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A Voyage Round the World, Vol. I (of ?) by James Holman

Part 4 out of 7

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excepting that various European, and particularly English vessels, have
occasionally touched at it for the purpose of procuring water and yams;
the latter of which it grows the finest in the world, and which the
natives were accustomed to barter for pieces of iron.

At length, a variety of considerations determined the British
Government to attempt a new settlement on this island; these it may be
proper briefly to state.

In the first place, the convenient situation of the island, at the
distance of only twenty miles from the main-land of Africa, and in the
immediate neighbourhood of the mouths of the many large rivers which
pour their waters into the Gulf of Biafra, appeared to afford a most
eligible point for checking the slave-trade, of which this position may
be considered the very centre.

Secondly, it, was imagined,--and the consideration reflects the highest
honour on the humanity of our Government,--that the adoption of the
measure would tend materially to diminish the sufferings of the
miserable objects of human traffic--the unfortunate slaves--who too
frequently sank under the confinement and disease incidental to a
protracted voyage to Sierra Leone, before their liberation could be
legally accomplished.

In the third place, it was hoped that the greater salubrity of the new
colony would lead to the eventual abandonment of the settlements of
Sierra Leone and Cape Coast Castle, the direful effects of whose
climates upon European life have long been proverbial. The Insular
position of Fernando Po, and the nature of its climate and localities,
appeared to offer an earnest that it would not abound with those,
destructive malaria which have proved, on the neighbouring continent,
so fatal to our brave countrymen.

I might also advert to the facilities which the situation of Fernando
Po, at the estuaries of so many great rivers, together with its
insularity, holds out for extending and protecting our commercial
relations with Central Africa, and probably extending the blessings of
civilization amongst its inhabitants; these, however, although
important, were minor considerations with the British Government.

To carry the proposed object into effect, an expedition was fitted oat
in the early part of the summer of 1827, under the command of Captain
William Fitzwilliam Owen, of His Majesty's ship _Eden_, who received
the appointment of superintendent of the colony, and than whom no one
could be better adapted to fulfil the important duties which were to
devolve upon him; Captain Harrison, a highly meritorious and
indefatigable officer, received the chief civil appointment under him.
A number of appropriate artificers, with an abundant supply of the
requisite stores, including several framed wooden houses ready for
immediate erection, were embarked in a transport; and it was arranged
that a body of troops, with an additional number of workmen and
labourers from Sierra Leone, should be attached to the expedition on
its arrival at that settlement.

On first approaching the island, its mountains were shrouded from view
by heavy clouds and a hazy atmosphere; which, however, gradually
dispersed as we neared the shore, and revealed to the eyes of my
companions a magnificent display of mountain scenery, closely studded
with large trees, and thick with underwood, whose luxuriant foliage of
various tints and hues, blending with the scarcely ruffled bosom of the
ocean, and the retiring clouds, making the sky each moment become more
lucid and transparent, formed such a variegated picture of natural
beauty, that we unanimously hailed it as the land of promise.

It was not long before the scene began to assume an aspect of
animation, the immediate consequence of our arrival; for, in less than
half an hour after we anchored, a number of canoes, with several
natives in each, who had already been trafficking with the Diadem,[30]
approached us for the purpose of bartering the productions of their
island, namely, yams, fowls, palm-wine in calabashes, fish, some boxes
made of split cane, monkey and snake skins, with other trifling
articles; for pieces of iron hoop, a few inches long, which we
afterwards found they made into two-edged knives, by beating them
between stones, until they succeeded, in shaping the blade to their
purpose, when they fitted it into a wooden handle, from four to six
inches in length. In the first instance, however, they evinced
considerable doubt and timidity, as they did riot venture to come
alongside, but kept the stern of their canoes directed towards us, to
be ready to paddle away on the first show of hostility, while a man
remained in the forepart to carry on the barter. We in vain attempted
to induce them to come on board, for, pointing in reply to their
Fetish, they gave us to understand that this was either prohibited or
imprudent. It was easy to perceive that the natives were fine-looking,
active, middle-sized men, with an agreeable and animated expression of
countenance. The natural colour of their skin was not ascertainable,
the whole body being painted, or rather daubed over with a composition
of clay, or ochre, mixed up with palm-oil. The prevailing colour was
red, which seems to belong more exclusively to the lower classes: some
few, however, had used a yellow, and others a grey pigment, probably as
a mark of distinction, and which we afterwards found appropriated to
the kings, or chief men. The faces were much seamed or scarified, while
other parts of the body, and particularly the abdomen, were more or
less tattoed. It is curious to remark, among the African savages, the
variety of delineations on their skin, tattoed in lines, figures, or
tropes, by way of ornament, fashion, or distinction, in nation and
rank, which, perhaps, cannot be better described than in the words of
the poet:--

Prince Giolo and his royal sisters,
Scarr'd with ten thousand comely blisters,
The marks remaining on the skin,
To tell the quality within:
Distinguish'd flashes deck the great,
As each excels in birth or state;
His oylet-holes are more and ampler;
The king's own body was a sampler.

Their weapons were wooden well-barbed spears, with their points
hardened by fire, each individual being provided with three or four.
We afterwards, however, found that these were not the only means of
defence, as they are possessed of slings, in the use of which they
acquire no inconsiderable expertness. The canoes appeared to be from 15
to 30 feet in length, and each capable of carrying from three to twelve
persons; these were provided with sails made of a kind of split rattan
matting, of an oblong square form, the longer side placed
perpendicularly, and some of them had a staff erected in the bow, with
a bunch of feathers at the top of it.

When our muskets were fired at sunset, the whole immediately shoved
off, being evidently much alarmed at the report; and most of them,
hoisting their sails, endeavoured to reach the shore with all possible
celerity.

_Sunday, October 28_.--Notwithstanding it rained heavily this morning,
a great number of the natives came off to us at an early hour for the
purpose of renewing their barter, to exchange their articles for pieces
of iron, a metal which they appear to hold in the highest estimation,
and which became the almost exclusive medium of our traffic with them.
This metal they wisely prefer, nay, almost worship, for its usefulness;
knives, hatchets, and iron-hoop, rank first in their good opinion,
scissors and razors holding a secondary place; for they deem six inches
in length of old iron-hoop, a quantity which would purchase
half-a-dozen yams, varying from six to twelve pounds each in weight,
far more valuable than the best razor you can present them with; in
short, the _ferri sacra fames_ may here be well substituted for the
_auri fames_ of more civilized nations. We may safely aver, that in our
intercourse with these people, we have the 'love of iron' the chief
exciting principle of their more generous, as well as malignant
passions,--an opinion which many subsequent anecdotes in this narrative
will prove.

The natives had to-day gained an evident accession of confidence, as
some of them ventured on board, not, however, without many symptoms of
timidity. A boy of twelve years old allowed himself to be conducted
over the ship, and was shewn a variety of articles, of course entirely
novel to him. With these he was, as may be supposed, exceedingly
astonished, but more particularly with a looking-glass, and by the
ringing of a small bell.

In the course of the day, Captain Owen landed at various points for the
purpose of investigating the localities of the neighbourhood, and with
a view of selecting the most eligible situation for our intended
establishment. Lieutenant Robinson also went on shore to take sights
for comparing the chronometers. Several natives approached the latter
gentleman, offering him yams in barter, but were careful not to come
too near, so long as his men remained armed with muskets. As it was
evident from their signs that they wished these to be laid aside,
Lieutenant Robinson, in order to inspire them with confidence, directed
his party to ground arms, while he and Mr. Jeffery advanced towards
them. Satisfied with this demonstration, their whole anxiety now
appeared to be, how to dispose of their yams, which they professed, by
signs, and with affectation of fatigue, to have brought from a great
distance. They were not a little disappointed that our party, being
unprovided with the necessary medium for payment, hoop-iron, were
unable to effect the purchase.

_Monday, Oct. 29_.--The natives, who have visited us in great numbers
to-day, are evidently increasing their stock of confidence, and,
indeed, beginning to be, not a little troublesome, as we have no small
difficulty in preventing them from coming on board. At seven o'clock in
the morning we changed our anchorage to the opposite side of the bay,
near the Adelaide islets, and close to Point William. A party went on
shore for wood and water, in the procuring of which they were assisted
by the natives.

_Tuesday, Oct. 30_.--Captain Owen, having now thoroughly investigated
the vicinity of this place, determined upon the site of our future
settlement. For this purpose, Maidstone Bay, in consequence of its
capacity, (being about four miles and a half from Cape Bullen, its
north-western limit, to Point William); the excellency of its
anchorage, and the smoothness of its water, offered peculiar
advantages; to which may be added, its reception of the waters of the
Baracouta river, with other smaller streams, and the abundance of its
fine fish of various kinds, including two or three species of turtle.
On the south-eastern side, adjoining to coves which have received the
respective names of Clarence and Cockburn Coves, two necks of land
project into the bay, the one named Point Adelaide, with two small
islands off it, bearing the same name; the other Point William. It was
on the latter, constituting a kind of peninsula, projecting nearly six
hundred yards into the sea, that Captain Owen decided upon fixing the
infant settlement, which is probably destined to become the future
emporium of the commerce, as well as the centre of civilization of this
part of the globe,--giving it, out of compliment to His Royal Highness
the Lord High Admiral, the name of Clarence. Besides the above named
peninsula, the new settlement comprises other adjoining lands, which
were afterwards respectively known by the appellations of Bushy Park,
Longfield, Paradise, and New-lands, with some which have not yet
received any name,--the whole constituting an elevated plain, lying
between one and two hundred feet above the level of the sea, and at
present thickly covered with timber and jungle. In Clarence Cove, there
is an excellent spring of water issuing from a cliff, about sixty-six
yards above low water-mark, well calculated to supply the exigencies of
the settlement, and which it is intended to conduct, by means of
shoots, down to the beach.

[Illustration: SETTLEMENT OF CLARENCE, ISLAND OF FERNANDO PO]

The above situation having been finally decided upon, Captain Owen
determined to lose no time in commencing operations, and, in the course
of the day, notwithstanding it proved rainy, a party of a hundred
Kroomen and other black labourers, were landed, under the command of
Mr. Vidal, the senior lieutenant, and immediately began to clear a road
through the jungle, to the spot selected for the new town.

Accompanied by Mr. Morrison, I also went ashore at Baracouta, for the
purpose of inviting the supposed king of the island, but who, we have
since reason to believe, is only the chief of a tribe. His Majesty
would have accepted our invitation, had not his attendants offered a
strong opposition: all we could gain was a promise that he would visit
us early on the following morning. Our interpreter was a black soldier
of the Royal African Corps, named Anderson, who professed to have some
acquaintance with the language of the islanders. We found afterwards,
however, that his Fernandian vocabulary was scarcely more copious than
a sensible parrot might acquire in a month: his knowledge of the
English, at all events, was so exceedingly defective, as to make
another interpreter necessary, to explain what he meant to express, in
our language. This man was left to pass the night at the royal
residence, in order that he might avail himself of opportunities to
inspire his Majesty with confidence, and be ready to accompany him on
his visit in the morning.

_Wednesday, Oct. 31_.--The steam-vessel (_African_) arrived to-day, and
brought in two vessels under Brazilian colours, which Lieutenant
Badgeley had boarded and detained, under strong suspicion of their
being engaged in the slave-trade.

At nine o'clock, the King of Baracouta, accompanied by his brother and
five or six other chiefs, came on board according to promise, and
without betraying any symptoms of timidity. The party were immediately
conducted to the captain's cabin, and entertained with wine and
biscuit, which they appeared to partake of with considerable relish.
His Majesty, however, had not come unprovided, his canoe having been
stored with some calabashes of palm-wine, which he sent for and
distributed freely. We partook of this wholesome beverage, but some of
the natives mixed it with Madeira. I must not omit to mention that,
whether as a point of etiquette, or intended as an expression of
gratitude for the attentions they were receiving, the King, and his
Chiefs, were particularly desirous of rubbing their long beards against
those of our party who happened to be possessed of a similar ornament.
Amongst other circumstances which gave them satisfaction, they were
highly gratified by sitting on our chairs; and we have since learned,
that, in their own residences, they are in the habit of using logs of
wood for this purpose, a custom differing from many of the African
nations.

