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Abraham Lincoln, Vol. II by John T. Morse

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designed a serious punishment for this dethroned ruler, they recognized
that this became impossible after he had put himself into petticoats. It
was hardly fair that Mr. Lincoln was robbed of the amusement which he
would have gathered from this exploit.

On April 11, in the evening, a multitude gathered before the White
House, bringing loud congratulations, and not to be satisfied without a
speech from the President. Accordingly he came out and spoke to the
cheering crowd, and by a few simple, generous words, turned over the
enthusiastic acclamation, which seemed to honor him, to those "whose
harder part" had given the cause of rejoicing. "Their honors," he said,
"must not be parceled out with others. I myself was near the front, and
had the high pleasure of transmitting much of the good news to you; but
no part of the honor, for plan or execution, is mine. To General Grant,
his skillful officers and brave men, all belongs. The gallant navy stood
ready, but was not in reach to take an active part." He then at once
turned to the subject of reconstruction, and the last words which he
addressed to the people were mingled of argument and appeal in behalf of
the humane and liberal policy which he had inaugurated in Louisiana,
which was still in the experimental stage, yet which had already excited
the bitter denunciations of the politicians.

* * * * *

So soon as it was known in the autumn of 1860 that Abraham Lincoln was
to be the next president of the United States, he was at once beset by
two pests: the office-seekers, and the men who either warned him to fear
assassination or anonymously threatened him with it. Of the two, the
office-seekers annoyed him by far the more; they came like the plague of
locusts, and devoured his time and his patience. His contempt and
disgust towards them were unutterable; he said that the one purpose in
life with at least one half of the nation seemed to be that they should
live comfortably at the expense of the other half. But it was the
fashion of the people, and he was obliged to endure the affliction,
however it might stir his indignation and contempt. The matter of
assassination he was more free to treat as he chose. A curious incident,
strangely illustrating the superstitious element in his nature, was
narrated by him as follows:--

"It was just after my election in 1860, when the news had been coming in
thick and fast all day, and there had been a great 'hurrah boys!' so
that I was well tired out and went home to rest, throwing myself upon a
lounge in my chamber. Opposite to where I lay was a bureau with a
swinging glass upon it; and, in looking in that glass, I saw myself
reflected nearly at full length; but my face, I noticed, had two
separate and distinct images, the tip of the nose of one being about
three inches from the tip of the other. I was a little bothered, perhaps
startled, and got up and looked in the glass; but the illusion vanished.
On lying down again I saw it a second time, plainer, if possible, than
before; and then I noticed that one of the faces was a little paler--say
five shades--than the other. I got up and the thing melted away; and I
went off, and in the excitement of the hour forgot all about
it,--nearly, but not quite, for the thing would once in a while come up,
and give me a little pang, as though something uncomfortable had
happened. When I went home, I told my wife about it; and a few days
after I tried the experiment again, when, sure enough, the thing came
back again; but I never succeeded in bringing the ghost back after that,
though I once tried very industriously to show it to my wife, who was
worried about it somewhat. She thought it was 'a sign' that I was to be
elected to a second term of office, and that the paleness of one of the
faces was an omen that I should not see life through the last term."

From this time forth anonymous threats and friendly warnings came thick
and fast up to the fatal day when the real event befell. Some of these
he kept, and after his death they were found in his desk, labeled
"Assassination Letters." Before he left Springfield for his journey to
Washington, many ingenious fears were suggested to him; but, except for
his change of route toward the close of his journey, none of these
presagings visibly influenced him, and his change of purpose concerning
the passage through Baltimore was never afterward recalled by him
without vexation. From that time forth he resolutely ignored all danger
of this kind. During most of the time that he was in office any one
could easily call upon him, unguarded, at the White House; he moved
through the streets of Washington like any private citizen; and he drove
about the environs, and habitually in the warm season took the long
drive to and from the Soldiers' Home, with substantially no protection.
When, at last, a guard at the White House and an escort upon his drives
were fairly forced upon him by Mr. Stanton (who was declared by the
gossip of the unfriendly to be somewhat troubled with physical
timidity), he rebelled against these incumbrances upon his freedom, and
submitted, when he had to do so, with an ill grace. To those who
remonstrated with him upon his carelessness he made various replies.
Sometimes, half jocosely, he said that it was hardly likely that any
intelligent Southerner would care to get rid of him in order to set
either Vice-President Hamlin or, later, Vice-President Johnson, in his
place. At other times he said: "What is the use of setting up the _gap_,
when the fence is down all round?" or, "I do not see that I can make
myself secure except by shutting myself up in an iron box, and in that
condition I think I could hardly satisfactorily transact the business of
the presidency." Again he said: "If I am killed, I can die but once; but
to live in constant dread of it, is to die over and over again." This
was an obvious reflection, easy enough of suggestion for any one who was
not within the danger line; but to live every day in accordance with it,
when the danger was never absent, called for a singular tranquillity of
temperament, and a kind of courage in which brave men are notoriously
apt to be deficient.

On April 9 the President was coming up the Potomac in a steamer from
City Point; the Comte de Chambrun was of the party and relates that, as
they were nearing Washington, Mrs. Lincoln, who had been silently gazing
toward the town, said: "That city is filled with our enemies;" whereupon
Mr. Lincoln "somewhat impatiently retorted: 'Enemies! we must never
speak of that!'" For he was resolutely cherishing the impossible idea
that Northerners and Southerners were to be enemies no longer, but that
a pacification of the spirit was coming throughout the warring land
contemporaneously with the cessation of hostilities,--a dream romantic
and hopelessly incapable of realization, but humane and beautiful.
Since he did not live to endeavor to transform it into a fact, and
thereby perhaps to have his efforts cause even seriously injurious
results, it is open to us to forget the impracticability of the fancy
and to revere the nature which in such an hour could give birth to such
a purpose.

The fourteenth day of April was Friday,--Good Friday. Many religious
persons afterward ventured to say that if the President had not been at
the theatre upon that sacred day, the awful tragedy might never have
occurred at all. Others, however, not less religiously disposed, were
impressed by the coincidence that the fatal shot was fired upon that day
which the Christian world had agreed to adopt as the anniversary of the
crucifixion of the Saviour of mankind. General Grant and his wife were
in Washington on that day and the President invited them to go with him
to see the play at Ford's theatre in the evening, but personal
engagements called them northward. In the afternoon the President drove
out with his wife, and again the superstitious element comes in; for he
appeared in such good spirits, as he chatted cheerfully of the past and
the future, that she uneasily remarked to him: "I have seen you thus
only once before; it was just before our dear Willie died." Such a frame
of mind, however, under the circumstances at that time must be regarded
as entirely natural rather than as ominous.

About nine o'clock in the evening the President entered his box at the
theatre; with him were his wife, Major Rathbone, and a lady; the box
had been decorated with an American flag, of which the folds swept down
to the stage. Unfortunately it had also been tampered with, in
preparation for the plans of the conspirators. Between it and the
corridor was a small vestibule; and a stout stick of wood had been so
arranged that it could in an instant be made to fasten securely, on the
inside, the door which opened from the corridor into this vestibule.
Also in the door which led from the vestibule into the box itself a hole
had been cut, through which the situation of the different persons in
the box could be clearly seen. Soon after the party had entered, when
the cheering had subsided and the play was going forward, just after ten
o'clock, a man approached through the corridor, pushed his visiting card
into the hands of the attendant who sat there, hastily entered the
vestibule, and closed and fastened the door behind him. A moment later
the noise of a pistol shot astounded every one, and instantly a man was
seen at the front of the President's box; Major Rathbone sprang to
grapple with him, but was severely slashed in the arm and failed to
retard his progress; he vaulted over the rail to the stage, but caught
his spur in the folds of the flag, so that he did not alight fairly upon
his feet; but he instantly recovered himself, and with a visible limp in
his gait hastened across the stage; as he went, he turned towards the
audience, brandished the bloody dagger with which he had just struck
Rathbone, and cried "_Sic semper tyrannis!_" Some one recognized John
Wilkes Booth, an actor of melodramatic characters. The door at the back
of the theatre was held open for him by Edward Spangler, an employee,
and in the alley hard by a boy, also employed about the theatre, was
holding the assassin's horse, saddled and bridled. Booth kicked the boy
aside, with a curse, climbed into the saddle with difficulty,--for the
small bone of his leg between the knee and ankle had been broken in his
fall upon the stage,--and rode rapidly away into the night. Amid the
confusion, no efficient pursuit was made.

