin_, forbids the interment of the Conqueror.
_Audinus, bishop of Evreux_, authorizes Henry Ist to burn the city.
_Augustodurum_, probably the site of, at Vieux.

B.

_Bailiffs_, first established in Normandy under Philip Augustus,
_Baiocco of Naples_, named after Bayeux,
_Bas-relief_, in the church of St. Georges de Bocherville,
_Baudius_, professor of law for a short time at Caen,
_Bayeux_, seat of an academy of Druids,
Roman relics found near, but no Druidic,
a Roman station,
probably the Naeomagus Viducassium,
its ancient name,
its importance under the early French kings,
its history,
the place where the Norman princes were educated,
castle,
situation, population, and trade,
tapestry,
cathedral,
_Bayeux, Roman_, probably destroyed by the Saxons,
_Bec, abbey of_, its present state,
former income and patronage,
church described by Du Plessis,
founded by Hellouin,
history,
seminary for eminent men,
_Belenus_, worshipped near Bayeux,
_Berengarius_, his tenets impugned by Lanfranc,
condemned by the council of Brionne,
_Bernay_, abbey of,
church,
burial-ground,
population and trade,
costume of the females,
_Bernieres_, church of,
_Blanche, wife of Charles the Bel_, confined in Chateau Gaillard,
_Bochart_, one of the founders of the academy at Caen,
_Boileau_, his eulogium on Malherbe,
_Bonport_, abbey of,
_Borghese, Princess of_, original letter by,
_Bouillon, Duke of_, Lord of Evreux, at the revolution,
_Bourg-Achard_, seat of an abbey, dedicated to St. Eustatius,
leaden font,
_Bourg-Theroude_,
_Bourgueville_, his antiquities of Caen,
present at the exhumation of the Conqueror's remains,
_Boy, bishop_, annually elected at Caen,
_Bretteville l'Orgueilleuse_, church of,
_Brionne_, situation of,
seat of the council which condemned the tenets of Berengarius,
castle,
_Brito_, his account
of the siege of Gournay,
of Chateau Gaillard,
of the murder of the French garrison of Evreux,
of Caen.
_Broglie_, church of.
_Bruce, David_, a resident in Chateau Gaillard.
_Buck-wheat_,
much cultivated in Lower Normandy,
etymology of its French name.

C.

_Caen_,
arrival at,
distant view of,
trade and population,
situation,
grand cours,
costume of females,
house-rent,
foundation,
described by Brito,
etymology of the name,
fortifications,
Chateau de Calix,
castle,
chapel in the castle,
hospital,
royal abbeys,
college,
palace,
museum,
library,
universities,
men of eminence,
academy,
Malherbe,
history,
neighborhood abundant in fossil remains,
seen from the road leading to La Delivrande.
_Caen-stone_,
large quarries of,
formerly much used in England.
_Cambre_.
_Cambremer, Canon of_, tale respecting, at Bayeux.
_Cannon_, first used in France, at the siege of Pont Audemer.
_Canons_, four statues of, at Evreux.
_Castle_, of Bayeux,
Brionne,
Caen,
Creully,
Falaise,
Gisors,
Montfort,
Neufmarche.
_Cathedral of Bayeux_, founded by St. Exuperius,
history,
described,
crypt,
stripped of its relics,
revenue,
right of mintage.
_Cathedral of Evreux_, often destroyed,
its present state,
little injured by the Huguenots,
founded by St. Taurinus.
_Cathedral of Lisieux_, now the parish church of St. Peter,
described,
remarkable tomb in.
_Cauchon, Peter_, bishop of Lisieux, president at the trial of Joan of Arc.
_Cecily_, daughter of the Conqueror, abbess at Caen.
_Chapel_, subterranean, in Bayeux cathedral,
in the castle at Caen,
in the castle at Falaise,
of St. Adrian,
of La Delivrande.
_Chapel in the castle at Caen_, built fronting the east
_Chapels_, stone-roofed, in Ireland, of Norman origin
_Charles the Bad_, born in the Chateau de Navarre
_Charters_, of the abbey of St. Georges de Bocherville
_Chateau de Navarre_
_Chateau Gaillard_, its situation
described
account of, by Brito
history
_Chateau de Calix_, at Caen
_Chesnut-timber_, formerly much used in Normandy
_Church_, of the abbey of Bec
Bernieres
Bernay
Bretteville l'Orgueilleuse
Broglie
Creully
Ducler
Ecouis
Falaise
Gisors
Gournay
Jumieges
St. Peter's at ditto
Louviers
Moulineaux
Pont Audemer
Pont-de-l'Arche
St. Germain de Blancherbe
St. Gervais, at Falaise
St. Georges de Bocherville
St. Giles, at Evreux
St. James, at Lisieux
St. John, at Caen
St. Michael, at ditto
St. Nicholas, at ditto
St. Peter, at ditto
St. Stephen's abbey, at ditto
St. Stephen, at ditto
Trinity, at ditto
Trinity at Falaise
Vernon
_Cider_, the common beverage, in Normandy
first introduced by the Normans
_Cocherel_
_Coins, golden_, struck at Bayeux, under the first French kings
_Colline des deux amans_, priory of
_Cormeilles_, abbey of
_Corneille_, buried at Andelys
_Costume_, at Bernay
at Caen
_Coupe gorge_, colony established at, by Napoleon
_Creully_, castle
church
_Crocodile fossil_, found near Caen
_Croissanville_