A description of their dress, which was in the most fanciful savage
taste, cannot fail to be interesting. In the first place, the body was
completely smeared over with the kind of paint I have before described:
His Majesty's colour, like that which distinguishes the imperial family
of China, being yellow, while the livery of his attendants was dark
red. The hair of the head was dressed in long small curls hanging down
behind, and which, instead of hair powder and pomatum, were well
stiffened with ochre and oil: in front, similar curls dividing from the
forehead, hung down on each side below the ears, somewhat in the style
of Vandyke's female portraits of the age of Charles I. The forehead was
generally round, sufficiently elevated to give phrenological
indications of a fair portion of intellect, and, perhaps, unusually
well displayed by a custom which prevails of having the hair shorn in
front an inch beyond the line of its natural growth, so as, in
conjunction with the peculiar disposition of curls before described, to
leave the part fully exposed. In some instances, seven or eight strings
of beads, in imitation of the natural curls, were adjusted with much
care over the forepart of the head, and conducted separately behind the
ears, the end of each string reaching down to the shoulders. This
singularly ornamental head-dress was surmounted by a flatfish
low-crowned hat, with a narrow brim, the whole shape not a little
resembling that of Mambrino's helmet; the frame-work, constructed of
loosely wove split rattan, was covered over and ornamented with leaves,
the bones of monkeys and other animals, and a few white, and
occasionally red, feathers; the latter of which appeared to have been
dyed in the blood of some animal. This hat was secured to the head by a
skewer, which passed through the crown, and penetrated a tuft of hair
collected above the vertex. The neck, arms, body above the hips, and
the legs below the knee, were encircled by ornamental bands, in the
form of bracelets, which were, for the most part, composed of strings
of beads, or the vertebrae of small snakes; to the girdle, which thus
surrounded the body, was appended, hanging down in front, the only
article of covering which they can be said to wear, consisting of the
skin of some animal, and which, in many instances, was decorated with a
bunch of herbage. His Majesty, however, as a mark of distinction, wore
also a similar covering behind.

After having been entertained in the cabin, we conducted the party
along the main-deck, and shewed them our horses, oxen, pigs, &c., with
the whole of which they were highly gratified, especially with the cow,
whose tail was a source of ineffable delight to them, each of them
handling it in succession, plucking out its hairs, and shaking it with
every indication of astonishment. The band was directed to play for
their amusement, and delighted them to such a degree, that they could
not restrain themselves from running into the midst of it. The King's
brother was so enraptured, that he capered about with excess of joy,
making the most uncouth gestures in accordance with the music.

"So play'd Orpheus, and so danced the brutes."

Our more difficult task was yet to be encountered--the distribution of
presents. His yellow Majesty was in the first place complimented with
the whole of an iron hoop straightened out for the occasion, and also
with half a dozen fishing-hooks; to his brother we gave half the
quantity: while the minor chiefs received about a foot in length each.
Some squabbling occurred during this arrangement, which was, at length,
happily concluded, pretty much to the satisfaction of the whole party,
and they left the ship in apparent good humour, evidently highly
gratified with their visit.

_Thursday, Nov. 1_.--A heavy fall of rain disappointed us in an
arrangement to visit the chiefs on shore.

_Friday, Nov. 2_.--Notwithstanding it continued to rain heavily at
intervals, I went on shore in company with Messrs. Galler and Morrison,
for the purpose of arranging with the King for the establishment of a
market. On landing, we were surrounded by a number of natives, who
treated us with more kindness than on our preceding visit, not
forgetting, however, both male and female, from the youngest to the
oldest, to importune us incessantly for iron; it was almost dangerous
to take particular notice of any individual, for they immediately
assumed it as an indication of a disposition to make them a present,
and began to double their importunities. Not finding the King or his
chiefs on the beach, we sent to announce our arrival, yet we had to
wait two hours before they condescended to appear. During this time,
Mr. Galler amused himself with shooting monkeys; which appeared to
afford some interest and amusement to the natives, who assisted in
pointing out _the game_, and laughed heartily whenever he missed his
aim.

At length the King arrived, and we explained as well as we could the
object of our visit, to which he listened with great attention,
appearing to comprehend, so as finally to accede to our wishes. He then
proposed, in order to preserve a mutual good understanding, that, in
the event of any breach of faith on the part of their people, we should
immediately communicate the same to the chiefs, who would take care to
have the delinquent properly punished; while, on the other hand, if any
of our people were guilty of improper conduct towards them, they would
represent it to our chief. This proposal, after a deliberate
discussion, was agreed to on both, sides, the contract confirmed by
drinking palm-wine, and a mutual exchange of presents, as follows, we
tendered an axe to the King, and he returned the compliment by
presenting us with a fowl.

We now proposed to accompany his Majesty back to his village. With this
he appeared perfectly acquiescent, taking me by the hand, and leading
me forward, as if he were conducting me to the point proposed; but we
soon found that his real intention was to lead us to our boats. We
still, however, imagined that this was only with the view of taking us
some nearer way home; but when we wished him to enter the boat, with
the intention of coasting it to another part of the shore, he
positively declined, giving us to understand that his house was not
good enough to receive us, and that it contained nothing in the shape
of refreshments sufficient to do honour to the visit. We were, however,
predetermined, and, as our interpreter was acquainted with the way,
proceeded with Captain Smith and Mr. Jeffery, in addition to our former
party. When we arrived, we were ready to admit that his Majesty had
some reason not to be over-anxious for our company: for neither was the
road, nor the accommodations of his hut, calculated either for a visit
of pleasure or ceremony; in many parts the path was not only slippery,
but interrupted by roots of trees and pools of water; added to which,
it lay through a thick jungle, which swarmed with myriads of ants. His
Majesty's hut was a mere thatched roof, the eaves of which nearly
reached to the ground, supported by posts, and with only one end
protected from the weather; the chief articles of furniture were logs
of wood, as substitutes for stools, and an inclined plane of wood, five
feet in length, to serve the purpose of a bed, the pillow of which was
a round bar, three or four inches in diameter, supported at the proper
height by two brackets. The king's brother, who had arrived first,
received us with much good humour, but regretted that he had nothing to
entertain us with. In a short time, however, a calabash of stale
palm-wine was handed in, which, having first tasted, according to the
African custom, with a view of proving that it contained no poison, he
presented to us. After resting a short time, we returned to our boats.

In order to prosecute the formation of the now colony with the greatest
energy, every hand which could possibly be spared, was sent on shore. A
better approach to Point William, the acclivity being more gentle, was
discovered this morning, and a large party immediately employed in
clearing away the timber and brushwood, for the purpose of making a
broad road through it.

_Saturday, Nov. 3_.--The Eden was moved nearer to Point William and the
Adelaide Islands, for the greater convenience of landing the working
parties, stores, &c. The steam-vessel and her prizes also left their
anchorage in the bay, and moved into Clarence Cove. Not a single canoe
was visible on the water, and very few natives on the shore; we were
informed by our interpreter, that they were occupied with the funeral
of a chief, but suspect that the different tribes were assembled in
council to discuss the subject of our arrival, and our evident
intention to form a settlement among them.

_Nov. 4_.--Some native chiefs were much delighted with sitting in our
chairs; but, when the Captain presented them with a few knives, small
looking-glasses, and other trinkets, their delight was raised to
rapture, expressed by clapping their hands and singing certain short
sentences in a high tone of voice, at the same time bowing their heads,
as if to indicate their readiness to admit our superiority. We were
afterwards informed, that these songs were in our praise, and implied
the following meaning:--"Truly you are come to do us good." We
entertained them with palm-wine, Madeira, biscuit, fish, and yams; we
found, however, on this, as on all other occasions, that these
unsophisticated people preferred their native viands to our European
delicacies. They appeared much interested with the three European
females we had on board; but, whether they had sufficient taste to
prefer them to their native beauties, I shall not pretend to determine.
After remaining two hours on board, they took their leave, and returned
to the shore.

_Monday, November 5_.--Anderson, who had been absent two days, returned
this morning in a large canoe of seventeen paddles, accompanied by the
same party of chiefs who had visited us yesterday, with, however, an
addition of the king's son. Before coming alongside, they pulled round
the ship, singing most loudly and merrily. Though Captain Owen was on
shore, they were taken into the cabin, and entertained until his
return, after which he gave a present to each of them. Notwithstanding
this liberality, the principal chief fixed his covetous eye upon an
axe, and expressed a most eager desire to become possessed of it.
Captain Owen, however, notwithstanding his wish to conciliate the
natives as much as possible, did not think proper to gratify his
cupidity; but he promised, that it should be presented to the King at
the next interview with him. In the afternoon, a tornado arose and
drove most of the canoes away; the chiefs, however, remained on board
until it was over, and then left us under an arrangement that the
Captain should pay a visit to the King on the following Wednesday.

_Tuesday, Nov. 6_.--We had a wet morning, succeeded by a fine day. Many
canoes, full of natives, came alongside. About noon, a native was
discovered, by the master-at-arms, to have stolen an axe, which he had
secreted in a piece of canvas that he had picked up and tied round his
waist in the manner of an apron. On taking it from him, he made a
desperate attempt to escape, by running down the ship's side into a
canoe, from whence he made his way over several others, with a view of
reaching his own, but he was arrested in his progress. A warm
discussion now arose among the chiefs present, as to the punishment he
ought to be subjected to, having been taken _flagrante delicto_, under
their own eyes. Captain Owen, to evidence his high displeasure at the
transaction, cut the matter short, by ordering them all out of the
ship. This gave rise to another commotion and discussion, the result of
which was, that the culprit was assailed on all sides by his countrymen
with their paddles; even a boy in the same canoe inflicted several
blows, and he was finally severely injured about the head and body,
when, with the blood streaming from various parts, he was compelled to
leap into the sea, in order to wash it away, before they would allow
him to re-enter his own boat. His punishment, however, did not
terminate with the above discipline; for as he assisted in paddling his
canoe ashore, his countrymen followed him with every denunciation of
vengeance. On landing in the neighbourhood of our market, he was
seized, conducted a short distance from the beach, and surrounded by an
immense crowd of the natives. Mr. Jeffery, who happened to be near the
spot, penetrated into the midst of them, with a view of ascertaining
the nature of the affair, when, to his surprise, he was immediately
laid hold of, and tied hand to hand with the bleeding prisoner. It may
be imagined that this proceeding excited considerable alarm in Mr.
Jeffery, who was led to infer that the wounds of the prisoner had been
inflicted by our people, and that the natives were about to retaliate
upon himself. A soldier, who was passing at the moment, lost no time in
giving an alarm at the camp, when Capt. Harrison came with a party of
soldiers to the assistance of our comrade; but Mr. Jeffery had, by this
time, contrived to disengage his hand; and, our people appearing, the
natives desisted from farther attempts upon him. It turned out that
their object in offering this apparent violence, was merely to secure
an evidence on our side of the final punishment of their countryman,
which they now proceeded to carry into effect in the following
extraordinary manner:--the poor wretch was, in the first place, tied
hand and foot with his back to a tree, after which a discussion took
place, between the chiefs and a man, whom we conceived to be a priest.
This being finished, one of the chiefs, who, in consequence of the
prominent part he played in this dramatic scene, was ever after known
among us by the honourable name of Cut-throat, very coolly stepped up
to the prisoner, the whole of the natives at the same time falling on
their knees, and was proceeding with great deliberation to cut his
throat, when Captain Harrison and Mr. Jeffery hastened forward, and
prevented the perpetration of the act by holding back his arm, and
making signs that our chief was coming. Fortunately, Capt. Owen was
actually coming on shore at this juncture, and, having passed to the
centre of the assembly, by means of signs succeeded in explaining that
it was not his wish to have the man so severely punished. He then took
him by the hand, led him through the crowd, and thus liberated him from
the sanguinary vengeance of his own countrymen. During the whole of
this trying occasion, the prisoner neither shrunk from the numerous and
severe blows inflicted upon him in the earlier part of it; nor, in the
latter part, did he indicate the slightest symptom of fear. This is one
of the many traits we met with of either the great fortitude or little
sensibility of these islanders.

[Illustration: CUT THROAT]

We were much surprised at finding a Demi-John in the woods at the back
of our encampment; it certainly indicates that we are not the first
Europeans who have visited this spot.