The President had been shot at the back of the head, on the left side;
the bullet passed through the brain, and stopped just short of the left
eye. Unconsciousness of course came instantaneously. He was carried to a
room in a house opposite the theatre, and there he continued to breathe
until twenty-two minutes after seven o'clock in the morning, at which
moment he died.

* * * * *

The man Booth, who had done this deed of blood and madness, was an
unworthy member of the family of distinguished actors of that name. He
was young, handsome, given to hard drinking, of inordinate vanity, and
of small capacity in his profession; altogether, he was a disreputable
fellow, though fitted to seem a hero in the eyes of the ignorant and
dissipated classes. Betwixt the fumes of the brandy which he so freely
drank and the folly of the melodramatic parts which he was wont to act,
his brain became saturated with a passion for notoriety, which grew into
the very mania of egotism. His crime was as stupid as it was barbarous;
and even from his own point of view his achievement was actually worse
than a failure. As an act of revenge against a man whom he hated, he
accomplished nothing, for he did not inflict upon Mr. Lincoln so much as
one minute of mental distress or physical suffering. To the South he
brought no good, and at least ran the risk of inflicting upon it much
evil, since he aroused a vindictive temper among persons who had the
power to carry vindictiveness into effect; and he slew the only sincere
and powerful friend whom the Southerners had among their conquerors. He
passed a miserable existence for eleven days after the assassination,
moving from one hiding-place to another, crippled and suffering, finding
concealment difficult and escape impossible. Moreover, he had the
intense mortification to find himself regarded with execration rather
than admiration, loathed as a murderer instead of admired as a hero, and
charged with having wrought irreparable hurt to those whom he had
foolishly fancied that he was going to serve conspicuously. It was a
curious and significant fact that there was among the people of the
North a considerable body of persons who, though undoubtedly as shocked
as was every one else at the method by which the President had been
eliminated from the political situation, were yet well pleased to see
Andrew Johnson come into power;[84] and these persons were the very ones
who had been heretofore most extreme in their hostility to slavery, most
implacable towards the people of the Confederacy. There were no persons
living to whom Booth would have been less willing to minister
gratification than to these men. Their new President, it is true, soon
disappointed them bitterly, but for the moment his accession was
generally regarded as a gain for their party.

Late on April 25 a squad of cavalry traced Booth to a barn in Virginia;
they surrounded it, but he refused to come out; thereupon they set fire
to it, and then one of them, Boston Corbett, contrary to orders, thrust
his musket through a crevice and fired at Booth. Probably he hit his
mark, though some think that the hunted wretch at this last desperate
moment shot himself with his own revolver. Be this as it may, the
assassin was brought forth having a bullet in the base of his brain, and
with his body below the wound paralyzed. He died on the morning of April
26.

While the result of Booth's shot secured for him that notoriety which he
loved, the enterprise was in fact by no means wholly his own. A
conspiracy involving many active members, and known also to others, had
been long in existence. For months plans had been laid and changed, and
opportunities had been awaited and lost. Had the plot not been thus
delayed, its success might have done more practical mischief. Now, in
addition to what the plotters lost by reason of this delay, only a part
of their whole great scheme was carried out. At the same time that the
tragedy was enacting at Ford's Theatre an assault was perpetrated upon
Mr. Seward, who was then confined to his bed by hurts lately received in
an accident. The assassin gained admission into the house under pretense
of bringing medicine; thus he reached the bedroom, and at once threw
himself upon the secretary, whom he stabbed about the face and neck;
then encountering in turn two sons of Mr. Seward and two men nurses, he
wounded them all more or less seriously, and escaped. But much as had
been done, as much or more was left undone; for there can be little
doubt that the plot also included the murder of the Vice-President,
General Grant, and Secretary Stanton; the idea being, so far as there
was any idea or any sense at all in the villainy, that the sudden
destruction of all these men would leave the government with no lawful
head, and that anarchy would ensue.

Not many days elapsed before the government had in custody seven men,
Herold, Spangler, Payne, O'Laughlin, Arnold, Atzerodt, and Mudd, and
one woman, Mary E. Surratt, all charged with being concerned in the
conspiracy. But though they had been so happily caught, there was much
difficulty in determining just how to deal with them. Such was the force
of secession feeling in the District of Columbia that no jury there
could be expected to find them guilty, unless the panel should be packed
in a manner which would be equally against honesty and good policy.
After some deliberation, therefore, the government decided to have
recourse to a military commission, provided this were possible under the
law, and the attorney-general, under guise of advising the
administration, understood distinctly that he must find that it was
possible. Accordingly he wrote a long, sophistical, absurd opinion, in
which he mixed up the law of nations and the "laws of war," and emerged
out of the fog very accurately at the precise point at which he was
expected to arrive. Not that fault should be found with him for
performing this feat; it was simply one of many instances, furnished by
the war, of the homage which necessity pays to law and which law repays
to necessity. That which must be done must also be stoutly and
ingeniously declared to be legal. It was intolerable that the men should
escape, yet their condemnation must be accomplished in a respectable
way. So the Military Commission was promptly convened, heard the
evidence which could be got together at such short notice, and found
all the accused guilty, as undoubtedly they were. The men were a
miserable parcel of fellows, belonging in that class of the community
called "roughs," except only Mudd, who was a country doctor. Mrs.
Surratt was a fit companion for such company. Herold, Atzerodt and Payne
were hanged on July 7; O'Laughlin, Spangler, Arnold, and Mudd were sent
to the Dry Tortugas, there to be kept at hard labor in the military
prison for life, save Spangler, whose term was six years. Mrs. Surratt
was also found guilty and condemned to be hanged. Five members of the
commission signed a petition to President Johnson to commute this
sentence, but he refused, and on July 7 she also met the fate which no
one could deny that she deserved. John H. Surratt escaped for the time,
but was apprehended and tried in the District of Columbia, in 1867; he
had then the advantage of process under the regular criminal law, and
the result was that on September 22, 1868, a _nolle prosequi_ was
entered, and he was set free, to swell the multitude of villains whose
impunity reflects no great credit upon our system of dealing with crime.

Besides those who have been named, the government also charged several
other persons with complicity in the plot. Among these were Jefferson
Davis and some members of that notorious colony of Confederates who, in
the wholesome and congenial safety of Canada, had been plotting mean
crimes during the war. Of course, since these men could not be captured
and actually placed upon trial, there was little object in seeking
evidence against them, and only so much was produced as came to the
possession of the government incidentally in the way of its endeavor to
convict those prisoners who were in its possession. Under these
circumstances there was not sufficient evidence to prove that any one of
them aided or abetted, or had a guilty knowledge of, the conspiracy; yet
certainly there was evidence enough to place them under such suspicion,
that, if they were really innocent, they deserve commiseration for their
unfortunate situation.

* * * * *

It is startling to contemplate the responsibility so lightly taken by
the mad wretch who shortly and sharply severed the most important life
which any man was living on the fourteenth day of April, 1865. Very
rarely, in the course of the ages, have circumstances so converged upon
a single person and a special crisis as to invest them with the
importance which rested upon this great leader at this difficult time.
Yet, in the briefest instant that can be measured, an ignoble tippler
had dared to cut the life-thread from which depended no small portion of
the destinies of millions of people. How the history of this nation
might have been changed, had Mr. Lincoln survived to bear his
influential part in reconstructing and reuniting the shattered country,
no man can tell. Many have indulged in the idle speculation, though to
do so is but to waste time. The life which he had already lived gives
food enough for reflection and for study without trying to evolve out of
arbitrary fancy the further things which might have been attempted by
him, which might have been of wise or of visionary conception, might
have brilliantly succeeded or sadly failed.

