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Account of a Tour in Normandy, Vol. I. (of 2) by Dawson Turner

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Virgin_.--The volume appears to have been originally designed for the
use of the cathedral of Canterbury; as it contains the service used at
the consecration of our Anglo-Saxon sovereigns.

The Missal, which is also the object of M. Gourdin's dissertation, is
from the convent of Jumieges. Its date is established by the
circumstance of the paschal table finishing with the year 1095. It
contains eleven miniatures, inferior in execution to those in the
Benedictionary; and it ends with the following anathema, in the
hand-writing of the Abbot Robert, by whom it was given to the
monastery:--"Quem si quis vi vel dolo seu quoque modo isti loco
subtraxerit, animae suae propter quod fecerit detrimentum patiatur, atque
de libro viventium deleatur et cum justis non scribatur."

As a memorial of a usage almost universal in the earlier ages of the
church, the _Diptych_, commonly called the _Livre d'Ivoire_, is a
valuable relic. The covers exhibit figures of St. Peter and of some
other saint, in a good style of workmanship, perhaps of the lower
empire. The book contains the oaths administered to each archbishop of
Rouen and his suffragans, upon their entering on their office, all of
them severally subscribed by the individuals by whom they were sworn. It
begins at a very early period, and finishes with the name of Julius
Basilius Ferronde de la Ferronaye, consecrated Bishop of Lisieux, in
1784. In the first page is the formula of the oath of the
archbishop.--"Juramentum Archiepiscopi Rothomagensis jucundo adventu
receptionis suae.--Primo dicat et pronuntiet Decanus vel alius de
Majoribus verba quae sequentur in introitu atrii;--Adest, reverende
pater, tua sponsa, nostra mater, haec Rothom. ecclesia, cum maximo gaudio
recipere te parata, ut eam regas salubriter, potenter protegas et
defendas.--Responsio Archiepiscopalis;--Haec, Deo donante, me facturum
promitto.--Iterum Decanus vel alius;--Firma juramento quae te facturum
promittis.--Ego, Dei patientia, bujus Rothom. ecclesiae minister, juro
ad haec sancta Dei evangelia quod ipsam ecclesiam contra quoslibet tam in
bona quam in personas ipsius invasores et oppressores pro posse
protegam viriliter et defendam, atque etiam ipsius ecclesiae jura,
libertates, privilegia, statuta et consuetudines apostolicas servabo
fideliter. Bona ejusdem ecclesiae non alienabo nec alienari permittam,
quin pro posse, si quae alienata fuerint, revocabo. Sic me Deus adjuvet
et sancta Dei evangelia."

The oath of the bishops and abbots was nothing more than a promise of
constant respect and obedience on their parts to the church and
archbishop of Rouen. You will find it in the _Voyages Liturgiques_[121];
in which you will also meet with a great deal of curious matter touching
the peculiar customs and ceremonies of this cathedral. The different
metropolitan churches of France before the revolution, like those of our
own country prior to the reformation, varied materially from one another
in observances of minor importance; at the same time that their rituals
all agreed in what may be termed the doctrinal ceremonies of the church.

The last manuscript which I shall mention, is the only one that is
commonly shewn to strangers: it is a _Graduel_, a very large folio
volume, written in the seventeenth century, and of transcendent beauty.
Julio Clovio himself, the Raphael of this department of art, might have
been proud to be considered the author of the miniatures in it. The
representations of lapis lazuli are even more wonderful than the flowers
and insects. The whole was done by a monk, of the name of Daniel
D'Eaubonne, and is said to have cost him the labor of his entire life.

In earlier times, a similar occupation was regarded as peculiarly
meritorious[122].--There died a friar, a man of irregular life, and his
soul was brought before the judgment-seat to receive its deserts. The
evil spirits attended, not anticipating any opposition to the claim
which they preferred; but the guardian angels produced a large book,
filled with a transcript from holy writ by the hand of the criminal; and
it was at length agreed that each letter in it should be allowed to
stand against a sin. The tale was carefully gone through: Satan exerted
his utmost ingenuity to substantiate every crime of omission or
commission; and the contending parties kept equal pace, even unto the
last letter of the last word of the last line of the last page, when,
happily for the monk, the recollection of his accuser failed, and not a
single charge could be found to be placed in the balance against it. His
soul was therefore again remanded to the body, and a farther time was
allotted to it to correct its evil ways.--The legend is pointed by an
apposite moral; for the brethren are exhorted to "pray, read, sing, and
write, always bearing in mind, that one devil only is allowed to assail
a monk who is intent upon his duties, but that a thousand are let loose
to lead the idle into temptation."