_Wednesday, November 7_.--Anderson, accompanied by two chiefs, came on
board at 9 A.M. to say, that the King was on the beach, waiting for our
boat to fetch him off. At eleven, the Captain, accompanied by several
of his officers, myself, the band, and a party of marines, with a
variety of presents, went in three boats for the purpose of paying our
intended visit to his Majesty. We landed at a small cove, three miles
to the eastward of the ship, since known by the name of King-Cove, and
were conducted by the chiefs to a small open place in the woods, at the
distance of about a hundred yards from the rocky shore, where the
natives had placed a number of stones in the water in such manner as to
leave a channel for only one canoe to land at a time. When the Captain
was seated, a small ram, and several calabashes of palm-wine, were
brought forward. After waiting an hour, the King arrived, when the
Captain, rising to receive him, ordered a red cloak to be thrown over
his shoulders, and a velvet cap to be put on his head; as his Majesty
wore his native hat, ornamented with a pair of ram's horns on the fore
part of it, it became necessary to place the velvet one above it, and
secure it in its position by means of a bone skewer, which, piercing
both at the same time, fastened them effectually to the tuft of hair on
the top of the head. The sight of our presents, but more particularly
the quantity of iron, excited so uncontrollably the feelings of the
royal party, that the good order previously observed, could now no
longer be maintained; we were pressed upon on all sides, and with such
an inconceivable clatter and confusion of tongues, that the bellowing
of cattle would have been comparatively musical to our ears; however,
to do them justice, notwithstanding this horrid din, they did not make
the least attempt upon our persons or property. It was noticed that the
King himself gave away several small pieces of iron to certain
individuals, probably an act of policy, which, by leading others to
expect a similar token of royal favour, would restrain them from
attempting to help themselves, and thus diminish the quantum of his own
presents. During this scene of confusion, we retired to the beach and
entered our boats, the crowd following us to the shore, and many even
into the water. On this occasion, we calculated that there could not
have been less than two thousand natives assembled, including many
women, but they were kept apart from the men. Mr. Galler spoke to some
of them; but they were excessively timid, although the men endeavoured
to encourage familiarity by placing some of the younger women's hands
into his. One peculiarity was remarked on the present occasion, that
many of the natives had lost one of their hands, and some both, indeed
we found this so common in the island, that there was no doubt of the
deprivation of this part of the body being resorted to as a punishment.
Before returning to the ship, I went with Messrs. Galler and Jeffery to
visit the works at Clarence, when we were informed that the men
employed in clearing the jungle, had discovered the Indian-rubber tree,
and one or two other indigenous plants which had not been previously
noticed.

_Thursday, November 8th_.--The importance of our acquiring a knowledge
of the language of the natives of this island, must be obvious. In
order to promote this object. Captain Owen selected an active and
intelligent young man of the name of Elwood, who volunteered to reside
for a week at a village in the interior of the island; and he left the
ship this morning in pursuance of the plan. The Captain this day fixed
upon a spot for the site of a house intended for his own residence: he
also gave the name of Paradise to a portion of ground which had been
cleared to form a garden for the use of the colony, and changed the
appellation of Glover's Stairs for that of Jacob's Ladder. This
consists of a flight of 150 steps, leading from the beach to the
acclivity on which Clarence is situated that had been constructed,
since our arrival, by Mr. Glover, and his body of English artificers.

_Friday, 9_.--During the night there had been much thunder and
lightning, succeeded, in the morning, by heavy rains, which went off at
eleven o'clock, and recommenced at two, accompanied by strong gusts of
wind; at four, it cleared up again: scarcely a canoe or native was to
be seen throughout the day.

_Saturday, 10_.--The weather is to-day extremely fine, and yet very few
canoes or natives have been seen: and none have approached the ship. We
apprehend that something has occurred to displease them--a suspicion
afterwards confirmed. In the afternoon, at the time I happened to be on
shore, a deputation of seven chiefs came to Mr. Jeffery, at Newmarket,
with a complaint that our Kroomen had been cutting down the palm-trees
for the leaves to thatch their huts with; and, also, that they were
much annoyed by the frequent firing of muskets. In reply to the latter
complaint, Mr. Jeffery explained to them, that the firing proceeded
only from the attempts of our officers to shoot monkeys; to confirm
which statement, the purser very opportunely came up at the instant
with a large monkey and a small deer, which he had just shot. They did
not, however, appear properly satisfied; for they shook their heads,
and intimated that, if we persevered in cutting down the palms, it
would not only deprive them of the advantages of that valuable tree,
but, by diminishing the quantity of wood, extend the system of firing
musketry farther into the interior of the country. At length, with a
view of settling all grievances, and convincing them we had no
intention of inflicting any injury, we took them a short distance
beyond the points our men were occupied in clearing, and, placing a
quantity of iron on the ground, gave them, by signs, to understand,
that we would give them all that iron for the land contained within
that boundary. The nature of this treaty for purchase, they appeared to
understand well, and signified their assent by placing sticks, at equal
distances from each other, in the line proposed. Mr. Jeffery, at the
same time, marking a tree as an evidence of the agreement on our side.
The quantity of land of which we had thus made a _bona fide_ purchase,
was equal to about a square mile in extent. The treaty was afterwards
more fully ratified, and the property involved formally taken
possession of by a public act, which will be duly noticed. Both parties
being now satisfied, we returned to Newmarket, the natives accompanying
us, and, sitting down in a row together, farther confirmed the bargain
by plentiful libations of palm-wine.

_Sunday, 11_.--At half-past one divine service was performed by Captain
Owen, when four of the natives attended, and behaved with great
decorum; they also made signals to their companions in the canoes to
avoid all noises which might disturb us.

_Monday, 12_.--A numerous deputation of chiefs, gaily dressed, came to
our camp at Clarence, to conclude a definitive arrangement respecting
the land we had purchased on Saturday. Captain Owen accompanied them to
the boundary line, and marked an additional number of trees, to define
the limits with more accuracy. He also promised them additional
payments: after which he took four of the principal chiefs on board,
drank palm-wine with them, and made them a variety of presents.
Confidence was now fully restored, and great numbers of both sexes
visited us before the day terminated.

_Tuesday, 13_.--We have additional proofs of the return of confidence
on the part of the natives: a man and a boy insisted on remaining on
board to sleep, probably induced by the anticipation of a present.
There never were more harmless, inoffensive, or tractable people: for,
when most troublesome, they may be led in any direction you choose, by
taking hold of the hand, or even of a finger.

----------
[26] Accra is a European corruption of the word Inkran which
means an ant.

[27] The word Fetish is derived, I believe, from the Portuguese word
Fatisa, or Phatisa, which means "a charm." It is used on all occasions
by the natives, when they are asked any question which they do not
understand, or which they do not wish to understand, particularly if it
relate to their religion. Thus the sacrifice, the rocks, and the sacred
groves where they imagine their deities dwell, are all called Fetish:
also, their priests, or priestesses, when they are going through any
antic ceremonies, are said to be making Fetish, and are consequently
called Fetish men or Fetish women. Some have regarded the Fetish as an
object of worship to the natives of Africa; it ought, however, more
properly to be considered only as a _charm_, to which a superstitious
and reverential feeling is paid; in which an implicit confidence is
reposed. Whether it be intended to exercise a public or a private
function, it consists of some body, either animate or inanimate,
selected according to fancy, as a dog, cat, tiger, snake, an egg, the
bone of a bird, a piece of wood, a feather, or any other substance:
this is rendered sacred or endowed with its supposed virtues by
peculiar ceremonies, and afterwards honoured with a species of worship,
vows of abstinence from particular or occasional pleasures, and other
services; in return, the party to which it belongs looks up to it for
protection and assistance on all occasions--if successful, he
attributes it to its intervention; if unlucky, to its displeasure.

[28] In my opinion, no man under thirty years of age, should think of
travelling in an unhealthy country; before that age, the constitution
is more liable to the infection of the endemic diseases of a hot
climate than afterwards. Perhaps, between forty and fifty would be the
best age--"ceteris paribus."

[29] The following extract from the letter-book of the late African
Company, throws considerable light upon this subject:

'Cape Coast Castle, 30th January, 1783.

'Captain Lawson, who has been lately at the islands of Princes and St.
Thomas, says that the Governor, who was inimical to the English, is
returned to Portugal; he hired to the Spaniards at Fernando Po, one
hundred soldiers to make reprisals on the English, in consequence of
Captain Ragan having endeavoured to cut out of the island a Spanish
packet, which was there in March and April last. Captain West of his
Majesty's ship _Champion_, cruized off Fernando Po, two days in July
last, in order to fall in with a frigate of thirty guns, and a sloop
of fourteen, but, being both in the harbour, they would not come out.
These two vessels remained in St. Thomas's in October last, where they
had carried 200 troops, the only remains of 3000 that had originally
been sent to Fernando Po, where the Spaniards had made a settlement,
and landed a great quantity of brass cannon, and all kinds of military
stores; but the natives were so disgusted with the Spanish Government,
that they poisoned the water, which caused a great mortality and
obliged the survivors to go away. However, previous to their departure,
they dismounted and buried the cannon and all the stores; and, after
they were gone, the natives demolished all the fortification, and threw
the stones into the sea. A few Portuguese natives of St. Thomas's who
for misdemeanors had been sold to the Spaniards by the Portuguese
Government, are now remaining in the island ready to shew where the
cannon and stores are buried; and, from what Captain Lawson has heard,
the natives seem to wish that the English would come and settle among
them, promising to render us every assistance in their power in
erecting a settlement there. The importance of the trade carried on to
Leeward having already been represented to you, I shall not add on the
subject.'

----------
[30] The Diadem arrived in the bay a few hours before us.

CHAP. IX.

Native Simplicity--Resources of the Blind--Royal Village--Gathering of
Natives--Native Priests--Royal Feast--Inhospitable Treatment--
Uncomfortable Quarters--Vocabulary of the Native Language--Beauty of
the Female Character--Women of Fernando Po--Anecdotes--Aspect of the
Country--Productions--Preparations for the Settlement--Discovery of a
Theft--Mimic War Customs--Native Chiefs--Female on Board--Monkey for
Dinner--Flogging a Prisoner--Accident to a Sailor--A Voyage of Survey
round the Island--River named after the Author--Geographical and
Meteorological Observations--Insubordination--A Man Overboard--Deserter
taken--Death of the Interpreter--Method of Fishing--Visitors from St.
Thomas--Ceremony of taking Possession of Fernando Po--Interview with a
Native Chief--Celebration Dinner--Indirect Roguery--Chief and his
Wife--Hospital near Point William--The Guana--Mistake at Sea--
Suggestions on the Slave-Trade--Fishing Stakes--Schooner on a Mud-flat

_Thursday, Nov. 15_.--Soon after landing this morning, I fell in with a
party of natives, with whom I shook hands, as usual, when a young
female, whom I had frequently met in the market-place, with her
parents, perceiving that I did not immediately recognize her as an old
acquaintance, with the most natural simplicity, placed my hand on her
bosom, in the presence of her relations and countrymen, who all laughed
heartily, and appeared to enjoy my astonishment very much. If, however,
any of us had ventured upon such a liberty of our own accord, the men
would have been highly indignant, for they were extremely jealous of
their women, and did not like us to shew them any marked attention, by
purchasing their articles first, or making them a present in preference
to themselves:--such a distinction, in contradiction to the usages of
civilized society, being considered derogatory by these savage lords of
the creation.

Matthew Elwood, the young man who had been sent into the interior,
returned to-day, and I am afraid without having derived much advantage
from his journey. I expect, however, an opportunity of adverting more
fully to its results at a future time. A quantity of bricks were landed
for the purpose of constructing a forge. The natives soon found out
that they possessed the property of sharpening their knives, and began
to shew a very eager desire to become possessed of them.

_Friday, 16_.--The natives have crowded upon us in such numbers, that
we have taken up the stakes which enclosed the market, with the
intention of holding it in future without the boundary line. Several
unpleasant occurrences have taken place, partly the fault of our own
people, who have been criminal enough to sell their tools, and partly
of the natives, who have been eager to purchase them. The following
are, perhaps, the average terms on which our barter has been conducted:
an axe would purchase a sheep, or a goat; and three or four inches of
iron hoop, from two to four fowls, from eight to twelve yams, or two or
three calabashes of palm-wine, each containing about one gallon.

_Saturday, 17_.--The number and confidence of the natives continued to
increase, as well as the annoyance we experience from their
importunities;--it had been found necessary to protect the market by a
guard of soldiers. On returning from the market to-day, near the border
of Hay river, a party were daring enough to snatch the sentinel's
bayonet from out of its scabbard, and throw it into the river. The
soldier, however, succeeded in recovering it, and, to deter them from
proceeding to greater lengths, fired his musket over their heads. This
alarmed them so excessively, that away they scampered like a flock of
sheep, without daring to cast a look behind; indeed, such is their
terror of fire-arms, that it is only with the greatest difficulty that
they can be persuaded to touch a musket.