It is only forty years since Abraham Lincoln became of much note in the
world, yet in that brief time he has been the subject of more varied
discussion than has been expended upon any other historical character,
save, perhaps, Napoleon; and the kind of discussion which has been
called forth by Lincoln is not really to be likened to that which has
taken place concerning Napoleon or concerning any other person
whomsoever. The great men of the various eras and nations are
comprehensible, at least upon broad lines. The traits to which each owes
his peculiar power can be pretty well agreed upon; the capacity of each
can be tolerably well expressed in a formula; each can be intelligibly
described in fairly distinct phrases; and whether this be in the spirit
of admiration or of condemnation will, in all cases which admit of
doubt, be largely a question of the personal sympathies of the observer.
But Lincoln stands apart in striking solitude,--an enigma to all men.
The world eagerly asks of each person who endeavors to write or speak of
him: What illumination have you for us? Have you solved the mystery? Can
you explain this man? The task has been essayed many times; it will be
essayed many times more; it never has been, and probably it never will
be entirely achieved. Each biographer, each writer or speaker, makes his
little contribution to the study, and must be content to regard it
merely as a contribution. For myself, having drawn the picture of the
man as I see him, though knowing well that I am far from seeing him all,
and still farther from seeing inwardly through him, yet I know that I
cannot help it by additional comments. Very much more than is the case
with other men, Lincoln means different things to different persons, and
the aspect which he presents depends to an unusual degree upon the moral
and mental individuality of the observer. Perhaps this is due to the
breadth and variety of his own nature. As a friend once said to me:
Lincoln was like Shakespeare, in that he seemed to run through the whole
gamut of human nature. It was true. From the superstition of the
ignorant backwoodsman to that profoundest faith which is the surest
measure of man's greatness, Lincoln passed along the whole distance. In
his early days he struck his roots deep down into the common soil of the
earth, and in his latest years his head towered and shone among the
stars. Yet his greatest, his most distinctive, and most abiding trait
was his humanness of nature; he was the expression of his people; at
some periods of his life and in some ways it may be that he expressed
them in their uglier forms, but generally he displayed them in their
noblest and most beautiful developments; yet, for worse or for better,
one is always conscious of being in close touch with him as a fellow
man. People often call him the greatest man who ever lived; but, in
fact, he was not properly to be compared with any other. One may set up
a pole and mark notches upon it, and label them with the names of Julius
Caesar, William of Orange, Cromwell, Napoleon, even Washington, and may
measure these men against each other, and dispute and discuss their
respective places. But Lincoln cannot be brought to this pole, he cannot
be entered in any such competition. This is not necessarily because he
was greater than any of these men; for, before this could be asserted,
the question would have to be settled: How is greatness to be estimated?
One can hardly conceive that in any age of the world or any combination
of circumstances a capacity and temperament like that of Caesar or
Napoleon would not force itself into prominence and control. On the
other hand, it is easy to suppose that, if precisely such a great moral
question and peculiar crisis as gave to Lincoln his opportunity had not
arisen contemporaneously with his years of vigor, he might never have
got farther away from obscurity than does the ordinary member of
Congress. Does this statement limit his greatness, by requiring a rare
condition to give it play? The question is of no serious consequence,
since the condition existed; and the discussion which calls it forth is
also of no great consequence. For what is gained by trying to award him
a number in a rank-list of heroes? It is enough to believe that probably
Lincoln alone among historical characters could have done that especial
task which he had to do. It was a task of supreme difficulty, and like
none which any other man ever had to undertake; and he who was charged
with it was even more distantly unlike any other man in both moral and
mental equipment. We cannot force lines to be parallel, for our own
convenience or curiosity, when in fact they are not parallel. Let us not
then try to compare and to measure him with others, and let us not
quarrel as to whether he was greater or less than Washington, as to
whether either of them, set to perform the other's task, would have
succeeded with it, or, perchance, would have failed. Not only is the
competition itself an ungracious one, but to make Lincoln a competitor
is foolish and useless. He was the most individual man who ever lived;
let us be content with this fact. Let us take him simply as Abraham
Lincoln, singular and solitary, as we all see that he was; let us be
thankful if we can make a niche big enough for him among the world's
heroes, without worrying ourselves about the proportion which it may
bear to other niches; and there let him remain forever, lonely, as in
his strange lifetime, impressive, mysterious, unmeasured, and unsolved.

FOOTNOTES:

[79] See _ante_, pp. 237-241 (chapter on Reconstruction).

[80] Grant, _Memoirs_, ii. 460.

[81] Grant, _Memoirs_, ii. 459. This differs from the statement of N.
and H. x. 216, that "amid the wildest enthusiasm, the President again
reviewed the victorious regiments of Grant, marching through Petersburg
in pursuit of Lee." Either picture is good; perhaps that of the silent,
deserted city is not the less effective.

[82] Between March 29 and the date of surrender, 19,132 Confederates had
been captured, a fate to which it was shrewdly suspected that many were
not averse.

[83] May 11, 1865.

[84] Hon. George W. Julian says: "I spent most of the afternoon in a
political caucus, held for the purpose of considering the necessity for
a new cabinet and a line of policy less conciliatory than that of Mr.
Lincoln; and while everybody was shocked at his murder, the feeling was
nearly universal that the accession of Johnson to the presidency would
prove a godsend to the country." _Polit. Recoll._ 255.

INDEX

[**Transcriber's Note: The index covers volume I and volume II of the
work. For every term, the individual entries are arranged in order of
appearance in the two volumes. Index entries are therefore marked with
"see vol. i.", and "see vol. ii." accordingly. References that have no
mark refer to the same volume as the last entry with a mark.]

Abolitionists,
denounced by Illinois legislature, see vol. i.;
disapprove emancipation with compensation;
wish to induce Lincoln to join them;
unpopular at North;
difference of Lincoln from;
refuse to support Lincoln in 1860;
urge peaceful secession in 1861;
denounce Lincoln for not making war an anti-slavery crusade,
see vol. ii.;
demand a proclamation of emancipation;
unwisdom of their course;
unappeased, even after emancipation proclamation;
their small numbers;
their attitude toward Lincoln.

Adams, Charles Francis,
letter of Seward to, on impossibility of war, see vol. i.;
appointed minister to England;
instructions;
complains to England of privateers, see vol. ii.;
complains of the Alabama.

Adams, Charles F., Jr.,
enters Richmond with negro cavalry regiment, see vol. ii.

Adams, John Quincy,
in Congress with Lincoln, see vol. i.

Alabama,
not ready to secede, but opposed to coercion, see vol. i.;
wishes Southern convention;
secedes.

Alabama,
Confederate privateer, see vol. ii.;
sunk by Kearsarge.

Albert, Prince,
revises Palmerston's dispatch on Trent affair, see vol. i.

Anderson, Robert,
signs Lincoln's certificate of discharge in Black Hawk war, see vol. i.;
commands at Fort Moultrie in 1860;
moves forces to Sumter;
asks instructions in vain;
appeals to Lincoln;
refuses to surrender Sumter.

Andrew, Governor John A.,
prepares Massachusetts militia, see vol. i.;
asks United States for muskets;
sends on troops.

Anthony, Henry B.,
in Senate in 1861, see vol. i.

Antietam,
battle of, see vol. ii.

Arkansas,
refuses to furnish Lincoln troops, see vol. i.;
at first Unionist, finally secedes;
campaign of Curtis in;
reconstructed, see vol. ii.;
chooses electors.

Armstrong, Jack,
his wrestling match with Lincoln, see vol. i.;
his later friendship with Lincoln;
aids him in politics.

Arnold, Isaac N.,
in House in 1861, see vol. i.;
describes drilling of Army of Potomac;
on importance of Lincoln's action in Trent case;
introduces bill abolishing slavery under federal jurisdiction,
see vol. ii.;
on composition of Gettysburg address;
dreads danger in election of 1864;
Lincoln's only supporter in Congress;
refusal of Lincoln to help in campaign;
on Lincoln's attempt to push thirteenth amendment through Congress;
on second vote on thirteenth amendment.

Arnold, Samuel,
accomplice of Booth, tried and condemned, see vol. ii.

Ashley, James M.,
in House in 1861, see vol. i.;
moves to reconsider thirteenth amendment, see vol. ii.

Ashmun, George,
presides over Republican Convention of 1860, see vol. i.

Assassination of Lincoln,
plot of 1861, see vol. i.;
threats during term of office, see vol. ii.;
successful plot of 1865;
death of Booth;
trial and punishment of other persons concerned.

Atlanta,
battle of, see vol. ii.