The library is open every day, except Sundays and Thursdays, from ten to
two, to everybody who chooses to enter. It is to the credit of the
inhabitants of Rouen, that they avail themselves of the privilege; and
the room usually contains a respectable assemblage of persons of all
classes. The revenue of the library does not amount to more than three
thousand francs per annum; but it is also occasionally assisted by
government. The French ministers of state consider that it is the
interest of the nation to promote the publication of splendid works,
either by pecuniary grants to the authors, or, as more commonly happens,
by subscribing for a number of copies, which they distribute amongst the
public libraries of the kingdom.--I could say a great deal upon the
difference in the conduct of the governments of France and England in
this respect, but it would be out of place; and I trust that our House
of Commons will not be long before they expunge from the statute-books,
a law which, under the shameless pretence of "encouraging learning," is
in fact a disgrace to the country.

The museum is also established at the Hotel-de-Ville, where it occupies
a long gallery and a room adjoining. It is under the superintendence of
M. Descamps, son of the author of two very useful works, _La Vie des
Peintres Flamands_ and _Le Voyage Pittoresque_. The father was born at
Dunkirk, in 1714, but lived principally at Paris, till an accidental
circumstance fixed him at Rouen, in 1740. On his way to England, he here
formed an acquaintance with M. de Cideville, the friend of Voltaire,
who, anxious for the honor of his native town, persuaded the young
artist to select it as the place of his future residence. The event
fully answered his expectation; for the ability and zeal of M. Descamps
soon gave new life to the arts at Rouen. A public academy of painting
was formed under his auspices, to which he afforded gratuitous
instruction; and its celebrity increased so rapidly, that the number of
pupils soon amounted to three hundred; and Norman authors continued to
anticipate in fancy the creation of a Norman school, which should rival
those of Bologna and Florence, until the very moment when the revolution
dispelled this day-dream. Descamps died at the close of the last
century. To his son, who inherits his parent's taste, with no small
portion of his talent, we were indebted for much obliging attention.

The museum is open to the public on Sundays and Thursdays; but daily to
students and strangers. It contains upwards of two hundred and thirty
paintings. Of these, the great mass is undoubtedly by French artists,
comparatively little known and of small merit, imitators of Poussin and
Le Brun. Such paintings as bear the names of the old Italian masters,
are in general copies; some of them, indeed, not bad imitations. Among
them is one of the celebrated Raphael, commonly called the _Madonna di
San Sisto_, a very beautiful copy, especially in the head of the virgin,
and the female saint on her left hand. It is esteemed one of his finest
pieces; but few of his pictures are less generally known: there is no
engraving of it in Landon's eight volumes of his works.

Looking to the unquestionable originals in the collection, there are
perhaps none of greater value than Jouvenet's finished sketches for the
dome of the Hotel des Invalides, at Paris. They represent the twelve
apostles, each with his symbol, and are extremely well composed, with a
bold system of light and shadow. The museum has five other pictures by
the same master; in this number are his own portrait, a vigorous
performance, as well in point of character as of color; and the _Death
of St. Francis_, which has generally been considered one of his happiest
works. Both these were painted with his left hand. The death of St.
Francis is said to have been his first attempt at using the brush, after
he was affected with paralysis, and to have been done by way of model
for his scholar, Restout, whom he had desired to execute the same
subject for him. A _Christ bearing his Cross_, by Polemburg; is a little
piece of high finish and considerable merit; an _Ecce Homo_, by Mignard,
is excellent; and a _St. Francis in Extasy_, by Annibal Caracci, is a
good illustration of the true character of the Bolognese school: it is a
fine and dignified picture, depending for its excellence upon a grand
character of expression and drawing, and light and shade, and not at all
on bright or varied coloring, to which it makes no pretension.

As local curiosities, the attention of the amateur should be devoted to
the productions of the painters to whom Rouen has given birth, Restout,
Lemonnier, Deshays, Leger, Houel, Letellier, and Sacquespee, artists,
not of the first class, but of sufficient merit to do great credit to
the exhibition of a provincial metropolis.

From these recent specimens, you would turn with the more pleasure to a
picture by Van Eyck, the inventor, as it is generally supposed, of oil
painting. Let us respect these fathers of the art. Let us pardon the
stiffness of their composition, the formality of their figures, the
inelegance of their draperies, the hardness of their outlines, and the
want of chiaroscuro;--for, in spite of all these failings, there is a
truth to nature, and a richness of coloring, which always attract and
win. The picture in question is the _Virgin Mother in her Domestic
Retirement_, surrounded by her family, a comely party of young females
in splendid attire, some of them wearing the bridal crown. It is
altogether a curiosity, partaking, indeed, of the general bad taste of
the times, but painted with great attention to nature in the minutiae,
and resembling Lionardo da Vinci in many particulars, especially in the
high finishing, the coloring of the carnations, and the grace, and
beauty of some of the heads. The draperies, too, are rich and brilliant.

