Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

A Woman's Journey Round the World by Ida Pfeiffer

Part 10 out of 10

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 1.2 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

but merely called out to the captain to know what he was about
there? The captain answered that contrary winds had compelled him
to anchor there, and that he waited for a favourable one to sail to
this place and that. This answer satisfied the officer and the
commandant completely. To me it seemed just as if any one was asked
whether he was an honourable man or a rogue, and then trusted to his
honour when he gave himself a good character.

23rd September. Another bad night; nothing but wind and rain. How
I pitied the poor, sick fellows, and even those who were well,
exposed to this weather on the deck.

Towards noon we arrived at Kertsch; the town can be seen very well
from the sea, as it stretches out in a semi-circle on the shore, and
rises a little up the hill Mithridates {321}, which lies behind.
Higher up the hill is the museum, in the style of a Grecian temple--
circular, and surrounded with columns. The summit of the mountain
ends in a fine group of rocks, between which stand some obelisks and
monuments, which belong to the old burial-place. The country round
is a steppe, covered with artificial earth-mounds, which make the
graves of a very remote period. Besides the Mithridates, there is
no hill or mountain to be seen.

Kertsch lies partly on the spot where Pantikapaum formerly stood.
It is now included in the government of Tauria; it is fortified, has
a safe harbour, and rather considerable commerce. The population
amounts to 12,000. The town contains many fine houses, which are
chiefly of modern date; the streets are broad, and furnished with
raised pavements for foot passengers. There is much gaiety in the
two squares on Sundays and festivals. A market of every possible
thing, but especially provisions, is held there. The extraordinary
vulgarity and rudeness of the common people struck me greatly; on
all sides I heard only abuse, shouting, and cursing. To my
astonishment I saw dromedaries yoked to many loaded carts.

The Mithridates is 500 feet high, and beautiful flights of stone
steps and winding paths lead up its sides, forming the only walks of
the towns' people. This hill must formerly have been used by the
ancients as a burial-place, for everywhere, if the earth is only
scraped away, small narrow sarcophagi, consisting of four stone
slabs, are found. The view from the top is extensive, but tame; on
three sides a treeless steppe, whose monotony is broken only by
innumerable tumuli; and on the fourth side, the sea. The sight of
that is everywhere fine, and here the more so, as one sea joins
another, namely, the Black Sea and the Sea of Asoph.

There was a tolerable number of ships in the roads, but very far
short of four or six hundred, as the statements in the newspapers
gave out, and as I had hoped to see.

On my return, I visited the Museum, which consists of a single
apartment. It contains a few curiosities from the tumuli, but
everything handsome and costly that was found was taken to the
Museum at St. Petersburgh. The remains of sculptures, bas-reliefs,
sarcophagi, and epitaphs are very much decayed. What remains of the
statues indicates a high state of art. The most important thing in
the Museum is a sarcophagus of white marble, which, although much
dilapidated, is still very beautiful. The exterior is full with
fine reliefs, especially on one side, where a figure, in the form of
an angel, is represented holding two garlands of fruit together over
its head. On the lid of the sarcophagus are two figures in a
reclining posture. The heads are wanting; but all the other parts,
the bodies, their position, and the draping of the garments, are
executed in a masterly manner.

Another sarcophagus of wood, shows great perfection in the carving
and turning of the wood.

A collection of earthen jars, water jugs and lamps, called to my
mind those in the museum at Naples. The jars, burnt and painted
brown, have a form similar to those discovered at Herculaneum and
Pompeii. The water jugs are furnished with two ears, and are so
pointed at the bottom, that they will not stand unless rested
against something. This form of vessel is still used in Persia.
Among other glass-ware, there were some flasks which consisted
almost entirely of long necks, bracelets, rings and necklaces of
gold; some small four-cornered embossed sheets, which were worn
either on the head or chest, and some crowns, made of laurel
wreaths, were very elegant. There were chains and cauldrons in
copper, and ugly grotesque faces and ornaments of various kinds,
which were probably fixed on the exterior of the houses. I saw some
coins which were remarkably well stamped.

I had now to visit the tumuli. I sought long and in vain for a
guide: very few strangers come to this place, and there are
consequently no regular guides. At last there was nothing left for
me but to apply to the Austrian Vice-consul, Herr Nicolits. This
gentleman was not only willing to comply with my wish, but was even
so obliging as to accompany me himself.

The tumuli are monuments of an entirely peculiar character; they
consist of a passage about sixty feet long, fourteen broad, and
twenty-five high, and a very small chamber at the end of the
passage. The walls of the passage are sloping, like the roof of a
house, and contract so much at the top, that at the utmost one foot
is left between. They are built of long and very thick stone slabs,
which are placed over each other in such a way that the upper row
projects about six or seven inches beyond the under one. Upon the
opening at the top are placed massive slabs of stone. Looking down
from the entrance, the walls appear as if fluted. The room, which
is a lengthened quadrangle, is spanned by a small arched roof, and
is built in the same manner as the passage. After the sarcophagus
was deposited in the room, the whole monument was covered with
earth.

The fine marble sarcophagus which is in the Museum, was taken from a
tumulus which was situated near the quarantine house, and is
considered to be that of King Bentik.

The greater number of the monuments were opened by the Turks; the
remainder were uncovered by the Russian government. Many of the
bodies were found ornamented with jewels and crowns of leaves, like
those in the Museum; an abundance of coins was also found.

The 26th of September was a great festival among the Russians, who
celebrated the finding of the cross. The people brought bread,
pastry, fruit, etc., to the church, by way of sacrifice. The whole
of these things were laid up in one corner. After the service, the
priest blessed them, gave some few morsels to the beggars round him,
and had the remainder packed into a large basket and sent to his
house.

In the afternoon, nearly the whole of the people went to the burial-
ground. The common people took provisions with them, which were
also blessed by the priests, but were hastily consumed by the
owners.

I saw only a few people in the Russian dress. This consists, both
for men and women, of long wide blue cloth coats; the men wear low
felt hats, with broad brims, and have their hair cut even all round;
the women bind small silk kerchiefs round their heads.

Before finishing my account of Kertsch, I must mention that there
are naphtha springs in the neighbourhood; but I did not visit them,
as they were described to me as precisely similar to those at
Tiflis.

The next part of my journey was to Odessa. I could go either by sea
or land. The latter was said to present many objects of beauty and
interest; but I preferred the former, as I had in the first place no
great admiration of the Russian post; and, secondly, I was heartily
anxious to turn my back upon the Russian frontiers.

On the 27th of September, at 8 in the morning, I went on board the
Russian steamer Dargo, of 100 horse power. The distance from Odessa
to Constantinople amounts to 420 miles. The vessel was handsome and
very clean, and the fare very moderate. I paid for the second cabin
thirteen silver roubles, or twenty florins fifty kreutzers (2 pounds
1s. 4d.) The only thing which did not please me in the Russian
steamer, was the too great attention of the steward who, as I was
told, pays for his office. All the travellers are compelled to take
their meals with him, the poor deck passengers not excepted, who
have often to pay him their last kopecs.

About afternoon we came to Feodosia (Caffa), which was formerly the
largest and most important town in the Crimea, and was called the
second Constantinople. It was at the height of its prosperity about
the end of the fifteenth century, under the dominion of Genueser.
Its population at that time is said to have been upwards of 200,000.
It has now declined to a minor town, with 5,000 inhabitants.