D.

_Dalechamps_, native of Caen
_D'Amboise, Cardinal_, built the palace at Gaillon
_Darnetal_
_De Boissy_, bishop of Bayeux, his epitaph.
_De la Rue, Abbe_,
professor of history at Caen,
is preparing an account of Caen,
his paper on the Bayeux tapestry.
_Douce, Mr._, his illustration of the sculpture at
St. Georges de Bocherville.
_Douvre_.
_Druids_, academy of, at Bayeux.
_Dubois Louis_,
his discoveries among the ruins of Old Lisieux,
preserved the original M.S. of Ordericus Vitalis,
is preparing the history of Lisieux.
_Ducarel_, his description of a pavement in the palace at Caen.
_Ducler_,
convent,
parish church.
_Du Perron_, cardinal, bishop of Evreux.
_Du Plessis_,
his opinion as to Turold on the Bayeux tapestry,
description of the abbey church of Bec.

E.

_Ecouis, church of_,
burial-place of John and Enguerrand de Marigny,
singular epitaph.
_Epitaph_,
enigmatical at Ecouis,
of John de Boissy,
on the exterior of Bayeux cathedral.
_Evreux_,
destroyed by Henry Ist,
cathedral,
abbey of St. Taurinus,
history,
present appearance.
_Evreux, Old_, a Roman station.

F.

_Falaise_,
situation of,
etymology of the name,
castle,
Talbot's tower,
chapel in castle,
history,
firmly attached to the League,
fortifications,
inhabitants _true Normans_,
population and trade,
churches.
_Fastolf, Sir John_, governor of Caen.
_Flambart, Ralph_, bishop of Durham, seizes Lisieux.
_Fleury, Cardinal_, abbot at Caen.
_Fonts_, seldom seen in French churches.
_Font_, curiously sculptured, at Magneville.
_Font, leaden_, at Bourg-Achard.

G.

_Gaillon_, vineyards near,
present state of,
ceded to the archbishop of Rouen,
made by the treaty of Louviers the frontier town of the Duchy,
_Gisors_, castle, appearance of,
history,
place of interview between Henry IInd, and Philip Augustus,
arms of the town,
castle, described,
church of,
banded column in the church,
_Glass painted_, at the abbey of Bonport,
in the church of Pont de l'Arche,
_Gournay_, origin of,
present appearance,
history,
siege described by Brito,
arms of,
place where Prince Arthur was knighted,
church,
remarkable sculpture on the capitals,
_Gournay, Hugo de_,
_Guibray_, fair of,
_Gurney, Hudson_, his paper on the Bayeux tapestry,

H.

_Harcourt_, castle of,
_Hellouin_, founder of the abbey of Bec,
his epitaph,
_Hennuyer, John_, bishop of Lisieux, said to have saved the Huguenots,
_Henry Ist_, kept prisoner by Robert at Bayeux,
destroyed the city,
_History, ecclesiastical, of Ordericus Vitalis_,
materials for a new edition of,
original manuscript,
manuscript copies,
_Holy Trinity_, church of, at Falaise,
_Honfleur_, situation of,
described,
_Horses, Norman_, present price of,
_Hospital at Caen_, founded in the thirteenth century,
_Hoveden_, his account of the interview between Henry IInd,
and Philip Augustus, near Gisors,
_Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury_, a monk of Bec,
_Hubert, M._, discovered the site of the Neomagus Lexoviorum,
_Huet_, his _Origines de Caen_,
one of the founders of the academy at Caen,
_Huguenots_, destroy the tomb and violate the remains of the Conqueror,
_Hume, David_, his opinion on the Bayeux tapestry,
_Hypocaust, Roman_, found at Vieux,

I.

_Inscription_, on the font at Magneville,
_John, King_, murders the French garrison of Evreux,
_Isatis tinctoria_, cultivated in France under Napoleon,
_Jumieges, abbey of_, its foundation,
original building,
history,
church,
Salle des Chevaliers,
church of St. Peter,
monuments,
_Ivory chest_, in Bayeux cathedral,

K.

