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A Study of Association in Insanity by Grace Helen Kent

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Long--length..........
Religion--too.........12
Whiskey--drink........
Child--baby...........
Bitter--taste.........
Hammer--nails.........
Thirsty--drink........
City--town............
Square--man........... 1
Butter--bread.........
Doctor--patient.......
Loud--howl............17
Thief--steal..........
Lion--bear............
Joy--happiness........ 1
Bed--blanket..........
Heavy--weight.........
Tobacco--smoke........
Baby--cradle..........
Moon--sun.............
Scissors--thimble.....
Quiet--stillness......
Green--plaid..........17
Salt--pepper..........
Street--sidewalk......
King--queen...........
Cheese--crackers......
Blossom--leaf.........
Afraid--frightened....

PARANOIC CONDITIONS.

The clinical group of psychoses included under the designation
paranoic conditions is far from being homogeneous. We have here cases
that are more or less closely allied to the paranoid form of dementia
praecox, other cases that are apparently dependent upon involutional
changes (Kraepelin's _praeseniler Beeintraechtigungswah_), still
other cases that are characterized by absence or at least delay of
mental deterioration, etc.

In some of these cases disturbance of the flow of utterance is not
observed, and the test records obtained from them present no striking
abnormalities. Distinctly pathological records are obtained mainly
from those cases which clinically resemble dementia praecox; in these
records the nature of the pathological reactions would seem to
indicate that the diagnosis of dementia praecox would be more
justifiable than that of paranoic condition.

The following test records will serve to illustrate the types of
reactions met with in this group of psychoses:

CASE No. 3039.--F.A. Normal record.

Table--purpose........19
Dark--obscure.........
Music--pleasant....... 1
Sickness--confinement.17
Man--twenty-one.......12
Deep--down............
Soft--smooth..........
Eating--nourishment...
Mountain--high........
House--living.........
Black--dark...........
Mutton--eating........
Comfort--pleasant..... 1
Hand--limb............
Short--low............
Fruit--eat............
Butterfly--miller.....
Smooth--soft..........
Command--obey.........
Chair--sitting........
Sweet--tasting........
Whistle--noise........
Woman--female.........
Cold--unpleasant...... 1
Slow--easy............
Wish--want............
River--water..........
White--colorless......
Beautiful--handsome...
Window--glass.........
Rough--unpleasant..... 1
Citizen--vote.........
Foot--limb............
Spider--insect........
Needle--sewing........
Red--color............
Sleep--bed............
Anger--cross..........
Carpet--floor.........
Girl--young...........
High--up..............
Working--labor........
Sour--unpleasant...... 1
Earth--dirt...........
Trouble--worriment....
Soldier--fight........
Cabbage--vegetable....
Hard--tough...........
Eagle--bird...........
Stomach--anatomy......

Stem--growth..........
Lamp--burn............
Dream--restlessness...
Yellow--color.........
Bread--eat............
Justice--right........
Boy--young............
Light--see............
Health--well..........
Bible--religion.......
Memory--thoughtful....
Sheep--animal.........
Bath--wash............
Cottage--house........
Swift--fast...........
Blue--color...........
Hungry--appetite......
Priest--Christian.....17
Ocean--large..........
Head--trunk...........
Stove--fire...........
Long--distance........
Religion--Christianity
Whiskey--drinkable....
Child--young..........
Bitter--bad...........
Hammer--knock.........
Thirsty--dry..........
City--government......
Square--block.........
Butter--eat...........
Doctor--cure..........
Loud--noisy...........
Thief--steal..........
Lion--animal..........
Joy--pleasant.........
Bed--laying...........
Heavy--weighty........
Tobacco--smoking......
Baby--new-born........
Moon--planet..........
Scissors--cutting.....
Quiet--easy...........
Green--color..........
Salt--preservative....
Street--lane..........
King--monarch.........
Cheese--eatable.......
Blossom--budding......
Afraid--fear..........

CASE No. 5803.--D.E.D. Slight tendency to give sound reactions.

Table--tree...........19
Dark--bright..........
Music--song...........
Sickness--health......
Man--woman............ 1
Deep--shallow.........
Soft--hard............
Eating--digesting.....
Mountain--hill........
House--horse..........10
Black--red............
Mutton--tallow........
Comfort--wealth.......
Hand--arm.............
Short--long...........
Fruit--plate..........17
Butterfly--net........
Smooth--surface.......
Command--obey.........
Chair--table..........
Sweet--sour...........
Whistle--call.........
Woman--lady...........
Cold--lukewarm........19
Slow--not.............12
Wish--receive.........
River--lake...........
White--black..........
Beautiful--graceful...
Window--door..........
Rough--smooth.........
Citizen--city.........
Foot--leg.............
Spider--soap..........10
Needle--pin...........
Red--yellow...........
Sleep--slumber........
Anger--amiable........
Carpet--mat...........
Girl--boy.............
High--hill............
Working--playing......
Sour--sweet...........
Earth--land...........
Trouble--tranquillity.10
Soldier--boy..........
Cabbage--plant........
Hard--easy............
Eagle--bird...........
Stomach--bowels.......
Stem--head............
Lamp--chimney.........
Dream--myth...........17
Yellow--blue..........
Bread--biscuit........
Justice--balance......17
Boy--girl.............
Light--gray...........17
Health--wealth........
Bible--prayerbook.....
Memory--understanding.
Sheep--lamb...........
Bath--swim............
Cottage--house........
Swift--slow...........
Blue--yellow..........
Hungry--eat...........
Priest--bishop........
Ocean--river..........
Head--neck............
Stove--covers.........
Long--short...........
Religion--optional....
Whiskey--wine.........
Child--baby...........
Bitter--sweet.........
Hammer--gimlet........
Thirsty--drink........
City--town............
Square--compass.......
Butter--butterfly.....
Doctor--lawyer........
Loud--lord............
Thief--beggar.........
Lion--lioness.........
Joy--sorrow...........
Bed--couch............
Heavy--light..........
Tobacco--cigarette....
Baby--child...........
Moon--stars...........
Scissors--knife.......
Quiet--quilt..........
Green--envy...........
Salt--sewing..........
Street--lane..........
King--queen...........
Cheese--cracker.......
Blossom--flower.......
Afraid--courageous....

