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A Study of Association in Insanity by Grace Helen Kent

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Joy--kind............. 6
Bed--sleep............
Heavy--weight.........
Tobacco--smoke........
Baby--mother..........
Moon--light...........
Scissors--cut.........
Quiet--kind........... 6
Green--grass..........
Salt--table...........
Street--walk..........
King--government......
Cheese--eat...........
Blossom--tree.........
Afraid--coward........

CASE No. 6120.--M.L. Maniacal attack. Fifteen individual reactions,
of which 11 are classed as normal in accordance with the appendix to
the frequency tables.

Table--chair............
Dark--light.............
Music--chorus...........17
Sickness--health........
Man--woman.............. 1
Deep--around............
Soft--light.............
Eating--food............
Mountain--valley........
House--flat.............17
Black--white............
Mutton--beef............
Comfort--disease........
Hand--legs..............
Short--tall.............
Fruit--grapes...........
Butterfly--birds........
Smooth--rough...........

Command--president......17
Chair--assemblyman......18
Sweet--bitter...........
Whistle--birds..........
Woman--man.............. 1
Cold--warm..............
Slow--fast..............
Wish--well..............
River--mountain.........
White--red..............
Beautiful--heaven.......
Window--door............
Rough--smooth...........
Citizen--naturalization.
Foot--hand..............
Spider--bug.............
Needle--doctor..........19
Red--white..............
Sleep--well.............
Anger--passion..........
Carpet--cloth...........
Girl--boy...............
High--low...............
Working--pleasure....... 1
Sour--sweet.............
Earth--heaven...........
Trouble--anger..........
Soldier--mine...........12
Cabbage--steak..........17

Hard--soft..............
Eagle--parrot...........
Stomach--pelvis.........17
Stem--flowers...........
Lamp--light.............
Dream--empty............17
Yellow--black...........
Bread--brown............
Justice--done...........
Boy--baby...............
Light--heaven...........
Health--wealth..........
Bible--love.............
Memory--remembrance.....
Sheep--goat.............
Bath--water.............
Cottage--house..........
Swift--slow.............
Blue--green.............
Hungry--I...............
Priest--minister........
Ocean--sea..............
Head--neck..............
Stove--electricity......17
Long--broad.............
Religion--Presbyterian..
Whiskey--medicinal...... 2
Child--boy..............
Bitter--sweet...........
Hammer--saw.............
Thirsty--water..........
City--Middletown........17
Square--Madison.........
Butter--bread...........
Doctor--love............15
Loud--soft..............
Thief--burglar..........
Lion--animal............
Joy--ecstasy............
Bed--couch..............
Heavy--lead.............
Tobacco--smoke..........
Baby--boy...............
Moon--stars.............
Scissors--cotton........17
Quiet--noisy............
Green--yellow...........
Salt--pepper............
Street--Dean............17
King--God...............17
Cheese--Roquefort.......
Blossom--apple..........
Afraid--never...........

CASE No. 6367.--J.N. Depressive attack. Only two individual
reactions, both classed as normal; undue tendency to give non-specific
reactions.

Table--cup............17
Dark--light...........
Music--song...........
Sickness--pain........
Man--child............
Deep--high............
Soft--hard............
Eating--tasting.......
Mountain--valley......
House--room...........
Black--white..........
Mutton--lamb..........
Comfort--peace........
Hand--foot............
Short--long...........
Fruit--apple..........
Butterfly--moth.......
Smooth--rough.........
Command--obey.........
Chair--table..........
Sweet--sour...........
Whistle--song.........
Woman--love...........
Cold--warm............
Slow--fast............
Wish--well............
River--water..........
White--black..........
Beautiful--grand......
Window--glass.........
Rough--smooth.........
Citizen--man.......... 1
Foot--hand............
Spider--fly...........
Needle--thread........
Red--blue.............
Sleep--rest...........
Anger--passion........
Carpet--rug...........
Girl--child...........
High--low.............
Working--labor........
Sour--sweet...........
Earth--ground.........
Trouble--overcome.....17
Soldier--brave........
Cabbage--lettuce......
Hard--soft............
Eagle--bird...........
Stomach--heart........
Stem--tree............
Lamp--light...........
Dream--sleep..........
Yellow--red...........
Bread--roll...........
Justice--peace........
Boy--child............
Light--sun............
Health--wealth........
Bible--good........... 1
Memory--good.......... 1
Sheep--lamb...........
Bath--water...........
Cottage--house........
Swift--fast...........
Blue--white...........
Hungry--eat...........
Priest--man........... 1
Ocean--water..........
Head--arm.............
Stove--warm...........
Long--short...........
Religion--good........ 1
Whiskey--none.........
Child--good........... 1
Bitter--sour..........
Hammer--noise.........
Thirsty--water........
City--country.........
Square--round.........
Butter--salt..........
Doctor--good.......... 1
Loud--noise...........
Thief--man............ 1
Lion--beast...........
Joy--good............. 1
Bed--good............. 1
Heavy--weight.........
Tobacco--smoke........
Baby--child...........
Moon--sun.............
Scissors--knife.......
Quiet--rest...........
Green--red............
Salt--water...........
Street--city..........
King--man............. 1
Cheese--butter........
Blossom--flower.......
Afraid--fear..........

CASE No. 5162.--W.H. Recurrent attacks, mixed in character; at time
of test patient was in a normal interval. 5 individual reactions, of
which 1 is classed as normal, 1 as a derivative, 2 as non-specific,
and 1 as a sound reaction; undue tendency to give non-specific
(common) reactions.