_Monday, Nov. 19_.--The young man, named Matthew Elwood, who had so
recently returned from his visit in the interior, where he had been
sent by Capt. Owen, with a view of acquiring some knowledge of their
language, volunteered to repeat it, accompanied by another young man,
and they had now been two days at the same village a few miles distant
from the settlement, where the King resided. Anxious to lose no
opportunity of obtaining information respecting the manners and customs
of this singular people, I determined on joining the party, and fixed
upon the present day for my journey. I have ever, throughout life, but
perhaps more particularly since the loss of my sight, felt an intense
interest in entering into association with human nature, and observing
human character in its more primitive forms: this propensity I have
previously had opportunities of enjoying, in some of the countries most
remote from European knowledge, amidst the wilds of Tartary and the
deserts of Siberia; and I can refer to the indulgence of it many of my
more pleasurable sensations. I know that the world declaims against the
absurdity of an individual, circumstanced like myself, professing to
derive either pleasure or information from such sources, and maintains
that travelling by the fireside would better suit those circumstances,
and convey an equally gratifying interest. I answer confidently that
this is not the case, and that I believe the intensity of my enjoyments
under the system I have adopted, equals, if not surpasses, what other
travellers experience who journey with their eyes open. It is true, I
ascertain nothing _visibly_; but, thank God! I possess most exquisitely
the other senses, which it has pleased Providence to leave me endowed
with; and I have reason to believe that my deficiency of sight is to a
considerable degree compensated, by a greater abundance of the power of
imagination which presents me with facility to form _ideal pictures_
from the description of others, which, as far as my experience goes, I
have reason to believe constitute fair and correct representations of
the objects they were originally derived from. It must be recollected
that I have formerly enjoyed the power of vision; and, although my
colourings may occasionally be too weak or too vivid, it is fair to
infer that the recollections of my former experience are sufficient to
prevent me from running into gross inaccuracies or incongruities. Place
me, as some have suggested, in the situation of the man in the farce,
and carry me in a limited circle around the same point, under the
assurance that I was travelling to distant and ever-changing scenes,
and support the stratagem by every circumstance calculated to give it
the fullest effect; it would never impose upon me: for the tact which
nature and experience have given me, and the inconceivable acuteness of
perception I derive from it, would immediately detect inconsistencies
scarcely appreciable by others, and at once overturn and expose the
deception which was being practised.

At 3 o'clock in the afternoon I left the Eden for King Cove, at which
place we found a few natives, who assembled on our landing. Anderson,
the interpreter, had been appointed to conduct me, but Mr. Jeffery
kindly accompanied me for the first half mile, in expectation of
leaving me in the care of a chief of our acquaintance. However, before
we had proceeded far, the assemblage of natives had become so great,
and their importunities to purchase palm-wine and other commodities so
annoying, that I was glad when he returned, under the expectation that
his separation from me would prove, as it did, a diversion which, by
drawing off a considerable part of the natives, would permit me to
continue my journey with less interruption. I now advanced with
Anderson as fast as the paths would admit, being anxious to arrive at
our point of destination that evening; my companion, however, was
desirous of passing the night at the hut of a chief in the
neighbourhood of the beach, and endeavoured to dissuade me from
prosecuting our journey this evening. I have already spoken of the
qualifications of this man as an interpreter, and have now to observe,
that he possessed others, which made him a useful medium of
communication with the natives: for instance, he was a good-tempered
fellow, could laugh heartily whenever they laughed, eat and drink
whatever was placed before him, however repugnant to an European
stomach; and, being somewhat of their own colour, i.e. not many shades
darker, they were inclined to be particularly partial to him.

Our path was at first tolerably good, and lay through a level country,
but, when we had proceeded about half way, became hilly, rugged, and
slippery, particularly after passing the second of two streams which
intercepted our road. A number of the natives, principally women,
continued to follow, passing evidently a variety of jokes upon us, and
laughing heartily at every false step I happened to make. Before we
reached the end of our journey, the number had increased to many
hundreds, who shouted, and halloed incessantly at the novelty of our
appearance, similar to a European rabble, when following any
extraordinary sight. To relieve Anderson, who had the luggage, I took
hold, for a short time, of the arm of a native, who conducted me well,
until we became surrounded by a crowd of his countrymen, and then,
whether he felt compelled to answer their queries, or was proud of his
charge, or anxious to exhibit the high confidence reposed in him, I
found him a very troublesome guide; for he was constantly turning his
head over my shoulder, and speaking or hallooing to those who were
behind him.

At length we arrived at the royal village, where Elwood and his
companion came to receive us at the hut that His Majesty had appointed
for our accommodation. It was so late, that my countrymen were
surprised to see us; and, the King having retired, we were obliged to
relinquish the honour of an interview until morning. I therefore took
tea, and was happy in lying down for repose, after my fatiguing
journey. It was not without much concern I learned from Elwood, that,
during the present visit, neither he nor his companion had met with the
hospitable treatment or attention which they had expected; on the
contrary, they had been compelled, immediately after their arrival, to
expose the contents of their bags, and actually obliged to surrender up
to the King one-half of the little stock of iron with which they had
provided themselves for the purpose of barter. The consequence was,
that, after paying three pieces to the natives who had conveyed their
luggage, another for a couple of fowls, and presenting a fifth to
Canning, (a chief who had been Elwood's principal friend on his former
visit, and to whom he had given this distinguished name,) to secure his
good services,--they had only one remaining for their future resources;
and it was by no means satisfactory to be thrown upon the casual
generosity of the natives. It is true, they had with them some salt
beef and biscuit, and it was understood, when they quitted the ship,
that Captain Owen had engaged to compensate the King for their
protection and entertainment.

_Tuesday, 20_.--At daybreak we were visited by Canning, and several
other chiefs, who brought with them a large yam, and some palm-wine
intended for our breakfast. We were from time to time, in reply to our
inquiries, assured that the King was coming; we waited, however, two
hours in vain expectation, and at length sent Anderson to inquire into
the cause of delay, when we were informed that His Majesty was busily
occupied at his toilet, or, in other words, having his head dressed, in
order, as I suppose, to enable him to appear with more dignity on this
important occasion. About 8 o'clock he made his entree, accompanied by
several of his chiefs. At first his manner was somewhat reserved, but,
after a short conversation, which held out to him the prospect of
receiving presents, confirmed by the actual gift of two large knives
from myself, he became highly animated, loquacious, and agreeable. He
now ordered a plentiful supply of palm-wine, which he caused to pass
freely round; and, after staying with us about an hour, returned to his
own residence, from whence he shortly after sent us half a dozen yams.

There was a native priest resident in our hut, probably placed there to
observe our conduct, and who, for the whole morning, had been occupied
in smearing himself with coloured clay. We noticed that this man,
during our visit, performed every morning a few religious ceremonies,
and repeated prayers, in which the natives appeared to join. After the
King's departure, he began to exercise some of the more mysterious
functions of his office. I know not what the occasion was, but the
ceremony consisted in frequent repetitions of certain short sentences,
in which the individual on whom he was operating occasionally joined;
and, in the intervals between these sentences, he shook a bundle of
rods over the head of the latter, making, at the same time, a noise
which resembled the squeaking of a pig.

I am enabled to communicate but little respecting the religious
sentiments of this people. The duties of the priests appear to be more
surgical than clerical; of which opinion the following are
illustrations: A female applied to one of the priests with an
inflammatory tumour on the hand; after making an incision into the
tumour, and squeezing it in a manner which made his patient grin with
pain, he blew and spat upon the part. Upon another person, who had an
abcess of the eye, with an accumulation of some white matter in it, he
performed the following delicate operation: having first applied his
mouth to the part, he began to suck it with great eagerness and
perseverance, after which he ejected from his mouth a chalky-looking
substance, which he appeared to have extracted from the diseased
structure: this process he repeated several times, with a similar
result. These were, at least, substantial duties.

Our priest had a sacred corner in the hut, with a particular seat which
none else presumed to occupy; the former, a receptacle for dirt, the
latter, formed of a large stone, with four smaller ones, which served
for legs or supporters.

I endeavoured in vain to gain any satisfactory account of their funeral
ceremonies; no indications of graves have been seen by our people, and
the probability is, as is not unfrequently the custom in Africa, that
they bury their dead under the earthen floor of their huts. I know not
whether this opinion will be deemed as confirmed or not by the fact,
that, in returning from a walk, this afternoon, we passed a closed hut,
with five hats hanging in front of it, the owner of which, we were
informed, had died shortly before our arrival.

Our friend Canning supplied us with a fowl for dinner, and, when it was
dressed, appeared perfectly ready to assist us in disposing of it.

The following is, probably, the general mode which these people adopt
of hunting or catching wild animals, of which we had the fortune this
day to meet with a specimen: A goat, which was very wild, had been
secured to a rail, when, taking fright at the approach of my
companions, it contrived, by floundering, to break loose from its
confinement. The King, and some of his chiefs, who were at hand,
immediately ran for some long grass nets, rolled upon poles, and which
were about four feet wide. These they expeditiously unfolded, and then
encircling the goat, very skilfully and speedily recaptured him. They
have, however, other methods of taking wild animals; on enclosing yam
plantations with stakes seven feet high, they place traps at the sides
of the fence.

_Wednesday, 21_.--We returned His Majesty's visit this morning at eight
o'clock. He received us on the outside of his hut, and seated me on a
stone at his right hand, but immediately after a few words had been
exchanged, he made signs to us to return to our own residence; where on
our arrival, we found he had sent a sheep, with a view of giving us a
sumptuous feast. His Majesty, accompanied by his chiefs, soon after
joined us, and they immediately proceeded to the operation of killing
the sheep, which was conducted in the following manner: The animal
having been first hung up by the hind legs, its throat was cut, care
being taken, in effecting this, not to wound the windpipe. The blood,
as it flowed, was caught in a calabash, and then given to the priest,
probably to be reserved for some religious ceremony. The next process
was to skin the animal, in doing which the operator commenced with a
fore leg, then the corresponding hind one, then the other fore leg, and
so on; he then proceeded to the abdomen, and afterwards completed the
operation in the usual manner. The gall-bag and bladder were now
extracted and thrown away; after which the whole of the remaining
viscera were removed and placed aside for subsequent use. A large
portion of the flesh from one of the shoulders was now presented to the
King, who cut it into the form of a long string, beginning at the
outside, and proceeding to the centre. This he wound round a stick, and
held over a blazing fire, until half broiled; and, then dividing it
into a number of small pieces, distributed them to the party around
him, doing myself the honour of presenting me with the first piece. The
remainder of the animal was, in the next place, taken within our hut,
where the stomach and intestines, without any other preparation than
imperfectly squeezing out their contents, were warmed over the fire,
and then, in nearly a raw state, divided among the natives, who ate
them with great relish, the King receiving his portion with the rest.
His Majesty now presented our party with a leg, shoulder, breast, and
small saddle, and afterwards divided what remained among his chiefs,
reserving the head for himself, which, after being well scorched, he
ordered to be taken to his hut.

A more curious part of this singular feast remains to be described. On
opening the animal, it was found to be with young, when the uterus,
containing two lambs, each about six inches long, was, as a particular
mark of favour or respect, placed in my hands: but, not appreciating
the gift so highly as probably had been expected, I immediately laid it
aside. After the departure of the King, it was a second time brought to
me, and I now contrived, by shaking my head, and other demonstrations,
to make them comprehend that I did not intend to make use of it, and
that it was entirely at their service. This was, without doubt, very
agreeable intelligence; for, having pricked the sac, to allow the
liquor to drain away, and laid it for a short time before the fire, the
whole was divided into portions, and eaten up apparently with avidity
and delight.

The above meal was purely carnivorous, for neither yams nor palm-wine
were introduced as accompaniments; in the afternoon, however, his
Majesty made us another short visit, and sent a quantity of wine. We
offered the natives salt to their meat, but they refused it with every
sign of disgust, and even wanted to throw away our little store of
this, to us, so necessary a condiment. They also shewed an equal
dislike to tobacco; and, when one of our party made preparations for
smoking a cigar, the priest held out his rod as if in prohibition,
while others endeavoured to prevent him from lighting it. Canning,
indeed, who had witnessed more frequently the practice of smoking on
board, shewed less aversion.