Half-ruined fortification walls and towers of the time of Genueser
remain, as well as a fine mosque, which has been turned into a
Christian church by the Russians.

The town lies upon a large bay of the Black Sea, on the declivity of
barren hills. Pretty gardens between the houses form the only
vegetation to be seen.

28th September. We stopped this morning at Jalta, a very small
village, containing 500 inhabitants, and a handsome church founded
by the Prince Woronzoff. It is built in pure Gothic style, and
stands upon a hill outside of the village. The country is again
delightful here, and beautiful hills and mountains, partly covered
with fine woods, partly rising in steep precipices, extend close to
the sea-shore.

The steamer stayed twenty-four hours at Jalta. I took advantage of
the time to make an excursion to Alupka, one of the estates of
Prince Woronzoff, famous for a castle which is considered one of the
curiosities of the Crimea. The road to it passed over low ranges of
hills close to the sea through a true natural park, which had here
and there been embellished by the help of art. The most elegant
castles and country-houses belonging to the Russian nobles are
seated between woods and groves, gardens and vineyards, in open
spaces on hills and declivities. The whole prospect is so charming,
that it appears as if prosperity, happiness, and peace, only reigned
here.

The first villa which attracted me was that of Count Leo Potocki.
The building is extremely tasteful. The gardens were laid out with
art and sumptuousness. The situation is delightful, with an
extensive view of the sea and neighbourhood.

A second magnificent building, which, however, is more remarkable
for magnitude than beauty of construction, lies near the sea-shore.
It resembles an ordinary square house with several stories; and, as
I was informed, was built as a country bathing-place of the emperor,
but had not yet been made use of. This castle is called Oriander.

Far handsomer than this palace was the charming country-house of
Prince Mirzewsky. It is seated on a hill, in the centre of a
magnificent park, and affords a delightful view of the mountains and
sea. The principal front is Gothic.

The villa of Prince Gallizin is built entirely in the Gothic style.
The pointed windows, and two towers of which, decorated with a
cross, give to it the appearance of a church, and the beholder
involuntarily looks for the town to which this gorgeous building
belongs.

This place lies nearly at the extremity of the fine country. From
here the trees are replaced by dwarf bushes, and finally by
brambles; the velvety-green turf is succeeded by stony ground, and
steep rocks rise behind, at the foot of which lie a quantity of
fallen fragments.

Even here very pretty seats are to be seen; but they are entirely
artificial, and want the charm of nature.

After travelling about thirteen wersti, the road winds round a stony
hill, and the castle of Prince Woronzoff comes in sight in its
entire extent. The appearance of it is not by any means so fine as
I had imagined. The castle is built entirely of stone, of the same
colour as the neighbouring rocks. If a large park surrounded the
castle, it would stand out more prominently, and the beauty and
magnificence of its architecture would be better shown. There is,
indeed, a well laid out garden, but it is yet new and not very
extensive. The head gardener, Herr Kebach (a German), is a master
in his art; he well knows how to manage the naked barren land, so
that it will bear not only the ordinary trees, plants, and flowers,
but even the choicest exotic plants.

The castle is built in the Gothic style, and is full of towers,
pinnacles, and buttresses, such as are seen in similar well
preserved buildings of olden time. The principal front is turned
towards the sea. Two lions, in Carrara marble, artistically
sculptured, lie in comfortable ease at the top of the majestic
flight of steps which lead from the castle far down to the sea-
shore.

The interior arrangement of the castle reminded me of the "Arabian
Nights;" every costly thing from all parts of the world, such as
fine woods and choice works of art, is to be seen here in the
greatest perfection and splendour. There are state apartments in
Oriental, Chinese, Persian, and European styles; and, above all, a
garden saloon, which is quite unique, for it not only contains the
finest and rarest flowers but even the tallest trees. Palms, with
their rich leafy crowns, extend to a great height, climbing plants
cover the walls, and on all sides are flowers and blossoms. The
most delightful odour diffused itself through the air, cushioned
divans stood half-buried under the floating leaves; in fact,
everything combined to produce the most magical impression upon the
senses.

The owner of this fairy palace was unfortunately absent at a fete on
a neighbouring estate. I had letters to him, and should have been
glad to have made his acquaintance, as I had heard him spoken of
here, both by rich and poor, as a most noble, just and generous man.
I was, indeed, persuaded to wait his return, but I could not accept
this offer, as I should have had to wait eight days for the arrival
of the next steamer, and my time was already very limited.

In the neighbourhood of the castle is a Tartar village, of which
there are many in the Crimea. The houses are remarkable for their
flat earth roofs, which are more used by the inhabitants than the
interior of the huts; as the climate is mild and fine they pass the
whole day at their work on the roofs, and at night sleep there. The
dress of the men differs somewhat from that of the Russian peasants,
the women dress in the Oriental fashion, and have their faces
uncovered.

I never saw such admirably planted and clean vineyards as here. The
grapes are very sweet, and of a good flavour; the wine light and
good, and perfectly suited for making champagne, which indeed is
sometimes done. I was told that more than a hundred kinds of grapes
are grown in the gardens of Prince Woronzoff.

When I returned to Jalta, I was obliged to wait more than two hours,
as the gentlemen with whom I was to go on board had not yet finished
their carouse. At last, when they broke up, one of them, an officer
of the steamer, was so much intoxicated that he could not walk. Two
of his companions and the landlord dragged him to the shore. The
jolly-boat of the steamer was indeed there, but the sailors refused
to take us, as the jolly-boat was ordered for the captain. We were
obliged to hire a boat, for which each had to pay twenty kopecs
(8d.) The gentlemen knew that I did not speak Russian but they did
not think I partially understood the language. I, however,
overheard one of them say to the other "I have no change with me,
let us leave the woman to pay." Upon this the other turned round to
me, and said in French, "The share that you have to pay is twenty
silver kopecs." These were gentlemen who made pretensions to
honesty and honour.

29th September. Today we stopped at the strong and beautiful
fortress Sewastopol. The works are partly situated at the entrance
of the harbour, and partly in the harbour itself; they are executed
in massive stone, and possess a number of towers and outworks which
defend the entrance to the harbour. The harbour itself is almost
entirely surrounded by hills, and is one of the safest and most
excellent in the world. It can hold the largest fleets, and is so
deep that the most gigantic men-of-war can lie at anchor close to
the quays. Sluices, docks and quays have been constructed in
unlimited splendour and magnificence. The whole of the works were
not quite finished, and there was an unparalleled activity apparent.
Thousands of men were busy on all sides. Among the workmen I was
shown many of the captured Polish nobles who had been sent here as a
punishment for their attempt, in 1831, to shake of the Russian yoke.

The works of the fortress and the barracks are so large that they
will hold about 30,000 men.

The town itself is modern, and stands upon a range of barren hills.
The most attractive among the buildings is the Greek church, as it
stands quite alone on a hill, and is built in the style of a Grecian
temple. The library is situated on the highest ground. There is
also an open-columned hall near the club, with stone steps leading
to the sea-shore, which serves as the most convenient passage to the
town for those who land here. A Gothic monument to the memory of
Captain Cozar, who distinguished himself greatly at the battle of
Navarino, and was killed there, does not less excite the curiosity
of the traveller. Like the church, it stands alone upon a hill.