Atzerodt, Geo. A.,
accomplice of Booth, tried and condemned, see vol. ii.

Baker, Edward D.,
in Illinois campaign of 1838;
at Illinois bar;
candidate for Congress;
elected;
his agreement with Lincoln and others;
introduces Lincoln at inauguration;
killed at Ball's Bluff;
responsible for disaster.

Ball's Bluff,
battle of, see vol. i.

Banks, Nathaniel P.,
in Federal army, see vol. i.;
his corps in 1862, see vol. ii.;
defeated by Jackson;
takes Port Hudson.

Barnard, General John G.,
opposes McClellan's plan of campaign, see vol. i.;
on impossibility of taking Yorktown, see vol. ii.

Bates, Edward,
candidate for Republican nomination, see vol. i.;
favored by Greeley;
his chances as a moderate candidate;
vote for;
attorney-general;
opposes reinforcing Sumter.

Bayard, James A.,
in Senate in 1861, see vol. i.

Beauregard, General P.G.T.,
commands at Charleston, see vol. i.;
notified by Lincoln of purpose to reinforce Sumter;
requests surrender of Sumter;
commands bombardment;
commands Confederate army at Manassas;
at battle of Bull Run;
at battle of Shiloh;
evacuates Corinth.

Bell, John,
candidate of Constitutional Union party, see vol. i.;
vote for.

Benjamin, Judah P.,
denounces Buchanan, see vol. i.;
in Confederate cabinet.

Bentonsville,
battle of, see vol. ii.

Berry, Wm. F.,
his partnership with Lincoln, and failure, see vol. i.

Big Bethel,
battle of, see vol. i.

Black, Jeremiah S.,
in Buchanan's cabinet, see vol. i.;
succeeds Cass in State Department;
after vacillation turns toward coercion;
forces Buchanan to alter reply to South Carolina commissioners.

Black Hawk war, see vol. i.

Blaine, James G.,
on purpose of war, see vol. ii.;
on Lincoln's order to McDowell to pursue Jackson;
on crisis in congressional elections of 1862;
on admission of West Virginia;
on Vallandigham case.

Blair, F.P., Jr.,
tries to keep Lee in Union army, see vol. i.;
leads Unionist party in Missouri;
in House in 1861;
confers with Davis, see vol. ii.

Blair, Montgomery,
in Lincoln's cabinet, see vol. i.;
wishes to relieve Sumter;
at council of war;
favors McClellan's plan of war;
visits Missouri to investigate Fremont;
arrested by Fremont;
warns Lincoln that emancipation proclamation will lose fall elections,
see vol. ii.;
hated by radicals;
his dismissal urged;
upheld by Lincoln;
resigns at Lincoln's request;
wishes chief-justiceship.

Blenker, General Louis,
favors McClellan's plan of campaign, see vol. i.;
sent to strengthen Fremont, see vol. ii.

Booth, John Wilkes,
murders Lincoln, see vol. ii.;
his character;
his end.

Border States,
necessity of retaining in Union, see vol. i.;
dealings of Lincoln with, in 1861;
their neutrality policy explained in annual message;
both pro-slavery and Unionist, see vol. ii.;
desire to conciliate controls Lincoln's policy;
with their slave property guaranteed by North;
oppose bill freeing slaves used in war;
oppose other anti-slavery bills;
irritated by congressional policy;
urged by Lincoln to agree to emancipation;
refuse to approve;
Lincoln's policy toward, denounced by Abolitionists;
their support in 1862 saves Lincoln.

Boutwell, George S.,
urges emancipation upon Lincoln, see vol. ii.

Bragg, General Braxton,
invades Kentucky, see vol. ii.;
outmarched by Buell;
at battle of Stone's River;
retreats;
reinforced;
at battle of Chickamauga;
besieges Chattanooga;
defeated by Grant.

Breckenridge, John C.,
elected Vice-President, see vol. i.;
nominated by South for President;
carries Southern States;
announces election of Lincoln;
expelled from Senate.

Bright, Jesse D.,
expelled from Senate, see vol. i.

Brooks, Preston S.,
assaults Sumner, see vol. i.;
praised at the South.

Brough, John,
nominated for governor in Ohio and elected, see vol. ii.

Brown, Aaron V.,
in Buchanan's cabinet, see vol. i.

Brown, B. Gratz,
supports Fremont against Lincoln in 1864, see vol. ii.

Brown, Mayor Geo. W.,
thinks Maryland will secede, see vol. i.;
burns bridges and cuts wires north of Baltimore.

Browning, O.H.,
at Illinois bar, see vol. i.

Bryant, William Cullen,
introduces Lincoln in New York, see vol. i.;
favors postponement of Republican convention in 1864, see vol. ii.

Buchanan, James,
nominated by Democrats, see vol. i.;
elected President, his character;
refers to Dred Scott decision in inaugural address;
his recognition of Lecompton Constitution in Kansas;
despised by Douglas;
accused by Lincoln of plotting to make slavery national;
his hard situation in 1860;
distracted in body and mind;
receives secession commissioners of South Carolina;
a Unionist in feeling;
his message on secession;
wishes to shirk responsibility;
declares coercion unconstitutional;
ridiculed by Republicans;
excuse for his position;
declines to receive Southern commissioners;
virtually abdicates power to cabinet;
denounced by South;
forced to appoint Dix to Treasury Department;
calls extra session of Senate to aid Lincoln;
his futile policy towards Fort Sumter.

Buckner, General Simon B.,
surrenders Fort Donelson, see vol. i.

Buell, General D.C.,
his resemblance in character to McClellan, see vol. i.;
refuses to seize East Tennessee;
snubbed by McClellan;
recommended by Halleck for promotion;
takes Nashville;
saves battle of Shiloh;
allows slave-owners to reclaim fugitives, see vol. ii.;
seizes Louisville before Bragg;
opposes Halleck's plan to invade Tennessee;
resigns.

Bull Run,
first battle of, see vol. i.;
second battle of, see vol. ii.

Burlingame, Anson D.,
hopes that Douglas will join Republicans, see vol. i.

Burns, Anthony,
seized as a slave in Boston, see vol. i.

Burnside, General Ambrose E.,
commands in North Carolina, see vol. i.;
given command of Army of Potomac, see vol. ii.;
at Fredericksburg;
loses confidence of army;
ordered by Lincoln to do nothing without informing him;
offers to resign;
wishes to dismiss several generals;
resigns;
his campaign in East Tennessee;
relieved by Sherman;
alarmed at Copperheads;
commands in Ohio;
issues order threatening traitors;
tries and condemns Vallandigham;
comment of Lincoln on;
offers resignation.

Butler, Benjamin F.,
takes possession of hill commanding Baltimore, see vol. i.;
commands at Fortress Monroe;
commands at New Orleans;
keeps slaves as "contraband of war", see vol. ii.;
"bottled" at Bermuda Hundred.

Butterfield, Justin,
at Illinois bar, see vol. i.

Cadwalader, General George,
refuses to liberate Merryman on Taney's writ, see vol. i.

Calhoun, John,
appoints Lincoln deputy surveyor, see vol. i.

Calhoun, John C.,
his speech on Compromise of 1850, see vol. i.

California,
annexed, see vol. i.;
gold fever in;
asks admission as State;
prohibits slavery;
refusal of South to admit;
admitted.

Cameron, Simon,
candidate for Republican presidential nomination in 1860, see vol. i.;
sells his vote for promise of a place in cabinet;
willing to sacrifice anything to save Union;
secretary of war;
difficulty over his appointment;
opposes relieving Fort Sumter;
refuses muskets to Massachusetts militia;
wishes to leave War Department;
appointed minister to Russia;
instructs Butler not to return slaves, see vol. ii.;
authorizes Sherman to use negroes;
suggests arming slaves in annual report;
his report suppressed by Lincoln;
supports Lincoln for reelection.

Campbell, Judge John A.,
acts as intermediary between Seward and Confederate commissioners,
see vol. i.;
on Confederate Peace Commission, see vol. ii.

Cartwright, Peter,
defeated by Lincoln for Congress, see vol. i.;
his character as itinerant preacher.

Cass, Lewis,
attacked by Lincoln in Congress, see vol. i.;
in Buchanan's cabinet;
wishes to coerce South;
resigns when Buchanan refuses to garrison Southern forts.