Though we were at a considerable distance from the settlement, we could
hear the reports of the morning and evening gun; for the first two or
three days, the natives appeared, or pretended to be, much alarmed at
this, as they halloed for some time after. They would frequently come
up to us, levelling a stick like a musket, and accompany the action
with bang! bang! We had reason to consider them much afraid of every
species of fire-arms, and I cannot but think it would be good policy to
keep this apprehension alive, rather than to endeavour to remove it by
attempts to explain the principles of their action, and to familiarise
them with the effects. In this respect, I deem the general practice of
our voyagers and travellers to be decidedly faulty, since the superior
advantages which fire-arms give, may be said to constitute our chief
compensation for deficiency of numbers, and thus enable us to preserve
that vast pre-eminence which we possess over the uncivilised
inhabitants of newly-discovered countries. If the policy of our
Government requires an intercourse with savage nations, both prudence
and humanity justify our retaining the means of commanding that
intercourse, by the superiority of our modes of defence; for, in the
event of hostile collision, the numbers of the savages, possessed as
they are, individually, of physical strength and bodily activity, at
least equal to our own, could scarcely fail to be overwhelming. This
also agrees with Vaillant's opinion, for he remarks, that, "when you
travel among savages, you ought never to employ your arms, or shew the
use of them, except to render them a service, either by procuring them
game, or destroying such ferocious animals as are obnoxious to
them."--_Vaillant_, vol. ii. p. 127.

About ten o'clock this evening, a great noise from persons talking
commenced in the village, accompanied, at times, by loud hallooing, and
a clattering of a kind of rattle-boxes, which many of the natives wear
around the neck, and which somewhat resembles the upper half of the
leathern-case of a spirituous-liquor bottle, within which is appended a
clapper made generally of a sheep's jawbone. This noise, the meaning of
which I could not comprehend, continued, with little interruption,
throughout the night.

_Thursday, Nov. 22_.--Soon after breakfast, the King sent for us to his
hut, and regaled us with palm-wine, poured out by the fair hand of a
young female, whom my companions pronounced the most beautiful they had
seen in this island, and whom we supposed to be his Majesty's favourite
wife. On this occasion, he took the opportunity of reminding us of the
presents he expected to receive from Captain Owen, and directed some of
his chiefs to shew us those which he intended to offer in return,
consisting of sheep, fowls, &c. &c. We were then conducted to our hut,
and given to understand, by signs, that it was his Majesty's pleasure
we should forthwith pack up our luggage, and return to our settlement.
We thought, however, it would be more pleasant to take an early dinner
first, and with this intention commenced the preparation of a kind of
Irish stew, consisting of mutton and yams: being defective in the
latter article, we requested a further supply; but this did not please
our hosts, and it was intimated that we should find plenty at the end
of our journey. We still, however, urged our wishes, when, at length,
they brought us a couple of pieces. We could not avoid expressing
dissatisfaction at this scanty supply, when they began to assume a very
savage and sulky appearance; even our friend Canning arose with a
menacing countenance, and laying hold of his spears, threatened to
compel our immediate departure. It would have been imprudent to
continue to irritate them at this juncture, and at best have only
exposed our own weakness: we therefore thought we should most preserve
our dignity, and, at the same time, retain a just ground of complaint
of their want of hospitality, by giving way to their wishes, yet not
without evident signs of our high dissatisfaction. I believe they had,
subsequently, reason to repent of their conduct, as Capt. Owen
afterwards treated them with apparent coldness, and probably abridged
his intended presents: not but that they were amply remunerated,
although the measure of it fell short of their own expectations. We
took our dinner deliberately, notwithstanding this urgency, and then
commenced our journey, accompanied by Canning and another chief;
besides an old man, who had resided in the hut with us, carrying our
luggage. We were soon joined by the persons who carried the presents
intended for Captain Owen. We also met the King, but he, instead of
accompanying us, as we had expected, went off immediately to his own
residence, bearing on his shoulders a quantity of wood, for the use, as
we supposed, of the royal household; we shook hands with his Majesty on
taking our final leave.

As on the journey up the country, we had, on our return, great numbers
of idle people following us, either from motives of curiosity or
interest, and teazing us to give them palm-wine, iron, &c. The road, in
various places, was extremely rugged and narrow, with steep declivities
from the sides to the centre, and very slippery from the rain that had
fallen in the morning. We again crossed two streams, the chief of
which, although broad and rapid, was not sufficiently deep to be
dignified with the title of a river. Towards evening, we arrived at
King Cove, where, proceeding to the beach, we washed the clay from our
trowsers, and then went to our quarters for the night.

The hut in which we took up our residence, consisted of a wooden roof,
thatched with palm-leaves, and supported on stancheons of wood; the
leaves, on all sides, approaching within two or three feet of the
ground, indeed so low, that it made it very inconvenient to get in or
out; for, unless great caution was observed, there was considerable
risk of getting wounded by the prickles on the leaves of the palm-tree.
Previously to its becoming dark, we were invited to drink palm-wine on
the outside of our hut; and, afterwards retiring within, our native
companions employed themselves busily enough in roasting and eating
their yams, while we enjoyed the refreshing beverage of tea. We then
lay down for the night; but, alas! not to sleep; for, although our hut
was not very large, it contained about twenty persons of different
sexes and ages, who were, of course, pretty closely stowed: and from
its not being closed at the sides, with much thunder and lightning
taking place, accompanied by high wind and heavy rain, which continued
throughout the greater part of the night, the latter beat in under the
roof, and also drove the smoke of three fires towards us, until we were
nearly suffocated. It will be conceived, that our situation was not the
most enviable; those near the outside were exposed to the pitiless
storm; while they who occupied the centre, where we had spread our
hammocks, were necessarily oppressed with heat and smoke. About two
o'clock, some of the natives, finding it impossible to sleep, got up
and amused themselves until daylight in conversation, and roasting yams
on the fire.

_Friday, 23_.--At day-break, the whole of the natives rose and
commenced their yam feast, succeeded by plentiful supplies of
palm-wine. As the heavy winds and rain shewed no appearance of abating,
we began to doubt whether we should get on board to-day; however, about
eight o'clock, it moderated, and before noon, the weather was
sufficiently favourable to induce us to make the attempt. Having taken
our seats in the canoes, together with the chiefs who accompanied us, a
party of the natives urged them over the surf, and away we paddled for
the ship, which we reached in less than a couple of hours. Before
getting on board, however, we were treated with a specimen of eager
covetousness and want of decorum in our late friends; for, instead of
waiting to allow us to get up first, or offering to assist us, no
sooner did the canoe touch the ship, which she happened to do under the
main-chains, than away they all started with their presents, leaving us
to bring the boat to the gangway, and get out as well as we could; they
even gave up all care for the safety of the canoe; the consequence of
which was, that _they left us adrift in it_, and the commanding officer
was obliged to send a boat to bring her alongside again.

_Saturday, 24_.--Having now spent some days in what may be termed the
domestic privacy of the island, it will be inferred that I have become
more intimately acquainted with the character of its inhabitants, who
may justly be considered as constituting one of the most extraordinary
races of savages at this time in existence. I shall, therefore, avail
myself of this opportunity of developing farther than has yet been done
in the preceding pages, whatever occurred to me as being most
interesting in their manners, habits, customs, and peculiarities. This
I shall follow up with some details respecting the natural history and
productions of the island; which, however imperfectly they may be
treated, will probably be deemed worthy of attention as subjects of
scientific research. In these descriptions, I must, however, plead
strongly for the indulgence of my readers, as many serious obstacles
have opposed themselves to the inquiry after satisfactory information;
among which, none have been more uncompromising than those experienced
in acquiring a knowledge of the language; for, although we have been in
constant communication with the natives, at present so little progress
has been made, that our attempts in this respect may be said to have
almost entirely proved abortive. We have, indeed, some reason to
believe that the natives are desirous of throwing impediments in our
way, since, notwithstanding they evince much quickness in catching
words of our language, repeating the orders issued by the officers, and
are also possessed of considerable power of mimicry, they shew little
inclination to communicate their own terms or names. It has not
unfrequently happened, that when, according to the usual custom of
persons who are not conversant with each other's language, we touched,
significantly, any thing which we were desirous of knowing, they used
different words in reply, as if with the intention of confusing us;
and, again, when we believed that we had ascertained the right name
from one source, on inquiring from others, a very different word was
given; so that we eventually remained in doubt as to the proper one.
The few small vocabularies we have succeeded in collecting, seem to
prove that there are distinct dialects, or idioms, among the different
tribes. This is particularly exemplified in the case of the numerals;
for not only are different words used to express the same number, but
peculiar modes of counting are made use of--for instance, one tribe,
after counting five in the usual way, proceeds to ten and twenty; while
another, after going on progressively to ten, starts at once to twenty.
The language itself is, generally speaking, harmonious, most of the
words terminating in vowels, as will be perceived from the subjoined
vocabulary, which is as correct as circumstances would admit of our
obtaining.

The mode Captain Owen adopted of gaining an insight into the Fernandian
language was, perhaps, the best that could have been devised: viz. the
sending a person to reside with the natives in the interior, as has
been before stated; but the result proved very unsatisfactory; for he
added little to what we had previously acquired. Another mode adopted
was, the promise of a reward to that individual who might gain the
earliest and best knowledge of the subject.

A VOCABULARY OF THE NATIVE LANGUAGE OF FERNANDO PO.

_Etwee_, head.
_Isilla_, hair of the head.
_Lotto_, ear.
_Booyah_, mouth.
_Nokko_, eye.
_Lopappo_, eye-lashes.
_Kokalako_, chief, or head man.
_Mohoonka_, chief's wife.
_Icancunee_, little one.
_Ebeo_, boy.
_Ternapo_, mother.
_Murugudu_, eye-brows.
_Vompo and Mompo_, nose.
_Bello_ and _Wello_, tooth.
_Ezaddoo_, beard.
_Lobabbo_, tongue.
_Lobok_, arm.
_Dialla_, hand.
_Aboobooso_, wrist.
_Anne_, finger.
_Jpapo_, thigh.
_Eddo_, and _Etoko_, knee.
_Lopola_, leg.
_Inkakase_, ancle.
_Dekotto_, foot.
_Deballe_, female bosom.
_Babilla_, belly.
_Djakkee_, navel.
_Bopa_.
_Motto_.
_Djeecha_.
_Eppoo_ buttocks.
_Elleboo_, trinket of wood, in form of a bell.
_Motoocko_, belt of shells and pebbles.
_Dpibbo_, bracelet.
_Longebo_, armlet.
_Touno_, black shell bracelet.
_Ebebbo_, snake skin collar.
_Loppollo_, vertebrae of a snake.
_Eboote_, hat.
_Mu-u,_ bulls, or cattle.
_Me-he,_ sheep, or goats, or their flesh.
_Kohoko_, fowls, or their meat.
_Tonatchetolo_, tattoo, or marked.
_Empoo_, dog's jaw.
_Tokko_, round shell ornament like a button.
_Epehaunah_, purse, sheep's scrotum.
_Looka_, man.
_Daka_, woman.
_Labole_, ship.
_Labolechee_, or _Epoode_, boat.
_Wattoo_, canoe.
_Ikahaddee_, long reed, in the stern of canoes.
_Kalsokoola_, sail.
_Nossapo_, mast.
_Inkappa_, paddle.
_Bonokee_, fishing.
_Itokka_, sun.
_Tolo_, moon.
_Bockao_, eggs.
_Boka_, water.
_Mooheelya_, bar of iron.
_Pooripoodee_, cloves.
_Sokolaee_, Chili pepper.
_Epeepee_, tomatos.
_Etoka_, potatoe.
_Saly_, yams.
_Beentok_, or _Lilo_, cocoa tops.
_Topy_, or _Nakko_, palm-wine.
_Loma_, to drink.
_Looba_, or _Bata_, give.
_Taleppa_, take it away.
_Omitta_, to hold.
_Vallee_ anger.
_Atehee_, done, no more, finish, end.
_Anjoo_, come here.
_Sheerskalle_, fine, pretty.
_Boola_, or _Lilla_, or _Illee_, one.
_Epa_, or _Taba_, two.
_Buelly_, or _Twelly_, three.
_Betoh_, or _Totoh_, five.
_Beho_, ten.
_Bo_, fifteen.
_Eeckee_, twenty.
_Olaito_, thirty.