This museum is a recent erection: most, if not all, of the departments
of France, possess similar establishments in their principal towns. The
basis of the collection is founded upon the plunder of the suppressed
monasteries; but M. Descamps told us that, in the course of a journey to
Italy, he had been the means of adding to this, at Rouen, its principal
ornaments. He had the greater merit of preserving it entire, when orders
were transmitted from Paris to send off its best pictures, to replace
those taken from the Louvre by the allies; for on all occasions, whether
great or small, the interests of the departments are sacrificed without
mercy to the engulphing capital. Descamps was firm in defending his
trust: he resisted the spoliation, upon the principle that the museum
was the private property of the town; and the plea was admitted.

The same conventual buildings also contain the rooms appropriated to the
use of the academy at Rouen, a royal institution of old standing, and
which has published fifteen volumes of its transactions.--It was
founded in 1744, under a charter granted to the Duke of Luxembourg, then
governor of the province, and its first president. The present
complement of members consists of forty-six fellows, besides
non-resident associates. Its meetings are held every Friday evening, and
the members, as at the institute at Paris, read their own papers. A few
nights ago, at a meeting of this academy, I heard a memoir from the pen
of the professor of botany, in which he dwelt at large upon the family
of the lilies, but prized and praised them for nothing so much as for
their connection with the Bourbon family. I mention the fact to shew you
how readily the French seize hold of every occasion of displaying their
devotion to the powers that be. In 1814, at the moment of the
restoration of Louis XVIIIth, we were not surprised to see every town
and village between Calais and Paris, decorated with a proud display of
the busts of the monarch, the shields of France and Navarre, and
innumerable devices and mottoes, _consecrated_, as the French say, to
the Bourbons; but four years have given time for this ebullition of
loyalty to subside; and the introduction of such topics at the present
day, and especially in the meetings of a body devoted solely to the
improvement of literature and of the arts and sciences, appears to savor
somewhat of adulation. These praises excited no remarks and no
criticisms; though both might have been expected; for, during the
reading of a paper, the by-standers are allowed to discuss its merits
and its defects. This practice gives the sittings of a French literary
society a degree of life and spirit wanting to ours in England; but I
doubt if the advantage be not more than counter-balanced by the
frequent interruptions which it occasions, and which an ill-natured
person might in some cases suspect to proceed from a desire of
attracting notice, rather than from fair, and just reprehension. I
should be sorry to insinuate that any thing of this kind was evident at
the time, just alluded to, which was the Friday previous to the annual
meeting, the day appointed for taking into consideration the report
intended to be submitted to the full assembly of the inhabitants. The
president also read his projected speech, in the course of which he took
the opportunity of declaring in strong terms his dislike to Napoleon's
plan of education, directed almost exclusively to military affairs and
mathematics: he even stated that the present generation "etoit sans
morale."--The opinion could not be allowed to pass: he found himself
beset on all sides; not an individual supported him; and after a variety
of attempts to palliate and explain away the offensive passage, he was
obliged to consent to expunge it. This will give some farther idea of
the state of public feeling in France: the compliment upon the lilies
passed as words of course; but the same body that tolerated it,
positively refused to stamp with the sanction of their approbation, any
comparison unfavorable to the system of Napoleon, when put in opposition
to that of the subsisting government.

There is another literary body at Rouen; called _la Societe
d'Emulation_, of more recent establishment, it having been founded in
1791. Conformably to the national spirit which then prevailed, it is
directed exclusively to the encouragement of manufactories and
agriculture.--This society distributes annual medals as the reward of
improvements and discoveries, though I am afraid that as yet it has
been productive but of slender utility.

Rouen also possesses a Botanic Garden, which was founded in 1738; but
the scite which it now occupies was not thus applied till twenty years
subsequently, when the municipality conveyed the ground in perpetuity to
the academy in its corporate capacity, stipulating that it should yield
a nosegay every year as an appropriate _rent in kind_. At the revolution
a grant like this would scarcely be respected; still less did the
jacobins appreciate the pleasures or advantages derived from the garden.
The demagogues of that period seem to have entered heartily into Jean
Jacques Rousseau's notions, that the arts and sciences were injurious to
mankind: this fine establishment was seized as national property, and,
according to the revolutionary jargon, was _soumissione_; but a more
temporate faction obtained the ascendancy before the sale was carried
into effect.--The collection is extensive, and the plants are in good
order: I am not however, aware that the city has ever given birth to any
man of eminence in this department of science. Lately, indeed, the Abbe
Le Turquier Deslongchamps, a very well-informed botanist, as well as a
most excellent man, has published a _Flore des Environs de Rouen_, in
two volumes; and there are many instances in which such works have been
known to diffuse a taste, which public gardens and the lectures of
professors had in vain endeavored to excite.