Table--comfort........
Dark--darknew......... 8
Music--pleasure....... 1
Sickness--sorrow......
Map--manners..........10
Deep--thought......... 1
Soft--comfort.........
Eating--pleasure...... 1
Mountain--height......
House--comfort........
Black--darkness.......
Mutton--eating........
Comfort--pleasure..... 1
Hand--useful.......... 1
Short--stumpy.........
Fruit--eating.........
Butterfly--handsome...
Smooth--plane.........
Command--ordering.....
Chair--easy...........
Sweet--candy..........
Whistle--noise........
Woman--love...........
Cold--freezing........
Slow--laziness........
Wish--good............ 1
River--water..........
White--clearness...... 2
Beautiful--handsome...
Window--scene.........
Rough--harshness......
Citizen--voting.......
Foot--stepping........
Spider--poison........
Needle--sharpness.....
Red--blood............
Sleep--comfort........
Anger--passion........
Carpet--walking.......
Girl--lovely..........
High--height..........
Working--business.....
Sour--tart............
Earth--planting.......
Trouble--Sorrow.......
Soldier--fighting.....
Cabbage--eating.......
Hard--harshness....... 2
Eagle--flying.........
Stomach--eating.......
Stem--vine............
Lamp--lighting........ 2
Dream--pleasure....... 1
Yellow--color.........
Bread--eating.........
Justice--suing........17
Boy--children.........
Light--seeing.........
Health--pleasure...... 1
Bible--thinking....... 9
Memory--recollections.
Sheep--wool...........
Bath--pleasure........ 1
Cottage--living.......
Swift--quickness......
Blue--sky.............

Hungry--pleasure...... 9
Priest--holiness......
Ocean--sailing........
Head--thinking........ 1
Stove--warmth.........
Long--length..........
Religion--holiness....
Whiskey--badness...... 2
Child--pleasure....... 1
Bitter--sourness......
Hammer--pounding......
Thirsty--drinking.....
City--town............
Square--measure.......
Butter--greasy........
Doctor--medicine......
Loud--hearing......... 2
Thief--stealing.......
Lion--fierceness......
Joy--pleasure......... 1
Bed--sleeping.........
Heavy--solid..........
Tobacco--pleasure..... 1
Baby--loveliness......
Moon--bright..........
Scissors--sharpness....
Quiet--pleasure....... 1
Green--color..........
Salt--taste...........
Street--walking.......
King--majestic.........
Cheese--eating........
Blossom--handsome.....
Afraid--fear..........

CASE No. 6279.--A.F. Maniacal attack; at time of test patient had
improved, though not recovered. Non-specific reactions; particles.
(Patient does not speak English with perfect fluency.)

Table--board..........
Dark--night...........
Music--piano..........
Sickness--appendicitis
Man--husband..........
Deep--hole............
Soft--hard............
Eating--vegetable.....
Mountain--country.....
House--comfort........
Black--cotton.........17
Mutton--lamb..........
Comfort--rest.........
Hand--arm.............
Short--Journey........
Fruit--apples.........
Butterfly--love.......13
Smooth--nice.......... 1
Command--order........
Chair--down...........12
Sweet--sugar..........
Whistle--blow.........
Woman--good........... 1
Cold--ice.............
Slow--lazy............
Wish--home............
River--boat...........
White--milk...........
Beautiful--flowers....
Window--corner........
Rough--man............ 1
Citizen--not..........12
Foot--short...........
Spider--don't.........12
Needle--steel.........
Red--rose.............
Sleep--well...........
Anger--not............
Carpet--beauty........ 1
Girl--love............
High--reason..........19
Working--dress........19
Sour--vinegar.........
Earth--ground.........
Trouble--much.........
Soldier--blue.........
Cabbage--sour.........
Hard--no..............12
Eagle--paper..........
Stomach--well.........17
Stem--flower..........
Lamp--light...........
Dream--awful..........19
Yellow--flower........
Bread--rye............
Justice--court........
Boy--little...........
Light--room...........
Health--love..........15
Bible--no.............
Memory--good.......... 1
Sheep--lot............19
Bath--cold............
Cottage--little.......
swift--kick...........17
Blue--no..............12
Hungry--no............
Priest--love..........15
Ocean--Grove..........
Head--black...........
Stove--shine..........19
Long--square..........
Religion--no..........
Whiskey--champagne....17
Child--my............. 2
Bitter--pepper........
Hammer--knock.........
Thirsty--no...........12
City--New York........
Square--table.........
Butter--good.......... 1
Doctor--S.............17
Loud--talk............
Thief--night..........
Lion--yes.............12
Joy--good............. 1
Bed--comfort..........
Heavy--Iron...........
Tobacco--strong.......
Baby--love............
Moon--shine...........
Scissors--cut........
Quiet--well...........
Green--bow............17
Salt--hitter..........
Street--Hinsdale......17
King--Franz Joseph....17
Cheese--Swiss.........
Blossom--nice......... 1
Afraid--no............

CASE No. 4578.--E.M. Circular insanity of over twenty years' standing;
at time of test patient was in a manic phase. Non-specific reactions;
doubtful reactions; neologisms, all possessing obvious meaning.

Table--using.......... 1
Dark--unbright........ 4
Music--songs..........
Sickness--catching....17
Man--masculine........
Deep--high............
Soft--chew............19
Eating--sometimes.....12
Mountain--highlands...
House--live...........
Black--color..........
Mutton--meat..........
Comfort--easy.........
Hand--body............
Short--unlongly....... 4
Fruit--plants.........
Butterfly--insects....
Smooth--feeling.......
Command--do...........
Chair--use............ 1
Sweet--taste..........
Whistle--act..........
Woman--female.........
Cold--acting.......... 2
Slow--gradually.......17
Wish--desire..........
River--water..........
White--color..........
Beautiful--niceness... 2
Window--built.........19
Rough--treatment......17
Citizen--country......
Foot--body............
Spider--insect........
Needle--article....... 1
Red--color............
Sleep--tiredness...... 4
Anger--scolding.......
Carpet--article....... 1
Girl--female..........
High--low.............
Working--do...........
Sour--tasting.........
Earth--surface........
Trouble--worriment....
Soldier--man.......... 1
Cabbage--vegetable....
Hard--difficult.......
Eagle--bird...........
Stomach--body.........
Stem--article......... 6
Lamp--article......... 1
Dream--untruly........ 4
Yellow--color.........
Bread--food...........
Justice--unfairly..... 2
Boy--masculine........
Light--easy...........
Health--sickness......
Bible--commandments...
Memory--remember......
Sheep--animal.........
Bath--cleanness.......
Cottage--country......
Swift--quickly........
Blue--color...........
Hungry--food..........
Priest--masculine.....15
Ocean--water..........
Head--body............
Stove--article........ 1
Long--shortly......... 2
Religion--Bible.......
Whiskey--drinking.....
Child--disremembering. 4
Bitter--taste.........
Hammer--using......... 1
Thirsty--drinking.....
City--acting..........15
Square--measuring..... 2
Butter--food..........
Doctor--helping....... 2
Loud--hearing......... 2
Thief--untrue.........15
Lion--animal..........
Joy--gladness.........
Bed--lying............
Heavy--unlightly...... 4
Tobacco--using........ 1
Baby--borning......... 4
Moon--sending.........19
Scissors--using....... 1
Quiet--acting......... 2
Green--color..........
Salt--food............
Street--walking.......
King--person.......... 1
Cheese--food..........
Blossom--plant........
Afraid--frightened....