_Knights, Templars_, house of, at Louviers,

L.

_Lamouroux, M_. professor of natural history at Caen,
his publications,
_Lanfranc_, settled at Bec,
first schoolmaster in Normandy,
first abbot of St. Stephen's,
_Langevin, M_., author of the history of Falaise,
_Langlois, M_., his portrait,
his work on Norman Antiquities,
_Le Beuf, Abbe_, his opinion of Vieux,
_Le Brasseur_, his account of the statues of four canons at Evreux,
_Leproserie de Beauileu_,
_Letter, original_, from Princess Borghese,
_Library, public_, at Caen,
_Lisieux_, situation and trade of,
its see suppressed in 1801,
cathedral,
tomb in cathedral,
town probably founded in the sixth century,
ancient names of,
history of,
church of St. Jacques,
_Littleton, Lord_, his opinion of the Bayeux tapestry,
_Louviers_, treaty of,
population,
church,
house of knights templars,
history,

M.

_Magneville_, font at,
_Malherbe_, native of Caen,
_Mallet, Anthony_, his statement of Hennuyer's saving the Calvinists,
_Marechal de Belle Isle_, his monument,
_Margaret of Burgundy_, immured in Chateau Gaillard,
_Marigny, Enguerrand de_, buried at Ecouis,
his mausoleum destroyed at the revolution,
_Marriage ceremony_, in France,
_Matilda, wife of the Conqueror_, supposed portrait of,
her seal
buried in the church of the Trinity,
her tomb destroyed by the Huguenots,
her remains lately found and new tomb raised,
_Maud, Empress_, her expostulations with her father as to the place
of her burial,
_Mazarine, Cardinal_, abbot of St. Stephen's,
_Melons_, cultivated on a large scale, near Lisieux,
_Misereres_, sculptured, in Bayeux cathedral,
_Misletoe_, commonly hung over inn-doors, near Caen,
_Money_, struck by the chapter of Bayeux, how marked,
_Montfaucon_, his engravings of the portraits of the Conqueror
and his family,
_Montfort_, castle of,
_Moulineaux_, church of,
_Mount Phaunus_, temple of, near Bayeux,
_Museum_, at Caen,
_Musicians_, sculptured at St. Georges de Bocherville,

N.

_Napoleon_, establishment formed by him at the pass of _Coupe Gorge_,
his attempt to make a naval station at Caen,
_Navarre, kings of_, lords of Evreux,
_Navarre, Chateau de_,
_Naeomagus Viducassium_, probably the modern Bayeux,
_Neomagus Lexoviorum_, site of, lately discovered,
_Neufmarche_, castle of,
_Normandy_, divided anew, under Philip Augustus,
_Notre Dame de la Delivrande_, chapel of,

O.

_Odo, bishop of Bayeux_, rebuilds the cathedral,
his life and character.
_Ordericus Vitalis_, his account of the destruction of Evreux,
his account of St. Taurinus,
sketch of his life,
his ecclesiastical history,
his reflections on the death of the Conqueror
_Ornaments_ on the spandrils of the arches in Bayeux cathedral.
_Oxen_, breed of, near Caen.

P.

_Paintings, fresco_, in Bayeux cathedral.
_Passports_, regulations respecting, in France.
_Patye, John, Canon of Cambremer_, legend concerning, at Bayeux.
_Pays de Bray_.
_Pistae_, the site of, occupied by Pont de l'Arche.
_Pont Audemer_, its situation,
history,
churches.
_Pont de l'Arche_, seat of a palace under Charles the Bald,
origin of the name,
church.
_Portraits_, of the Conqueror and family.
_Poussin_, born at Andelys,
if his example has been favorable to French art.
_Preaux_, abbey of.
_Priory, des deux Amans_.

R.

_Rabelais_, his autograph.
_Reseda luteola_, cultivated near Rouen.
_Richelieu, Cardinal_, abbot of St. Stephen's at Caen.
_Roads in France_, compared with those in England.
_Robert the Devil_, his castle near Moulineaux.
_Romance_, subjects borrowed from, sculptured on a capital in St. Peter's,
at Caen.
_Rupierre, William of, Bishop of Lisieux_, resists the power of King
John.

S.