The variety of soil in the vicinity of the city renders it eminently
favorable to the study of botany. It is peculiarly rich in the
_Orchideoe_ of the most beautiful and interesting families of the
vegetable kingdom. The curious _Satyrium hircinun_ is found in the
utmost profusion upon the chalky hills immediately adjoining the city;
and, at but a few miles distance, in a continuation of the same ridge,
the bare chalk, under the romantic hill of St. Adrien, is purpled with
the flowers of the _Viola Rothomagensis_, a plant scarcely known to
exist in any other place.

The suburbs of Rouen abound with nursery-grounds and gardens: the former
contribute greatly to the preservation of the genuine stock of
apple-trees, which furnish the cider, for which Normandy has for many
centuries been celebrated; the latter supply the inhabitants with the
flowers which are seen at almost every window. The square in front of
the cathedral is the principal flower-market; and the bloom and
luxuriance and variety of the plants exposed for sale, render it a most
pleasing promenade. Various species of jessamines and roses, with
oleanders, pomegranates, myrtles, egg-plants, orange and lemon trees,
the _Lilium superbum_ and _tigrinum_, _Canna Indica_, _Gladiolus
cardinalis_, _Clerodendrum fragrans_, _Datura ceratocolla_, _Clethra
alnifolia_, and _Dianthus Carthusianorum_, are to be seen in the
greatest profusion and beauty. They at once attest the care of the
cultivators, and a climate more genial than ours. None of the flowers,
however, excited my envy so much as the _Rosa moschata_, which grows
here in the open air, and diffuses its delicious fragrance from almost
every window of the town.

It is perhaps to the credit of Rouen, that science and learning appear
to flourish more kindly than the drama. The theatre of Rouen is quite
uncharacteristic of the passion which the French usually entertain for
_spectacles_. The house is shabby; the audience, as often as we have
been there, has been small; and in this great city, the capital of an
extensive, populous, and wealthy district we have witnessed acting so
wretched, as would disgrace the floor of a village barn. We have been
much surprised by seeing the performers repeatedly laugh in the face of
the spectators, a thing which I should least of all have expected in
France, where usually, in similar cases, the whole nation is tremblingly
alive to the slightest violations of decorum. And yet Corneille, the
father of the French drama, was born in this city: the scene that is
used for a curtain at the theatre bears his portrait, with the
inscription, "_P. Corneille, natif de Rouen_;" and his apotheosis is
painted upon the cieling. These recollections ought to tend to the
improvement of the drama. The portrait of the great tragedian is more
appropriate than the busts of Henry IVth and Louis XVIIIth, which occupy
opposite sides of the stage; the latter laurelled and flanked with small
white flags, whose staffs terminate in paper lilies.

Corneille and Fontenelle are the citizens, of whom Rouen is most proud:
the house in which Corneille was born, in the _Rue de la Pie_, is still
shewn to strangers. His bust adorns the entrance, together with an
inscription to his honor. The residence of his illustrious nephew, the
author of the _Plurality of Worlds_, is situated in the _Rue des bans
Enfans_, and is distinguished in the same manner. The whole _Siecle de
Louis XIV_, scarcely contains two names upon which Voltaire dwells with
more pleasure.--Rouen was also the birth-place of the learned Bochart,
author of _Sacred Geography_ and of the _Hierozoeicon_; of Basnage, who
wrote the _History of the Bible_; of Sanadon, the translator of Horace;
of Pradon, "damn'd," in the Satires of Boileau, "to everlasting fame;"
of Du Moustier, to whom we are indebted for the _Neustria Pia_; of
Jouvenet, whom I have already mentioned as one of the most distinguished
painters of the French school; and of Father Daniel, not less eminent as
an historian.--These, and many others, are gone; but the reflection of
their glory still plays upon the walls of the city, which was bright,
while they lived, with its lustre;--"nam praeclara facies, magnae
divitiae, ad hoc vis corporis, alia hujuscemodi omnia, brevi dilabuntur;
at ingenii egregia facinora, sicuti anima, immortalia sunt. Postremo
corporis et fortunae bonorum, ut initium, finis est; omnia orta occidunt
et aucta senescunt: animus incorruptas, aeternus, rector humani generis,
agit atque habet cuncta, neque ipse habetur."

The more remote and historical honors of Rouen would present ample
materials. Prior to the Roman invasion, it appears to have been of less
note than as the capital of Neustria.