CASE No. 2133.--M.F. Unclassified reactions, mostly "far fetched" or
incoherent; perseveration.

Table--eat............
Dark--night...........
Music--sing...........
Sickness--sadness.....
Man--home.............
Deep--light...........
Soft--sleep...........13
Eating--drink.........
Mountain--hills.......
House--home...........
Black--stove..........17
Mutton--lamb..........
Comfort--pleasure..... 1
Hand--write...........
Short--short-cake.....10
Fruit--grapes.........
Butterfly--butter.....
Smooth--ironing.......
Command--correct......19
Chair--see............19
Sweet--apples.........
Whistle--happiness.... 1
Woman--girl...........
Cold--warm............
Slow--fast............
Wish--like............
River--water..........
White--blue...........
Beautiful--red........13
Window--light.........
Rough--easy...........
Citizen--spring.......19
Foot--run.............
Spider--fly...........
Needle--Carrie........19
Red--pink.............
Sleep--awake..........
Anger--jolly..........19
Carpet--curtains......
Girl--yellow..........19
High--green...........14
Working--bed..........19
Sour--dishes..........19
Earth--grapes.........13
Trouble--work......... 1
Soldier--sing.........15
Cabbage--potatoes.....
Hard--sewing..........17
Eagle--daisy..........19
Stomach--flowers......18
Stem--vine............
Lamp--flatiron........19
Dream--sleep..........
Yellow--awake.........13
Bread--children.......
Justice--dresses......14
Boy--mother...........
Light--dark...........
Health--wealth........
Bible--commands....... 2
Memory--black.........13
Sheep--chickens.......17
Bath--carpet..........19
Cottage--worsted......14
Swift--silk...........18
Blue--cotton..........18
Hungry--chair.........19
Priest--church........
Ocean--spring.........15
Head--canary..........19
Stove--board..........
Long--dishes..........18
Religion--piano.......19
Whiskey--home.........15
Child--baby...........
Bitter--shoes.........19
Hammer--tacks.........
Thirsty--longing......
City--Flushing........17
Square--store.........10
Butter--butcher.......10
Doctor--hat...........19
Loud--chair...........15
Thief--picture........19
Lion--house...........13
Joy--gladness.........
Bed--sleep............
Heavy--sick........... 2
Tobacco--album........19
Baby--basket..........17
Moon--stars...........
Scissors--knife.......
Quiet--spoon..........18
Green--scar...........19
Salt--pepper..........
Street--sugar.........18
King--blacking........19
Cheese--meat..........
Blossom--flowers......
Afraid--red...........18

CASE No. 4569.--L.K. Marked stereotypy; unclassified reactions,
mostly incoherent.

Table--fruit..........17
Dark--light...........
Music--pleasure....... 1
Sickness--illness.....
Man--parent........... 6
Deep--verse...........19
Soft--fruit...........
Eating--illness.......15
Mountain--parent...... 6
House--privilege......19
Black--colors......... 2
Mutton--parent........ 6
Comfort--family.......18
Hand--comfort......... 7
Short--parent......... 6
Fruit--parent......... 5
Butterfly--insect.....
Smooth--surface.......
Command--privilege....15
Chair--house..........
Sweet--dairy..........19
Whistle--nature.......19
Woman--parent......... 6
Cold--house........... 6
Slow--light...........15
Wish--desire..........
River--house.......... 6
White--suspicion......19
Beautiful--house...... 6
Window--light.........
Rough--surface........
Citizen--parent....... 6
Foot--house...........
Spider--insect........
Needle--house......... 6
Red--colors...........
Sleep--God............ 6
Anger--God............ 5
Carpet--house.........
Girl--God............. 6
High--house...........
Working--parent....... 6
Sour--desire..........15
Earth--God............ 6
Trouble--God.......... 5
Soldier--house........ 6
Cabbage--desire.......15
Hard--vegetable.......
Eagle--animal.........
Stomach--doctor.......
Stem--growth..........
Lamp--house...........
Dream--God............ 6
Yellow--color.........
Bread--God............ 6
Justice--fright.......19
Boy--parent........... 6
Light--God............ 6
Health--God........... 5
Bible--teachings......
Memory--teaching...... 2
Sheep--God............ 6
Bath--cleanness.......
Cottage--home.........
Swift--fear...........19
Blue--color...........
Hungry--appetite......
Priest--servant.......
Ocean--God............ 6
Head--servant......... 6
Stove--house..........
Long--God............. 6
Religion--servant..... 6
Whiskey--doctor.......15
Child--house.......... 6
Bitter--taste.........
Hammer--household.....19
Thirsty--drink........
City--God............. 6
Square--touch.........19
Butter--taste.........
Doctor--servant....... 6
Loud--thought......... 9
Thief--slave..........19
Lion--animal..........
Joy--pleasure......... 1
Bed--household........15
Heavy--weight.........
Tobacco--doctor.......15
Baby--care............
Moon--heavens.........
Scissors--household...15
Quiet--nerve..........19
Green--substance......19
Salt--taste...........
Street--heavens.......15
King--servant......... 6
Cheese--taste.........
Blossom--sight........
Afraid--fear..........

CASE No. 6164.--L.E. Remarkably persistent tendency to give sound
reactions; numerous sound neologisms; no reactions given in response
to some of the stimulus words on the ground that she had "no word to
match."