CASE No. 5878.--A.B. Maniacal attack. 48 individual reactions, of
which 18 are classed as normal, 10 are sound reactions (2 sound
neologisms), 1 word complement, 8 particles, and 11 unclassified
reactions most of which are either obviously normal or "far fetched"
but not strictly incoherent.

Table--mahogany.......
Dark--green...........
Music--masonic........10
Sickness--seasickness.10
Man--maternity........10
Deep--well............
Soft--silk............
Eating--cleanliness...19
Mountain--Gibraltar...17
House--bungalow.......
Black--light..........
Mutton--lamb..........
Comfort--linen........17
Hand--left............17
Short--shorthand......10
Fruit--pears..........
Butterfly--canary.....17
Smooth--linen.........17
Command--pilot........17
Chair--round..........
Sweet--sugar..........
Whistle--mother.......19
Woman--twenty-one.....12
Cold--ice.............
Slow--music...........
Wish--girl............
River--Hudson.........
White--plaster........17
Beautiful--nature.....
Window--St. Patrick's.17
Rough--blankets.......19
Citizen--twenty-one...12
Foot--six.............12
Spider--fly...........
Needle--tailor........
Red--Herald...........19
Sleep--seven..........12
Anger--Angoria........ 3
Carpet--green.........
Girl--eighteen........12
High--school..........11
Working--ten..........12
Sour--kraut...........
Earth--round..........
Trouble--son..........19
Soldier--navy.........
Cabbage--curly........19
Hard--stone...........
Eagle--almanac........17
Stomach--stomjack..... 3
Stem--maple...........17
Lamp--New.....York....19
Dream--husband........19
Yellow--cards.........17
Bread--rye............
Justice--liberty......
Boy--Joe..............
Light--white..........
Health--death.........10
Bible--holy...........
Memory--seven.........12
Sheep--lamb...........
Bath--cleanliness.....
Cottage--gray.........17
Swift--ball...........
Blue--balloon.........10
Hungry--yes...........12
Priest--doctor........
Ocean--Niagara........17
Head--rest............
Stove--stationary.....10
Long--poems...........19
Religion--Catholic....
Whiskey--Hunter.......
Child--Jesus..........17
Bitter--gall..........
Hammer--steel.........
Thirsty--water........
City--New York........
Square--Union.........
Butter--sweet.........
Doctor--S.............17
Loud--discreet........19
Thief--night..........
Lion--Bostock......... 2
Joy--Joy Line.........10
Bed--Ostermoor........17
Heavy--iron...........
Tobacco--Durham.......
Baby--Rose............17
Moon--half............
Scissors--steel.......
Quiet--nursing........19
Green--grass..........
Salt--rock............
Street--Liberty.......17
King--Alphonso........
Cheese--Swiss.........
Blossom--apple........
Afraid--dark..........

CASE No. 6511.--U.B. Maniacal attack. Persistent use of particles
_oh, me, I, none,_ etc.

Table--none........... 6
Dark--red.............
Music--stock..........19
Sickness--rose........19
Man--Frank............17
Deep--blue............
Soft--pillow..........
Eating--no............12
Mountain--oyster......11
House--mercy..........19
Black--mother.........19
Mutton--me............ 6
Comfort--home.........
Hand--mother..........15
Short--me............. 6
Fruit--me............. 5
Butterfly--it.........12
Smooth--oh............12
Command--none......... 6
Chair--none........... 5
Sweet--for............12
Whistle--bird.........
Woman--I.............. 6
Cold--I............... 5
Slow--me..............
Wish--none............ 2
River--are............12
White--wife...........10
Beautiful--Alma.......17
Window--Stephen.......19
Rough--Rudolphia......10
Citizen--father.......17
Foot--Anthon..........19
Spider--reverend......19
Needle--pine..........17

Red--brother..........19
Sleep--Adam...........19
Anger--I.............. 6
Carpet--home..........
Girl--Agatha..........17
High--niece...........13
Working--I............ 6
Sour--I............... 5
Earth--I.............. 5
Trouble--I............ 5
Soldier--father.......15
Cabbage--hail.........19
Hard--me..............12
Eagle--I.............. 6
Stomach--I............ 5
Stem--life............
Lamp--Lambert.........10
Dream--I.............. 6
Yellow--I............. 5
Bread--I.............. 5
Justice--I............ 5
Boy--just.............13
Light--picture........19
Health--cook..........19
Bible--beads..........17
Memory--Dick..........19
Sheep--to.............12
Bath--none............
Cottage--home.........
Swift--lazy...........
Blue--Nell............19
Hungry--I.............
Priest--I............. 5
Ocean--I.............. 5
Head--home............ 6
Stove--home...........
Long--short...........
Religion--none........
Whiskey--none.........
Child--Sylvester......17
Bitter--I............. 6
Hammer--my............12
Thirsty--no........... 6
City--no.............. 5
Square--Ben...........19
Butter--I............. 6
Doctor--I............. 5
Loud--bell............
Thief--iron...........19
Lion--I............... 6
Joy--I................ 5
Bed--I................ 5
Heavy--I.............. 5
Tobacco--I............ 5
Baby--I............... 5
Moon--will............12
Scissors--beads.......15
Quiet--nerves.........19
Green--I.............. 6
Salt--I............... 5
Street--Peter.........17
King--I............... 6
Cheese--I............. 5
Blossom--I............ 5
Afraid--no............

CASE No. 4427.--A.R. Maniacal attack. Unusual number of doubtful
reactions; 46 individual reactions of which 9 are classed as normal;
29 are unclassified, some seemingly incoherent.