The streets here, as in all the new Russian towns, are broad and
clean.

30th September. Early in the morning we reached Odessa. The town
looks very well from the sea. It stands high; and consequently many
of the large and truly fine buildings can be seen at one glance.
Among these are the Palace of Prince Woronzoff, the Exchange, the
government offices, several large barracks, the quarantine
buildings, and many fine private houses. Although the surrounding
country is flat and barren, the number of gardens and avenues in the
town give it a pleasant appearance. In the harbour was a perfect
forest of masts. By far the greater number of ships do not lie
here, but in the quarantine harbour. Most of the ships come from
the Turkish shore, and are obliged to pass through a quarantine of
fourteen days, whether they have illness on board or not.

Odessa, the chief town of the government of Cherson, is, from its
situation on the Black Sea, and at the mouth of the Dniester and
Dnieper, one of the most important places of commerce in South
Russia. It contains 50,000 inhabitants, was founded in 1794, and
declared a free port in 1817. A fine citadel entirely commands the
harbour.

The Duke of Richelieu contributed most to the advancement of Odessa;
for after having made several campaigns against his native country
(France) in an emigrant corps, he went to Russia; and in 1803 was
made governor-general of Cherson. He filled this post until 1814,
during which time he brought the town to its present position. When
he was appointed it contained scarcely 5,000 inhabitants. One of
the finest streets bears the name of the duke, and several squares
are also named in honour of him.

I remained only two days in Odessa. On the third I started by the
steamer for Constantinople. I went through the town and suburbs in
every direction. The finest part lies towards the sea, especially
the boulevard, which is furnished with fine avenues of trees, and
offers a delightful promenade; a life-size statue of the Duke
Richelieu forms a fine ornament to it. Broad flights of stone steps
lead from here down to the sea-shore; and in the background are rows
of handsome palaces and houses. The most remarkable among them are
the Government House, the Hotel St. Petersburgh, and the Palace of
Prince Woronzoff, built in the Italian style, with a tasteful garden
adjoining. At the opposite end of the boulevard is the Exchange,
also built in the Italian style, and surrounded by a garden. Not
far from this is the Academy of Arts, a rather mediocre one-story
building. The Theatre, with a fine portico, promises much outside,
but is nothing great within. Next to the theatre is the Palais
Royal, which consists of a pretty garden, round which are ranged
large handsome shops, filled with costly goods. Many articles are
also hung out, but the arrangement is not near so tasteful as is the
case in Vienna or Hamburgh.

Among the churches the Russian cathedral is the most striking. It
has a lofty arched nave and a fine dome. The nave rests upon strong
columns covered with brilliant white plaster, which looks like
marble. The decorations of the churches with pictures, lamps, and
lustres, etc., is rich but not artistic. This was the first church
in which I found stoves, and really it was quite necessary that
these should be used, the difference of temperature between this
place and Jalta was very considerable for the short distance.

A second Russian church stands in the new bazaar; it has a large
dome surrounded by four smaller ones, and has a very fine appearance
from the exterior; inside it is small and plain.

The Catholic church, not yet quite finished, vies in point of
architecture with the Russian cathedral.

The streets are all broad, handsome, and regular, it is almost
impossible to lose your way in this town. In every street there are
fine large houses, and this is the case even in the most remote
parts as well.

In the interior of the town lies the so-called "crown garden," which
is not, indeed, very large or handsome, but still affords some
amusement, as great numbers of people assemble here on Sundays, and
festivals, and a very good band of music plays here in summer under
a tent; in winter the performances take place in a plain room.

The botanic garden, three wersti from the town, has few exotic
plants, and is much neglected. The autumn changes, which I again
saw here for the first time for some years, made a truly sad
impression upon me. I could almost have envied the people who live
in hot climates, although the heat is very troublesome.

The German language is understood by almost all but the lowest
orders in Odessa.

On leaving the Russian dominions I had as much trouble with the
passport regulations as on entering. The passport which was
obtained on entering must be changed for another for which two
silver roubles are paid. Besides this, the traveller's name has to
be three times printed in the newspaper, so that if he has debts,
his creditors may know of his departure. With these delays it takes
at least eight days, frequently, however, two or three weeks to get
away; it is not, however, necessary to wait for these forms, if the
traveller provides security.

The Austrian Consul, Herr Gutenthal, answered for me, and I was thus
able to bid adieu to Russia on the 2nd of October. That I did this
with a light heart it is not necessary for me to assure my readers.

CHAPTER XXIV. CONSTANTINOPLE AND ATHENS.

CONSTANTINOPLE--CHANGES--TWO FIRES--VOYAGE TO GREECE--QUARANTINE AT
AEGINA--A DAY IN ATHENS--CALAMACHI--THE ISTHMUS--PATRAS--CORFU.

Little can be said of the passage from Odessa to Constantinople; we
continued out at sea and did not land anywhere. The distance is 420
miles. The ship belonged to the Russian government, it was named
Odessa, was of 260 horse power, and was handsome, clean, and neat.

In order that my parting with my dear friends, the Russians, might
not be too much regretted, one of them was so good at the end of the
passage as to behave in a manner that was far from polite. During
the last night which was very mild and warm, I went out of the close
cabin on to the deck, and placed myself not far from the compass-
box, where I soon began to sleep, wrapt in my mantle. One of the
sailors came, and giving me a kick with his foot, told me to leave
the place. I thanked him quietly for the delicate way in which he
expressed himself, and requesting him to leave me at peace,
continued to sleep.

Among the passengers were six English sailors, who had taken a new
ship to Odessa, and were returning home. I spoke with them several
times, and had soon quite won them. As they perceived that I was
without any companion, they asked me if I spoke enough Turkish to be
able to get what I wanted from the ship's people and porters. On my
answering that I did, they offered to manage everything for me if I
would go on shore with them. I willingly accepted their offer.

As we approached land a customs' officer came on board to examine
our luggage. In order to avoid delay I gave him some money. When
we landed I wanted to pay, but the English sailors would not allow
it; they said I had paid for the customs' officer, and it was
therefore their time to pay for the boat. I saw that I should only
have affronted them if I had pressed them further to receive the
money. They settled with the porter for me, and we parted good
friends. How different was the behaviour of these English sailors
from that of the three well-bred Russian gentlemen at Jalta!

The passage into the Bosphorus, as well as the objects of interest
in Constantinople, I have already described in my journey to the
Holy Land. I went immediately to my good friend Mrs. Balbiani; but,
to my regret, found that she was not in Constantinople; she had
given up her hotel. I was recommended to the hotel "Aux Quatre
Nations," kept by Madame Prust. She was a talkative French woman,
who was always singing the praises of her housekeeping, servants,
cookery, etc., in which, however, none of the travellers agreed with
her. She charged forty piasters (8s.), and put down a good round
sum in the bill for servants' fees and such like.

Since my last stay here a handsome new wooden bridge had been
erected over the Golden Horn, and the women did not seem to be so
thickly veiled as on my first visit to Constantinople. Many of them
wore such delicately woven veils that their faces could almost be
seen through them: others had only the forehead and chin covered,
and left their eyes, nose, and cheeks exposed.