Julius Caesar, copious as he is in all that relates to Gaul, makes no
mention of Rouen in his Commentaries. Ptolemy first speaks of it as the
capital of the Velocasses, or Bellocasses, the people of the present
Vexin; but he does not allow his readers to entertain an elevated idea
of its consequence; for he immediately adds, that the inhabitants of the
Pays de Caux were, singly, equal to the Velocasses and Veromandui
together; and that the united forces of the two latter tribes did not
amount to one-tenth part of those which were kept on foot by the
Bellovaci.--Not long after, however, when the Romans became undisputed
masters of Gaul, we find Rouen the capital of the province, called the
_Secunda Lugdunensis_; and from that tine forward, it continued to
increase in importance. Etymologists have been amused and puzzled by
"Rothomagus," its classical name. In an uncritical age, it was contended
that the name afforded good proof of the city having been founded by
Magus, son of Samothes, contemporary of Nimrod. Others, with equal
diligence, sought the root of Rothomagus in the name of Roth, who is
said to have been its tutelary god; and the ancient clergy adopted the
tradition, in the hymn, which forms a part of the service appointed for
the feast of St. Mellonus,--

"Extirpate Roth idolo,
Fides est in lumine;
Ferro cinctus, pane solo
Pascitur et flumine,
Post haec junctus est in polo
Cum sanctorum agmine."

The partizans of _Roth_ are therefore supported by the authority of the
church; the favorers of _Magus_ must defend themselves by more worldly
erudition; and we must leave the task of deciding between the claims of
the two sections of the word, divided as they are by the neutral _o_, to
wiser heads than ours.

Footnotes:

[119] Precis Analytique des travaux de l'Academie de Rouen, pendant
l'annee 1812, p. 164.

[120] At the sale of Mr. Edwards' library, in April 1815, it was bought
by the present Duke of Marlborough for six hundred and eighty-seven
pounds fifteen shillings.--The following anecdote, connected with it,
was communicated to me by a literary friend, who had it from one of the
parties interested; and I take this opportunity of inserting it, as
worthy of a place in some future _Bibliographical Decameron_.--At the
time when the Bedford Missal was on sale, with the rest of the Duchess
of Portland's collection, the late King sent for his bookseller, and
expressed his intention to become the purchaser. The bookseller ventured
to submit to his Majesty, that the article in question, as one highly
curious, was likely to fetch a high price.--"How high?"--"Probably, two
hundred guineas!"--"Two hundred guineas for a Missal!" exclaimed the
Queen, who was present, and lifted up her hands with extreme
astonishment.--"Well, well," said his Majesty, "I'll still have it; but,
since the Queen thinks two hundred guineas so enormous a sum for a
Missal, I'll go no farther."--The bidding for the royal library did
actually stop at that point; and Mr. Edwards carried off the prize by
adding three pounds more.

[121] Published at Rouen, A.D. 1718.--The book professes to be written
by the Sieur de Moleon; but its real author was Jean Baptiste de Brun
Desmarets, son of a bookseller in that city.--He was born in 1650, and
received his education at the Monastery of Port Royal des Champs, with
the monks of which order he kept up such a connection, that he was
finally involved in their ruin. His papers were seized; and he was
himself committed to the Bastille, and imprisoned there five years. He
died at Orleans, 1731.

[122] _Ordericus Vitalis_, in _Duchesne's Scriptores Normanni_, p. 470.

* * * * *

END OF THE FIRST VOLUME.

INDEX.

A.

Abbey, of Fecamp,
Montivilliers,
Pavilly,
Abbot of the Canards, his patent,
Academy, Royal, at Rouen,
Angel weighing the good and evil deeds of a departed spirit, on a capital
in the church at Montivilliers,
Archbishop, tomb of, in Rouen cathedral,
Archbishop of Rouen, formerly had jurisdiction at Dieppe
his present salary,
the oath taken by him on his accession,
Architecture, perpendicular style of, unknown in Normandy,
Arques, battle of,
Arques, castle of, its origin,
its history,
situation,
described,
when built,
Arques, town of, formerly a place of importance,
Arques, church of, a beautiful specimen of florid Norman-gothic
architecture,

B.

B, the mark of money coined at Rouen,
Bedford, John, Duke of, buried in Rouen cathedral,
Bedford Missal, anecdote respecting the sale of, in 1786,
Beggars In France,
Benedictionary, in the public library at Rouen,
Berneval, Alexander, his tomb in the church of St. Ouen
Bertheville, ancient name of Dieppe,
Bochart, a native of Rouen,
Bolbec,
Botanic Garden, at Rouen,
Boulevards, at Rouen,
Bourgueville, his account of the privilege of St. Romain,
Bouzard, I.A., house built for, at Dieppe,
Breze, Lewis, Duke of, his monument in Rouen cathedral
Bridge of boats, at Rouen,
Brighton, compared with Dieppe,

C.