Table--Chicago........19
Dark--Montreal........18
Music--Mississippi....18
Sickness--flowers.....19
Man--ocean............19
Deep--medicines.......19
Soft--accidental......19
Eating--vaccination...19
Mountain--evergreens..17
House--caves..........19
Black--station........19
Mutton--operations....19
Comfort--money........
Hand--bandages........10
Short--soldiers.......19
Fruit--dictionary.....19
Butterfly--storehouse.19
Smooth--vegetables....18
Command--Bible........
Chair--histories......14
Sweet--farewells......19
Whistle--ammunition...19
Woman--foreign........19
Cold--armory..........19
Slow--St. Petersburg..19
Wish--wealth..........
River--revenue........10
White--purity.........
Beautiful--colonial...19
Window--shutters......
Rough--planes......... 2
Citizen--naturalization
Foot--carriage........19
Spider--remedies......19
Needle--canoe.........19
Red--refreshments.....10
Sleep--restfulness.... 2
Anger--usefulness..... 9
Carpet--coach.........19
Girl--finery..........19
High--fortifications..19
Working--materials....19
Sour--pickles.........
Earth--gravitation.... 2
Trouble--graphophone..19
Soldier--guns.........
Cabbage--children.....19
Hard--inheritance.....19
Eagle--feathers.......
Stomach--envelope.....19
Stem--roots...........
Lamp--oil.............
Dream--fairies........17
Yellow--lemons........ 2
Bread--jams...........17
Justice--repentance...17
Boy--clothes..........
Light--lanterns.......17
Health--joys.......... 2
Bible--heaven.........
Memory--head..........
Sheep--pastures.......
Bath--cleanliness.....
Cottage--home.........
Swift--rapids......... 2
Blue--truth...........
Hungry--appetite......
Priest--saintliness...17
Ocean--ships..........
Head--intelligence....
Stove--woods.......... 2
Long--trains.......... 2
Religion--godliness... 2
Whiskey--drunkenness..
Child--joyfulness..... 2
Bitter--olives........
Hammer--nuts..........
Thirsty--water........
City--shopping........
Square--monuments..... 2
Butter--crackers......17
Doctor--medicines.....
Loud--music...........
Thief--detectives..... 2
Lion--cages........... 2
Joy--home.............
Bed--restfulness...... 2
Heavy--expressage.....17
Tobacco--cigars.......
Baby--carriage........
Moon--light...........
Scissors--goods.......
Quiet--peacefulness...
Green--vegetables.....
Salt--water...........
Street--stones........
King--crown...........
Cheese--knife.........
Blossom--plants....... 2
Afraid--enemies.......17

CASE No. 6457.--C.G. Depressive attack. 36 individual reactions of
which 9 are classed as normal and 20 as unclassified; among the latter
several seem to be incoherent

Table--fish...........17
Dark--boat............
Music--water..........18
Sickness--tank........18
Man--horse............
Deep--ocean...........
Soft--egg.............
Eating--beans.........17
Mountain--grass.......
House--roof...........
Black--bath...........10
Mutton--butcher.......
Comfort--cigar........17
Hand--shoes...........19
Short--baseball.......19
Fruit--orange.........
Butterfly--elephant...19
Smooth--glass.........
Command--general......
Chair--kitchen........17
Sweet--cake...........17
Whistle--bird.........
Woman--door...........19
Cold--ice.............
Slow--cat.............19
Wish--bed.............19
River--trout..........17
White--paint..........
Beautiful--monkey.....19
Window--bars..........
Rough--rowdy..........
Citizen--policeman....
Foot--fine............ 9
Spider--insect........
Needle--sewing........
Red--man.............. 9
Sleep--pond...........19
Anger--hatred.........
Carpet--tacks.........
Girl--floor...........13
High--mountain........
Working--dog..........19
Sour--milk............
Earth--mud............
Trouble--radiator.....19
Soldier--cannon.......
Cabbage--vegetable....
Hard--wood............
Eagle--quick..........19
Stomach--flesh........
Stem--pipe............
Lamp--burn............
Dream--thinking....... 1
Yellow--mice..........19
Bread--baker..........
Justice--equality.....
Boy--young............
Light--green..........17
Health--art...........19
Bible--preacher.......
Memory--return........19
Sheep--fold...........
Bath--water...........
Cottage--house........
Swift--fleeting....... 2
Blue--dark............
Hungry--thirst........
Priest--elephant......15
Ocean--briny..........19
Head--hard............
Stove--black..........
Long--grass...........
Religion--thinking.... 1
Whiskey--Kentucky.....
Child--carriage.......
Bitter--pickles.......
Hammer--nails.........
Thirsty--wanting......
City--New York........
Square--base..........17
Butter--cow...........
Doctor--carriage......
Loud--hall............19
Thief--prison.........
Lion--cage............
Joy--automobile.......
Bed--iron.............
Heavy--lead...........
Tobacco--weed.........
Baby--rocker..........
Moon--sky.............
Scissors--laundry.....19
Quiet--peaceful.......
Green--engine.........19
Salt--grocer..........19
Street--Lincoln.......17
King--Spain...........
Cheese--baker.........19
Blossom--flower.......
Afraid--going......... 2

INVOLUTIONAL MELANCHOLIA; ALCOHOLIC DEMENTIA; SENILE DEMENTIA.

There are so few cases of these psychoses in our series that we can
say but little concerning their associational disorders.

In Table V. we show all the types of reactions given by each subject.

We have not observed in our cases of _involutional melancholia_ any
undue tendency to give individual reactions. The records are either
perfectly normal or slightly abnormal in that they show an increase of
the non-specific (common) reactions. In this respect they resemble
strongly the records obtained from some cases of manic-depressive
insanity. This similarity is of interest in connection with other
evidence, recently brought to light, [1] showing that involutional
melancholia is closely related to manic-depressive insanity, if not
identical with it.

[Footnote 1: G. L. Dreyfus. Die Melancholic ein Zustandsbild des
manisch-depressiven Irreseins. 1907.]