Caucus,
denounced by Whigs in Illinois, see vol. i.

Cedar Mountain,
battle of, see vol. ii.

Chambrun, Comte de,
on Lincoln's magnanimity, see vol. ii.

Chancellorsville,
battle of, see vol. ii.

Chandler, Zachariah,
in Senate in 1861, see vol. i.;
denounces conservatives, see vol. ii.;
threatens Lincoln.

Chase, Salmon P.,
in debate on Compromise, see vol. i.;
candidate for Republican nomination in 1860;
secretary of treasury;
objected to by Pennsylvania protectionists;
wishes to reinforce Sumter;
dislikes subordination to Lincoln;
wishes McClellan to advance;
asks him his plans and is snubbed;
favors Lincoln's plan of campaign;
on ease of a victory;
considers Lincoln inefficient, see vol. ii.;
leader of discontented Republicans;
on Lincoln's responsibility for emancipation proclamation;
suggests an addition to it;
wishes to present bankers to Lincoln;
left undisturbed in control of Treasury;
his resignation taken by Lincoln;
letter of Lincoln to;
hesitates to withdraw resignation;
finally does so;
irritated by Lincoln's independence;
becomes candidate for Republican nomination;
not feared by Lincoln;
his offer to resign declined;
fails to obtain support;
withdraws name;
continues to dislike Lincoln;
frequently offers resignation;
finally leaves office;
on bad terms with Blair;
appointed chief justice.

Chestnut, James,
defies North in 1860, see vol. i.

Chickamauga,
battle of, see vol. ii.

Chittenden, L.E.,
on danger of a recognition of Confederacy by England, see vol. i.

Cisco, John J.,
quarrel over appointment of his successor, see vol. ii.

Clay, Henry,
admired by Lincoln, see vol. i.;
less admired after his visit at Ashland;
offers Compromise of 1850.

Clinton, George,
denounced in New York for calling secession "rebellion", see vol. i.

Cobb, Howell,
in Congress with Lincoln, see vol. i.;
on "making better terms out of the Union than in it";
in Buchanan's cabinet;
candidate for presidency of South;
resigns from cabinet.

Cochrane, General John,
nominated for Vice-President, see vol. ii.

Cold Harbor,
battle of, see vol. ii.

Colfax, Schuyler,
expects Douglas to join Republicans, see vol. i.;
in House in 1861;
on Lincoln's tenacity, see vol. ii.;
announces passage of thirteenth amendment.

Collamer, Jacob,
in Congress with Lincoln, see vol. i.;
vote for, in Republican Convention of 1860;
in Senate in 1861.

Colonization,
favored by Lincoln, see vol. i., see vol. ii.

Compromise of 1850,
history of, see vol. i.

Confederate States,
formed by convention, see vol. i.;
organization of;
sends commissioners to United States;
its envoys rejected by Lincoln;
prepares to seize Fort Sumter;
amused at Lincoln's call for volunteers;
receives Virginia;
belligerency of, recognized by England and France;
refusal of Lincoln to receive Stephens embassy from, see vol. ii.;
sells bonds in England;
dealings of supposed emissaries from, with Greeley;
refusal of Lincoln to negotiate with;
dealings of Blair with;
sends commissioners;
conference of Lincoln and Seward with commissioners of;
government of, collapses.

Congress,
proposes amendment to Constitution to protect slavery, see vol. i.;
counts electoral votes;
extra session called;
votes to support Lincoln;
creates Committee on Conduct of War;
discusses battle of Shiloh;
passes Crittenden resolution disavowing slavery as cause of war,
see vol. ii.;
passes bill freeing slaves used in war;
refuses to reaffirm Crittenden resolution;
passes bill for emancipation in District;
prohibits officers to return fugitive slaves;
abolishes slavery in Territories, etc.;
passes act freeing slaves of rebels;
passes act to arm negroes;
fails to provide equal pay;
ignores Lincoln's wishes to conciliate Border States;
passes resolution to cooperate with States adopting emancipation;
unpopularity of Lincoln with;
continues in 1862 to oppose Lincoln;
fails to pass bill offering compensated emancipation to Missouri;
character of, in 1863;
accepts Representatives from reconstructed Louisiana;
jealous of Lincoln's plan of reconstruction;
desires to control matter itself;
passes reconstruction bill;
wishes to supplant Lincoln by Chase;
creates lieutenant-general;
refuses to recognize electors from Southern reconstructed States;
fails to adopt thirteenth amendment;
after election of 1864, passes amendment.

Conkling, James C.,
letter of Lincoln to, see vol. ii.

Conkling, Roscoe,
in House in 1861, see vol. i.

Constitution,
slavery compromises in, see vol. i.;
in relation to doctrine of non-intervention;
in relation to slavery in States;
in relation to emancipation;
in relation to popular sovereignty and Dred Scott decision;
attitude of Abolitionists and Republicans toward;
its relation to secession, Buchanan's view;
proposal to amend, in 1861;
its relation to secession, Lincoln's view;
in relation to blockade;
strained by civil war;
war powers of, used by Lincoln;
in connection with suspension of habeas corpus;
makes President commander-in-chief;
in relation to act abolishing slavery in Territories, see vol. ii.;
desire of Abolitionists to ignore;
Lincoln's view of, as forcing issue of war to be the Union;
in relation to emancipation proclamation;
strained by admission of West Virginia;
really in abeyance;
in relation to reconstruction;
justifies "military governors";
in regard to relative powers of executive and Congress in reconstruction;
as to power of Congress over electoral count;
proposal to amend so as to abolish slavery;
passage of thirteenth amendment by Congress.

Constitutional Union party,
its origin and aims, see vol. i.;
its subsequent fate;
its vote in 1860.

"Copperheads,"
developed in second year of war, see vol. ii.;
their principles and policy;
active after Chancellorsville;
organization of, to oppose war;
feared in Indiana;
fail to accomplish anything;
despised by Lincoln;
led by Vallandigham;
attempt to put down;
Lincoln's opinion of;
demand revocation of emancipation proclamation.

Corbett, Boston,
kills Booth, see vol. ii.

Covode, John,
in House in 1861, see vol. i.

Cox, Samuel S.,
in House in 1861, see vol. i.

Crittenden, John J.,
offers compromise in 1861, see vol. i.;
in House in 1861;
offers resolution that war is not against slavery, see vol. ii.;
opposes Lincoln's plan of emancipation in Kentucky.

Curtin, Governor Andrew G.,
invites governors to meet at Altoona, see vol. ii.;
on connection of conference with emancipation proclamation;
reflected.

Curtis, Benjamin R.,
his opinion in Dred Scott case, see vol. i.

Curtis, General Samuel R.,
his campaign in Missouri and Arkansas, see vol. i.

Cushing, Lieutenant William B.,
destroys the Albemarle, see vol. ii.

Davis, David,
at Illinois bar, see vol. i.;
disgusted at election of Trumbull in 1855;
Lincoln's manager in convention of 1860.

Davis, Garrett,
succeeds Breckenridge in Senate, see vol. i.;
his plea against arming negroes, see vol. ii.

Davis, Henry Winter,
introduces reconstruction bill, see vol. ii.;
issues address denouncing Lincoln for vetoing bill;
obliged to support Lincoln rather than McClellan.

Davis, Jefferson,
advocates extension of Missouri Compromise in 1850, see vol. i.;
sneers at attempted compromise in 1861;
elected President of Confederate States;
defies North;
hopes to entrap Seward into debate with commissioners;
urged by South to do something;
prefers to make North aggressor;
tries to win over Kentucky;
offers to issue "letters of marque and reprisal";
when secretary of war, sent McClellan to Europe;
sends troops to seize East Tennessee;
wishes to free Kentucky, see vol. ii.;
his escape wished by Lincoln;
replaces Johnston by Hood;
proposition of Blair to;
expresses willingness to treat for peace;
nominates commissioners to treat for peace with independence;
notified by Lee of approaching fall of Richmond;
escapes from city;
makes himself ridiculous and escapes punishment;
suspected of complicity in Booth's plot.

Dawson,----,
leads Lincoln in vote for legislature in 1834.

Dayton, William L.,
nominated by Republicans in 1856, see vol. i.;
candidate for nomination in 1860.