_St. Adrian_, Chapel of, near Rouen.
_St. Clotilda_, her fountain, at Andelys
still worshipped there.
_St. Evroul_, abbey of, founded by William de Gerouis,
residence of Ordericus Vitalis.
_St. Georges de Bocherville_, abbey of, founded by Ralph de Tancarville,
its history,
abbey church described
sculpture in ditto
chapter-house.
_St. Germain_, church of, at Pont Audemer.
_St. Germain de Blancherbe_, church of.
_St. Gervais_, church of, at Falaise.
_St. Giles_, church of, at Evreux.
_St. Jacques_, church of at Lisieux.
_St. John_, church of, at Caen.
_St. Lascivus_, bishop of Bayeux.
_St. Lupus_, bishop of Bayeux, so called from destroying the wolves.
_St. Maimertus_, subterranean chapel dedicated to, in Bayeux cathedal.
_St. Michael_, church of, in the suburb of Vaucelles, at Caen.
_St. Nicholas_, church of at Caen
its roof like those of the Irish stone-roofed chapels.
_St. Peter_, church of at Caen
sculpture upon the capital of one of the columns.
_St. Philibert_, founder of Jumieges.
_St. Regnobert_, bishop of Bayeux, his chasuble kept in the cathedral,
domestic animals blessed on his feast-day.
_St. Stephen_, church of, at Caen.
_St. Stephen_, abbey of, at Caen, its privileges
now used as the college.
_St. Stephen, abbey church of_, at Caen, described
formed on the the Roman model
burial-place of the Conqueror.
_St. Taurinus_, founder of Evreux cathedral
his fight with the devil,
his shrine
crypt, in which he was buried.
_St. Taurinus, abbey of_ at Evreux
its privileges
ancient architecture in the church
crypt.
_St. Vitalis_, his feast celebrated annually at Evreux.
_St. Ursinus_, privileges enjoyed by the Canons, at Lisieux, on his vigil
and feast-day.
_Saxons_, established about Bayeux, where many words from their language
still exist.
_Screens_, of rare occurrence in French churches.
_Sculpture_, in the abbey church of St. Georges de Bocherville,
in the chapter-house of the same abbey,
in the abbey church of Jumieges,
on the capitals in the church at Gournay,
on a capital in the abbey church at Bernay,
over the high altar at Bernay,
on a tomb in Lisieux cathedral,
on a capital in St. Peter's at Caen,
on the capitals of the pillars in the crypt at Bayeux cathedral,
_Seal_, supposed to belong to Matilda, wife of the Conqueror,
_Sheep_, Norman breed of,
_Siege_, of Chateau Gaillard,
_Statues_, in the chapter-house of the abbey of St. Georges de Bocherville,
of William the Conqueror, at Caen,
_Stothard, C.A._, his drawings of the Bayeux tapestry,
his opinion on its antiquity,
_String-course_, remarkable, in the church of _Notre Dame des Pres_, at
Pont Audemer,
_Superstitions_, still remaining in Normandy,

T.

_Tancarville, Ralph_, chamberlain to the Conqueror, and founder of the
abbey of St. Georges de Bocherville,
_Tapestry, Bayeux_, accounts of, published by Montfaucon and Lancelot,
referred by them to Matilda, Queen of the Conqueror,
figure from,
its antiquity denied by Lord Littleton, Hume, and the Abbe de la Rue,
when first described,
reasons for believing in its antiquity,
formerly kept at the cathedral,
exhibited during the revolution at Paris,
described,
_Tassillon_, confined at Jumieges,
_Tassilly_, ancient tombs found at,
_Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury_ a monk of Bec,
_Thomas a Becket_, retired during his disgrace to Lisieux,
_Tiles, painted_, in the palace at Caen,
supposed to prove the antiquity of heraldic bearings,
_Tombeau des enervez_, at Jumieges,
_Tombs, ancient_, at Cocherel,
in Lisieux cathedral,
at Tassilly,
_Torigny marble_,
_Trinity Holy, abbey of the_, at Caen, when built,
used as a fortress as well as a nunnery
its income
privileges.
_Trinity Holy, church of the abbey of the_, at Caen, now a work-house,
described,
its spires destroyed by Charles, King of Navarre.
_Turnebus_, Adrian, native of Andelys.
_Turold_, founder of Bourg-Theroude, represented on the Bayeux tapestry.

U.

_University of Caen_, founded by Henry VIth,
abolished and restored by Charles VIIth,
esteemed the third in France.

V.

_Vernon_, its situation,
formerly the seat of a royal palace,
church.
_Vieux_, a Roman station,
etymology of the name.
_Vines_, formerly cultivated at Jumieges,
also at Caen and Lisieux.

W.

_Wace_, a resident at Caen.
_Whales_, formerly caught near Jumieges.
_William the Conqueror_, his statue at Caen,
supposed figure of him on a capital in the church of the abbey
of the Trinity,
buried in the abbey-church of St. Stephen,
his epitaph,
his death and burial, and the disturbance of his remains,
his palace at Caen,
fresco-paintings of him and his family,
born at Falaise,
receives the homage of the English, as successor to Edward, at Bayeux.
_William of Jumieges_, his account of the attachment of the Empress
Maud to Bec.

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