TABLE V.
+-----------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| Involutional | Alcoholic | Senile |
| Melancholia | Dementia | Dementia |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
| | | | | | | | | | | | | 0| | | | | |
| 6| 4| 5| 6| 6| 6| 4| 5| 5| 6| 5| 6| 1| 6| 6| 5| 6| 5|
Case No.--| 2| 8| 7| 4| 3| 0| 8| 6| 2| 3| 9| 4| 0| 4| 4| 8| 5| 7|
TYPES OF REACTION | 0| 1| 1| 8| 6| 7| 1| 3| 9| 6| 6| 6| 0| 1| 7| 3| 3| 8|
| 7| 8| 9| 0| 8| 7| 2| 5| 8| 9| 7| 9| 9| 8| 1| 7| 3| 8|
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
_Common reactions:_ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
Specific reactions................|86|92|79|92|83|86|83|78|90|79|75|77|80|46|72|71|82|77|
Non-specific reactions............|13| 2|12| 1| 9| 4| 6| 6| 3|11|10| 8| 3| 8|16| 8|..| 3|
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
_Doubtful reactions_................| 1| 2| 4| 1| 1| 2| 2| 3| 1| 2| 5| 3| 3| 7|..| 6|..|..|
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
_Individual reactions:_ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
Normal reactions..................|..| 2| 1| 4|..| 3| 1| 6| 5| 4| 3| 4| 3|14| 2| 4| 8| 3|
Derivatives of stimulus words.....|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..| 1| 1|..|
Non-specific Reactions............|..|..|..|..|..|..| 1|..|..|..|..|..|..|..| 1| 2|..|..|
Sound reactions (words)...........|..|..|..| 1|..| 1|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|
Sound reactions (neologisms)......|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|
Word complements..................|..|..|..|..|..|..| 1|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|
Particles of speech...............|..|..|..|..|..|..| 1| 1|..|..|..|..|..| 5| 1| 2|..| 1|
Association to preceding stimulus.|..|..|..|..| 1|..| 1|..|..|..| 2|..|..|..|..| 1|..|..|
Association to preceding reaction.|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..| 3|
Repetition of preceding stimulus..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..| 1|
Repetition of previous stimulus...|..|..|..|..|..|..| 1|..|..|..|..|..| 1|..|..|..|..|..|
Repetition of preceding reaction..|..|..|..| 1|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..| 1|..|..|..| 2|
Repetition of previous reaction...|..|..|..|..| 1|..| 1|..| 1|..|..|..| 2| 1| 2| 3| 1| 2|
Reaction repeated five times......|..|..|..|..| 4|..|..|..|..| 2| 2| 4|..| 4|..|..|..| 3|
Neologisms without sound relation.|..|..|..|..|..| 1| 1|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|..|
Unclassified......................|..| 2| 4|..| 1| 3| 1| 6|..| 2| 3| 4| 8|14| 6| 2| 8| 5|
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
Total individual reactions 0 4 5 6 7 8 9 13 6 8 10 12 14 39 12 15 18 20

CASE No. 4818.--S.M. Normal record.

Table--wood.............
Dark--black.............
Music--noise............
Sickness--illness.......
Man--being..............
Deep--depth.............
Soft--mushy.............
Eating--devouring.......
Mountain--hill..........
House--residence........
Black--color............
Mutton--meat............
Comfort--luxury.........
Hand--body..............
Short--abrupt...........19
Fruit--oranges..........
Butterfly--insect.......
Smooth--even............
Command--order..........
Chair--article.......... 1
Sweet--taste............
Whistle--noise..........
Woman--sex..............
Cold--temperature.......
Slow--dull..............
Wish--desire............
River--water............
White--color............
Beautiful--sky..........
Window--glass...........
Rough--uneven...........
Citizen--representative.17
Foot--end...............19
Spider--insect..........
Needle--instrument......
Red--color..............
Sleep--repose...........
Anger--temper...........
Carpet--rug.............
Girl--sex...............
High--elevation.........
Working--employment.....
Sour--bitter............
Earth--clay.............
Trouble--anxiety........
Soldier--military.......
Cabbage--vegetable......
Hard--substance.........
Eagle--bird.............
Stomach--body...........
Stem--flower............
Lamp--light.............
Dream--imagination......
Yellow--color...........
Bread--wheat............
Justice--credit.........17
Boy--child..............
Light--sun..............
Health--condition.......
Bible--book.............
Memory--remembrance.....
Sheep--lamb.............
Bath--bathing...........
Cottage--house..........
Swift--rapid............
Blue--color.............
Hungry--desire..........
Priest--minister........
Ocean--water............
Head--body..............
Stove--fire.............
Long--distance..........
Religion--creed.........
Whiskey--liquor.........
Child--infant...........
Bitter--sour............
Hammer--tool............
Thirsty--dry............
City--town..............
Square--block...........
Butter--food............
Doctor--physician.......
Loud--noisy.............
Thief--burglar..........
Lion--animal............
Joy--happiness.......... 1
Bed--cot................
Heavy--weight...........
Tobacco--weed...........
Baby--infant............
Moon--light.............
Scissors--instrument....
Quiet--noiseless........
Green--color............
Salt--seasoning.........
Street--block...........
King--ruler.............
Cheese--food............
Blossom--flower.........
Afraid--fear............

CASE No. 6207.--T.S. No individual reactions; 13 non-specific
reactions.

Table--furniture......
Dark--color...........
Music--fiddle.........
Sickness--bed.........
Man--person........... 1
Deep--water...........
Soft--pliable.........
Eating--cake..........
Mountain--high........
House--bricks.........
Black--color..........
Mutton--meat..........
Comfort--easy.........
Hand--limb............
Short--small.......... 1
Fruit--vegetable......
Butterfly--insect.....
Smooth--level.........
Command--control......
Chair--sit............
Sweet--nice........... 1
Whistle--noise........
Woman--person......... 1
Cold--atmosphere......
Slow--easy............
Wish--something.......
River--stream.........
White--color..........
Beautiful--nice....... 1
Window--glass.........
Rough--unpleasant..... 1
Citizen--person....... 1
Foot--limb............
Spider--insect........
Needle--instrument....
Red--color............
Sleep--bed............
Anger--irritable......
Carpet--rug...........
Girl--person.......... 1
High--elevation.......
Working--try.......... 2
Sour--bitter..........
Earth--sand...........
Trouble--anxiety......
Soldier--person....... 1
Cabbage--plant........
Hard--stone...........
Eagle--bird...........
Stomach--person....... 1
Stem--apple...........
Lamp--light...........
Dream--sleep..........
Yellow--color.........
Bread--flour..........
Justice--Equal........
Boy--child............
Light--gas............
Health--doctor........
Bible--Scripture......
Memory--thought....... 1
Sheep--animal.........
Bath--water...........
Cottage--house........
Swift--quick..........
Blue--color...........
Hungry--want..........
Priest--preach........
Ocean--water..........
Head--person.......... 1
Stove--heat...........
Long--length..........
Religion--belief......
Whiskey--drink........
Child--person......... 1
Bitter--sour..........
Hammer--tool..........
Thirsty--dry..........
City--place...........
Square--shape.........
Butter--eat...........
Doctor--physician.....
Loud--hear............
Thief--steal..........
Lion--animal..........
Joy--glad.............
Bed--sleep............
Heavy--weight.........
Tobacco--plant........
Baby--child...........
Moon--light...........
Scissors--tool........
Quiet--rest...........
Green--color..........
Salt--spice...........
Street--place.........
King--ruler...........
Cheese--eat...........
Blossom--flower.......
Afraid--hide..........