Democratic party,
controls Illinois, see vol. i.;
wins in 1852;
factions in;
elects Buchanan in 1856;
in. Illinois, nominates Douglas for Senate;
torn with factions;
breaks up in 1860 into Northern and Southern wings;
nominates two sets of candidates;
campaign of, in 1860;
attempts to reunite;
in North, members of, become Union men;
effort of Lincoln to placate, by giving recognition in cabinet;
Copperhead and other factions of, see vol. ii.;
"War Democrats";
makes campaign in 1862 on opposition to anti-slavery legislation;
gains in Congressional elections;
wishes Lincoln to compromise;
denounces seizure of Vallandigham;
agitates against military tyranny;
commits error in opposing war;
loses ground in 1863;
applauds Fremont's candidacy;
hopes for success in 1864;
denounces war as failure and nominates McClellan;
war faction of, hesitates to vote for Lincoln, on slavery grounds;
divided over peace plank;
damaged by Federal military successes;
hurt by Southern approval;
defeated in election;
members of, in Congress, aid in passage of thirteenth amendment.

Dennison, William,
succeeds Blair as postmaster-general, see vol. ii.

Dickinson, Daniel S.,
candidate for vice-presidential nomination, see vol. ii.

Diplomatic history,
Seward's proposed foreign wars to prevent disunion, see vol. i.;
recognition of Southern belligerency by England and France;
instructions of Seward to Adams;
difficulties over English privateers;
message of Lincoln on foreign relations;
the Trent affair;
the Oreto affair, see vol. ii.;
the Alabama affair.

District of Columbia,
bill to emancipate slaves in, advocated by Lincoln, see vol. i.;
slave trade in, abolished;
abolition in, favored by Lincoln;
emancipation in, carried, see vol. ii.

Dix, John A.,
on possible secession of New York, see vol. i.;
appointed to Treasury Department;
his order to protect American flag.

Dixon, Archibald,
offers amendment repealing Missouri Compromise, see vol. i.

Donelson, Andrew J.,
nominated for presidency by Whigs and Know-Nothings, see vol. i.

Donelson, Fort,
battle of, see vol. i.

Doolittle, James R.,
in Senate in 1861, see vol. i.

Doubleday, General Abner,
on Hooker's plan in Chancellorsville campaign, see vol. ii.

Douglas, Stephen A.,
meets Lincoln in 1835, see vol. i.;
encounters him in campaign of 1840;
Lincoln's rival in love affair;
his position at Illinois bar;
charges Lincoln with lacking patriotism in opposing Mexican war;
introduces Kansas-Nebraska Bill;
mobbed in Chicago;
debates with Lincoln in campaign of 1854;
proposes a truce;
candidate for Democratic nomination in 1856;
opposes Lecompton Constitution;
leading figure in public life;
his character and ability;
his doctrine of "popular sovereignty";
avoids consequences of Dred Scott decision;
defies Buchanan;
his conduct in Lecompton case dictated by desire to secure reelection
to Senate;
attacks "English Bill" as unfair;
his candidacy for reelection gives Lincoln opportunity;
renominated by Democrats;
denounced by South;
opposed by administration;
accepts Lincoln's challenge to joint debates;
his attacks upon Lincoln;
accused by Lincoln of a plot to make slavery national;
denies any plot;
on status of negro under Declaration of Independence;
sneered at by Lincoln;
keeps temper with difficulty;
attempts to reconcile Dred Scott decision with popular sovereignty;
fails to satisfy South;
cornered by Lincoln;
gains reelection;
on difficulty of debating with Lincoln;
speaks in Ohio;
in debate ignores secession;
nominated by Democrats in 1860;
reasons why repudiated by South;
his vigorous canvass in 1860;
vote for;
offers to aid Lincoln after fall of Sumter;
value of his assistance.

Dred Scott case,
decision in, see vol. i.;
equivocal attitude of Douglas toward;
discussed by Lincoln.

Duane, Captain,
escorts Lincoln at inauguration, see vol. i.

Early, General Jubal A.,
tries to capture Washington, see vol. ii.;
repulsed;
retreats;
defeated by Sheridan.

East,
ignorant of Lincoln, see vol. i.;
led to respect Lincoln by his speeches.

Edwards, Ninian W.,
in frontier political debates, see vol. i.;
member of Illinois bar.

Emancipation,
Lincoln's plan for, in 1849, see vol. i.;
compensation for, wished by Lincoln;
again proposed by Lincoln with compensation and colonization,
see vol. ii.;
discussion of Lincoln's proposal;
demanded instantly by Abolitionists;
question of its constitutionality;
opposition to, in North;
demanded by clergymen;
gradual decision of Lincoln to proclaim;
reasons for caution in issuing proclamation;
delay urged by Seward;
preliminary declaration of, after battle of Antietam;
not influenced by Altoona conference;
its effect upon North;
urged again, with compensation, by Lincoln;
repudiated by Missouri;
final proclamation of, issued;
condemned by rulers of England, though approved by people;
renewed scheme of Lincoln to gain, by compensation.

England,
ignorance of, in West, see vol. i.;
its aid hoped by South;
its sympathy expected by North;
its upper classes dislike America;
rejoices in anticipated destruction of United States;
recognizes belligerency of South;
attitude of Seward toward;
later dealings with;
acquiesces in blockade;
enraged at Trent affair;
demands reparation;
admitted by Lincoln to be in the right;
reply of Seward;
Northern hatred of;
wisdom of Lincoln's attitude toward;
people of, gratified by emancipation proclamation, see vol. ii.;
fails to detain Oreto and Alabama;
subscribes to Confederate loan.

English, James E.,
in House in 1861, see vol. i.;
votes for thirteenth amendment, see vol. ii.

Ericsson, John,
designs the Monitor, see vol. i.

Evarts, William M.,
moves to make Lincoln's nomination unanimous, see vol. i.

Everett, Edward,
nominated for Vice-President by Constitutional Union party, see vol. i.;
delivers oration at Gettysburg, see vol. ii.

Ewell, General R.S.,
enters Shenandoah Valley, see vol. ii.;
enters Pennsylvania.

Ewing,----,
defeats Lincoln for speakership in Illinois legislature, see vol. i.

Farragut, Captain D.G.,
takes New Orleans, see vol. i.;
his campaign on Mississippi;
takes Mobile, see vol. ii.

Fell, J.W.,
asks Lincoln concerning his ancestry, see vol. i.;
urges Lincoln to seek presidential nomination.

Felton, Samuel M.,
fears plot to assassinate Lincoln, see vol. i.;
has wires cut to avoid sending news.

Fenton, Reuben E.,
in House in 1861, see vol. i.

Fessenden, William P.,
in Senate in 1861, see vol. i.;
reluctantly accepts Treasury Department, see vol. ii.;
his success.

Fillmore, Millard,
nominated for presidency by Know-Nothings and Whigs in 1856, see vol. i.

Financial history,
Chase's conduct of Treasury, see vol. ii.

Five Forks,
battle of, see vol. ii.

Florida,
ready to secede in 1860, see vol. i.;
secedes.

Florida,
Confederate privateer, see vol. ii.

Floyd, John B.,
in Buchanan's cabinet, see vol. i.;
wishes secession delayed;
sends arms into South;
involved in defalcation;
quarrels on question of reinforcing Sumter and resigns;
runs away from Fort Donelson.

Foote, Admiral Andrew H.,
his operations in 1862, see vol. i.;
captures Fort Henry.

Ford, Governor,
remark on Lincoln's political luck, see vol. i.

Forney, John W.,
on Republican Convention of 1864, see vol. ii.

Forquer, George,
taunts Lincoln with youth, see vol. i.;
retort of Lincoln to.

Fox, G.V.,
his plan to relieve Fort Sumter, see vol. i.

Franklin, General William B.,
summoned by Lincoln to consultation, see vol. i.;
does not tell McClellan;
favors McClellan's plan of attack;
his division sent to McClellan, but not used, see vol. ii.;
his force occupies West Point.

Fremont, Mrs. Jessie Benton,
her interview with Lincoln, see vol. i.