Table--witchhazel.....10
Dark--frog............19
Music--lessons........ 2
Sickness--badness..... 2
Man--wife.............
Deep--seef............ 4
Soft--shoft........... 3
Eating--feeding.......
Mountain--sounding....10
House--shmouse........ 3
Black--fake...........19
Mutton--shutton....... 3
Comfort--somfort...... 3
Hand--land............10
Short--court..........10
Fruit--shrewd.........10
Butterfly--shuddergy.. 3
Smooth--slude......... 3
Command--noman........ 3
Chair--sash...........19
Sweet--leaf...........19
Whistle--noshissel.... 3
Woman--lemon..........19
Cold--shoal...........10
Slow--snow............10
Wish--dish............
River--liberty........10
White--size...........10
Beautiful--...........
Window--Hilda.........19
Rough--shoff.......... 3
Citizen--shiffizen.... 3
Foot--shoot...........10
Spider--shider........ 3
Needle--dreedle....... 3
Red--shred............10
Sleep--seef........... 3
Anger--...............
Carpet--shloppet...... 3
Girl--shirl........... 3
High--fie.............10
Working--shlirking.... 3
Sour--bower...........10
Earth--world..........
Trouble--shuttle......19
Soldier--polster...... 3
Cabbage--sheffies..... 4
Hard--shward.......... 3
Eagle--...............
Stomach--.............
Stem--lamp............19
Lamp--sant............ 4
Dream--leam........... 3
Yellow--cherry........19
Bread--dread..........10
Justice--chestnuts....10
Boy--.................
Light--shwife......... 3
Health--felt.......... 2
Bible--...............
Memory--..............
Sheep--sheet..........10
Bath--scab............19
Cottage--foppach...... 3
Swift--shift..........10
Blue--shoe............10
Hungry--angry.........
Priest--sheaf.........19
Ocean--notion.........10
Head--shred...........10
Stove--shove.......... 3
Long--song............10
Religion--switching...19
Whiskey--chiston...... 4
Child--kile........... 3
Bitter--shitter....... 3
Hammer--lemon.........13
Thirsty--flrsten...... 3
City--................
Square--birds.........19
Butter--shudder.......10
Doctor--shoctor....... 3
Loud--souse...........10
Thief--sheaf..........10
Lion--Zion............10
Joy--bloy............. 3
Bed--wading...........19
Heavy--shleavy........ 3
Tobacco--confecker.... 4
Baby--savey........... 3
Moon--shoon........... 3
Scissors--............
Quiet--shiet.......... 3
Green--sheel.......... 4
Salt--shawlt.......... 3
Street--freet......... 3
King--sing............10
Cheese--seefs......... 4
Blossom--pleasant..... 9
Afraid--shraid........ 3

CASE No. 3606.--F.W. Neologisms; some particles; many unclassified
reactions, mostly incoherent.

Table--pleasure....... 9
Dark--air.............19
Music--walking........19
Sickness--gloves......19
Man--fields...........19
Deep--courtesy........19
Soft--spoons..........19
Eating--oranges.......
Mountain--ice.........17
House--paintings...... 2
Black--blue...........
Mutton--hemisphere....19
Comfort--flowers......19
Hand--sawdust.........19
Short--peanuts........19
Fruit--autoharp.......19
Butterfly--disease....19
Smooth--ice...........
Command--botheration..19
Chair--tea............19
Sweet--arrangement....19
Whistle--steadfast....19
Woman--flowers........15
Cold--grandeur........19
Slow--present.........19
Wish--mania...........19
River--courtesy.......15
White--ink............17
Beautiful--flowers....
Window--air...........
Rough--enjoyment......19
Citizen--queer........19
Foot--hatred..........19
Spider--carousy....... 4
Needle--pleasant...... 9
Red--permit...........19
Sleep--indeed.........12
Anger--benevolence....19
Carpet--disorder......19
Girl--caterer.........19
High--aside...........10
Working--among........12
Sour--destroy.........19
Earth--confusion......19
Trouble--frivolous....19
Soldier--air..........15
Cabbage--temptation...19
Hard--among...........12
Eagle--quality........19
Stomach--debasteaur... 4
Stem--counteract......19
Lamp--testament.......19
Dream--connexus....... 4
Yellow--division......19
Bread--atherey........ 4
Justice--anger........19
Boy--quality..........15
Light--among..........12
Health--frivolous.....15
Bible--permit.........15
Memory--usual.........19
Sheep--astray.........
Bath--conscientious...19
Cottage--texalous..... 4
Swift--patience.......19
Blue--community.......19
Hungry--confusion.....15
Priest--second........19
Ocean--apology........19
Head--trinity.........19
Stove--compartment....19
Long--terminal........19
Religion--abundant....19
Whiskey--approvement.. 4
Child--anger..........15
Bitter--courageous....19
Hammer--correction....19
Thirsty--afterwards...12
City--cataract........19
Square--plenty........19
Butter--accost........19
Doctor--southern......19
Loud--triangular......19
Thief--cannery........19
Lion--practice........19
Joy--summons..........19
Bed--avron............ 4
Heavy--olenthegolis... 4
Tobacco--abundant.....15
Baby--parenthus....... 4
Moon--otherwise.......12
Scissors--cartridge...19
Quiet--outside........12
Green--abounty........ 4
Salt--calonry......... 4
Street--abyss.........19
King--cavenry......... 4
Cheese--perplex.......19
Blossom--cartridge....15
Afraid--stubborn......19

EPILEPSY.

Most of the cases of epilepsy in our collection show advanced dementia
and in some the clinical history would indicate also original mental
inferiority, that is to say, imbecility or feeble-mindedness.

In these cases the dominant characteristic, so far as shown in the
test records, seems to be a narrowing of the mental horizon manifested
firstly by a tendency to repeat many times one or another word, and
secondly by an abnormally pronounced tendency to make use of
non-specific reactions or particles of speech. Occasionally other
abnormalities are noted, such as perseveration or distraction.

We submit here copies of some test records.

CASE No. 5410.--W.T.K. Repetition of words previously given;
nonspecific reactions.