CASE No. 5719.--A.W.S. 5 individual reactions; 12 non-specific
reactions.

Table--stand..........
Dark--color...........
Music--happy.......... 1
Sickness--ill.........
Man--human............
Deep--thought......... 1
Soft--touch...........
Eating--appetite......
Mountain--ground......
House--shelter........
Black--color..........
Mutton--lamb..........
Comfort--warm.........
Hand--touch...........
Short--small.......... 1
Fruit--taste..........
Butterfly--beauty..... 1
Smooth--level.........
Command--obey.........
Chair--rest...........
Sweet--good...........
Whistle--noise........
Woman--female.........
Cold--chilled......... 2
Slow--move............
Wish--think........... 1
River--water..........
White--color..........
Beautiful--nice....... 1
Window--glass.........
Rough--push...........
Citizen--man.......... 1
Foot--body............
Spider--insect........
Needle--pointed.......
Red--blood............
Sleep--rest...........
Anger--riled..........
Carpet--covering......
Girl--child...........
High--air.............
Working--ambitious....
Sour--taste...........
Earth--ground.........
Trouble--thought...... 1
Soldier--command......
Cabbage--vegetable....
Hard--blow............17
Eagle--bird...........
Stomach--body.........
Stem--pipe............
Lamp--light...........
Dream--thought........ 1
Yellow--purple........
Bread--food...........
Justice--law..........
Boy--male.............
Light--lamp...........
Health--soul..........19
Bible--Scriptures.....
Memory--thought....... 1
Sheep--lamb...........
Bath--cleanness.......
Cottage--house........
Swift--quick..........
Blue--color...........
Hungry--appetite......
Priest--scholar....... 2
Ocean--water..........
Head--brains..........
Stove--heat...........
Long--measurement..... 2
Religion--good........ 1
Whiskey--alcohol......
Child--baby...........
Bitter--taste.........
Hammer--knock.........
Thirsty--water........
City--New York........
Square--box...........
Butter--milk..........
Doctor--help..........
Loud--noise...........
Thief--burglar........
Lion--animal..........
Joy--well.............19
Bed--rest.............
Heavy--load...........
Tobacco--nicotine.....
Baby--joy.............
Moon--light...........
Scissors--cutting.....
Quiet--rest...........
Green--color..........
Salt--sand............19
Street--crossing...... 2
King--ruler...........
Cheese--luxury........19
Blossom--flower.......
Afraid--fright........

CASE No. 5635. J.D. 13 individual reactions, of which 6 are classed
as normal, 1 particle, 6 unclassified, mostly obviously normal.

Table--eating.........
Dark--night...........
Music--amusement......
Sickness--distress....
Man--working..........
Deep--sorrow..........
Soft--easy............
Eating--supper........17
Mountain--pleasure.... 1
House--home...........
Black--grief..........19
Mutton--butchers...... 2
Comfort--home.........
Hand--shake...........
Short--baseball.......19
Fruit--eating.........
Butterfly--field......
Smooth--soft..........
Command--oblige.......17
Chair--seat...........
Sweet--flowers........
Whistle--fire.........
Woman--home...........
Cold--winter..........
Slow--easy............
Wish--home............
River--dock...........17
Whiter--day...........
Beautiful--handsome...
Window--glass.........
Rough--wagon..........19
Citizen--voter........
Foot--walking.........
Spider--web...........
Needle--sticking......19
Red--danger...........
Sleep--rest...........
Anger--right..........19
Carpet--house.........
Girl--out.............12
High--air.............
Working--labor........
Sour--bitter..........
Earth--ground.........
Trouble--worry........
Soldier--man.......... 1
Cabbage--farmer....... 2
Hard--bath............19
Eagle--birds..........
Stomach--body.........
Stem--pipe............
Lamp--burn............
Dream--thinking....... 1
Yellow--color.........
Bread--eating.........
Justice--peace........
Boy--soldier..........17
Light--day............
Health--happy......... 1
Bible--books..........
Memory--good.......... 1
Sheep--lamb...........
Bath--washing.........
Cottage--house........
Swift--quick..........
Blue--color...........
Hungry--eating........
Priest--church........
Ocean--bathing........
Head--mind............
Stove--fire...........
Long--hours...........
Religion--church......
Whiskey--drinking.....
Child--home...........
Bitter--sour..........
Hammer--working.......
Thirsty--dry..........
City--New York........
Square--block.........
Butter--cow...........
Doctor--hospital......
Loud--speaking........ 2
Thief--sentence.......17
Lion--animal..........
Joy--pleasure......... 1
Bed--sleeping.........
Heavy--weight.........
Tobacco--smoking......
Baby--home............
Moon--night...........
Scissors--cutting.....
Quiet--alone..........
Green--color..........
Salt--eating..........
Street--walking.......
King--William.........17
Cheese--milk..........
Blossom--flower.......
Afraid--fright........

Our cases of _alcoholic_ dementia are clinically without
evidences of disturbance of flow of thought. The dementia consists
mainly in impairment or loss of the power of retention, with resulting
amnesia for recent occurrences, and temporal disorientation. The
records are either normal or show but slight departures from normal.

CASE No. 6369.--J.S. Slight deterioration.