It would be superfluous to repeat the descriptions which have already,
on various occasions, been given of the persons, dress, and characters
of the male inhabitants of this island. The reader will have inferred,
that they are generally a harmless and inoffensive race of savages: it
may be added, that they are probably the most dirty people existing
under the face of the sun; for, with the exception of occasional
immersions in the sea, when occupied in the affairs of business, we have
never known them to wash themselves. The only systematic method they
appear to adopt of cleansing, as well as of dress, is to give themselves
a new coating of clay and palm-oil, whenever the previous one happens to
be injured. Some few individuals, indeed, appear to renew this covering
as a matter of fashion; particularly one dandy chief, who frequently
changed the colour of his skin, and, in consequence, became familiarly
known to us by the name of Chameleon; and what is singular, this man,
like our European dandies, was in the habit of scenting himself.

The transition from the male to the female sex, through the intermediate
species of Macaroni, is easy, if not natural; and I shall indulge my own
particular feelings and partialities in entering upon that part of my
observations which relates more exclusively to the fairer and softer
portion of this aboriginal people. The infinite modifications of person,
mind, and manners, exhibited by the sex in the different grades of
society throughout the world, whether formed by the influences of
climate, government, or education, present a most interesting subject to
the speculative observer of human nature: and to one who, from early
life, both by profession and inclination, a traveller, has wandered
under every temperature of our eastern hemisphere, who has studied and
admired the sex under every variety of character, no wonder that the
contemplation of woman, as nature left her, inartificial,
unsophisticated, simple, barbarous, and unadorned, should seem fraught
with peculiar interest. Are there any who imagine that my loss of
eye-sight must necessarily deny me the enjoyment of such contemplations?
How much more do I pity the mental darkness which could give rise to
such an error, than they can pity my personal calamity! The feelings and
sympathies which pervade my breast, when in the presence of an amiable
and interesting female, are such as never could have been suggested by
_viewing_ a mere surface of coloured clay, however shaped into beauty,
or however animated by feeling and expression. The intelligence still
allowed me by a beneficent Providence, is amply sufficient to apprise me
of the existence of the more real--the diviner beauties of the soul; and
herein are enjoyments in which I am proud to indulge. A soft and sweet
voice, for instance, affords me a two-fold gratification;--it is a
vehicle of delight, as operating on the appropriate nerves, and, at the
same time, it suggests ideas of _visible_ beauty, which, I admit, may,
by force of imagination, be carried beyond _reality_. But, supposing I
am deceived, are my feelings the less intense?--and, in what consists my
existence, but in those feelings? Is it otherwise with those who _see_?
If it be, I envy them not. But are those who think themselves happier,
in this respect, than I am, sure, that the possession of a more
exquisite sense than any they enjoy, does not, sometimes at least,
compensate, or more than compensate, the curtailments to which the
ordinary senses, and particularly the one of eye-sight, is liable?--and
if they should think so, let them not, at least, deny me the resources I
possess. I shall not, however, persist further in a description of that
situation, those circumstances and those consolations, which the
all-feeling comprehension of the poet hath so justly caught in one of
its diviner moods of inspiration:--

And yet he neither drooped nor pined,
Nor had a melancholy mind;
For God took pity on the boy,
And was his friend--and gave him joy
Of which we nothing know.

The personal appearance of the females of Fernando Po, is by no means
attractive, unless (de gustibus non est disputandum) a very ordinary
face, with much of the contour of the baboon, be deemed so. Add to this
the ornaments of scarification and tattooing, adopted by the sex to a
greater extent than by the men: and the imagination will at once be
sensible how much divinity attaches to Fernandian beauty. Like the men,
the women plaster the body all over with clay and palm-oil, and also in
a similar manner wear the hair long, and in curls or ringlets, well
stiffened with the above composition. The children of both sexes, or
those who have not obtained the age of puberty, have the hair cut short,
and are not permitted to use any artificial covering to the body. One
trait is, perhaps, peculiar to the women of this country, and may be
regarded by some as an indication of their good sense--that they have no
taste for baubles, or, at all events, do not appear to desire them more
than the men. With respect to articles of clothing, they are equally
exempt from such incumbrances as the other sex:--

Happy the climate where the beau
Wears the same suit for use and show,
And at a small expense your wife,
If once well pink'd, is clothed for life.

Their lords and masters contrive to keep them in great subjection, and
accustom them to carry their burdens; they evince also a considerable
degree of jealousy, and shew evident marks of displeasure, whenever
strangers pay attentions to them. As, however, this is equally the case
whether the lady be young or old, it is not improbable that it may, in
some measure, arise from their considering it too great a condescension
on their parts to notice persons whom they deem so inferior. They rarely
brought them to the ship, and for some time did not allow them to appear
at market. If we are to credit our people, some of the young women are
great jilts, and very expert in wheedling them out of iron and other
property, under pretence of admitting them into their favour, and then
running away, with a laugh at their credulity.

Mr. Jeffery witnessed the following ludicrous occurrence. He went one
day, for the purpose of barter, to a part of the shore eastward of Hay
river, where the surf was too great to allow his boat to remain on the
beach, and he was, therefore, compelled to lie off in deep water; this,
however, did not prevent the natives from carrying on their traffic.
Some young women, in particular, came off to the boat, bringing a
calabash of palm-wine in each hand, and treading the water so soon as
they were out of their depth. These they contrived to deliver safe,
without the wine becoming in the slightest degree impregnated with the
briny wave. One of these females, having been taken into the boat, began
to ingratiate herself into the favour of an honest tar, who, nothing
loath, seated her near him, with his arm around her neck. At this
juncture, the boat beginning to move, she made a sudden plunge over the
side, and nearly carried the astonished seaman into the water; in short,
he only escaped a good ducking by laying fast hold of the seat. The lady
now, in an instant, dived under the boat, and, reappearing at some
distance on the opposite side, swam, laughing, to the shore, evidently
much amused at Jack's surprise and disappointment.

This was not the only instance Mr. Jeffery met with of the superior
talents of the fair sex, in swimming and diving. On one occasion, having
thrown into the sea a few small pieces of iron which had been rejected
in barter, a number of natives of both sexes dashed after them, with a
view to their recovery, when it was evident that the females were the
more active and successful.

To elucidate more fully the character of the native women, I shall
conclude my account of them with the details of an occurrence which
possesses enough of the romantic to be capable of exciting, in the hands
of a better painter than I am, an interest in the bosoms of such of my
fair readers as may delight in tales of love and jealousy, with their
sequel of rage and revenge. A female, about twenty-five years of age,
who resided at a village in the neighbourhood of our settlement, had
been guilty of an offence, probably infidelity to her husband, which
subjected her to the dreadful penalty of having her hands cut off.
Hoping to avert this punishment, she adopted the resolution, accompanied
by her child, a fine and engaging boy of two years old, of entering our
lines, and throwing herself on our protection. Captain Harrison received
her favourably, and, for additional safety, sent her on board the Eden,
where she remained several days before any inquiry was made respecting
her. Although evidently of much firmness and decision of character, her
personal appearance was by no means attractive, the face being greatly
seamed with scars, and the abdomen tattooed all over. Captain Owen
directed her to be placed under the care of our European females, who,
either from envy or the force of habit, not approving the Eve-like dress
in which she came on board, immediately clothed her in blue cotton
garments. The poor child of nature, unused to such incumbrance, which
probably, in her opinion, served only to irritate the skin, and prevent
the contact of the refreshing atmosphere, felt any thing but easy, or
gratified with this addition to her circumstances, and availed herself,
at first, of every opportunity to lay it aside; but our unrelenting
countrywomen were equally zealous in persisting to replace it. At
length, she either became more accustomed to it, or aware of the
necessity of compliance with the wishes of her new friends; this effort
was, however, not unaccompanied by some ludicrous occurrences: for
instance, whenever her tormentors were out of sight, she lost no time in
tucking the grievance up round the waist, and dropping it below the
shoulders from above, thus leaving her limbs, and the general surface,
as free as nature intended them to be. On being taken on shore some days
after, and placed under the protection of the wife of a seaman who had
charge of the guns and ordnance stores, she had become sufficiently
reconciled to her new dress to wear it with less apparent inconvenience;
she was, indeed, once caught tripping, having one evening taken an
opportunity of throwing it off, when finding herself light and free,
like a bird on the wing, she ran into the jungle, where she frisked
about and enjoyed herself for some time; after which she returned to the
seaman's hut, and resumed her dress.

When this woman had been with us about a week, her husband came to
Captain Harrison, bearing with him a present of two calabashes of
palm-wine, and a couple of fowls, intimating his wish to have the child
restored to him. With regard to his wife, he at this time shewed no
anxiety to recover her; he afterwards, however, returned with a
deputation of chiefs, and expressed his wish to have both of them
restored to him. This being represented to Captain Owen, in order to
convince them that she was under no restraint, he conducted her to the
boundary line, and, pointing first to her countrymen, and then to our
settlement, gave her to understand that she was at liberty to make her
choice. One of the chiefs now advanced, and taking her by the hand,
evinced his intention of leading her away, but Captain Owen would not
permit this without her free consent; and, that his presence might be no
restraint, left her to walk with her husband on the outside of the
boundary line, attended by a sailor armed with a musket. They had not
walked many paces, before five natives started from the bush and
attempted to carry her off by force, when she immediately ran towards
the sailor, and putting her hand on his musket, intimated her wish that
he would fire at them. He did so, and they all immediately scampered
away as fast as they could, leaving her to return with the sailor to his
hut. Foiled in this attempt, the husband soon after came again and
induced her to permit him to stay the night with her, and to take away
the child in the morning, under the promise of bringing it back next
day; a promise which he failed to perform, and which rendered the lady
so indignant, that, although he afterwards came to visit her himself,
bringing some fowls and palm-wine as a peace-offering, she persisted in
rejecting all compromise. This produced a violent quarrel, which ended
in their parting in high wrath, the husband threatening to return in the
night and inflict some dreadful vengeance upon her for it, but he did
not dare to carry his threats into execution.

I regret that my circumstances do not permit me to investigate the
general aspect and natural history of this island, as it abounds with
many interesting subjects which would well repay the trouble of inquiry.
It is to be hoped that Government will ere long send out some
intelligent naturalist for the purpose. The general appearance of the
island is rocky and volcanic; on the north-eastern extremity, where our
settlement is situated, one mountain, named Clarence Peak, rises to the
elevation of 10,655 feet above the level of the sea, the easiest ascent
to which is from its eastern side, being only interrupted by a few
valleys of no great depth, while the western side exhibits a series of
chasms and precipices, the sides of which from the sea appear almost
perpendicular. The southern part of the island, although the least
populous, is very picturesquely mountainous, being broken into several
peaks, each supposed to be from one to three thousand feet in elevation,
with numerous streams and beautiful cataracts descending in various
parts and directions. In consequence of the hilly nature of the country
admitting of no lodgment of water, we have reason to believe that few
marshes exist throughout the island, a circumstance which must
contribute greatly to its salubrity.

The soil of that part of the country with which we are best acquainted,
is of a red argillaceous nature, generally forming a stratum of nine or
ten feet in thickness, lying over one of sandstone, in which are
imbedded fragments of lava; the latter stratum, at Point William,
appears to decline to the east, at an angle of ten or twelve degrees.

The whole of the island is most luxuriantly wooded, even to within three
or four hundred feet of its highest peaks, while some cleared spots,
particularly in the north-east part, which is the most populous and
cultivated, affords evidences of its great fertility. There is an
immense variety of timber, comprising some of the finest trees in the
world. I have already mentioned the Indian-rubber tree as indigenous
here. The island also produces a species of black pepper, and we have
reason to believe that cloves and nutmegs are to be met with. Yams are
cultivated in abundance; they are remarkably fine and large, and
constitute the principal food of the natives. Of this root they prepare
a food called foo-foo, made by beating a quantity of well boiled ones
together for a long time in a wooden mortar, which forms it into a
highly tenacious mass, somewhat similar to bird-lime, but this mode of
preparing them is not peculiar to Fernando Po, for it is commonly
practised among the African nations. There is also a variety of other
edible plants, particularly the eddoe, which is well known in the West
Indies, and whose leaves, when young, form a good substitute for
spinach. It is in general use when yams are out of season. A few
plantains have also been brought to us. Wild fruits, not generally
known, are found here; but there do not appear to be any oranges,
lemons, limes, pine-apples, bananas, sour-sop, or sugar-canes, which are
peculiar to such climates.