The suburb of Pera looked very desolate. There had been a number of
fires, which were increased by two during my stay; they were called
"small," as by the first only a hundred and thirty shops, houses,
and cottages, and by the second, only thirty were burned to the
ground. They are accustomed to reckon the number destroyed by
thousands.

The first fire broke out in the evening as we were seated at table.
One of the guests offered to accompany me to see it, as he thought I
should be interested by the sight if I had not seen such a one
before. The scene of the fire was rather distant from our house,
but we had scarcely gone a hundred steps when we found ourselves in
a great crowd of people, who all carried paper lanterns, {330a} by
which the streets were lighted. Every one was shouting and rushing
wildly about; the inhabitants of the houses threw open their windows
and inquired of the passers by the extent of the danger, and gazed
with anxiety and trembling at the reflection of the flames in the
sky. Every now and then sounded the shrill cry of "Guarda! guarda!"
(take care) of the people, who carried small fire-engines {330b} and
buckets of water on their shoulders, and knocked everything over
that was in their way. Mounted and foot soldiers and watchmen
rushed about, and Pashas rode down with their attendants to urge the
people on in extinguishing the fire, and to render them assistance.
Unfortunately almost all these labours are fruitless. The fire
takes such hold of the wooden buildings painted with oil colours,
and spreads with such incredible rapidity that it is stopped only by
open spaces or gardens. One fire often destroys several thousand
houses. The unfortunate inhabitants have scarce time to save
themselves; those who live some distance off hastily pack their
effects together and hold themselves prepared for flight at any
moment. It may easily be supposed that thieves are not rare on such
occasions, and it too often happens that the few things the poor
people have saved are torn away from them in the bustle and
confusion.

The second fire broke out in the following night. Every one had
retired to sleep, but the fire-watch rushed through the street,
knocking with his iron-mounted staff at the doors of the houses and
waking the people. I sprang terrified out of bed, ran to the
window, and saw in the direction of the fire a faint red light in
the sky. In a few hours the noise and redness ceased. They have at
last begun to build stone houses, not only in Pera but also in
Constantinople.

I left Constantinople on the evening of the 7th of October, by the
French steamer Scamander, one hundred and sixty-horse power.

The passage from Constantinople to Smyrna, and through the Greek
Archipelago is described in my journey to the Holy Land, and I
therefore pass on at once to Greece.

I had been told, in Constantinople, that the quarantine was held in
the Piraeus (six English miles from Athens), and lasted only four
days, as the state of health in Turkey was perfectly satisfactory.
Instead of this, I learnt on the steamer that it was held at the
island of AEgina (sixteen English miles from Piraeus), and lasted
twelve days, not on account of the plague but of the cholera. For
the plague it lasts twenty days.

On the 10th of October we caught sight of the Grecian mainland.
Sailing near the coast, we saw on the lofty prominence of a rock
twelve large columns, the remains of the Temple of Minerva. Shortly
afterwards we came near the hill on which the beautiful Acropolis
stands. I gazed for a long time on all that was to be seen; the
statues of the Grecian heroes, the history of the country came back
to my mind; and I glowed with desire to set my foot on the land
which, from my earliest childhood, had appeared to me, after Rome
and Jerusalem, as the most interesting in the earth. How anxiously
I sought for the new town of Athens--it stands upon the same spot as
the old and famous one. Unfortunately, I did not see it, as it was
hidden from us by a hill. We turned into the Piraeus, on which a
new town has also been built, but only stopped to deliver up our
passports, and then sailed to AEgina.

It was already night when we arrived; a boat was quickly put out,
and we were conveyed to the quay near the quarantine station.
Neither the porters nor servants of this establishment were there to
help us, and we were obliged to carry our own baggage to the
building, where we were shown into empty rooms. We could not even
get a light. I had fortunately a wax taper with me, which I cut
into several pieces and gave to my fellow-passengers.

On the following morning I inquired about the regulations of the
quarantine--they were very bad and very dear. A small room, quite
empty, cost three drachmas (2s. 3d.) a-day; board, five drachmas
(3s. 9d.); very small separate portions, sixty or seventy leptas
(6d. or 7d.); the attendance, that is, the superintendence of the
guardian, two drachmas a-day; the supply of water, fifteen leptas
daily; the physician, a drachma; and another drachma on leaving, for
which he inspects the whole party, and examines the state of their
health. Several other things were to be had at a similar price, and
every article of furniture has to be hired.

I cannot understand how it is that the government pays so little
attention to institutions which are established for sanitary
purposes and which the poor cannot avoid. They must suffer more
privation here than at home; they cannot have any hot meals, for the
landlord, who is not restricted in his prices, charges five or six
times the value. Several artizans who had come by the vessel were
put into the same room with a servant-girl. These people had no hot
food the twelve days; they lived entirely upon bread, cheese, and
dried figs. The girl, after a few days, begged me to let her come
into my room, as the people had not behaved properly to her. In
what a position the poor girl would have been placed if there had
not happened to be a woman among the passengers, or if I had refused
to receive her!

Are such arrangements worthy of a public institution? Why are there
not a few rooms fitted up at the expense of government for the poor?
Why cannot they have a plain hot meal once in the day for a moderate
price? The poor surely suffer enough by not being able to earn
anything for so long a time, without being deprived of their hard
earnings in such a shameful manner!

On the second day the court-yard was opened, and we were permitted
to walk about in an inclosed space a hundred and fifty paces wide,
on the sea-shore. The view was very beautiful; the whole of the
Cyclades lay before us: small, mountainous islands, mostly
uninhabited and covered over with woods. Probably they were
formerly a part of the mainland, and were separated by some violent
convulsion of nature.

On the fourth day our range was extended, we were allowed to walk as
far as the hills surrounding the lazaretto under the care of a
guard. The remains of a temple stand upon these hills, fragments of
a wall, and a very much decayed column. The latter, which consisted
of a single piece of stone, was fluted, and, judging from the
circumference, had been very high. These ruins are said to be those
of the remarkably fine temple of Jupiter.

21st October. This was the day we were set at liberty. We had
ordered a small vessel the evening before which was to take us to
Athens early in the morning. But my fellow-travellers would insist
upon first celebrating their freedom at a tavern, and from this
reason it was 11 o'clock before we started. I availed myself of
this time to look about the town and its environs. It is very small
and contains no handsome buildings. The only remains of antiquity
which I found were traces of the floor of a room in Mosaic work of
coloured stones. From what I could see of the island of AEgina, it
appeared extremely barren and naked, and it does not show any
indications of having been once a flourishing seat of art and
commerce.

AEgina is a Greek island, about two square miles in extent, it was
formerly a separate state, and is said to have received the name of
AEgina from the daughter of AEsop. It is supposed that the first
money of Greece was coined in this island.

Our passage to the Piraeus occupied a long time. There was not a
breath of wind, and the sailors were obliged to row; we did not land
at our destination until nearly 8 in the evening. We were first
visited by the health-officer, who read through the certificates
which we brought from the quarantine very leisurely. There was
unfortunately nobody among us who was inclined to make it more
understandable to him by a few drachmas. Of course we could not
neglect going to the police-office; but it was already closed, in
consequence of which we dare not leave the town. I went into a
large fine-looking coffee-house to look for night quarters. I was
conducted to a room in which half of the window-panes were broken.
The attendant said this was of no consequence, it was only necessary
to close the shutters. In other respects the room looked very well
but I had scarcely laid down on the bed when certain animals
compelled me to take to flight. I laid down upon the sofa, which
was no better. Lastly, I tried an easy chair, in which I passed the
night, not in the most agreeable position.