Fremont, John C.,
nominated for presidency by Republicans, see vol. i.;
appointed to command in Missouri;
his quarrelsomeness and inefficiency;
arrests Blair;
the idol of Abolitionists;
removed;
declares slaves of rebels free in Missouri, see vol. ii.;
asked by Lincoln to modify order;
refuses, and becomes enemy of Lincoln;
reinforced by Lincoln under political pressure;
commands force in West Virginia;
ordered to catch Jackson;
fails;
resigns;
upheld by Lincoln's enemies in Missouri, as rival for presidency;
nominated for presidency;
failure of his candidacy;
withdraws;
his followers hate Blair.

France,
recognizes belligerency of South, see vol. i.;
would have joined England in case of war;
proposes mediation, see vol. ii.

Fredericksburg,
battle of, see vol. ii.

Free Soil party,
origin of, see vol. i.

Fugitive Slave Law,
passed, see vol. i.;
Lincoln's opinion of.

Garrison, William Lloyd,
disapproves of Republican party, see vol. i.;
supports Lincoln in 1864, see vol. ii.

Georgia,
not ready for secession, see vol. i.;
wishes a Southern convention;
how led to secede;
Union minority in.

Gettysburg,
battle of, see vol. ii.;
Lincoln's address at.

Giddings, Joshua R.,
favors Lincoln's emancipation bill in 1849, see vol. i.;
member of Republican Convention of 1860.

Gilmer, John A.,
refuses to enter Lincoln's cabinet, see vol. i.

Gist,
governor of South Carolina, sends circular letter asking about secession
feeling in South, see vol. i.

Grant, Ulysses S.,
his operations in 1862, see vol. i.;
captures Forts Henry and Donelson;
recommended by Halleck for promotion;
condemned by Halleck and relieved from command;
reinstated;
advances to Pittsburg Landing;
attacked by Johnston;
does not admit defeat at Shiloh;
on severity of battle;
his conduct of battle criticised;
harassed by Halleck, asks to be relieved;
on Halleck's mistakes;
on Copperheads, see vol. ii.;
forms plan to take Vicksburg;
tries to approach city from south;
besieges and takes Vicksburg;
his credit for campaign;
his relations with Lincoln;
accused of drunkenness;
congratulated by Lincoln;
given command of the West;
orders Thomas to hold Chattanooga;
relieves siege;
wins battle of Chattanooga;
sends Sherman to relieve Burnside;
on reconstruction;
his conference with Lincoln;
movement to nominate for President in 1864;
appointed lieutenant-general;
given free control;
prepares plan of campaign;
correspondence with Lincoln;
his campaigns in Virginia;
sends force to hold Washington against Early;
sends Sheridan against Early;
character of his military methods;
reports proposal of Lee for a conference;
ordered by Lincoln to refuse;
on desertions from Lee's army;
his plan to entrap Lee's army;
wishes to capture Lee without Sherman's aid;
enters Petersburg;
pursues Lee;
urges Lee to surrender;
his liberal terms to Lee;
praised by Lincoln;
unable to accept Lincoln's invitation to theatre the evening of his
assassination.

Greeley, Horace,
prefers Douglas to Lincoln in 1858, see vol. i.;
in convention of 1860, works against Seward;
his influence used against Lincoln;
willing to admit peaceable secession;
on comparative strength of North and South;
suddenly denounces compromise;
a secessionist in 1861;
publishes address to President, see vol. ii.;
his influence;
answered by Lincoln;
his abusive retort;
suggests French mediation;
condemns Lincoln in 1864;
on movement to delay nomination;
his political creed;
claims to be a Republican while denouncing Lincoln;
favors Fremont;
wishes peace at any price;
wishes to treat with Confederates;
authorized to do so by Lincoln;
conditions named by Lincoln;
abuses Lincoln for causing failure of negotiations.

Green, Duff,
tries to induce Lincoln to support Buchanan, see vol. i.

Greene, Bolin,
lends Lincoln money, see vol. i.

Grimes, James W.,
in Senate in 1861, see vol. i.

Grow, Galusha A.,
speaker of House in 1861, see vol. i.

Habeas Corpus,
suspension of, by Lincoln, see vol. i.

Hale, John P.,
sums up Buchanan's secession doctrine, see vol. i.;
in Senate in 1861;
denounces administration in Trent affair.

Halleck, General Henry W.,
letter of Lincoln to, on plan of war, see vol. i.;
commands in Missouri;
sends news of capture of Fort Donelson and asks for command in West;
assumes command;
complains of Grant;
drives Grant to request to be relieved;
his slow advance upon Corinth;
refuses to fight;
enters Corinth unopposed;
fails to use powerful army;
appointed general-in-chief, see vol. i., see vol. ii.;
compared with McClellan, see vol. i.;
gains advancement because unopposed and unnoticed by politicians;
expels slaves from camp, see vol. ii.;
favors recall of McClellan from Peninsula;
allowed free hand by Lincoln;
inferior to McClellan;
his telegraphic dispute with McClellan;
begs McClellan's assistance after Pope's defeat;
instructs McClellan to command defences of Washington;
alarmed over safety of capital;
has friction with Hooker;
refuses to give Hooker garrison of Harper's Ferry;
urges Meade to attack after Gettysburg;
wishes Buell and Rosecrans to invade Tennessee;
superseded by Grant;
on bad terms with Blair.

Hamlin, Hannibal,
nominated for Vice-President, see vol. i.;
reasons why not renominated, see vol. ii.

Hanks, John,
aids Lincoln to split rails, see vol. i.;
on Lincoln's first sight of slavery;
brings rails split by Lincoln into Republican Convention.

Hanks, Nancy,
mother of Lincoln, see vol. i.;
descends from a "poor white" family;
her character;
marries Thomas Lincoln;
her death.

Hardin, Colonel John J.,
defeats Lincoln and Baker for Congress, see vol. i.;
defeated by Lincoln.

Harlan, James,
in Senate in 1861, see vol. i.

Harrison, W.H.,
campaign for, in 1840, see vol. i.

Hawkins, George S.,
opposes compromise in 1861 as futile, see vol. i.

Hayti,
recognized, see vol. ii.

Heintzelman, General Samuel P.,
opposes McClellan's plan of campaign, see vol. i.;
appointed corps commander;
on force necessary to protect Washington, see vol. ii.

Henderson, John B.,
approves Lincoln's emancipation scheme, see vol. ii.

Henry, Fort,
captured, see vol. i.

Herndon, William H.,
law partner of Lincoln, see vol. i.;
prevents Lincoln from association with Abolitionists;
aids Lincoln in organizing Republican party;
visits East to counteract Greeley's influence against Lincoln.

Herold, David E.,
tried for assassination of Lincoln, see vol. ii.;
hanged.

Hickman, John,
calls Lincoln's emancipation scheme unmanly, see vol. ii.

Hicks, Governor Thomas H.,
opposed to secession, see vol. i.;
suggests referring troubles to Lord Lyons as arbitrator.

"Higher Law,"
Seward's doctrine of, see vol. i.

Hitchcock, General Ethan A.,
considers Washington insufficiently protected, see vol. ii.

Holt, Joseph,
succeeds Floyd in Buchanan's cabinet, see vol. i.;
joins Black and Stanton in coercing Buchanan;
fears attempt of South to seize Washington.

Hood, General John Bell,
succeeds Johnston, see vol. ii.;
defeated by Sherman.

Hooker, General Joseph,
allows slave owners to reclaim fugitives, see vol. ii.;
replaces Burnside in command;
letter of Lincoln to;
his abilities;
in Chancellorsville campaign;
throws away chance of success;
fails to use all of troops;
orders retreat;
wishes to resume attack;
first prevented, then urged by Lincoln;
wishes to capture Richmond;
follows Lee to North;
instructed by Lincoln to obey Halleck;
irritated by Halleck, resigns;
sent to aid Rosecrans;
storms Lookout Mountain.

House of Representatives,
election of Lincoln to, and career in, see vol. i.;
members of;
debates Mexican war;
struggles in, over Wilmot proviso;
refuses to pass Lincoln's emancipation bill of 1849;
settles question of admission of Kansas;
proposes Constitutional amendment in 1861;
rejects plan of Peace Congress;
leaders of, in 1861;
thanks Captain Wilkes;
approves emancipation proclamation, see vol. ii.;
fails to pass thirteenth amendment;
later passes amendment.