The following is the mode adopted for procuring the sap of the
palm-tree, commonly known by the name of palm-wine: the lower branches
of the tree having been cut off near the trunk, the sap exudes
abundantly from the extremity of the divided part, and is received in
calabashes appended thereto, which are secured from the aggressions of
insects by enclosing the mouth of the vessel with the end of the branch,
by leaves, and secured with wooden pins. The natives are remarkably
expert in ascending the tree for the purpose of attaching and removing
the calabashes; to assist them, they make use of a hoop sufficiently
large to encircle the trunk, and allow, also, the body to move freely
within it. This the individual moves upwards or downwards whenever he
wants to change the position of his feet, according as he wishes to
ascend or descend.

The juice, when procured, is, in the first instance, sweet, and not
unlike cyder, but rapidly undergoes a process of fermentation, by which,
in the course of two or three hours, it acquires a slightly vinous
flavour: in both those states I found it a very pleasant beverage. If
procured in the morning,[31] by the afternoon it becomes slightly acid,
and, on the following morning, perfectly sour: sufficient alcohol is,
however, formed to produce considerable exhilarating effect, when taken
in even moderate quantity; but, when drank inordinately, it stupefies
and intoxicates. The natives, notwithstanding they are fond of it, much
to their credit, rarely abuse this bountiful gift of nature, and, in
this respect, are well deserving of imitation by more civilized people.

The preparation of the palm-oil is conducted an follows:--A circular and
slightly concave hole, about a yard in diameter and a foot deep, is made
in the ground and paved with small stones. In this hole the palm-nuts
are beaten into a pulp, and the oil afterwards extracted. It is then
preserved and brought to market in native boxes, each containing from a
quart to a gallon.

The island abounds with monkeys, which are eaten by the natives, many
are of considerable size, some having been killed above 50 lb. weight.
Several species have been noticed, particularly one with long, shaggy,
jet-black hair; another with short silver-grey hair; and a third auburn,
inclining to gold, with the hair of an intermediate length; so that it
might be said we have gold and silver monkeys. The Kroomen, who are very
partial to their flesh, hunt them successfully with sticks and stones.
If any one makes them a present of a monkey, after feasting on the
carcase, they thankfully return the skin, well dried.

The only domestic animal on the island is a dog of a peculiar cur
species, very diminutive, and of a red and white colour; these we have
reason to believe the natives eat, and they use the under jaw for a
clapper to their rattles.

There is a great variety of fish; and also two species of turtle: viz.
the green, and hawksbill; the former good for eating, and the latter
only desirable for its shell.

It is now time that I revert to the proceedings which had taken place at
the settlement during my absence. The increased confidence of the
natives, and even violent proceedings, subsequently to our purchase of
land and establishment of a market, have already been noticed: the
numbers, indeed, which crowded within our boundary line, were immense;
and their conduct in wandering about the settlement, with a view of
inducing our people to make purchases, contrary to regulation, together
with the irregularities arising from the temptation to sell their tools,
to procure the means of privately feasting and tippling among the
bushes, became so obnoxious, that Captain Owen determined to remove the
market beyond the boundary line. He, therefore, directed the stakes to
be removed, and took measures for preventing any number of natives from
entering, in future, within the works, giving them to understand that no
barter could be made, excepting at the place appointed for that purpose.
The spot selected for the new market, was a point to the eastward beyond
Hay River. Although much pains were taken to convince the chiefs of the
advantages of this arrangement, it did not appear to give them
satisfaction; as, for several days, few natives were to be seen on
shore, and no canoes came off to the ship. It is probable that the
chiefs were holding a conference respecting the affair, a mode of
proceeding which they appear to adopt when any thing of moment occurs.

Two days afterwards Capt. Owen, accompanied by Capt. Harrison and Mr.
Jeffery, went to examine the shore to the eastward of Hay River, and
observing two canoes making towards a small cove, followed them, until
they landed at a village near the beach, the inhabitants of which
received him with every demonstration of friendly feeling, pawing the
gentlemen of the party with their clayey hands, and pressing upon them
so close, that they were also rubbing their bodies against their
clothes. At the same time, that they thus expressed their welcome, they
did not forget to solicit for iron, knives, and other presents. The
chief occupation of the people of this village was fishing; and as,
contrary to all other assemblages of the natives we had yet witnessed,
the larger proportion present consisted of women, it is probable that
the men were, at the time, engaged in that employment. Captain Owen
purchased a few articles from them, and expressed his intention of
establishing a market at the place; after which, he returned to his
boat, both parties appearing satisfied with each other.

Our market was for some days afterwards carried on at the above village
with reciprocal satisfaction, the supply of the several articles being
abundant. It was soon, however, evident, that the tribes who were
excluded by this arrangement, were by no means contented: and, as
Captain Owen was anxious to do justice to the whole, by giving each a
fair opportunity of barter, and as the immediate neighbourhood of the
settlement was more convenient for the greatest assemblage of persons
from the different tribes, he ordered, after first having a clear
understanding with the chiefs, a new market-place to be fenced in, near
the boundary line, which, from its situation and circumstances, ought to
be regarded as neutral ground. This establishment of a neutral ground,
was a measure of great importance and advantage, as we had now
discovered that the natives are not only divided into distinct tribes,
but that each tribe possesses a distinct portion of territory, and is
extremely jealous of admitting others within its boundaries. The new
market having been completed to-day, and a pole erected for the purpose
of hoisting a flag, during the appointed hours of barter, it was opened
about noon, with some ceremony, in consequence of hoisting, for the
first time on this island, an Union-jack, under the hearty cheers of a
large assembly, composed, perhaps, of as great a variety of people as
ever before witnessed the first display of the British flag in a foreign
land; comprising, besides our own countrymen and the inhabitants of the
island, natives of various parts of Africa. The ceremony concluded by
drinking palm-wine.

_Monday, Nov. 26_.--A circumstance unfortunately occurred to-day to
interrupt the good understanding so lately established. One of our black
labourers, who was occupied by himself in cutting wood within our lines,
had drunk some palm-wine, which had been offered to him, without his
having the means of paying for it; the natives, in consequence, forcibly
took from him the bill-hook he was using. The theft having been
communicated to Capt. Harrison, he assembled the chiefs who were at the
market, and explained the affair, when two of them, Chameleon and
Cut-throat, formed their respective followers into lines, each being
armed with his equipment of spears; a parley now took place between the
chiefs, who addressed their respective parties, with a view, no doubt,
of finding out the thieves. A man, having the appearance of a priest,
next harangued the whole body: each party in succession sang a war-song,
the chiefs going on one, and the men on both knees. Each party now
marched three times round a space which described a circle; after which,
those under Chameleon suddenly started off at full speed, and were
immediately followed by Cut-throat and his party, to the boundary of Hay
River. The stragglers of the former, in their flight, disencumbered
themselves of their yams, and calabashes of palm-wine, which the others,
on coming up, amused themselves with breaking to pieces. Thus ended this
curious specimen of war-like movements, which might appropriately be
called the Battle of the Calabashes; and is sufficient to prove that a
system of organization exists among the people, and confirms our former
opinions on this subject: for, on our first landing at Baracouta, we
perceived they had guards regularly stationed to watch and follow our
movements. This system, I have some reason to believe, extends itself
into the heart of the country, for, during my visit in the interior, I
was sensible the people were running about at all hours of the night,
ready for action. This may probably be the result of necessity, as the
different tribes, if we are to judge from the numerous large scars in
various parts of the body, are evidently engaged in frequent warfare
with each other.

_Tuesday, 27_.--Mr. Jeffery held a market to-day, at the village near
the beach; but an old chief, who had been named Bottle-nose, was
apparently, out of humour, probably in consequence of the affair at the
border-market the day before.

_Wednesday, 28_.--At the conclusion of the market, which was held at the
Bottle-nose village to-day, a party of chiefs came hallooing after Mr.
Jeffery, at the moment of his leaving the shore, but he did not offer to
return. They then followed along the beach in the direction of his boat,
until they nearly reached Hay River. He now perceived they held
something in their hands, which they gave him to understand, by signs,
was intended for him. This induced him to pull for the shore again, when
he found they had brought back the unfortunate bill-hook that had been
carried away on the preceding Monday: the men who had stolen it,
however, were not forthcoming. Mr. Jeffery conducted them to Clarence,
where an interview took place between Captains Owen and Harrison, and
some of the chiefs, at which the former directed a couple of iron hoops
to be given as a reward for the recovery of the bill-hook. After this,
several chiefs came on board, bringing with them a sheep as a
peace-offering, which the Captain immediately ordered to be killed for
their own entertainment. In this operation, they assisted very
effectually; for one of them took his knife, and after skinning the head
and neck, the animal being yet alive, cut its throat and extracted the
windpipe, which was given to our friend Cut-throat, who first slapped it
for some time about his shoulders, and afterwards, having merely warmed
it on the fire, devoured it voraciously. The skin being removed, others
of the natives tore off with their teeth, and ate the portions of raw
flesh which remained attached to it; while some cut off portions from
the animal, and disposed of them in the same manner. The remainder of
the body was partially dressed on the coals, and dispatched by the party
generally. Notwithstanding this demonstration of their high relish for
raw meat, it is remarkable that two of the chiefs, Cut-throat and
Good-tempered Jack, who were honoured with a second dinner at Captain
Owen's table, when presented with meat supposed to be done to their
taste, shewed a repugnance to it, and wished it to be put on the fire
again. Cut-throat had shewn so much disinterested zeal in our favour, on
various occasions, and particularly in the affair of the bill-hook, that
Captain Owen took the opportunity of rewarding him for it, by presenting
him with some iron, and a pair of shoes. It is singular, that he is the
only native we have, as yet, been conversant with, who never begged for
any thing.

_Thursday, 29_.--Our little establishment (considering the few hands,
and the many irons we have in the fire,) is making a rapid progress. The
greatest activity pervades every department. The whole of our people,
whether ashore or afloat, live uncommonly well, having plenty of yams
and palm-wine served out to them daily, with fowls and fish
occasionally, which are extra provisions, supplied gratuitously; the
former being purchased from the natives with iron hoop, the latter taken
by our fishermen. We have also caught a few hawksbill, and green turtle,
and occasionally dig turtles' eggs from the sand on the beach.

_Saturday, Dec. 1_.--Our establishment has hitherto been remarkably
healthy; the sickness which has occurred, being almost entirely the
result of accidental wounds, or the bites of musquitos and sand-flies;
the latter, being irritated by rubbing, have produced, in some
instances, very serious sores, which have baffled the greatest attention
of our surgeons: one feature in these ulcers is, that frequent changes
of applications are required, no individual remedy appearing to agree,
at farthest, for more than five days; generally, but three or four; nor
has any kindly disposition to heal shewn itself, until a degree of
salivation has been produced, by giving the patient a grain of calomel,
night and morning. Both my companions in the country are unfortunately
on the sick list,--Elwood, with remittent fever, with which he was
seized immediately after his return; the other, Debenham, in consequence
of getting his legs bitten by insects. I have myself, thank God, escaped
without illness or injury of any kind.

_Sunday, 2_.--Two chiefs, Cut-throat and Bottle-nose, with some other
natives of consequence, dined with Captain Owen to-day, who was
entertaining a party of the officers and other gentlemen attached to the
establishment. The natives always appear particularly gratified in being
allowed to dine on board, and Captain Owen, as a matter of policy, in
tending to promote a friendly intercourse, frequently indulges them in
this way; it is offering, however, no trifling sacrifice at the shrines
of the gods of friendship and cleanliness, to sit down with them, for
their bodies not unfrequently emitted a most offensive odour,
particularly when much heated by exertion, and the influence of a
tropical climate. Imagine the action of these upon a mixture of
perspiration, rancid palm-oil, clay and dust, the whole producing an
effluvium little inferior to that which Sir John Falstaff describes to
have been generated in his ducking-basket, 'The rankest compound of
villanous smells that ever offended nostrils.' Besides, as our guests
were all dressed in buff, it was necessary to clean, after them, the
chairs and other places on which they might happen to sit. Cut-throat,
and one of his tribe, slept on board, on a sail placed between two guns.

_Monday, 3_.--After breakfast, our visitors took their leave,
accompanied by Mr. Jeffery, who, in consequence of a previous
arrangement, was going to spend a couple of days with them, at a village
about eight miles in the country, and from which he returned at the
expiration of the appointed time, well pleased with the attention and
hospitality that had been shewn him. A remuneration of bar-iron was the
price of these civilities.