Table--eat............
Dark--night...........
Music--enjoyment......
Sickness--sadness.....
Man--work............. 1
Deep--hole............
Soft--feathers........
Eating--appetite......
Mountain--hill........
House--live...........
Black--dark...........
Mutton--eat...........
Comfort--pleasant..... 1
Hand--work............ 1
Short--story..........
Fruit--eat............
Butterfly--annoyance.. 6
Smooth--iron..........
Command--officer......
Chair--sit............
Sweet--nice........... 1
Whistle--pleasure..... 1
Woman--pleasure....... 1
Cold--annoyance....... 6
Slow--car.............
Wish--like............
River--water..........
White--sack...........17
Beautiful--house......17
Window--look..........
Rough--unpleasant..... 1
Citizen--man.......... 1
Foot--walk............
Spider--annoyance.....
Needle--sticking......19
Red--color............
Sleep--happy.......... 1
Anger--annoyance......
Carpet--walk..........
Girl--school..........
High--skies...........
Working--labor........
Sour--lemon...........
Earth--walk...........
Trouble--annoyance....
Soldier--army.........
Cabbage--eat..........
Hard--stone...........
Eagle--fly............
Stomach--victuals.....17
Stem--pipe............
Lamp--burn............
Dream--sleep..........
Yellow--orange........
Bread--eat............
Justice--person....... 1
Boy--school...........
Light--see............
Health--comfort.......
Bible--read...........
Memory--recollection..
Sheep--eat............
Bath--cleanness.......
Cottage--live.........
Swift--go.............
Blue--color...........
Hungry--eat...........
Priest--confession....
Ocean--vessels........ 2
Head--knowledge.......
Stove--burn...........
Long--time............
Religion--faith.......
Whiskey--drink........
Child--infant.........
Bitter--unkind........17
Hammer--nail..........
Thirsty--dry..........
City--inhabitants.....

Square--brick.........
Butter--eat...........
Doctor--cure..........
Loud--noise...........
Thief--steal..........
Lion--animal..........
Joy--happiness........ 1
Bed--lay..............
Heavy--feeling........ 2
Tobacco--chew.........
Baby--nurse...........
Moon--bright..........
Scissors--cut.........
Quiet--ease...........
Green--flower.........
Salt--taste...........
Street--walking.......
King--control.........19
Cheese--eat...........
Blossom--flower.......
Afraid--nervousness...

CASE No. 6418.--J.R. Marked deterioration.

Table--mahogany.......
Dark--dawn............17
Music--harp...........17
Sickness--none........ 6
Man--white............19
Deep--unfathomable.... 2
Soft--silken.......... 2
Eating--good.......... 1
Mountain--high........
House--place..........
Black--color..........
Mutton--cooked........17
Comfort--rest.........
Hand--clasp...........19
Short--small.......... 1
Fruit--apples.........
Butterfly--buttercups. 2
Smooth--iron..........
Command--home.........19
Chair--ebony..........19
Sweet--potatoes.......17
Whistle--song.........
Woman--pretty......... 1
Cold--depressed.......19
Slow--process.........17
Wish--home............
River--Mississippi....
White--wings..........17
Beautiful--palace.....19
Window--clear.........
Rough--no.............12
Citizen--patriot......
Foot--heath...........19
Spider--none.......... 5
Needle--darning.......
Red--apples...........
Sleep--plenty.........
Anger--mistake........17
Carpet--floor.........
Girl--pretty.......... 1
High--ordinary........19
Working--eight........12
Sour--nonsense........19
Earth--fruits......... 2
Trouble--little.......
Soldier--patriot......
Cabbage--garden.......
Hard--wood............
Eagle--high...........

Stomach--leave........19
Stem--stalk...........
Lamp--kerosene........
Dream--happy.......... 1
Yellow--aster.........17
Bread--white..........
Justice--right........
Boy--white............15
Light--white..........
Health--good.......... 1
Bible--puzzled........19
Memory--bad........... 1
Sheep--cheviot........17
Bath--marble..........17
Cottage--story........17
Swift--fast...........
Blue--waist...........17
Hungry--not........... 2
Priest--confessor.....
Ocean--Pacific........17
Head--oval............19
Stove--polish.........
Long--forever.........12
Religion--Protestant..
Whiskey--none.........
Child--none........... 5
Bitter--sweet.........
Hammer--no............12
Thirsty--no........... 5
City--New York........
Square--compass.......
Butter--sweet.........
Doctor--cure..........
Loud--quietly......... 2
Thief--jail...........
Lion--brave,..........
Joy--peacefulness..... 2
Bed--good............. 1
Heavy--no.............
Tobacco--yes..........12
Baby--none............ 6
Moon--shines..........
Scissors--uncut....... 2
Quiet--peaceful.......
Green--grass..........
Salt--water...........
Street--Queen.........17
King--unknown.........19
Cheese--Stilton.......17
Blossom--cherry.......
Afraid--not...........

We reproduce in full the record obtained from one of our cases of
_senile dementia._

CASE No. 5788.--E.S.

Table--cat............ 6
Dark--night...........
Music--cat............ 2
Sickness--cat......... 6
Man--mouse............18
Deep--well............
Soft--sack............19
Eating--well..........
Mountain--hill........
House--castle.........
Black--dog............
Mutton--sheep.........
Comfort--lamb.........13
Hand--chicken.........18
Short--light..........19
Fruit--apple..........
Butterfly--fly........
Smooth--iron..........
Command--obey.........
Chair--stool..........
Sweet--sugar..........
Whistle--lump.........18
Woman--man............ 1
Cold--shiver..........
Slow--cold............ 7
Wish--push............19
River--pond...........
White--cat............
Beautiful--cat........ 6
Window--glass.........
Rough--fight..........19
Citizen--tough........
Foot--shoe............
Spider--clock.........19
Needle--pin...........
Red--white............
Sleep--eyes...........
Anger--mad............
Carpet--cloth.........
Girl--boy.............
High--low.............
Working--sewing.......
Sour--sweet...........
Earth--clay...........
Trouble--child........13
Soldier--man.......... 1
Cabbage--spinach......
Hard--cat............. 6
Eagle--bird...........
Stomach--belly........
Stem--pike............17
Lamp--globe...........
Dream--eyes...........
Yellow--flower........
Bread--flour..........
Justice--fight........
Boy--cat.............. 6
Light--lamp...........
Health--cough.........17
Bible--book...........
Memory--mind..........
Sheep--lamb...........
Bath--water...........
Cottage--house........
Swift--quick..........
Blue--color...........
Hungry--eat...........
Priest--clergyman.....
Ocean--river..........
Head--life............
Stove--fire...........
Long--short...........
Religion--Catholic....
Whiskey--drink........
Child--boy............
Bitter--sweet.........
Hammer--noise.........
Thirsty--drink........
City--New York........
Square--Marion........17
Butter--cow...........
Doctor--W.............17
Loud--noise...........
Thief--steals.........
Lion--heart...........
Joy--happy............ 1
Bed--mattress.........
Heavy--lead...........
Tobacco--smoke........
Baby--boy.............
Moon--shine...........
Scissors--cut.........
Quiet--noisy..........
Green--color..........
Salt--bitter..........
Street--place.........
King--rule............
Cheese--taste.........
Blossom--flower.......
Afraid--trouble.......