Houston, Samuel,
opposes secession in Texas, see vol. i.

Hunter, General David,
asked by Lincoln to aid Fremont, see vol. i.;
succeeds Fremont;
proclaims martial law and abolishes slavery in Georgia, Florida, and
South Carolina, see vol. ii.;
his order revoked;
organizes a negro regiment.

Hunter, R.M.T.,
on Confederate peace commission, see vol. ii.;
retort of Lincoln to.

Hyer, Tom,
hired by Seward's supporters in Republican Convention, see vol. i.

Illinois,
early settlers and society of, see vol. i.;
in Black Hawk war;
early politics in,;
land speculation in;
career of Lincoln in legislature of;
the career of "Long Nine" in;
internal improvement craze in;
adopts resolutions condemning Abolitionists and emancipation in the
District;
suffers from financial collapse;
carried by Van Buren against Harrison;
legal profession in;
carried by Democrats in 1844;
upholds Mexican war;
denounces Kansas-Nebraska Act;
senatorial election of 1855 in;
popular feeling in, concerning Kansas;
in campaign of 1856;
political situation in, during 1858;
prestige of Douglas in;
senatorial campaign in;
carried by Douglas;
movement in, to nominate Lincoln for President;
carried by Democrats in 1862, see vol. ii.

Indiana,
carried by Democrats in 1862, see vol. ii.;
Copperheads in.

Internal improvements,
craze over, in Western States, see vol. i.

Iverson, Alfred,
works in Georgia for secession, see vol. i.;
threatens Houston with assassination;
wishes to keep Washington as capital of Confederacy.

Jackson, Andrew,
popularity of, in Illinois, see vol. i.;
attitude of Lincoln toward.

Jackson, Thomas Jonathan, "Stonewall",
commands at Harper's Ferry, see vol. i.;
in Shenandoah valley, see vol. ii.;
his raid down valley in 1862;
escapes pursuing forces;
joins Johnston and attacks McClellan;
compels McClellan to retreat to James River;
defeats Banks;
reinforced;
marches around Pope;
on too good condition of Federal armies;
breaks Federal right at Chancellorsville;
accidentally shot by his own soldiers.

Johnson, Andrew,
in Congress with Lincoln, see vol. i.;
in Senate in 1861;
instructed by Lincoln to reorganize government in Tennessee,
see vol. ii.;
stern opinion of treason;
repudiates Sherman's terms with Johnston;
his nomination for vice-presidency aided by Lincoln;
protested against, by Tennesseeans;
his accession to presidency welcomed by radicals;
refuses to commute Mrs. Surratt's sentence.

Johnson, Bushrod R.,
captured at Fort Donelson, see vol. i.

Johnson, Herschel V.,
nominated for Vice-President in 1860, see vol. i.;
votes against secession in 1860.

Johnson, Oliver,
supports Lincoln in 1864, see vol. ii.

Johnston, General A.S.,
plans to crush Grant and Buell in detail, see vol. i.;
commands at battle of Shiloh;
killed.

Johnston, Joseph
succeeds Jackson at Harper's Ferry, see vol. i.;
aids Beauregard at Bull Run;
on condition of Confederate army;
evacuates Manassas;
fears that McClellan will storm Yorktown, see vol. ii.;
begins attack on McClellan;
retreats from Sherman after Vicksburg;
terms of Sherman with, in 1865;
campaign against Sherman in 1864;
removed by Davis;
campaign against Sherman in Carolinas;
plan of Lee to join;
surrenders.

Johnston, Sally,
marries Thomas Lincoln, see vol. i.;
her character.

Jones, Abraham,
ancestor of Lincoln, see vol. i.

Judd, N.B.,
asked by Lincoln to help his canvass in 1860, see vol. i.;
urges Lincoln to avoid danger of assassination.

Julian, George W.,
in House in 1861, see vol. i.;
on Republican dissatisfaction with Lincoln, see vol. ii.

Kane, Marshal Geo. P.,
telegraphs for Southern aid to oppose passage of troops through
Baltimore, see vol. i.

Kansas,
struggle in, between free and slave-state men, see vol. i.;
rival constitutions of;
admission of, under Lecompton Constitution, urged by Buchanan;
opposed by Douglas;
attempt of Congress to bribe into acceptance of Lecompton Constitution;
rejects offer;
speeches of Lincoln in.

Kansas-Nebraska bill,
introduced, see vol. i.;
repeals Missouri Compromise.

Keitt, Lawrence M.,
his fight with Grow, see vol. i.

Kellogg, Win. Pitt,
letter of Lincoln to, on extension of slavery, see vol. i.

Kentucky,
desire of Lincoln to retain in Union, see vol. i.;
refuses to furnish troops;
attempt of Secessionists to carry;
wishes to be neutral;
thereby intends to aid South;
skillful dealings of Lincoln with;
remains in Union;
saved by State loyalty;
its neutrality violated by South, joins North;
campaign of Grant in;
invaded by Bragg, see vol. ii.

Keyes, General Erasmus D.,
favors McClellan's plan of campaign, see vol. i.;
appointed corps commander;
on force necessary to protect Washington, see vol. ii.;
on impossibility of taking Yorktown.

Know-Nothings,
their career in 1854-1856, see vol. i.;
attempt to draw out Lincoln in 1860.

Lamon, Colonel Ward H.,
connection with assassination story, see vol. i.

Lane, James H.,
senator from Kansas, see vol. i.

Lane, Joseph,
nominated for Vice-President on Breckinridge ticket in 1860, see vol. i.

Lee, Robert E.,
offered command of Union army, see vol. i.;
opposes secession;
resigns from army and accepts command of State troops;
becomes Confederate general;
commands against Pope, see vol. ii.;
prepares to invade Maryland;
his contempt for McClellan;
at Antietam;
at Fredericksburg;
outmanoeuvred by Hooker;
at Chancellorsville;
hopes to conquer a peace;
enters Pennsylvania;
retreats after Gettysburg;
sends reinforcements to Bragg;
campaign in Virginia against Meade;
his campaign against Grant;
suggests a conference with Grant;
notifies Davis that Richmond must fall;
his chance of escape;
attacks Federal lines;
tries to escape;
surrenders at Appomattox;
asks for food.

Liberia,
recognized, see vol. ii.

Lincoln, Abraham,
his ignorance concerning his ancestry, see vol. i.;
sensitive regarding it;
his own statements;
anxious to appear of respectable stock;
his genealogy as established later;
his reputed illegitimacy;
his birth;
his references to his mother;
his childhood;
befriended by his step-mother;
his education;
early reading;
early attempts at humorous writing;
storytelling;
youthful exploits;
let out by his father;
helps his father settle in Sangamon County, Ill.;
works for himself;
his trip to New Orleans for Offut;
impressed with slavery;
in Offut's store;
fights Armstrong;
later friendship with Armstrong;
borrows a grammar;
his honesty;
loses situation;
involved in border quarrels;
his temperance considered eccentric;
careless habits of dress;
in the country groceries;
coarseness of speech;
his sympathetic understanding of the people;
his standards dependent on surroundings;
enlists in Black Hawk war;
chosen captain;
his services.

_Frontier Politician_.
Announces himself a candidate for the legislature;
a "Clay man";
his campaign and defeat;
enters grocery store, fails;
pays off debt;
studies law;
postmaster at New Salem;
settles account with government;
surveyor;
elected to legislature;
borrows money to ride to capital;
his career in legislature;
love affair with Ann Rutledge;
his gloom;
its inexplicable character;
affair with Mary Owens;
again a candidate, his platform;
calms excitement in campaign;
his fairness;
his retort to Forquer;
elected as one of "Long Nine";
favors unlimited internal improvements;
acknowledges his blunder;
his skill as log-roller;
gains popularity in county;
protests against anti-abolition resolutions;
admitted to bar, settles in Springfield;
partnership with Stuart;
studies debating;
political ambitions;
shows evidences of high ideals;
incidents of his canvass in 1838;
opposes repudiation, in legislature;
reflected in 1840, unsuccessful candidate for speaker;
jumps out of window to break a quorum;
in campaign of 1840;
his courtship of Mary Todd;
fails to appear on wedding day;
married;
character of his married life;
quarrels with Shields;
later ashamed of it;
improves prospects by a partnership with Logan;

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