Our fishing party have taken in their seine to-day, two flying-fish of
the gurnet species, and a hawksbill turtle. A party of natives from King
Cove, headed by a chief named Toby Limp, came on board with a native
woman, who was far advanced in that happy teeming state which is
peculiar to females in all parts of the world. This was, in fact, one of
the few instances of any female coming on board: for, although old
Bottle-nose had once brought two alongside the ship, he kept them
concealed at the bottom of his canoe: we have some reason, however, to
believe that his original intention was to have honoured us with a full
introduction, but that he waived it in consequence of finding the chief
of another tribe in close conference with Captain Owen. With respect to
Mr. Toby Limp's lady, the general opinion, drawn from various signs and
appearances, was, that she was intended as a sort of present, or
peace-offering, to the Captain; and what amused us exceedingly, was the
peculiar mode which Toby adopted of recommending her more fully to his
good opinion, by frequently passing his hand over her abdomen, while,
regarding Captain Owen with a most animated countenance, he seemed to
express something like the following: 'Look here! surely this is worthy
of your attention.' But, however powerful the native charms of this lady
might have been, and in spite of the above felicitous mode of 'showing
her off,' the speculation proved totally ineffectual. Another
circumstance concurred in diminishing the effect of any impression that
might have been made, namely, that three or four clay-coloured chiefs
appeared to be co-partners with Mr. Toby in the affections of the lady.
The whole party passed the night together on board, between two guns. So
much for the delicacy of sentiment among savages.

The following is a specimen of the delicacy of this people in another
respect. On the occasion of Captain Owen visiting the brother of the
King of Baracouta, a calabash of palm-wine was produced, which, in
consequence of some imperfection in the vessel, leaked out its contents;
in order to cure this defect, the hospitable chief took off his hat,
and, scraping with his thumb-nail a portion of the clay and grease from
his head, effectually checked further leakage, with this _veritable_
Fernando Po cement.

_Tuesday, 4_.--An increase in the number of the sick has been reported
to-day, several of the men on board, and of the mechanics and labourers
on shore being affected with ulcers of the hospital gangrene kind. One
seaman of the Eden, has had his leg amputated above the knee, in
consequence of the nature of the ulceration. Having gone on shore this
morning, I had the pleasure of finding the works in rapid progress; the
floor plates were being laid in one of the frame houses; the roof of a
large saw-pit was also being put on; while a great part of the labourers
were occupied in bringing up some frames of houses which had lately been
landed from the transport. We were treated to-day with a monkey for
dinner, cooked in the manner of an Irish stew, with yams as a substitute
for potatoes: I must admit that I found it by no means a disagreeable
food, which is not to be wondered at from its being a very clean animal,
living on vegetable substances. Our fishermen have taken one green, and
one hawksbill turtle; also a skate, weighing ninety pounds; and two
buckets full of other fish of various descriptions, principally mullet.

Lieutenant Vidal brought a native on board, charged with the following
crimes: namely, stealing a dinner knife from on board the steam-vessel;
and an attempt, in conjunction with others, to plunder our forge, on
Adelaide Island. Lieutenant Vidal, fortunately passing in that
direction, observed a canoe lying on the beach. This he secured. The men
belonging to it, however, contrived to make their escape in another
canoe, but left behind them two of their hats. The prisoner had the
audacity to venture on board the steam-vessel, in hopes of recovering
the lost canoe; he was immediately attempted to be seized, but he
contrived, in consequence of his greasy skin, to give our men the slip,
and effect his escape. Yet he was not deterred from making a second
attempt, having, as he imagined, sufficiently disguised himself with a
different hat and head-dress; but he was immediately recognised, and,
having been enticed into the cabin, effectually secured. Captain Owen
ordered him to be put into irons, with the intention of keeping him
under confinement for a week, and then dismissing him with some slight
punishment.

_Wednesday, 5_.--A brig was observed in the offing which had the
appearance of a slaver. The steam-vessel was immediately ordered in
chase, and returned in the evening, reporting her to be an English brig,
from Liverpool, bound for the Cameroons.

_Thursday, 6_.--Our tender, the Horatio, sailed this week for Sierra
Leone. Among other supernumeraries sent in her, were a serjeant and two
privates of the Royal African Corps. The conduct of these men was so
notoriously bad, that Captain Owen apprehended their example would
corrupt the black soldiers with whom they were associated. I cannot
avoid again calling in question the policy of our Government in sending
out condemned soldiers to the Colonial African Corps; for nothing tends
more to degrade the general character of our country, in the opinion of
the native Africans, who are too apt to form their estimate of our
morality, from these specimens of their masters.

_Friday, 7_.--The unloading of the transport which came with us from
England was completed to-day. Among other stores, she brought out the
frames of a block-house; six large and ten small dwelling-houses; six
long eighteen pounders, and two long nines.

_Saturday, 8_.--Lieutenant Caldwell, of the Royal Marines, died this
morning, and was buried at four in the afternoon. He had never been in
health since our departure from England, or even been on shore,
excepting for an hour or two at Sierra Leone. He was to have returned by
the first opportunity to England, and, with that view, had, previously
to his death, been removed from the Eden to the steam-vessel.

_Monday, 10_.--Our fishing party took to-day no less than ten turtle in
their seine. The native prisoner having now been confined six days out
of the seven awarded him. Captain Owen thought it better to inflict his
intended punishment of thirty-nine lashes to-day, in order that his
immediate rage might have time to subside, before being set at liberty
on the morrow. It was accordingly carried into effect; and, although he
made a most lusty bellowing on the occasion, the whip-cord appeared to
make very little impression on his thick skin. I believe he deemed
himself peculiarly fortunate in coming off so well, as, judging from his
signs, he expected, at least, to have had his throat cut. During his
confinement, he roared and blubbered frequently, particularly whenever
he was sensible of any canoe approaching the ship. His countrymen,
however, appeared to care little about him; on the contrary, they
frequently mimicked his noises, as if in ridicule. His father, indeed,
and one or two other relatives, took some interest in his fate, and
offered ransom for him.

_Tuesday, Dec. 11_.--Captain Owen, at an early hour, went on board the
steam-vessel to commence his intended survey of the island, and did me
the honour of inviting me to accompany him. At seven o'clock we left
Maidstone Bay, and proceeded towards a place to the eastward of Point
William, where Captain Owen intended to land his native prisoner, and
from whence he was expecting to receive on board Cut-throat,
Bottle-nose, and another chief, known by the name of Good-tempered Jack.
The two latter only kept their promise, but, on coming on board, they
were so impressed with fear and astonishment, particularly when the
paddles began to move, that their hearts failed them, and they retreated
to the boat with all possible celerity. The prisoner was allowed to
accompany them; but no sooner did the boat approach the shore, than,
doubting the reality of his freedom, until entirely out of our reach, he
jumped overboard, and, alternately swimming and diving, as if to elude
pursuit, he, at length, reached the shore. About a week afterwards, he
ventured to make his appearance on the beach, accompanied by
Bottle-nose, but was careful not to approach our party, until the
officer on duty threw out a signal of encouragement, when he came
forward, exchanged his palm-wine for iron hoop, and afterwards joined in
the laugh with those around him.

Pursuing our voyage, about noon, a party of natives were observed on the
beach, and Capt. Owen determined on paying them a visit, ordering a boat
to be lowered for the purpose. Unfortunately, however, it being
necessary, while in the act of lowering, to make a few retrograde
strokes of the paddle, the boat was drawn into the vortex on the right
hand, and nearly cut in two. By this accident, one of the seamen who
were in it, was thrown within the paddle, but, miraculously, taken out
unhurt; another made his escape on board the vessel; while two more were
set adrift in the sea; they were, however, soon picked up by a second
boat, which was instantly lowered, and which also succeeded in
recovering the wreck of the first. On approaching the shore, the surf
was found to be so strong, that Captain Owen was obliged to communicate
with the natives from the boat.

A few yams were purchased for some pieces of iron-hoop, which the
natives were so eager to become possessed of, that, daring the exchange,
they trembled exceedingly from the intensity of their desire. A piece
was intentionally thrown into the sea, with the view of giving them a
scramble: they all immediately darted with the utmost eagerness into the
water, and exerted themselves most strenuously, until one had the luck
to find it; when the remainder left him in quiet possession, without
evincing the slightest disposition to deprive him of his treasure.

A small island lay off the shore of this place, which Capt. Owen did not
consider of sufficient importance to induce him to give it a name. We
now continued our survey along the south-eastern side of the island,
advancing at the rate of six or seven miles an hour, until half-past
five in the evening, when we arrived a-breast of the south-eastern point
(Cape Barrow): we then took our bearings, let the steam down, and stood
off the land, under easy sail, for the night.

_Wednesday, Dec. 12_.--An hour after midnight we tacked, and stood
towards the land; at daylight, got the steam on, and furled the sails,
and at eight in the morning we were off the same point at which our
survey of the previous evening had concluded, the current having, during
the night, carried us to the south-west, at the rate of about a mile and
a half per hour. The part of the island we were now coasting along, was
possessed of a very considerable degree of sublimity, the shore being
bold and rocky, with various picturesque cataracts descending from the
mountains; and the whole face of the country having a wild appearance.
During the forenoon, we had two high peaks in view, one of which Captain
Owen named after Dr. Burn, the surgeon of the Eden, who first observed
it. About half-past ten, we passed a snug little cove, where the natives
were occupied in building canoes, and where we observed a considerable
quantity of wood piled up, intended for making paddles. Soon afterwards,
we passed the entrance of a river, which, out of compliment to myself,
Captain Owen named Holman River. A remarkably large stone lay on the
beach near its mouth. At noon, we were off a bluff cape, which received
the name of Cape Eden. At this time our previously fine weather
disappeared, and we had, throughout the remainder of the day, a very
hazy atmosphere, with occasional rain.

About one o'clock, a rakish-looking schooner made her appearance, which,
from her manoeuvres, such as frequently altering her course, as if she
wished to avoid us, we suspected to be a slave-vessel; we, therefore,
made full sail in chase, and at three o'clock, had approached near
enough to fire a gun at her, when she immediately hoisted English
colours, brought to, and proved to be the African, Captain John Smith,
twenty-five days from Sierra Leone, and seven from Cape Coast Castle,
laden with provisions for the colony, and having on board
Hospital-Assistant Cowen, of the Medical Staff, who had volunteered to
join the establishment. Captain Owen, having received his letters,
ordered her to proceed to Maidstone Bay, while we stood in for George's
Bay, on the western side of the island, where we came to anchor soon
after four o'clock.

_Thursday, Dec. 13_.--Soon after breakfast, Dr. Burn landed with three
men, and proceeded to a native village, about three miles from the
beach, where he was kindly received by an elderly chief, who appeared
well acquainted with our countrymen. He could pronounce 'King George,'
and a few other English words, and wore as an ornament, suspended from
his neck, a brass plate, which had belonged to the cap of a soldier of
the Royal African Corps; he had also another brass plate with G.R. upon
it. This chief, with his son, accompanied Dr. Burn on board, and was
entertained by Captain Owen with fish, yams, and palm-wine; at length,
he began to express much anxiety to be gone, and was sent on shore.
During the morning, Captain Owen and Lieutenant Badgeley occupied
themselves with surveying the bay: after this, we went ashore, when many
of the natives assembled round us, and behaved themselves very civilly,
although they were, as usual, importunate for iron; offering in exchange
yams, palm-wine, fowls, &c. &c. Only one canoe came off to us at this
place, containing twelve men, who had a few yams with them, which they
appeared very indifferent about parting with; at least, they demanded
very exorbitant prices, as a piece of iron for a single yam, for which,
at Maidstone Bay, we could have purchased eight or ten. We caught here a
large dog-fish, a species of ground shark.

_Friday, Dec. 14_.--At day-break we were again under weigh, and stood
out of George's Bay, making a little to the southward of it, for the
purpose of resuming our survey at the point where we left off on the
preceding day, in order to give chase to the schooner; we then returned
into the bay, running close along, and surveying its shores, leaving it
at its northern extremity, and passing round Goat Island; we then stood
for Maidstone Bay, where we anchored at one in the afternoon, having
surveyed the intermediate coast, as well us the whole extent of the bay,
from Cape Bullen to Point William, from whence we had commenced the
survey. Thus we completed the circumnavigation of the island.

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