Table--article........ 1
Dark--light...........
Music--tone...........
Sickness--ill.........
Man--person........... 1
Deep--distant......... 2
Soft--condition....... 6
Eating--chew..........
Mountain--high........
House--abode..........
Black--color..........
Mutton--meat..........
Comfort--peace........
Hand--limb............
Short--distance.......
Fruit--result.........
Butterfly--animal.....
Smooth--plain.........
Command--order........
Chair--seat...........
Sweet--pleasant....... 1
Whistle--sound........
Woman--female.........
Cold--chilly..........
Slow--pace............
Wish--desire..........
River--body...........
White--clear..........
Beautiful--grand......
Window--place.........13
Rough--unsmooth....... 4
Citizen--member.......
Foot--member..........
Spider--animal........
Needle--article....... 1
Bed--color............
Sleep--rest...........
Anger--condition...... 6
Carpet--covering......
Girl--female..........
High--distance........
Working--occupation...
Sour--condition....... 6
Earth--planet.........
Trouble--condition.... 6
Soldier--member....... 6
Cabbage--vegetable....
Hard--condition....... 6
Eagle--animal.........
Stomach--member.......
Stem--branch..........
Lamp--article......... 1
Dream--thinking....... 1
Yellow--shade.........
Bread--article........ 6
Justice--position.....19
Boy--male.............
Light--clear..........
Health--condition.....
Bible--book...........
Memory--condition..... 6
Sheep--animal.........
Bath--position........15
Cottage--house........
Swift--fast...........
Blue--color...........
Hungry--condition..... 6
Priest--office........
Ocean--body...........
Head--member..........
Stove--article........ 1
Long--distance........
Religion--profession..
Whiskey--liquid.......
Child--person......... 1
Bitter--condition..... 6
Hammer--article....... 1
Thirsty--condition.... 6
City--place...........
Square--honest........
Butter--article....... 6
Doctor--profession....
Loud--sound...........
Thief--position.......15
Lion--animal..........
Joy--pleasant......... 1
Bed--article.......... 6
Heavy--weight.........
Tobacco--plant........
Baby--person.......... 1
Moon--planet..........
Scissors--article..... 1
Quiet--peaceful.......
Green--shade..........
Salt--article......... 1
Street--place.........
King--ruler...........
Cheese--article....... 6
Blossom--plant........
Afraid--fear..........

CASE No. 2208.--J.A. Repetition of words previously given;
non-specific reactions.

Table--wood...........
Dark--chairs..........13
Music--wood...........14
Sickness--dropsy......17
Man--body.............
Deep--well............
Soft--lady............19
Eating--man........... 6
Mountain--hills.......
House--barns.......... 2
Black--horse..........
Mutton--sheep.........
Comfort--poison.......19
Hand--man............. 1
Short--people......... 1
Fruit--trees..........
Butterfly--tree.......
Smooth--people........ 6
Command--general......
Chair--hands..........16
Sweet--fruit..........
Whistle--man.......... 1
Woman--people......... 1
Cold--ice.............
Slow--people.......... 6
Wish--dead............19
River--lakes..........
White--foam...........17
Beautiful--man........ 1
Window--glass.........
Rough--people......... 6
Citizen--man.......... 1
Foot--people.......... 6
Spider--barn..........15
Needle--clothes.......
Red--blood............
Sleep--bed............
Anger--angry..........
Carpet--stores........19
Girl--ladies.......... 2
High--mountain........
Working--people....... 6
Sour--fruit...........
Earth--clay...........
Trouble--bad.......... 1
Soldier--man.......... 1
Cabbage--field........
Hard--case............19
Eagle--bird...........
Stomach--man.......... 1
Stem--pipe............
Lamp--fire............
Dream--bad............ 1
Yellow--chair.........15
Bread--rye............
Justice--right........
Boy--bad.............. 1
Light--ship...........19
Health--pig...........19
Bible--man............ 6
Memory--mind..........
Sheep--mutton.........
Bath--water...........
Cottage--house........
Swift--ship...........15
Blue--lines...........17
Hungry--people........ 6
Priest--man........... 1
Ocean--deep...........
Head--bad............. 9
Stove--wood...........
Long--trees........... 2
Religion--form........19
Whiskey--apples.......17
Child--people......... 1
Bitter--apples........
Hammer--axe...........
Thirsty--drink........
City--towns...........

Square--measurement...
Butter--cows..........
Doctor--person........ 1
Loud--people.......... 1
Thief--person......... 1
Lion--animal..........
Joy--person........... 9
Bed--man.............. 6
Heavy--mountain.......
Tobacco--growing......
Baby--person.......... 1
Moon--people.......... 6
Scissors--cutting.....
Quiet--mind...........
Green--cloud..........19
Salt--planting........13
Street--walk..........
King--human...........19
Cheese--milk..........
Blossom--flowers......
Afraid--human.........15

CASE No. 01218.--E.M. Repetition of words previously given;
non-specific reactions.

Table--tablecloth.....
Dark--dog.............
Music--figure.........17
Sickness--drink.......17
Man--people........... 1
Deep--pull............19
Soft--light...........
Eating--think......... 1
Mountain--well........13
House--plumber........17
Black--horse..........
Mutton--park..........19
Comfort--nice......... 1
Hand--use............. 1
Short--long...........
Fruit--figs...........
Butterfly--cloth......19
Smooth--nice.......... 1
Command--pleasant..... 6
Chair--wash...........19
Sweet--sour...........
Whistle--mug..........19
Woman--pear...........19
Cold--warm............
Slow--quickness.......
Wish--nice............ 1
River--pleasant....... 1
White--use............ 6
Beautiful--comfort....19
Window--looks......... 2
Rough--pleasant....... 6
Citizen--comfort......15
Foot--help............
Spider--wake..........19
Needle--use........... 1
Red--look.............15
Sleep--good........... 1
Anger--no.............12
Carpet--make..........19
Girl--happy........... 9
High--nice............ 6
Working--pleasant..... 1
Sour--bag.............19
Earth--ground.........
Trouble--good......... 6
Soldier--clothes......
Cabbage--eat..........
Hard--good............ 1
Eagle--pleasant....... 6
Stomach--hurt.........
Stem--use............. 1
Lamp--lighted.........
Dream--pleasant....... 1
Yellow--wake..........15
Bread--making.........
Justice--help.........
Boy--pleasant......... 6
Light--big............19
Health--nice.......... 6
Bible--use............ 1
Memory--no............12
Sheep--pleasant....... 1
Bath--good............ 6
Cottage--useful.......
Swift--quick..........
Blue--good............ 1
Hungry--sour..........15
Priest--good.......... 1
Ocean--useful......... 6
Head--nice............ 6
Stove--lighted........ 2
Long--lake............19
Religion--pleasant.... 6
Whiskey--use.......... 6
Child--help........... 6
Bitter--sour..........
Hammer--stick.........19
Thirsty--drink........
City--handy...........19
Square--pleasant...... 6
Butter--useful........ 1
Doctor--help..........
Loud--make............15
Thief--punish......... 2
Lion--bad............. 9
Joy--happy............ 1
Bed--pleasant......... 1
Heavy--light..........
Tobacco--pleasant..... 1
Baby--help............ 6
Moon--sun.............
Scissors--pleasant.... 6
Quiet--sleep..........
Green--beans..........10
Salt--handy...........15
Street--make..........15
King--nice............ 6
Cheese--good.......... 1
Blossom--pleasant..... 1
Afraid--will..........19

CASE No. 4989.--C.H. Repetition of words previously given;
non-specific reactions; particles.