I had already been told in AEgina of the great dirtiness and number
of vermin prevalent in the Piraean inns, and had been warned against
passing a night there; but what was to be done? for we could not
venture to leave the town without permission of the police.

22nd October. The distance of the harbour of the Piraeus from
Athens is thirteen stadia, or six English miles. The road leads
through olive-plantations and between barren hills. The Acropolis
remains continually in sight; the town of Athens does not appear
till afterwards. I had intended to remain eight days in Athens, in
order to see all the monuments and remarkable places of the town and
environs leisurely; but I had scarcely got out of the carriage when
I heard the news of the breaking out of the Vienna revolution of
October.

I had heard of the Paris revolution of the 24th February while in
Bombay; that of March in Germany, at Baghdad; and the other
political disturbances while at Tebris, Tiflis, and other places.
No news had astonished me so much in my whole life as that from
Vienna. My comfortable, peace-loving Austrians, and an overthrow of
the government! I thought the statement so doubtful, that I could
not give full credit to the verbal information of the Resident at
Baghdad; he was obliged to show it to me in black and white in the
newspaper to convince me. The affair of March so delighted and
inspirited me that I felt proud of being an Austrian. The later
occurrences of May, however, cooled my enthusiasm; and that of the
6th of October completely filled me with sadness and dejection. No
overthrow of a state ever began so promisingly. It would have stood
alone in history if the people had gone on in the spirit of the
March movement; and then to end in such a way! I was so grieved and
upset by the result of the 6th of October, that I lost all enjoyment
of everything. Moreover, I knew my friends were in Vienna, and I
had heard nothing from them. I should have hastened there
immediately if there had been an opportunity of doing so; but I was
obliged to wait till the next day, as the steamer did not start till
then. I made arrangements to go by it, and then took a cicerone to
show me all the objects of interest in the town, more for diversion
than pleasure.

My fate had been very unfortunate; twelve days I had patiently
endured being shut up in the lazaretto at AEgina, in order to be
able to see the classic country, and now I was so anxious to leave
it that I had neither rest nor peace.

Athens, the capital of the former State of Attica, is said to have
been founded in the year 1300, fourteen hundred years before Christ,
by Cecrops, from whom it then took the name of Cecropia, which in
after-times was retained only by the castle: under Eriktonius the
town was named "Athens." The original town stood upon a rock in the
centre of a plain, which was afterwards covered with buildings; the
upper part was called the "Acropolis," the lower the "Katopolis;"
only a part of the fortress, the famous Acropolis, remains on the
mountain, where the principal works of art of Athens stand. The
principal feature was the temple of Minerva, or the Parthenon; even
its ruins excite the astonishment of the world. The building is
said to have been 215 feet long, ninety-seven feet broad, and
seventy feet high; here stood the statue of Minerva, by Phidias.
This masterly work was executed in gold and ivory; its height was
forty-six feet, and it is said to have weighed more than 2000
pounds. Fifty-five columns of the entrance to the temple still
remain, as well as parts of enormous blocks of marble which rest
upon them, and belonged to the arches and roof.

This temple was destroyed by the Persians, and was again restored
with greater beauty by Pericles, about 440 years after the birth of
Christ.

There are some fine remains of the temples of Minerva and Neptune,
and the extent of the amphitheatre can still be seen; there is but
little of the theatre of Bacchus remaining.

Outside the Acropolis stands the temple of Theseus and that of
Jupiter Olympus; the one on the north, the other on the south side.
The former is in the Doric style, and is surrounded by thirty-six
fine columns. On the metope are represented the deeds of Theseus in
beautiful reliefs. The interior of the temple is full of fine
sculptures, epitaphs, and other works in stone, most of which belong
to the other temples, but are collected here. Outside the temple
stand several marble seats which have been brought from the
neighbouring Areopagus, the former place of assembly for the
patricians. Of the Areopagus itself nothing more is to be seen than
a chamber cut out of the rock, to which similarly cut steps lead.

Of the temple of Jupiter Olympus so much of the foundation-walls
still remain as to show what its size was; there are also sixteen
beautiful columns, fifty-eight feet in height. This temple, which
was completed by Hadrian, is said to have exceeded in beauty and
magnificence all the buildings of Athens. The exterior was
decorated by one hundred and twenty fluted columns six feet in
diameter and fifty-nine in height. The gold and ivory statue of
Jupiter was, like that of Minerva, the production of the masterly
hand of Phidias. All the temples and buildings were of pure white
marble.

Not far from the Areopagus is the Pnyx, where the free people of
Athens met in council. Of this nothing more remains than the
rostrum, hewn in the rock, and the seat of the scribe. What
feelings agitate the mind when it is remembered what men have stood
there and spoke from that spot!

It was with sadness that I examined the cave near here where
Socrates was imprisoned and poisoned. Above this memorable grotto
stands a plain monument erected in memory of Philopapoe.

The Turks surrounded the Acropolis with a broad wall, in the
building of which they made use of many fragments of columns and
other remains of the most beautiful temples.

No remnants of antiquity are to be seen in the old town of Athens
except the Tower of the Winds, or, as others call it, Diogenes'
Lantern, a small temple in the form of an octagon, covered with fine
sculpture; also the monument of Lysicrates. This consists of a
pedestal, some columns, and a dome in the Corinthian style.

The chapel Maria Maggiore, is said to have been built by the
Venetians, 700 years after Christ. Its greatest peculiarity is that
it was the first Christian church in Athens.

The view of the whole country from the Acropolis is also very
interesting; there can be seen the Hymetos, the Pentelikon, towards
Eleusis, Marathon, Phylae, and Dekelea, the harbour, the sea, and
the course of the Ilissus.

Athens contains a considerable number of houses, most of which are,
however, small and unimportant; the beautiful country-houses, on the
contrary, surrounded by tasty gardens, have a very agreeable
appearance.

The small observatory was built by Baron Sina, the well-known banker
in Vienna, who is by birth a Greek.

The royal palace, which is of modern date, is built of brilliant
white marble, in the form of a large quadrangle. On two sides,
which occupy a large part of the breadth of the wings, under a
peristyle, is a kind of small porch which rests upon pillars. The
one approach is for the ministers, ambassadors, etc., the other for
the royal family. With the exception of these two peristyles, the
whole building is very tasteless, and has not the least ornament;
the windows are in the ordinary form; and the high large walls
appear so naked, bare, and flat, that even the dazzling white of the
beautiful marble produces no effect; and it is only on a close
approach that it can be seen what a costly material has been
employed in the building.

I regretted having seen this palace, especially opposite to the
Acropolis, on a spot which has made its works of art as classic as
its heroes.

The palace is surrounded by a rather pretty though recently-formed
garden. In the front stand a few palms, which have been brought
from Syria, but they bear no fruit. The country is otherwise barren
and naked.

The marble of which this palace is built, as well as the temples and
other buildings on the Acropolis, is obtained from the quarries of
the neighbouring mountain, Pentelikon, where the quantity of this
beautiful stone is so great that whole towns might be built of it.