Caesar, Julius, Roman camps in France commonly ascribed to,
Caesar's camp, near Dieppe, described,
plan of,
if really Roman,
Caletes, name of the former inhabitants of the Pays de Caux,
Canal from Dieppe to Pontoise, projected by Vauban,
Castle, at Dieppe,
at Lillebonne,
Cathedral at Rouen, described
western portal
sculpture over the doors,
tower of St. Romain,
Tour de Beurre,
great bell,
transepts,
central tower,
origin of,
details of,
monuments,
lady-chapel,
paintings,
staircase leading to the library,
relics,
Catherine of Medicis, her sanguinary conduct at the capture of
Rouen,
Caucalis grandiflora, found at Caesar's camp, near Dieppe,
Champ du Drap d'or, meeting at, represented in a series of
bas-reliefs,
Charles Vth, buried in Rouen cathedral,
Charles IXth, his conduct at the capture of Rouen,
Charter, constitutional, of France,
Chateau de Bouvreuil at Rouen, three towers standing of,
Chateau du Vieux Palais at Rouen, built by Henry Vth; destroyed
at the revolution,
Church, of St. Jacques, at Dieppe,
St. Remi, at ditto,
Arques,
the Trinity, at Fecamp,
St. Stephen, at ditto,
Montivilliers,
Harfleur,
St. Paul, at Rouen,
St. Gervais, at ditto,
Lery,
Pavilly,
Yainville,
St. Ouen, Rouen,
St. Maclou, at ditto,
St. Patrice, at ditto,
St. Godard, at ditto,
Churches, in early times, often changed patrons,
Cite de Limes, Caesar's camp, near Dieppe, anciently so called,
Civitas Limarum, Caesar's camp, near Dieppe, anciently so called,
Cliffs, height of, near Dieppe,
Conards, confraternity of,
confined to Rouen and Evreux;
their original object,
Convent of the Ursulines, at Rouen,
Coqueluchers, name originally borne by the Conards,
Corneille, a native of Rouen,
Costume, of females at Dieppe,
of the inhabitants of the suburb of Pollet, at Dieppe,
of the people at Rouen,
Crypt in the church of St. Gervais, at Rouen, the burial place of St.
Mello,

D.

D'Amboise George, Cardinal of, builds the west portal of Rouen
cathedral,
builds the Tour de Beurre, and places in it the great bell called
after him,
finishes the lady-chapel in the cathedral,
builds the archbishop's palace,
brings the Robec and Aubette to Rouen,
his monument in Rouen cathedral,
Daniel, Father, native of Rouen,
Deputies, qualifications requisite for, in France,
Descamps, a resident at Rouen, and founder of the academy of
painting there,
Devotee, anecdote of,
Dicquemare L'Abbe, native of Havre,
Dieppe, arrival at,
compared with Brighton,
situation and appearance of,
harbor and population,
rebuilt in 1694,
costume of females,
castle,
church of St. Jacques,
church of St. Remi,
history of,
one of the articles in the exchange for Andelys,
celebrated for its sailors,
its nautical expeditions,
its trade in ivory,
the chief fishing-town in France,
much patronized by Napoleon,
formerly under the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Rouen,
feast of the Assumption at,
Duchies, titular, in Normandy before the revolution,
Du Moulin, his character as an historian,
Du Quesne, Admiral, native of Dieppe,

E.

Electors, qualifications requisite for, in France,
Erodium moschatum, found at Arques,
Establishment, clerical, in France, how paid,
Expences, annual, of the city of Rouen,

F.

Feast of the Assumption, how celebrated at Dieppe,
Fecamp, population and appearance of,
etymology of the name,
given by Henry IInd to the abbey,
formerly the seat of the government of the Pays de Caux,
a residence of the Norman Dukes,
now a poor fishing-town,
Fecamp, abbey of, founded in 664,
famous for the precious blood,
its armorial bearings,
burial-place of Duke Richard Ist,
church of St. Stephen,
Fecamp, church of the abbey,
Ferrand, his reasoning as to any portion of the hair of the Virgin
being on earth,
Flint, strata of, in the cliffs near Dieppe,
Fontenelle, native of Rouen,
Fontenu, Abbe de, his dissertation on Caesar's camp,
Fossil shells, found plentifully near Havre,
Fountains, public, at Rouen,
Francis Ist, founder of Havre
Francoisville, name given by Francis Ist to Havre,

G.

Gaguin, his account of the origin of the kingdom of Yvetot,
Game-laws, in France,
Gargouille, dragon so called, destroyed by St. Romain,
Glass, painted, in the cathedral, at Rouen,
in the church of St. Godard,
Goujon, Jean, author of the embellishments in the French translation
of the Polifilo,
Graduel, by Daniel d'Eaubonne, in the Public Library at Rouen,
Graville, priory of,
Guild, of the Assumption at Dieppe,
of the Passion at Rouen,

H.