Table--work........... 1
Dark--true............19
Music--pleasant....... 1
Sickness--well........
Man--absent...........19
Deep--together........12
Soft--plenty.......... 6
Eating--good.......... 1
Mountain--together....12
House--one............12
Black--America........19
Mutton--vegetable..... 2
Comfort--sleep........
Hand--nothing.........19
Short--never..........12
Fruit--vegetable......
Butterfly--bird.......
Smooth--large......... 9
Command--willing......
Chair--good........... 6
Sweet--always......... 6
Whistle--music........
Woman--one............12
Cold--medium.......... 6
Slow--quick...........
Wish--hope............
River--lake...........
White--always......... 6
Beautiful--medium..... 6
Window--open..........
Rough--smooth.........
Citizen--American.....
Foot--two.............
Spider--butterfly.....
Needle--steel.........
Red--color............
Sleep--plenty.........
Anger--never..........
Carpet--floor.........
Girl--five............12
High--medium..........
Working--always.......
Sour--never........... 6
Earth--cultivate......17
Trouble--none.........
Soldier--willing......15
Cabbage--vegetable....
Hard--seldom..........12
Eagle--American.......
Stomach--no...........12
Stem--one.............12
Lamp--burning.........
Dream--always......... 6
Yellow--sometimes.....12
Bread--soft...........
Justice--always.......
Boy--two..............12
Light--plenty.........
Health--plenty........
Bible--Catholic.......17
Memory--good.......... 1
Sheep--wool...........
Bath--good............ 1
Cottage--plenty....... 6
Swift--medium......... 6
Blue--never........... 6
Hungry--seldom........ 6
Priest--good.......... 1
Ocean--three..........12
Head--good............ 1
Stove--burning........
Long--medium..........
Religion--willing.....15
Whiskey--some.........19
Child--good........... 1
Bitter--never......... 6
Hammer--tool..........
Thirsty--seldom....... 6
City--New York........
Square--always........ 6
Better--good.......... 1
Doctor--good.......... 1
Loud--medium.......... 6
Thief--none...........
Lion--animal..........
Joy--plenty........... 6
Bed--good............. 1
Heavy--medium......... 6
Tobacco--yes..........12
Baby--more............19
Moon--bright..........
Scissors--sharp.......
Quiet--plenty......... 6
Green--good........... 6
Salt--little..........19
Street--lots..........18
King--none............
Cheese--seldom........ 6
Blossom--always....... 6
Afraid--sometimes.....15

CASE No. 4847.--C.C. Distraction

Table--eat............
Dark--lock............10
Music--fiddle.........
Sickness--doctors..... 2
Man--woman............ 1
Deep--water...........
Soft--snow............
Eating--oats..........17
Mountain--spray.......19
House--building.......
Black--red............15
Mutton--meat.......... 9
Comfort--red..........15
Hand--people.......... 9
Short--world..........19
Fruit--age............18
Butterfly--bird.......
Smooth--eggs..........18
Command--cake.........19
Chair--world..........15
Sweet--cherries.......
Whistle--peaches......18
Woman--children.......
Cold--summer..........17
Slow--brother.........19
Wish--pear............19
River--orange.........18
White--black..........
Beautiful--red........13
Window--door..........
Rough--table..........
Citizen--couch........19
Foot--arm.............
Spider--fly...........
Needle--scissors......17
Red--blue.............
Sleep--pink...........13
Anger--box............19
Carpet--rug...........
Girl--boy.............
High--play............
Working--cup..........19
Sour--bread...........17
Earth--picture........19
Trouble--soap.........19
Soldier--towel........18
Cabbage--turnip.......
Hard--tree............
Eagle--clock..........19
Stomach--eat..........
Stem--soap............15
Lamp--oil.............
Dream--glass..........13

Yellow--bottle........18
Bread--soap...........15
Justice--pencil.......19
Boy--picture..........15
Light--darkness.......
Health--washstand.....19
Bible--book...........
Memory--saucer........19
Sheep--chair..........19
Bath--bureau..........14

Cottage--pan..........19
Swift--towel..........15
Blue--wash............ 2
Hungry--eat...........
Priest--church........
Ocean--beans..........19
Head--prunes..........18
Stove--cook...........
Long--fig.............19
Religion--church......
Whiskey--tea..........17
Child--people......... 1
Bitter--stomach.......19
Hammer--tack..........
Thirsty--peach........15
City--box.............15
Square--soap..........15
Butter--lard..........
Doctor--sick..........
Loud--head............19
Thief--cup............15
Lion--bottle..........15
Joy--pitcher..........19
Bed--sheet............
Heavy--blanket........13
Tobacco--mustard......19
Baby--pepper..........18
Moon--heater..........19
Scissors--string......
Quiet--lace...........19
Green--red............
Salt--soda............17
Street--soldier.......19
King--box.............15
Cheese--cake..........
Blossom--shell........19
Afraid--blotter.......19

CASE No. 3597.--L.T. Some neologisms, all possessing obvious meaning.