It was Sunday, and the weather was very fine, {335} to which I was
indebted for seeing all the fashionable world of Athens, and even
the Court, in the open promenade. This place is a plain avenue, at
the end of which a wooden pavilion is erected. It is not decorated
by either lawns or flower-beds. The military bands play every
Sunday from five to six. The King rides or drives with his Queen to
this place to show himself to the people. This time he came in an
open carriage with four horses, and stopped to hear several pieces
of music. He was in Greek costume; the Queen wore an ordinary
French dress.

The Greek or rather Albanian costume is one of the handsomest there
is. The men wear full frocks, made of white perkal, which reach
from the hips to the knees, buskins from the knee to the feet, and
shoes generally of red leather. A close-fitting vest of coloured
silk without arms, over a silk shirt, and over this another close-
fitting spencer of fine red, blue, or brown cloth, which is fastened
only at the waist by a few buttons or a narrow band, and lays open
at the top. The sleeves of the spencer are slit up, and are either
left loose or slightly held together by some cords round the wrists;
the collar of the shirt is a little turned over. The vest and
spencer are tastily ornamented with cords, tassels, spangles and
buttons of gold, silver or silk, according to the means of the
wearer. The material, colour and ornament of the Zaruchi correspond
with those of the spencer and vest. A dagger is generally worn in
the girdle, together with a pair of pistols. The head-dress is a
red fez, with a blue tassel.

The Greek dress is, as far as I saw, less worn by the women, and
even then much of its originality is lost. The principal part of
the dress consists of a French garment, which is open at the breast,
over this a close spencer is drawn on, which is also open, and the
sleeves wide and rather shorter than those of the gown. The front
edges of the gown and spencer are trimmed with gold lace. The women
and girls wear on their head a very small fez, which is bound round
with rose or other coloured crape.

24th October. I left Athens by the small steamer Baron Kubeck,
seventy-horse power, and went as far as Calamachi (twenty-eight
miles). Here I had to leave the ship and cross the Isthmus, three
English miles broad. At Lutrachi we went on board another vessel.

During the passage to Calamachi, which lasts only a few hours, the
little town of Megara is seen upon a barren hill.

Nothing is more unpleasant in travelling than changing the
conveyance, especially when it is a good one, and you can only lose
by doing so. We were in this situation. Herr Leitenberg was one of
the best and most attentive of all captains that I had ever met with
in my travels, and we were all sorry to have to leave him and his
ship. Even in Calamachi, where we remained this day and the
following, as the ship which was to carry us on from Lutrachi did
not arrive, on account of contrary winds, until the 25th, he
attended to us with the greatest politeness.

The village of Calamachi offers but little of interest, the few
houses have only been erected since the steamers plied, and the
tolerably high mountains on which it lies are for the most part
barren, or grown over with low brambles. We took several walks on
the Isthmus, and ascended minor heights, from whence on one side is
seen the gulf of Lepanto, and on the other the AEgean sea. In front
of us stood the large mountain, Akrokorinth, rising high above all
its companions. Its summit is embellished by a well-preserved
fortification, which is called the remains of the Castle of
Akrokorinth, and was used by the Turks in the last war as a
fortress. The formerly world-famous city of Corinth, after which
all the fittings of luxury and sumptuousness in the interior of
palaces were named, and which gave the name to a distinct order of
architecture, is reduced to a small town with scarcely a thousand
inhabitants, and lies at the foot of the mountain, in the midst of
fields and vineyards. It owes the whole of its present celebrity to
its small dried grapes, called currants.

It is said that no town of Greece had so many beautiful statues of
stone and marble as Corinth. It was upon this isthmus, which
consists of a narrow ridge of mountains, and is covered with dense
fig-groves, in which stood a beautiful temple of Neptune, were held
the various Isthmian games.

How greatly a people or a country may degenerate! The Grecian
people, at one time the first in the world, are now the furthest
behind! I was told by everyone that in Greece it was neither safe
to trust myself with a guide nor to wander about alone, as I had
done in other countries; indeed, I was warned here in Calamachi not
to go too far from the harbour, and to return before the dusk of the
evening.

26th October. We did not start from Lutrachi until towards noon, by
the steamer Hellenos, of one hundred and twenty-horse power.

We anchored for a few hours in the evening near Vostizza, the
ancient AEgion, now an unimportant village, at the foot of a
mountain.

27th October, Patras. That portion of Greece which I had already
seen was neither rich in beauty, well cultivated, nor thickly
inhabited. Here were, at least, plains and hills covered with
meadows, fields, and vineyards. The town, on the Gulf of Lepanto,
was formerly an important place of trade; and before the breaking
out of the Greek revolution in 1821, contained 20,000 inhabitants;
it has now only 7,000. The town is defended by three fortresses,
one of which stands upon a hill, and two at the entrance of the
harbour. The town is neither handsome nor clean, and the streets
are narrow. The high mountains pleased me better; and their chain
can be followed for a considerable distance.

I saw grapes here whose beauty and size induced me to buy some; but
I found them so hard, dry, and tasteless, that I did not even
venture to give them to a sailor, but threw them into the sea.

28th October. Corfu is the largest of the Ionian Islands, which
formerly belonged to Greece, and lie at the entrance to the Adriatic
sea. Corfu, the ancient Corcyra, has been subject to England since
1815.

The town of Corfu is situated in a more beautiful and fertile
country than Patras, and is far larger. It contains 18,000
inhabitants. Adjoining the town are two romantic peaks of rock,
with strong fortified works, upon which stand the telegraph and the
lighthouse. Both are surrounded by artificial ditches, with draw-
bridges leading across. The immediate environs of the town, as well
as the whole island, are rich in delightful groves of olive and
orange trees.

The town contains handsome houses and streets, with the exception of
the bye-streets, which are remarkably crooked and not very clean.
At the entrance of the town stands a large covered stone hall, in
which on one side are the stalls of the butchers; on the other,
those of the fishermen. In the open space in front are exposed the
choicest vegetables and most beautiful fruits. The theatre presents
a very pretty appearance; it would seem, from the sculptures upon
it, to have been used for a church. The principal square is large
and handsome; it is intersected by several avenues, and one side
faces the sea. The palace of the English governor stands here; a
fine building in the Grecian-Italian style.

The famous and much-visited church of St. Spiridion is but small; it
contains many oil-paintings, some are good specimens of the old
Italian School. In a small dark chapel at the furthest end of the
church lies, in a silver sarcophagus, the body of St. Spiridion, who
is held in great veneration by the Ionians. The chapel is always
full of devotees who tenderly kiss the sarcophagus.

On the 29th of October we saw the low mountain-country of Dalmatia,
and on the 30th I entered Trieste, whence I hastened on to Vienna
the day following. I was obliged to pass several days in the
greatest anxiety before the town, as it had been taken by storm on
the last day of October and was not opened until the 4th of
November. It was not until I had seen that all my relations were
safe that I was able to return thanks with a grateful heart to the
good Providence which, in all my dangers and troubles, had so
remarkably protected and preserved me in health and strength. With
equal gratitude I remembered those people who had treated me with
such kindness, had so disinterestedly received me, and through whose
help I had been enabled to overcome the frequent great hardships and
difficulties I encountered.

From my readers I hope for a charitable judgment upon my book, which
in simple language describes what I have experienced, seen and felt,
and makes no higher pretension than that of being sincere and
trustworthy.