Hair of the Virgin, curious dissertation concerning,
Halles, at Rouen,
Harfleur, formerly of importance, now chiefly deserted,
etymology of the name,
its history,
beauty of the tower and spire of the church,
Havre, a great commercial town,
its present appearance,
founded in 1515,
history of,
eminent men,
Henry, eldest son of Henry IInd, buried in Rouen cathedral,
Henry IVth, his address to the inhabitants of Dieppe,
speech before the battle of Arques,
Henry Vth, his conduct at the capture of Harfleur,
builds the Chateau du Vieux Palais, at Rouen,
Herring and Mackerel Fishery, at Dieppe,
Heylin, Peter, his description of a Norman inn,
account of the great chamber of the Palais de Justice, at Rouen,
Holy sepulture, chapel of the, in the church at Dieppe,
Hospitals at Rouen, annual charge of,
Houses, construction of, between Yveto and Rouen,
House-rent, expence of, at Rouen,
Huguenots, excesses committed by, in the church of St. Ouen,
Hymn, in honor of St Nicaise and St. Mello,

I.

Inns in Normandy, described by Peter Heylin,
Inscription, on a benitier, at Dieppe,
formerly upon crosses, at Rouen,
Ivory, much wrought by the inhabitants of Dieppe,

J.

Joan of Arc, burned at Rouen,
privileges granted to her family,
Jouvenet, cieling painted by, in the Palais de Justice, at
Rouen,
his sketches for the dome of the Hotel des Invalides,
native of Rouen,
Judith, Lady, her epitaph at Fecamp,

K.

Kelp, made in large quantity near Dieppe,

L.

Lace, much smuggled into France,
Lery, church of, a fine specimen of Norman architecture,
Library, public, at Rouen, how formed,
its regulations and revenue,
Lillebonne, ruins of the castle,
metropolis of the Caletes
Living, expence of, in France,
Livre d'Ivoire,
Longueville, priory of, built by Walter Giffard,
burial-place of the Talbots,

M.

Machon, Jean, founder of the great bell, at Rouen,
his epitaph,
Malaunay
Manby, Captain, ill rewarded,
Manuscript, by William de Jumieges,
fac-simile from,
Maurilius, archbishop of Rouen, his epitaph,
Medallions, remarkable, on the portal of St. Romain, in Rouen
cathedral,
Megissier, Peter, one of the judges of Joan of Arc,
his epitaph,
Millin, his account of a crime, screened under the privilege of
St. Romain,
Milner, Rev. Dr., his description of a monumental effigy in
Rouen cathedral,
Mint, at Rouen,
Miserere, sculpture upon, in Beverley Minster,
Missal from Jumieges, in the library, at Rouen,
Missals, merit attached to writing, in early times,
Mont aux Malades, near Rouen, site of a ducal palace,
Mont Ste. Catherine, fort upon,
priory,
fortress probably Roman,
view from,
Montfaucon, his engravings of historical sculpture, at Rouen,
Montivilliers, seat of an abbey in the seventh century,
church,
remarkable capitals in the church,
present state of,
Monument, of the Cardinals d'Amboise,
of the Duc de Breze
Museum, at Rouen,

N.

Napoleon, benefactor to Dieppe,
his opinion as to the issue of the battle of Arques,
jealous of Henry IVth,
song in his honour,
began a new bridge at Rouen,
cleared France of beggars,
Normandy, divided into departments,
its former titular duchies,

O.

Oath of the Archbishop of Rouen,
Orchideae, abundant about Rouen,

P.

Palais de Justice, at Rouen, built on the site of the Jewry,
described,
now used as a court of assize,
great chamber in,
Parliament of Normandy,
Parties, state of, in France,
Patent, of the abbot of the Conards,
Pavilly, monastery and church of,
Pays de Caux, the country of the Caletes,
formerly dignified with the epithet, noble,
Philip de Champagne, painting by, in Rouen cathedral,
Place de la Pucelle, so called because Joan of Arc was burned there,
monument in it in honor of Joan of Arc,
house in it richly ornamented with sculpture,
Poirier, his account of the destruction of the Chasse of St. Romain,
Pollet, a suburb of Dieppe, costume of its inhabitants,
Pommeraye, Dom, his account of the outrages committed by the Huguenots
in the church of St. Ouen,
Precious blood, the most sacred relic at Fecamp,
Priory, of Longueville,
Graville,
at Rouen, on Mont Ste. Catherine,
Procession des Fous, held in the cathedral, at Rouen,

R.