Sec.8. PATHOLOGICAL REACTIONS FROM NORMAL SUBJECTS.

Mental disorders do not always so manifest themselves as to
incapacitate the subject for his work or to necessitate his
sequestration in a hospital for the insane. It is, therefore, not
surprising that in applying the association test to over a thousand
subjects selected at random we have obtained a small number of test
records which show various types of abnormal reactions. Among the
subjects who furnished such records some are described as eccentric,
taciturn, or dull, while others are apparently normal but come of
neuropathic stock. A few of them are persons wholly unknown to us.

We reproduce in full from the normal series, containing abnormal
reactions.

CONSECUTIVE No. 746.--State hospital attendant Efficient in his work
but is generally regarded to have married very foolishly. Sound
reactions; numerous unclassified reactions.

Table--brought........19
Dark--some............19
Music--leaf...........19
Sickness--water.......19
Man--book.............19
Deep--desk............19
Soft--ground..........
Eating--bark..........19
Mountain--tree........
House--paper..........19
Black--light..........
Mutton--horse.........13
Comfort--hat..........19
Hand--sick............13
Short--swallow........19
Fruit--mass...........19
Butterfly--leaf.......15
Smooth--wing..........13
Command--man.......... 1
Chair--left...........19
Sweet--sick........... 2
Whistle--whirl........10
Woman--where..........12
Cold--coal............
Slow--some............15
Wish--whirl...........15
River--rice...........19
White--waist..........
Beautiful--brought....15
Window--women.........10
Rough--row............19
Citizen--sir..........10
Foot--fall............19
Spider--spice.........10
Needle--knee..........10
Red--roam.............19
Sleep--sorrow.........19
Anger--August.........19
Carpet--covered....... 2
Girl--great........... 9
High--his.............12
Working--map..........19
Sour--slur............10
Earth--eat............19
Trouble--through......12
Soldier--solder.......10
Cabbage--cart.........19
Hard--him.............12
Eagle--earth..........13
Stomach--stall........10
Stem--stair...........10
Lamp--left............19
Dream--dread..........
Yellow--waist.........15
Bread--book...........15
Justice--gem..........19
Boy--bird.............19
Light--left...........10
Health--heart.........17
Bible--base...........19
Memory--moth..........19
Sheep--shrill.........19
Bath--bend............19

Cottage--cart.........10
Swift--swell..........10
Blue--beard...........11
Hungry--heart.........15
Priest--path..........19
Ocean--oar............10
Head--him.............12
Stove--still..........10
Long--left............15
Religion--rest........19
Whiskey--whirl........15
Child--charge.........19
Bitter--bought........10
Hammer--hemp..........10
Thirsty--Thursday.....10
City--salt............10
Square--squirrel......10
Butter--bread.........
Doctor--daisy.........19
Loud--lark............19
Thief--twist..........19
Lion--lesson..........10
Joy--jar..............19
Bed--beard............10
Heavy--health.........10
Tobacco--toboggan.....10
Baby--bird............15
Moon--mill............19
Scissors--setters.....10
Quiet--quart..........10
Green--great.......... 9
Salt--sorrow..........10
Street--stem..........10
King--cart............15
Cheese--chart.........19
Blossom--bed..........19
Afraid--frill.........10

CONSECUTIVE No. 220--Laundryman in State hospital. Nothing abnormal
has ever been observed in his case. Numerous perseverations.

Table--house..........
Dark--range...........19
Music--eats...........
Sickness--dog.........18
Man--barn.............19
Deep--hollow..........
Soft--apple...........
Eating--cranberry.....17
Mountain--water.......17
House--pig............19
Black--rats...........18
Mutton--mice.......... 2
Comfort--sheep........13
Hand--lamb............14
Short--birds..........19
Fruit--peach..........
Butterfly--pears......18
Smooth--grapes........18
Command--nut..........18
Chair--bureau.........
Sweet--broom..........19
Whistle--violin.......19
Woman--man............ 1
Cold--child...........10
Slow--infant..........14
Wish--night...........19
River--dark...........14
White--steamboat......17
Beautiful--tugboat....18
Window--yacht.........18
Rough--ferry..........18
Citizen--water........13
Foot--egg.............19
Spider--fly...........
Needle--thread........
Red--spool............18
Sleep--machine........18
Anger--picture........19
Carpet--bed...........17
Girl--bureau..........18
High--oilcloth........18
Working--pen..........19
Sour--ink.............18
Earth--paper..........18
Trouble--chair........19
Soldier--table........14
Cabbage--beet.........
Hard--cauliflower.....13
Eagle--potatoes.......18
Stomach--beans........17
Stem--plum............17
Lamp--wick............
Dream--oil............13
Yellow--stick.........19
Bread--stone..........18
Justice--dirt.........18
Boy--street...........
Light--match..........
Health--sickness......
Bible--book...........
Memory--leaf..........13
Sheep--wool...........
Bath--water...........
Cottage--people....... 1
Swift--fast...........
Blue--residence.......19
Hungry--beef..........17
Priest--clergyman.....
Ocean--rice...........19
Head--eyes............
Stove--nose...........18
Long--mouth...........18
Religion--legs........18
Whiskey--arms.........18
Child--elbows.........18
Bitter--day...........19
Hammer--nails.........
Thirsty--saw..........13
City--plane...........18
Square--chisel........18
Butter--file..........18
Doctor--duck..........10
Loud--goose...........18
Thief--robber.........
Lion--tiger...........
Joy--bear.............13
Bed--leopard..........18
Heavy--tiger..........15
Tobacco--smoke........

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