NOTES.

{9} The sextant is a mathematical instrument by which the different
degrees of longitude and latitude are determined, and the hour
known. The chronometers also are set by it. In order to find the
latitude the ship is in, an observation is taken at noon, but only
when the sun shines. This last is absolutely necessary, since it is
from the shadow cast upon the figures of the instrument that the
reckoning is made. The longitude can be determined both morning and
afternoon, as the sun, in this case, is not necessary.

{11} The heat does not require to be very great in order to melt the
pitch in a ship's seams. I have seen it become soft, and form
bladders, when the thermometer stood at 81.5 in the sun.

{12} Every four hours the state of the wind, how many miles the
vessel has made, in fact, every occurrence, is noted down in the log
with great exactitude. The captain is obliged to show this book to
the owners of the ship at the conclusion of the voyage.

{13} Some years ago a sailor made an attempt to scale the Sugarloaf.
He succeeded in attaining the summit, but never came down again.
Most likely he made a false step and was precipitated into the sea.

{14} The worthy Lallemand family received her, a few days after her
arrival into their house.

{23a} The princess was three weeks old.

{23b} Rockets and small fireworks are always let off at every
religious festival, some before the church, and others at a short
distance from it. The most ludicrous part of the affair is, that
this is always done in open day.

{27} They are differently paid, according to what they can do. The
usual hire of a maid-servant is from ten to twelve shillings per
month; for a cook, twenty-four to forty; for a nurse, thirty-eight
to forty; for a skilful labourer, fifty to seventy.

{34a} Truppa is a term used to designate ten mules driven by a
negro; in most instances a number of truppas are joined together,
and often make up teams or caravans of 100 or 200 mules. Everything
in the Brazils is conveyed upon mules.

{34b} A cord, with a noose at the end; the native inhabitants of
South America use it so skilfully that they catch the most savage
animals with it.

{38} Fazenda is equivalent to our word "plantation."

{39} Kabi is African grass, which is planted all over the Brazils,
as grass never grows there of its own accord. It is very high and
reed-like.

{40} Rost (roaster) is employed to denote partly a strip of low
brushwood, partly the place where a wood has stood previously to
being burnt.

{42} All through Brazil, carna secca is one of the principal
articles of food, both for whites and blacks. It comes from Buenos
Ayres, and consists of beef cut into long, thin, broad stripes,
salted and dried in the open air.

{47} Under the term "whites," are included not only those Europeans
who have lately immigrated, but also the Portuguese, who have been
settled in the country for centuries.

{50} This wholesome plant grows very commonly in the Brazils.

{53} In the southern hemisphere the seasons, as regards the months,
are exactly the contrary to what they are in the northern. For
instance, when it is winter on one side of the Equator it is summer
on the other, etc.

{55} Maroon negroes are those negroes who have run away from their
masters. They generally collect in large bands, and retire into the
recesses of the virgin forests, whence, however, they often emerge
to steal and plunder; their depredations are not unfrequently
accompanied by murder.

{59} The Rio Plata is one of the largest rivers in Brazil.

{60} Other captains assured me that it was only possible for men-of-
war to pass through the Straits of Magellan, as the passage requires
a great number of hands. Every evening the ship must be brought to
an anchor, and the crew must constantly be in readiness to trim or
reef the sails, on account of the various winds which are always
springing up.

{62} The glass sank in the day-time to 48 and 50 degrees, and at
night to 28 degrees below Zero.

{73} All the Indians are Christians (Protestants), but I fear only
in name.

{76} Elephantiasis, in this country, generally shows itself in the
feet, and extends up as far as the calves of the legs. These
portions of the body, when so affected, are greatly swollen, and
covered with scurf and blotches, so that they really might be taken
for those of an elephant.

{78} I purposely abstain from mentioning the names of any of the
gentlemen at Tahiti, a piece of reserve which I think entitles me to
their thanks.

{86} Up to the present period, Tahiti has produced nothing for
exportation, and therefore all vessels have to clear out in ballast.
The island is important to the French, as a port where their ships
in the Pacific may stop and refit.

{91a} The expense of living at an hotel in Macao, Victoria, and
Canton is from four to six dollars a-day (16s. to 24s.).

{91b} Carl Gutzlaff was born on the 8th of July, 1803, at Pyritz, in
Pomerania. As a boy he was distinguished for his piety and
extraordinary talent. His parents apprenticed him to a leather-
seller. In this capacity he was noted for his industry, although he
was far from contented with his position; and, in the year 1821, he
found an opportunity of presenting a poem, in which he expressed his
sentiments and wishes, to the King of Prussia. The king recognised
the talent of the struggling youth, and opened to him a career in
accordance with his inclination. In the year 1827 he proceeded as a
missionary to Batavia, and, at a later period, to Bintang, where he
applied himself with such assiduity to the study of Chinese, that in
the space of two years he knew it well enough to preach in it. In
December, 1831, he went to Macao, where he established a school for
Chinese children, and commenced his translation of the Bible into
Chinese. He founded, in conjunction with Morrison, a Society for
the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge in China, and edited a monthly
Chinese magazine, in which he endeavoured to interest the people
upon history, geography, and literature. In 1832 and 1833 he
penetrated as far as the province of Fo-Kien.

Gutzlaff's Travels have made us acquainted with several very
important facts connected with the different Chinese dialects, and
are also of great worth to other scientific points of view. They
are especially useful in enabling us to form a correct opinion as to
the merits of the works that have lately appeared on China; and
everyone must acknowledge his rare talent, must value his immovable
fixedness of purpose, and must admire his zealous perseverance in
the cause of science, and his unshaken belief in the principles of
his religion. (Dr. Gutzlaff died in November, 1851).

{93} All large vessels have two painted eyes let into the prow; with
these, as the Chinese believe, they are better able to find their
way.

{95} There is only one mail a month from Europe.

{101} When they copy a picture they divide it, like our own artists,
into squares.

{102a} A pikul of raw opium is worth about 600 dollars (120 pounds).

{102b} I had more especially reason to fear this latter
circumstance, as the people had given out that on the 12th or 13th
of August, at the latest, there would be a revolution, in which all
the Europeans would lose their lives. My state of mind may easily
be imagined, left, as I was, entirely alone with the Chinese
servants.

{103} One of the ports which were opened to the English in 1842.

{104} His costume was composed of a wide over-garment reaching to
the knees, and furnished with flowing arms, and, underneath this,
trousers of white silk. The upper garment was made of brocade of
very vivid colours and an extraordinary pattern. On his breast he
wore two birds as marks of his rank, and a necklace of precious
stones. His shoes, composed of black silk, were turned up into
points at the extremities. On his head he wore a conical velvet hat
with a gilt button.

{105} The reader must know that these animals are looked upon as
particularly sacred.

{108} The town of Canton is nine miles in circumference. It is the
residence of a Viceroy, and divided by walls into the Chinese and
the Tartar town. The population of the town itself is reckoned at
400,000, while it is calculated that 60,000 persons live in the
boats and schampans, and about 200,000 in the immediate vicinity.
The number of Europeans settled here is about 200.

{110} The Chinese adopt white for mourning.

{112} Noble Chinese ladies pass a much more secluded life than
Eastern women. They are allowed to visit one another very seldom,
and that only in well-closed litters. They have neither public
baths nor gardens in which they can meet.