Relics, in old times, often migratory,
frequently collected on solemn occasions,
Representative system in France,
Revolution, advantages resulting from, to France,
Richard Ist, Duke of Normandy, buried at Fecamp,
his extraordinary directions respecting his interment,
Richard Coeur-de-Lion, offends the archbishop of Rouen, by building
Chateau Gaillard,
his heart buried at Rouen,
Roads to Paris, by Dieppe, Calais, and Havre, compared,
from Dieppe to Rouen,
from Yvetot to Rouen,
Rolec and Aubette, brought to Rouen by the Cardinal d'Amboise,
Robert, paintings by, in the palace at Rouen,
Rollo, his monument and epitaph,
Roth, idol so called, worshipped at Rouen,
Rouen, seen to advantage on entering from Dieppe,
general character of,
bridge of boats,
stone bridge built by Matilda,
boulevards,
grand cours,
costume of the inhabitants,
house-rent,
annual expences of the city,
population,
probably a Roman station,
old castles,
halles,
privilege of St. Romain,
capitulation to Henry Vth,
Chateau du Vieux Palais,
petit Chateau,
fort on Mont Ste. Catherine,
priory upon ditto,
taken by Charles IXth,
mineral springs,
church of St. Paul,
church of St. Gervais,
palace on the Mont aux Malades,
old part of the church of St. Ouen,
cathedral,
church of St. Ouen,
church of St; Maclou,
church of St. Patrice,
church of St. Godard,
house of the Abbess of St. Amand,
Palais de Justice,
Place de la Pucelle,
Tour de la Grosse Horloge,
fountains,
hospitals,
mint,
convent of the Ursulines,
public library,
museum,
academy,
Societe d'Emulation,
botanic garden,
flower-market,
theatre,
eminent men,
etymology of the name,
Rousel, John, abbot of St. Ouen, built the present church,

S.

St. Amand, house of the abbess at Rouen,
Ste. Catherine, eminences dedicated to,
St. Gervais, church of, at Rouen,
St. Godard, his monument,
St. Godard, church of, at Rouen, originally dedicated to the Virgin,
the primitive cathedral of the city,
famous for its painted glass,
St. Jacques, church of, at Dieppe,
pendants in the lady-chapel,
chapel of the sepulchre,
St. Julien, lazar-house of, near Rouen,
its chapel, a fine specimen of Norman architecture,
monastery ceded to the Carthusians, and now destroyed
St. Maclou, church of, at Rouen,
St. Mello, buried in the crypt of St. Gervais, at Rouen,
St. Nicaise, buried in the crypt of St. Gervais, at Rouen,
St. Ouen, church of, at Rouen, a fine specimen of pointed
architecture,
its history,
described,
details of,
paintings in,
privileges of,
St. Patrice, church of, at Rouen,
St. Paul, church of, at Rouen
St. Pierre, Bernardin de, native of Havre,
St. Remi, church of, at Dieppe,
inscription on its benitier
St. Romain, archbishop of Rouen, dragon destroyed by,
his shrine in the cathedral,
St. Romain, privilege of,
abuse committed under its plea,
St. Vallery,
Satyrium hircinum, plentiful near Rouen,
Scuderi, George and Magdalen, natives of Havre,
Sculpture, on the capitals of the church at Montivilliers,
in the church of St. Paul,
over the entrances to Rouen cathedral,
head of Christ, in fine character, in the church of St. Ouen,
on a house at Rouen,
Senegal, first colonized from Dieppe,
Societe d'Emulation, at Rouen,
Stachys germanica, abundant, near Graville,
Stair-case of filagree stone-work, in the cathedral at Rouen,
in the church of St. Maclou,

T.

Talbot, fortress called the Bastille, built by, at Dieppe,
Theatre, at Rouen,
Tour de Beurre, in Rouen cathedral, built with money raised from the
sale of indulgences,
Tour de la Grosse Horloge, at Rouen,

U.

Upper Normandy, limits of,
Ursulines, convent of, at Rouen,

V.

Van Eyck, painting by, in the museum at Rouen,
Vertot, Abbe de, denies the existence of the kingdom of Yvetot,
Viola Rothomagensis, abundant on the hill of St. Adrien,

W.

Walter, archbishop of Rouen, offended with Richard Coeur-de-Lion,
proverbial for his cunning,
William Longue Epee, his monument and epitaph,
William the Conqueror, sailed from St. Vallery to invade England,
died in the palace on the Mont aux Malades,
William of Jumieges, the original autograph of his history at Rouen,
Windows, rose, characteristic of French ecclesiastical architecture,

Y.

Yainville, church of,
Yvetot, present appearance of,
said to have been formerly a kingdom,
exempt before the revolution from taxes,

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