Table--stand..........
Dark--light...........
Music--instrument.....
Sickness--health......
Man--female...........
Deep--detableness..... 4
Soft--hard............
Eating--starving......
Mountain--isthmus.....17
House--building.......
Black--white..........
Mutton--beef..........
Comfort--patient......
Hand--leg.............
Short--long...........
Fruit--vegetable......
Butterfly--spider.....
Smooth--coarse........
Command--thought...... 1
Chair--utensil........19
Sweet--sour...........
Whistle--trumpet......
Woman--man............ 1
Cold--warm............
Slow--quick...........
Wish--command.........
River--lake...........
White--black..........
Beautiful--pretty..... 1
Window--door..........
Rough--straight.......
Citizen--tramp........19
Foot--arm.............
Spider--fly...........
Needle--pin...........
Red--blue.............
Sleep--awake..........
Anger--patient........ 2
Carpet--rug...........
Girl--servant.........
High--low.............
Working--laziness.....
Sour--sweet...........
Earth--hemisphere.....
Trouble--goodness..... 9
Soldier--merchant.....17
Cabbage--pumpkin......17
Hard--tight...........
Eagle--hawk...........
Stomach--abdomen......
Stem--leaf............
Lamp--lantern.........
Dream--nightmare......
Yellow--lavender......17
Bread--pastry.........
Justice--badness...... 2
Boy--child............
Light--darkness.......
Health--sickness......
Bible--testament......
Memory--remember......
Sheep--lamb...........
Bath--dirtiness....... 2
Cottage--building.....
Swift--quickly........
Blue--redness......... 2
Hungry--starving......
Priest--minister......
Ocean--sea............
Head--topness......... 4
Stove--cooking........
Long--shorter......... 2
Religion--wickedness..
Whiskey--medicine.....
Child--daughter.......
Bitter--sweetness..... 2
Hammer--pickaxe.......17
Thirsty--drinkness.... 4
City--village.........
Square--strightness... 2
Butter--syrup.........17
Doctor--queen.........19
Loud--low.............
Thief--burglar........
Lion--tiger...........
Joy--enjoyable........ 2
Bed--bedstead.........
Heavy--lightness......
Tobacco--sweetness.... 2
Baby--infant..........
Moon--sun.............
Scissors--shears......
Quite--noiseness...... 4
Green--greenbill...... 3
Salt--sugar...........
Street--island........19
King--nephew..........19
Cheese--curdness...... 4
Blossom--bud..........
Afraid--knowledgeable. 4

GENERAL PARESIS.

Cases presenting no considerable dementia or confusion and cases in a
state of remission are apt to give normal test records. As we proceed
from the records of such cases to those of cases showing mental
deterioration we observe a gradual reduction in the values of
reactions, contraction of the mental horizon,[1] and the appearance of
the phenomenon of perseveration. We submit the following test records
for illustration:

[Footnote 1: What we mean by contraction of the mental horizon has
already been described in connection with epilepsy, page 47.]

CASE No. 4047.--C.A.F. Almost complete remission of all mental
symptoms. Normal record.

Table--dish...........
Dark--light...........
Music--sound..........
Sickness--disease.....
Man--woman............ 1
Deep--fathomless......
Soft--sweet...........
Eating--food..........
Mountain--high........
House--barn...........
Black--color..........
Mutton--meat..........
Comfort--ease.........
Hand--foot............
Short--long...........
Fruit--sweet..........
Butterfly--moth.......
Smooth--rough.........
Command--order........
Chair--leg............
Sweet--pleasant....... 1
Whistle--sound........
Woman--female.........
Cold--ice.............
Slow--languid.........17
Wish--desire..........
River--long...........
White--color..........
Beautiful--fair.......
Window--glass.........
Rough--smooth.........
Citizen--voter........
Foot--toe.............
Spider--fly...........
Needle--sharp.........
Red--color............
Sleep--slumber........
Anger--rage...........
Carpet--sweep.........
Girl--maiden..........
High--lofty...........
Working--toiling......
Sour--distasteful.....
Earth--ground.........
Trouble--sorrow.......
Soldier--fighter......
Cabbage--leaf.........
Hard--easy............
Eagle--fly............
Stomach--food.........
Stem--petal...........
Lamp--light...........
Dream--slumber........
Yellow--color.........
Bread--eat............
Justice--judgment.....
Boy--youth............
Light--lamp...........
Health--nature........17
Bible--holy...........
Memory--remember......
Sheep--lamb...........
Bath--water...........
Cottage--house........
Swift--fast...........
Blue--color...........
Hungry--famished......
Priest--holy..........
Ocean--sea............
Head--top.............
Stove--fire...........
Long--short...........
Religion--holy........
Whiskey--drink........
Child--infant.........
Bitter--sour..........
Hammer--knock.........
Thirsty--drink........
City--town............
Square--round.........
Butter--eat...........
Doctor--physician.....
Loud--knock...........
Thief--steal..........
Lion--tiger...........
Joy--happiness........ 1
Bed--sleep............
Heavy--weigh..........
Tobacco--smoke........
Baby--child...........
Moon--stars...........
Scissors--cut.........
Quiet--soft...........
Green--color..........
Salt--food............
Street--lane..........
King--queen...........
Cheese--eat...........
Blossom--flower.......
Afraid--fear..........

CASE No. 6660.--F.F. Repetition of words previously given;
non-specific reactions; unclassified reactions some of which are
"circumstantial" (see page 25).

Table--bureau.........19
Dark--boats........... 2
Music--piano..........
Sickness--doctor......
Man--sober............19
Deep--cellar..........
Soft--easy............
Eating--chewing.......
Mountain--climb.......
House--tenants........ 2
Black--color..........
Mutton--meat..........
Comfort--easy.........
Hand--use............. 1
Short--stump.......... 2
Fruit--nice........... 1
Butterfly--like....... 6
Smooth--clean.........
Command--faithful.....17
Chair--easy...........
Sweet--like........... 6
Whistle--good......... 6
Woman--like........... 6
Cold--medicine........
Slow--I...............12
Wish--like............
River--boats..........
White--sheet..........
Beautiful--flowers....
Window--red...........14
Rough--streets........ 2
Citizen--honest.......
Foot--walking.........
Spider--kill..........10
Needle--sew...........
Red--nice............. 6
Sleep--rest...........
Anger--cross..........
Carpet--good.......... 6
Girl--nice............ 1
High--good............ 1
Working--well.........19
Sour--bitter..........
Earth--property.......19
Trouble--fighting.....
Soldier--good......... 1
Cabbage--eat..........
Hard--sorry...........19
Eagle--good........... 6
Stomach--good......... 1
Stem--fair............19
Lamp--use............. 1
Dream--now............12
Yellow--color.........
Bread--good........... 1
Justice--fine......... 1
Boy--good............. 1
Light--good........... 1
Health--right.........19
Bible--home...........
Memory--good.......... 1
Sheep--like........... 6
Bath--good............ 1
Cottage--fine......... 1
Swift--go.............
Blue--nice............ 6
Hungry--bad........... 1
Priest--Father........
Ocean--boats..........
Head--brains..........
Stove--heat...........
Long--streets.........
Religion--Catholic....
Whiskey--bad.......... 1
Child--good........... 1
Bitter--sorrow........
Hammer--use........... 1
Thirsty--drink........
City--Brooklyn........
Squares--park......... 2
Butter--ice...........19
Doctor--cure..........
Loud--holler..........
Thief--no............. 2
Lion--no.............. 6
Joy--hope.............
Bed--rest.............
Heavy--loud...........
Tobacco--good......... 1
Baby--good............ 1
Moon--light...........
Scissors--use......... 1
Quiet--good........... 1
Green--nice........... 6
Salt--use............. 1
Street--nice.......... 1
King--right...........19
Cheese--nice.......... 1
Blossom--grow.........
Afraid--no............

CASE No. 618.--R.N. Numerous particles of speech; some unclassified
reaction, chiefly "circumstantial" (see page 25).

Table--eat............
Dark--cloudy..........
Music--fond...........19
Sickness--well........
Man--human............
Deep--ocean...........
Soft--fine............ 1
Eating--yes........... 6
Mountain--yes......... 5
House--yes............ 5
Black--yes............ 5
Mutton--yes........... 5
Comfort--yes.......... 5
Hand--finger..........
Short--yes............ 6
Fruit--yes............ 5
Butterfly--yes........ 5
Smooth--even..........
Command--obey.........
Chair--settle.........17
Sweet--bitter.........
Whistle--can't........19
Woman--lady...........
Cold--ice.............
Slow--fast............
Wish--give............
River--enjoyment......19
White--black..........
Beautiful--yes........ 6
Window--pane..........
Rough--smooth.........
Citizen--yes.......... 6
Foot--one.............12
Spider--yes........... 6
Needle--sewing........
Red--blue.............
Sleep--nap............17
Anger--willing........19
Carpet--yes........... 6
Girl--nature..........19
High--low.............
Working--artist.......17
Sour--sweet...........
Earth--world..........
Trouble--peaceful.....

Soldier--no...........12
Cabbage--vegetable....
Hard--soft............
Eagle--American.......
Stomach--condition....
Stem--post............17
Lamp--light...........
Dream--thinking....... 1
Yellow--green.........
Bread--loaf...........
Justice--yes..........
Boy--human............
Light--heaven.........
Health--wealth........
Bible--yes............ 6
Memory--yes........... 5
Sheep--animal.........
Bath--yes............. 6
Cottage--yes.......... 5
Swift--fast...........
Blue--gray............
Hungry--no............
Priest--yes........... 6
Ocean--water..........
Head--human...........
Stove--coal...........
Long--short...........
Religion--yes......... 6
Whiskey--no...........12
Child--baby...........
Bitter--sweet.........
Hammer--pincher.......17
Thirsty--drinking.....
City--population......
Square--circle........
Butter--lard..........
Doctor--physician.....
Loud--low.............
Thief--penalty........17
Lion--liar............10
Joy--welcome..........17
Bed--sleep............
Heavy--light..........
Tobacco--yes.......... 6
Baby--human...........
Moon--natural.........15
Scissors--no..........12
Quiet--yes............ 6
Green--shade..........
Salt--eat.............
Street--town..........
King--ruler...........
Cheese--eat...........
Blossom--blooming.....
Afraid--scared........

CASE No. 6518.--C.Z. Perseveration shown by numerous instances of
association to preceding reaction.

Table--horse..........19
Dark--wren............10
Music--lark...........18
Sickness--cold........
Man--woman............ 1
Deep--sea.............
Soft--hard............
Eating--drinking......
Mountain--fountain....
House--barn...........
Black--stable.........13
Mutton--cow...........
Comfort--horse........18
Hand--lamb............
Short--calf...........
Fruit--apples.........
Butterfly--oranges.... 2
Smooth--peaches.......18
Command--plums........18
Chair--bench..........
sweet--sugar..........
Whistle--drum.........17
Woman--man............ 1
Cold--hot.............
Slow--fast............
Wish--who.............12
River--water..........
White--blue...........
Beautiful--splendid...
Window--sashes........ 2
Rough--ready..........
Citizen--Brooklyn.....
Foot--shoe............
Spider--web...........
Needle--pin...........
Red--blue.............
Sleep--awake..........
Anger--bad............ 1
Carpet--sweeper.......
Girl--boy.............
High--low.............
Working--playing......
Sour--sweet...........
Earth--ground.........
Trouble--wheelbarrow..19
Soldier--Mexican......17
Cabbage--potatoes.....
Hard--beets...........18
Eagle--carrots........18
Stomach--peas.........18
Stem--peas............ 5
Lamp--burning.........
Dream--happy.......... 1
Yellow--blue..........
Bread--green..........12
Justice--freedom......
Boy--girl.............
Light--burning........
Health--strength......
Bible--prayerbook.....
Memory--thoughts...... 1
Sheep--lamb...........
Bath--water...........
Cottage--house........
Swift--whist..........10
Blue--red.............
Hungry--eating........
Priest--Father........
Ocean--mother.........18
Head--brother.........18
Stove--sister.........18
Long--freedom.........15
Religion--smart.......19
Whiskey--wine.........
Child--lamb...........19
Bitter--goat..........18
Hammer--nails.........
Thirsty--dry..........
City--talking.........19
Square--inches........
Butter--cheese........
Doctor--bread.........13
Loud--oranges.........15
Thief--almonds........18
Lion--apples..........18
Joy--grapes...........18
Bed--peaches..........18
Heavy--cranberries....18
Tobacco--grapes.......18
Baby--watermelon......18
Moon--muskmelons......18
Scissors--citrons.....10
Quiet--squashes.......18
Green--pumpkins.......18
Salt--cucumbers.......18
Street--tomatoes......18
Kings--pears..........18
Cheese--apples........18
Blossom--cherries.....
Afraid--gooseberries..18

CASE No. 5329.--B.W. Perseveration; record almost entirely made up of
instances of association to preceding reaction.

Table--San Francisco...19
Dark--comprehensible...19
Music--sinking.........
Sickness--Brooklyn.....19
Man--woman............. 1
Deep--amazing..........19
Soft--pleasant......... 9
Eating--digesting......
Mountain--gulf.........17
House--peninsula.......18
Black--Constantinople..18
Mutton--Bermuda........18
Comfort--Los Angeles...18
Hand--Cuba.............18
Short--cities..........18
Fruit--Iowa............18
Butterfly--England.....18
Smooth--Russia.........18
Command--Turkey........18
Chair--Manila..........18
Sweet--Porto Rico......18
Whistle--Washington....18
Woman--Cincinnati......18
Cold--Pittsburg........18
Slow--Philadelphia.....
Wish--Milwaukee........18
River--St. Louis.......18
White--Japan...........18
Beautiful--China.......18
Window--Berlin.........18
Rough--Glasgow.........18
Citizen--London........18
Foot--Dublin...........18
Spider--Sacramento.....18
Needle--Texas..........18
Red--North Carolina....18
Sleep--Florida.........18
Anger--Seattle.........18
Carpet--Nevada.........18
Girl--Iowa.............15
High--Virginia.........18
Working--Louisiana.....18
Sour--Hawaii...........18
Earth--Connecticut.....18
Trouble--Rhode Island..18
Soldier--Vermont.......18
Cabbage--Massachusetts.18
Hard--Hudson...........18
Eagle--East River......18
Stomach--Staten Island.18
Stem--Kings Park.......18
Lamp--Fort Lee.........18
Dream--Long Island.....18
Yellow--Greenport......18
Bread--Southold........18
Justice--Northport.....18
Boy--New Jersey........18
Light--Rome............18
Health--Italy..........18
Bible--Episcopal.......17
Memory--Methodist......18
Sheep--Congregational..18
Bath--Baptist..........18
Cottage--minister......18
Swift--physician.......18
Blue--horse............18
Hungry--cow............18
Priest--Catholics.......
Ocean--lake.............
Head--bay...............13
Stove--sound............18
Long--Island............
Religion--Boston........18
Whiskey--Harvard........18
Child--Yale.............18
Bitter--Columbia........18
Hammer--library.........18
Thirsty--Carnegie.......18
City--Rockefeller.......18
Square--Harriman........18
Butter--Leggitt.........18
Doctor--Lincoln.........18
Loud--Roosevelt.........18
Thief--Taft.............18
Lion--Gaynor............18
Joy--Slocum.............18
Bed--Grant..............18
Heavy--McClellan........18
Tobacco--Spain..........19
Baby--New London........18
Moon--Newburgh..........18
Scissors--Troy..........18
Quiet--Schenectady......18
Green--Lake George......18
Salt--Vienna............18
Street--Alsace Lorraine.18
King--Garfield..........17
Cheese--McKinley........18
Blossom--Bryan..........18
Afraid--Blaine..........18

MANIC-DEPRESSIVE INSANITY.

In this disorder the departures from the normal seem to be less
pronounced than in the psychoses considered above. The number of
individual reactions is in most cases not greatly above the normal
average; and, so far as their character is concerned, we find that
many of them are classed as normal, in accordance with the appendix to
the frequency tables; among the unclassified reactions, which are
quite frequent here, we find mostly either obviously normal ones, or
some of the type to which we have already referred as "far-fetched,"
while others among them are "circumstantial" (see p. 25); further we
find that most of the remaining individual reactions fall into the
general group of partial dissociation: non-specific reactions, sound
reactions, word complements, and particles.

In some cases the only abnormality that is found is that of an undue
tendency to respond by non-specific reactions, most of them being
common and there being no excessive number of individual reactions. It
would seem legitimate to assume that this tendency is here to be
regarded as a manifestation of the phenomenon which is clinically
described as _dearth of ideas_. It is significant that this
tendency is observed not only in depressive phases of the psychosis,
but also in manic phases and even in the normal intervals of recurrent
cases or after apparent recovery in acute cases; this will be seen
from some of the test records which are here reproduced.

Occasionally cases are met with which give a large number of
unclassified reactions, seemingly incoherent. There can be no doubt
that at least some of these cases are clinically perfectly typical
ones of manic-depressive insanity, yet the test records strongly
resemble, in some respects, those of dementia praecox.

Since clinically the distinction between typical cases of these
psychoses can be so clearly made on the basis of the disorders of the
flow of thought respectively characterizing them, it could hardly be
assumed that the associational disturbances in these two groups of
cases are truly related, although there may be an apparent
resemblance; it must be acknowledged that we are here confronted with
one of the most serious shortcomings of the association test, or at
least of the present method of applying it.

CASE No. 5236.--M.B. Depressive attack. Normal record.

Table--eat............
Dark--night...........
Music--play...........
Sickness--death.......
Man--health...........13
Deep--depth...........
Soft--hard............
Eating--chewing.......
Mountain--high........
House--living.........
Black--color..........
Mutton--sheep.........
Comfort--kind......... 2
Hand--body............
Short--small.......... 1
Fruit--garden.........
Butterfly--spring.....
Smooth--rough.........
Command--obey.........
Chair--sit............
Sweet--apple..........
Whistle--music........
Woman--land...........
Cold--chilly..........
Slow--easy............
Wish--want............
River--water..........
White--color..........
Beautiful--grand......
Window--light.........
Rough--smooth.........
Citizen--man.......... 1
Foot--body............
Spider--animal........
Needle--sew...........
Red--color............
Sleep--rest...........
Anger--badness........ 2
Carpet--floor.........
Girl--young...........
High--low.............
Working--busy.........
Sour--sweet...........
Earth--live...........
Trouble--grief........
Soldier--army.........
Cabbage--garden.......
Hard--stone...........
Eagle--bird...........
Stomach--body.........
Stem--plant...........
Lamp--light...........
Dream--sleep..........
Yellow--color.........
Bread--eat............
Justice--kind......... 2
Boy--young............
Light--day............
Health--strength......
Bible--Christ.........
Memory--think......... 1
Sheep--mutton.........
Bath--clean...........
Cottage--live.........
Swift--run............
Blue--color...........
Hungry--food..........
Priest--clergy........
Ocean--water..........
Head--body............
Stove--fire...........
Long--tall............
Religion--teaching....
Whiskey--drink........
Child--young..........
Bitter--sweet.........
Hammer--nail..........
Thirsty--drink........
City--town............
Square--four..........
Butter--eat...........
Doctor--medicine......
Loud--noise...........
Thief--steal..........
Lion--beast...........

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