{114} The leaves of this gathering are plucked with the greatest
care by children and young people, who are provided with gloves and
are bound to pick every leaf separately.

{116} 173 dollars the chief cabin, 117 the second (34 pounds 12s.
and 23 pounds 8s.)

{118} These steamers carry the mails, and make the voyage from
Canton to Calcutta once a month, touching at Singapore on their way.

{120a} Horses cannot be bred here; they have all to be imported.

{120b} The East India Company, to which the island belongs, have a
governor and English troops here.

{125} The mangostan is unanimously pronounced the finest fruit in
the world.

{128} One of the four had been removed from the first cabin, because
it was asserted that he was somewhat cracked, and did not always
know what he said or did.

{150} The finest and most costly muslin is manufactured in the
province of Dacca, and costs two rupees (4s.), or even two rupees
and a half the ell.

{153} The hurgila, a kind of stork, that eats dead bodies, and is
frequently to be seen near the rivers in India.

{158a} At the period of my visit there were about 782 of them.

{158b} Rajmahal was, in the seventeenth century, the capital of
Bengal.

{160a} Monghyr is termed the Birmingham of India, on account of its
extensive manufactories of cutlery and weapons. Its population is
about 30,000 souls.

{160b} Patna is the capital of the province of "Bechar," and was
once celebrated for the number of its Buddhist temples. Near Patna
was situated the most famous town of ancient India, namely,
"Parlibothra." Patna contains a great many cotton and a few opium
factories.

{161} In all Indian, Mahomedan, and in fact all countries which are
not Christian, it is a very difficult task to obtain anything like
an exact calculation of the number of inhabitants, as nothing is
more hateful to the population than such computations.

{162} I landed with two travellers at Patna, and rode on to
Deinapore in the evening, where our steamer anchored for the night.

{170} If a Hindoo has no son, he adopts one of his relations, in
order that he may fulfil the duties of a son at the funeral of his
adoptive father.

{173} The dislike which the Hindoos evince towards the Europeans, is
chiefly in consequence of the latter showing no honour to the cow,
of their eating ox-flesh, and drinking brandy; and that they spit in
their houses, and even in the temples, and wash their mouths with
their fingers, etc. They call the Europeans "Parangi." This
disrespect is said to make the Hindoos dislike the Christian
religion.

{177} Many of the more recent Indian towns were built by the
Mongolians, or were so much altered by them that they altogether
lost their original character. India was conquered by the
Mongolians as early as the tenth century.

{183} At the time of its greatest prosperity it had 2,000,000
inhabitants.

{185} Some writers describe this colossal crystal as being twenty-
five feet long.

{190} If these two towers did belong to a mosque, why were they
built of such different sizes?

{193} The cheprasses are servants of the English government. They
wear red cloth scarfs, and a brass plate on the shoulders, with the
name of the town to which they belong engraved upon it. Each of the
higher English officials are allowed to have one or more of these
people in their service. The people consider them much superior to
the ordinary servants.

{200} Children are generally considered as impure until the ninth
year, and are therefore not subject to the laws of their religion.

{204} The god Vishnu is represented as a tortoise.

{209} Although only the beginning of spring, the temperature rose
during the day as high as 95-99 degrees Fah.

{212a} Mundsch is the royal tutor, writer, or interpreter.

{212b} It is well known that saltpetre produces a considerable
reduction of temperature.

{213} Indor lies 2,000 feet above the level of the sea.

{225} Monsoons are the periodical winds which blow during one-half
the year from east to west, during the other half from west to east.

{226} The Black Town is that part of the town in which the poorer
classes of inhabitants reside. That neither beauty nor cleanliness
are to be sought there, is a matter of course.

{227} There are in all only 6,000 Parsees in the island of Bombay.

{228} And yet Bombay is the principal seat of the Fire-worshippers.

{268} This is an error: M. Botta made the first attempt to excavate
the Ninevite remains at Khorsabad. Mr. Layard had, moreover,
commenced his excavations before he received the countenance of the
British Museum authorities. See "Nineveh--the Buried City of the
East," one of the volumes of the "National Illustrated Library," for
the rectification of this and other errors in Madame Pfeiffer's
account.

{270} The manuscripts of the journey through Hindostan as far as
Mosul miscarried for more than a year and a half. I gave them up as
lost. This was the cause of the delay in the publication of my
"Journey round the world."

{279} I had picked up enough of the language between here and Mosul
to understand this much.

{287} Mela is the name of the Indian religious festivals at which
thousands of people assemble. The missionaries frequently travel
hundreds of miles to them in order to preach to the people.

{305} Tradition says that the country about Erivan is that part of
the earth which was first of all peopled. Noah and his family dwelt
here, both before and after the deluge; the Garden of Eden is also
said to have been situated here. Erivan was formerly called Terva,
and was the chief city of Armenia. Not far from Erivan lies the
chief sacred relic of the Armenian Christians--the cloister Ecs-
miazim. The church is simple in construction; the pillars, seventy-
three feet high, consist of blocks of stone joined together. In the
Treasury were, formerly, two of the nails with which Christ was
crucified, the lance with which he was stabbed in the side, and,
lastly, a seamless garment of Christ. It is asserted that in the
centre of the church is the spot where Noah, after his delivery,
erected an altar and offered sacrifice. Besides these, the church
is in the possession of innumerable important relics.

{308} This is carried to such an extent that if a traveller has his
horses already put to, and is in the carriage, and an officer
arrives, the horses are taken off and given to the latter.

{309} Georgia was called Iberia by the ancients. Formerly, this
country extended from Tauris and Erzerum, as far as the Tanais, and
was called Albania. It is a country of mountains. The river Kurry,
also called Cyrus, flows through the midst. On this river the
famous conqueror of Persia, Cyrus, was exposed in his childhood.
Tiflis was formerly one of the finest towns of Persia.

{312} His wives I dare not speak of, as the Mussulmen consider this
an affront.

{314} The River Ribon, also called Rione, is considered to be one of
the four rivers of Paradise, and was known by the name of Pison.
Its waters were formerly held sacred. On account of the number of
trunks of trees, it is unnavigable for large ships.

{320a} The Circassians are so wild and warlike that no one dare
venture into the interior of the country. Little is known of their
habits, customs, or religion. Bordering on Circassia are the
Atkans, who inhabit the coast country between Mingrelia and
Circassia, and are also wild and given to plunder.

{320b} Large plains covered with short grass.

{321} Mithridates lived in Pantikapaum. The hill at Kertsch is
called to this day "Mithridates' Seat." During the excavations in
it, which have been made since 1832, many remains were found, such
as funeral urns, implements of sacrifice, Grecian inscriptions,
handsome figures, and groups.

{330a} Constantinople is not lighted--whoever goes out without a
lantern is considered suspicious, and taken to the next watch-house.

{330b} The streets of Constantinople are narrow, full of holes, and
uneven, so that carriages cannot be taken everywhere and people are
obliged to manage with small fire-engines carried by four men.

{335} Here, where I arrived about four weeks after leaving Odessa,
the sun appeared as hot as with us in July. The vegetation was
greatly in want of rain, and the leaves were almost dying from the
heat; while in Odessa they were already killed by the cold.

Book of the day: