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A Short History of the United States by Edward Channing

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that the North was fighting for the rights of free labor. At times it
seemed, however, as if Great Britain or France would interfere.

[Sidenote: Southern agents sent to Europe.]

[Sidenote: Removed from the _Trent_.]

[Sidenote: Lincoln's opinion.]

[Sidenote: Action of Great Britain.]

405. The Trent Affair, 1861.--As soon as the blockade was
established, the British and French governments gave the Confederates
the same rights in their ports as the United States had. The Southerners
then sent two agents, Mason and Slidell, to Europe to ask the foreign
governments to recognize the independence of the Confederate states.
Captain Wilkes of the United States ship _San Jacinto_ took these agents
from the British steamer _Trent_. But Lincoln at once said that Wilkes
had done to the British the very thing which we had fought the War of
1812 to prevent the British doing to us. "We must stick to American
principles," said the President, "and restore the prisoners." They were
given up. But the British government, without waiting to see what
Lincoln would do, had gone actively to work to prepare for war. This
seemed so little friendly that the people of the United States were
greatly irritated.

[Sidenote: The war powers of the President.]

[Sidenote: Lincoln follows Northern sentiment.]

406. Lincoln and Slavery.--It will be remembered that the
Republican party had denied again and again that it had any intention to
interfere with slavery in the states. As long as peace lasted the
Federal government could not interfere with slavery in the states. But
when war broke out, the President, as commander-in-chief, could do
anything to distress and weaken the enemy. If freeing the slaves in the
seceded states would injure the secessionists, he had a perfect right to
do it. But Lincoln knew that public opinion in the North would not
approve this action. He would follow Northern sentiment in this matter,
and not force it.

[Sidenote: The contrabands.]

407. Contrabands of War.--he war had scarcely begun before slaves
escaped into the Union lines. One day a Confederate officer came to
Fortress Monroe and demanded his runaway slaves under the Fugitive Slave
Act (p. 281). General Butler refused to give them up on the ground that
they were "contraband of war." By that phrase he meant that their
restoration would be illegal as their services would be useful to the
enemy. President Lincoln approved this decision of General Butler, and
escaping slaves soon came to be called "Contrabands."

[Illustration: A WAR-TIME ENVELOPE.]

[Sidenote: Abolition with compensation.]

408. First Steps toward Emancipation, 1862.--Lincoln and the
Republican party thought that Congress could not interfere with slavery
in the states. It might, however, buy slaves and set them free or help
the states to do this. So Congress passed a law offering aid to any
state which should abolish slavery within its borders. Congress itself
abolished slavery in the District of Columbia with compensation to the
owners. It abolished slavery in the territories without compensation.
Lincoln had gladly helped to make these laws. Moreover, by August, 1862,
he had made up his mind that to free the slaves in the seceded states
would help "to save the Union" and would therefore be right as a "war
measure." For every negro taken away from forced labor would weaken the
producing power of the South and so make the conquest of the
South easier.

[Sidenote: Lincoln's warning, September, 1862.]

[Sidenote: Emancipation Proclamation, January 1, 1863. _Higginson_,
304-305; _Source-Book_, 315-318, 327-329.]

409. The Emancipation Proclamation, 1863.--On September 23, 1862,
Lincoln issued a proclamation stating that on the first day of the new
year he would declare free all slaves in any portion of the United
States then in rebellion. On January 1, 1863, he issued the Emancipation
Proclamation. This proclamation could be enforced only in those portions
of the seceded states which were held by the Union armies. It did not
free slaves in loyal states and did not abolish the institution of
slavery anywhere. Slavery was abolished by the states of West Virginia,
Missouri, and Maryland between 1862 and 1864. Finally, in 1865, it was
abolished throughout the United States by the adoption of the Thirteenth
Amendment (p. 361).

[Sidenote: Northern friends of secession.]

[Sidenote: Suspension of _habeas corpus._]

410. Northern Opposition to the War.--Many persons in the North
thought that the Southerners had a perfect right to secede if they
wished. Some of these persons sympathized so strongly with the
Southerners that they gave them important information and did all they
could to prevent the success of the Union forces. It was hard to prove
anything against these Southern sympathizers, but it was dangerous to
leave them at liberty. So Lincoln ordered many of them to be arrested
and locked up. Now the Constitution provides that every citizen shall
have a speedy trial. This is brought about by the issuing a writ of
_habeas corpus_, compelling the jailer to bring his prisoner into court
and show cause why he should not be set at liberty. Lincoln now
suspended the operation of the writ of _habeas corpus_. This action
angered many persons who were quite willing that the Southerners should
be compelled to obey the law, but did not like to have their neighbors
arrested and locked up without trial.

[Illustration: THE DRAFT.]

[Sidenote: The draft.]

[Sidenote: Riots in the North.]

411. The Draft Riots.--At the outset both armies were made up of
volunteers; soon there were not enough volunteers. Both governments then
drafted men for their armies; that is, they picked out by lot certain
men and compelled them to become soldiers. The draft was bitterly
resisted in some parts of the North, especially in New York City.



[Sidenote: Position of the armies.]

412. Position of the Armies, January, 1863.--The Army of the
Potomac, now under Hooker, and the Army of Northern Virginia were face
to face at Fredericksburg on the Rappahannock. In the West Rosecrans was
at Murfreesboro', and Bragg on the way back to Chattanooga. In the
Mississippi Valley Grant and Sherman had already begun the Vicksburg
campaign. But as yet they had had no success.

[Sidenote: Grant's Vicksburg Campaign, 1863. _Hero Tales_, 239-248.]

413. Beginnings of the Vicksburg Campaign.--Vicksburg stood on the
top of a high bluff directly on the river. Batteries erected at the
northern end of the town commanded the river, which at that point ran
directly toward the bluff. The best way to attack this formidable place
was to proceed overland from Corinth. This Grant tried to do. But the
Confederates forced him back.

[Sidenote: Siege of Vicksburg. _Source-Book_, 320-323.]

[Sidenote: Surrender of Vicksburg, July 4, 1863.]

414. Fall of Vicksburg, July 4, 1863.--Grant now carried his whole
army down the Mississippi. For months he tried plan after plan, and
every time he failed. Finally he marched his army down on the western
side of the river, crossed the river below Vicksburg, and approached the
fortress from the south and east. In this movement he was greatly aided
by the Union fleet under Porter, which protected the army while crossing
the river. Pemberton, the Confederate commander, at once came out from
Vicksburg. But Grant drove him back and began the siege of the town from
the land side. The Confederates made a gallant defense. But slowly and
surely they were starved into submission. On July 4, 1863, Pemberton
surrendered the fortress and thirty-seven thousand men.

[Sidenote: Port Hudson surrendered.]

[Sidenote: Opening of the Mississippi.]

415. Opening of the Mississippi.--Port Hudson, between Vicksburg
and New Orleans, was now the only important Confederate position on the
Mississippi. On July 8 it surrendered. A few days later the freight
steamer _Imperial_ from St. Louis reached New Orleans. The Mississippi
at last "flowed unvexed to the sea." The Confederacy was cut in twain.

[Sidenote: Chancellorsville, May, 1863. _Hero Tales_, 213-223.]

[Sidenote: Lee invades Pennsylvania.]

[Sidenote: Meade in command.]

416. Lee's Second Invasion, 1863.--"Fighting Joe Hooker" was now in
command of the Army of the Potomac. Outwitting Lee, he gained the rear
of the Confederate lines on Marye's Heights, But Lee fiercely attacked
him at Chancellorsville and drove him back across the Rappahannock. Then
Lee again crossed the Potomac and invaded the North. This time he
penetrated to the heart of Pennsylvania. Hooker moved on parallel lines,
always keeping between Lee and the city of Washington. At length, in the
midst of the campaign, Hooker asked to be relieved, and George G. Meade
became the fifth and last chief of the Army of the Potomac.


[Sidenote: Lee retires.]

[Sidenote: Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863.]

417. Gettysburg, July 1, 1863.--Meade now moved the Union army
toward Lee's line of communication with Virginia. Lee at once drew
back. Both armies moved toward Gettysburg, where the roads leading
southward came together. In this way the two armies came into contact on
July i, 1863. The Southerners were in stronger force at the moment and
drove the Union soldiers back through the town to the high land called
Cemetery Ridge. This was a remarkably strong position, with Culp's Hill
at one end of the line and the Round Tops at the other end. Meade
determined to fight the battle at that spot and hurried up all
his forces.

[Illustration: MAP: Battle of Gettysburg.]

[Sidenote: The second day.]

418. Gettysburg, July 2, 1863.--At first matters seemed to go badly
with the Union army. Its left flank extended forward from Little Round
Top into the fields at the foot of the ridge. The Confederates drove
back this part of the Union line. But they could not seize Little Round
Top. On this day also the Confederates gained a foothold on Culp's Hill.

[Sidenote: The third day. _Source-Book_, 323-327.]

[Sidenote: Pickett's charge. _Hero Tales_, 227-236.]

[Sidenote: It fails.]

[Sidenote: Lee retreats, July 4, 1863.]

419. Gettysburg, July 3, 1863.--Early on this morning the Union
soldiers drove the Confederates away from Culp's Hill and held the whole
ridge. Now again, as at Malvern Hill (p. 321), Lee had fought the Army
of the Potomac to a standstill. But he would not admit failure. Led by
Pickett of Virginia, thirteen thousand men charged across the valley
between the two armies directly at the Union center. Some of them even
penetrated the Union lines. But there the line stopped. Slowly it began
to waver. Then back the Confederates went--all who escaped. The battle
of Gettysburg was won. Lee faced the Army of the Potomac for another day
and then retreated. In this tremendous conflict the Confederates lost
twenty-two thousand five hundred men killed and wounded and five
thousand taken prisoners by the Northerners--a total loss of
twenty-eight thousand out of eighty thousand in the battle. The Union
army numbered ninety-three thousand men and lost twenty-three thousand,
killed and wounded. Vicksburg and Gettysburg cost the South sixty-five
thousand fighting men--a loss that could not be made good. We must now
turn to eastern Tennessee.

[Sidenote: Rosecrans and Bragg, 1863.]

[Sidenote: Chickamauga, September, 1863.]

[Sidenote: Thomas and Sheridan.]

[Sidenote: Grant in command in the West.]

420. Chickamauga, September, 1863.--For six months after
Murfreesboro' (p. 326) Rosecrans and Bragg remained in their camps. In
the summer of 1863 Rosecrans, by a series of skillful marchings, forced
Bragg to abandon Chattanooga. But Bragg was now greatly strengthened by
soldiers from the Mississippi and by Longstreet's division from Lee's
army in Virginia. He turned on Rosecrans, and attacked him at
Chickamauga Creek. The right wing of the Union army was driven from the
field. But Thomas, "the Rock of Chickamauga," with his men stood fast.
Bragg attacked him again and again, and failed every time, although he
had double Thomas's numbers. Rosecrans, believing the battle to be
lost, had ridden off to Chattanooga, but Sheridan aided Thomas as well
as he could. The third day Thomas and Bragg kept their positions, and
then the Union soldiers retired unpursued to Chattanooga. The command of
the whole army at Chattanooga was now given to Thomas, and Grant was
placed in control of all the Western armies.

[Illustration: GENERAL THOMAS.]

[Sidenote: Sherman's attack.]

[Sidenote: Hooker's attack.]

[Sidenote: Thomas's attack.]

[Sidenote: Rout of the Confederates, November, 1863.]

421. Chattanooga, November, 1863.--The Union soldiers at
Chattanooga were in great danger. For the Confederates were all about
them and they could get no food. But help was at hand. Hooker, with
fifteen thousand men from the Army of the Potomac, arrived and opened a
road by which food could reach Chattanooga. Then Grant came with
Sherman's corps from Vicksburg. He at once sent Sherman to assail
Bragg's right flank and ordered Hooker to attack his left flank. Sherman
and his men advanced until he was stopped by a deep ravine. At the
other end of the line Hooker fought right up the side of Lookout
Mountain, until the battle raged above the clouds. In the center were
Thomas's men. Eager to avenge the slaughter of Chickamauga, they carried
the first Confederate line of defenses. Then, without orders, they
rushed up the hillside over the inner lines. They drove the Southerners
from their guns and seized their works. Bragg retreated as well as he
could. Longstreet was besieging Knoxville. He escaped through the
mountains to Lee's army in Virginia.


THE END OF THE WAR, 1864-1865

[Sidenote: Grant in chief command.]

[Sidenote: Sherman commands in the West.]

422. Grant in Command of all the Armies.--The Vicksburg and
Chattanooga campaigns marked out Grant for the chief command. Hitherto
the Union forces had acted on no well-thought-out plan. Now Grant was
appointed Lieutenant General and placed in command of all the armies of
the United States (March, 1864). He decided to carry on the war in
Virginia in person. Western operations he intrusted to Sherman, with
Thomas in command of the Army of the Cumberland. Sheridan came with
Grant to Virginia and led the cavalry of the Army of the Potomac. We
will first follow Sherman and Thomas and the Western armies.

[Illustration: GENERAL SHERMAN.]

[Sidenote: Sherman's army.]

[Sidenote: The march to Atlanta.]

[Sidenote: Hood attacks Sherman.]

423. The Atlanta Campaign, 1864.--Sherman had one hundred thousand
veterans, led by Thomas, McPherson, and Schofield. Joseph E. Johnston,
who succeeded Bragg, had fewer men, but he occupied strongly fortified
positions. Yet week by week Sherman forced him back till, after two
months of steady fighting, Johnston found himself in the vicinity of
Atlanta. This was the most important manufacturing center in the South.
The Confederates must keep Atlanta if they possibly could. Johnston
plainly could not stop Sherman. So Hood was appointed in his place, in
the expectation that he would fight. Hood fought his best. Again and
again he attacked Sherman only to be beaten off with heavy loss. He then
abandoned Atlanta to save his army. From May to September Sherman lost
twenty-two thousand men, but the Confederates lost thirty-five thousand
men and Atlanta too.

[Sidenote: Problems of war.]

[Sidenote: Plan of the March to the Sea.]

424. Plans of Campaign.--Hood now led his army northward to
Tennessee. But Sherman, instead of following him, sent only Thomas and
Schofield. Sherman knew that the Confederacy was a mere shell. Its heart
had been destroyed. What would be the result of a grand march through
Georgia to the seacoast, and then northward through the Carolinas to
Virginia? Would not this unopposed march show the people of the North,
of the South, and of Europe that further resistance was useless? Sherman
thought that it would, and that once in Virginia he could help Grant
crush Lee. Grant agreed with Sherman and told him to carry out his
plans. But first we must see what happened to Thomas and Hood.

[Sidenote: Hood in Tennessee.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Franklin, November, 1864.]

[Sidenote: Thomas destroys Hood's army, December, 1864.]

425. Thomas and Hood, 1864.--Never dreaming that Sherman was not in
pursuit, Hood marched rapidly northward until he had crossed the
Tennessee. He then spent three weeks in resting his tired soldiers and
in gathering supplies. This delay gave Thomas time to draw in recruits.
At last Hood attacked Schofield at Franklin on November 30, 1864.
Schofield retreated to Nashville, where Thomas was with the bulk of his
army, and Hood followed. Thomas took all the time he needed to complete
his preparations. Grant felt anxious at his delay and ordered him to
fight. But Thomas would not fight until he was ready. At length, on
December 15, he struck the blow, and in two days of fighting destroyed
Hood's whole army. This was the last great battle in the West.

[Sidenote: The March to the Sea, 1864.]

[Sidenote: Fall of Savannah, December, 1864.]

426. Marching through Georgia.--Destroying the mills and factories
of Atlanta, Sherman set out for the seashore. He had sixty thousand men
with him. They were all veterans and marched along as if on a holiday
excursion. Spreading out over a line of sixty miles, they gathered
everything eatable within reach. Every now and then they would stop and
destroy a railroad. This they did by taking up the rails, heating them
in the middle on fires of burning sleepers, and then twisting them
around the nearest trees. In this way they cut a gap sixty miles long in
the railroad communication between the half-starved army of northern
Virginia and the storehouses of southern Georgia. On December 10, 1864,
Sherman reached the sea. Ten days later he captured Savannah and
presented it to the nation as a Christmas gift. Sherman and Thomas
between them had struck a fearful blow at the Confederacy. How had it
fared with Grant?

[Sidenote: Grant's plan of campaign, 1864.]

[Sidenote: Objections to it.]

427. Grant in Virginia, 1864.--Grant had with him in Virginia the
Army of the Potomac under Meade, the Ninth Corps under Burnside, and a
great cavalry force under Sheridan. In addition General Butler was on
the James River with some thirty thousand men. Lee had under his orders
about one-half as many soldiers as had Grant. In every other respect the
advantage was on his side. Grant's plan of campaign was to move by his
left from the Rappahannock southeastwardly. He expected to push Lee
southward and hoped to destroy his army. Butler, on his part, was to
move up the James. By this plan Grant could always be near navigable
water and could in this way easily supply his army with food and
military stores. The great objection to this scheme of invasion was that
it gave Lee shorter lines of march to all important points. This fact
and their superior knowledge of the country gave the Confederates an
advantage which largely made up for their lack in numbers.

[Sidenote: Battle of the Wilderness, May, 1864.]

428. The Wilderness, May, 1864.--On May 4 and 5 the Union army
crossed the Rapidan and marched southward through the Wilderness. It
soon found itself very near the scene of the disastrous battle of
Chancellorsville (p. 335). The woods were thick and full of underbrush.
Clearings were few, and the roads were fewer still. On ground like this
Lee attacked the Union army. Everything was in favor of the attacker,
for it was impossible to foresee his blows, or to get men quickly to any
threatened spot. Nevertheless Grant fought four days. Then he skillfully
removed the army and marched by his left to Spotsylvania Court House.

[Illustration: GENERAL GRANT. From a photograph taken in the field,
March, 1865. "Strong, simple, silent, ... such was he Who helped us in
our need."--LOWELL.]

[Sidenote: Spotsylvania, May, 1864.]

429. Spotsylvania, May, 1864.--Lee reached Spotsylvania first and
fortified his position. For days fearful combats went on. One point in
the Confederate line, called the Salient, was taken and retaken over and
over again. The loss of life was awful, and Grant could not push Lee
back. So on May 20 he again set out on his march by the left and
directed his army to the North Anna. But Lee was again before him and
held such a strong position that it was useless to attack him.

[Sidenote: Cold Harbor.]

[Sidenote: Blockade of Petersburg.]

430. To the James, June, 1864.--Grant again withdrew his army and
resumed his southward march. But when he reached Cold Harbor, Lee was
again strongly fortified. Both armies were now on the ground of the
Peninsular Campaign. For two weeks Grant attacked again and again. Then
on June 11 he took up his march for the last time. On June 15 the Union
soldiers reached the banks of the James River below the junction of the
Appomattox. But, owing to some misunderstanding, Petersburg had not been
seized. So Lee established himself there, and the campaign took on the
form of a siege. In these campaigns from the Rapidan to the James, Grant
lost in killed, wounded, and missing sixty thousand men. Lee's loss was
much less--how much less is not known.


[Sidenote: Importance of Petersburg.]

431. Petersburg, June-December, 1864.--Petersburg guarded the roads
leading from Richmond to the South. It was in reality a part of the
defenses of Richmond. For if these roads passed out of Confederate
control, the Confederate capital would have to be abandoned. It was
necessary for Lee to keep Petersburg. Grant, on the other hand, wished
to gain the roads south of Petersburg. He lengthened his line; but each
extension was met by a similar extension of the Confederate line. This
process could not go on forever. The Confederacy was getting worn out.
No more men could be sent to Lee. Sooner or later his line would become
so weak that Grant could break through. Then Petersburg and Richmond
must be abandoned. Two years before, when Richmond was threatened by
McClellan, Lee had secured the removal of the Army of the Potomac by a
sudden movement toward Washington (p. 321). He now detached Jubal Early
with a formidable force and sent him through the Shenandoah Valley to

[Illustration: GENERAL SHERIDAN.]

[Sidenote: Confederate attack on Washington, 1864.]

[Sidenote: Sheridan in the Valley. _Hero Tales_, 263-290.]

[Sidenote: Confederate disaster, October, 1864.]

[Sidenote: Lincoln reelected, November, 1864. _McMaster_, 425-426.]

432. Sheridan's Valley Campaigns, 1864.--The conditions now were
very unlike the conditions of 1862. Now, Grant was in command instead of
McClellan or Pope. He controlled the movements of all the armies without
interference from Washington, and he had many more men than Lee.
Without letting go his hold on Petersburg, Grant sent two army corps by
water to Washington. Early was an able and active soldier, but he
delayed his attack on Washington until soldiers came from the James. He
then withdrew to the Shenandoah Valley. Grant now gave Sheridan forty
thousand infantry and fifteen thousand cavalry, and sent him to the
Valley with orders to drive Early out and to destroy all supplies in
the Valley which could be used by another Southern army. Splendidly
Sheridan did his work. At one time, when he was away, the Confederates
surprised the Union army. But, hearing the roar of the battle, Sheridan
rode rapidly to the front. As he rode along, the fugitives turned back.
The Confederates, surprised in their turn, were swept from the field and
sent whirling up the Valley in wild confusion (October 19, 1864). Then
Sheridan destroyed everything that could be of service to another
invading army and rejoined Grant at Petersburg. In the November
following this great feat of arms, Lincoln was reelected President.

[Sidenote: Mobile Bay, 1864. _Hero Tales_, 303-322.]

[Sidenote: _Kearsarge_ and _Alabama_.]

433. The Blockade and the Cruisers, 1863-64.--The blockade had now
become stricter than ever. For by August, 1864, Farragut had carried his
fleet into Mobile Bay and had closed it to commerce. Sherman had taken
Savannah. Early in 1865 Charleston was abandoned, for Sherman had it at
his mercy, and Terry captured Wilmington. The South was now absolutely
dependent on its own resources, and the end could not be far off. On the
open sea, with England's aid a few vessels flew the Confederate flag.
The best known of these vessels was the _Alabama._ She was built in
England, armed with English guns, and largely manned by Englishmen. On
June 19, 1864, the United States ship _Kearsarge_ sank her off
Cherbourg, France. Englishmen were also building two ironclad
battleships for the Confederates. But the American minister at London,
Mr. Charles Francis Adams, said that if they were allowed to sail, it
would be "war." The English government thereupon bought the vessels.

[Illustration: ADMIRAL FARRAGUT.]

[Sidenote: Sherman's northern march, 1865.]

434. Sherman's March through the Carolinas, 1865.--Early in 1865
Sherman set out on the worst part of his great march. He now directed
his steps northward from Savannah toward Virginia. The Confederates
prepared to meet him. But Sherman set out before they expected him, and
thus gained a clear path for the first part of his journey. Joseph E.
Johnston now took command of the forces opposed to Sherman and did
everything he could to stop him. At one moment it seemed as if he might
succeed. He almost crushed the forward end of Sherman's army before the
rest of the soldiers could be brought to its rescue. But Sherman's
veterans were too old soldiers to be easily defeated. They first beat
back the enemy in front, and when another force appeared in the rear
they jumped to the other side of their field breastworks and defeated
that force also. Night then put an end to the combat, and by morning the
Union force was too strong to be attacked. Pressing on, Sherman reached
Goldsboro' in North Carolina. There he was joined by Terry from
Wilmington and by Schofield from Tennessee. Sherman now was strong
enough to beat any Confederate army. He moved to Raleigh and completely
cut Lee's communications with South Carolina and Georgia, April, 1865.

[Sidenote: Condition of Lee's army.]

[Sidenote: _Higginson_, 317.]

[Sidenote: Surrender of the Southern armies, April 1865. _Source-book_,

435. Appomattox, April, 1865.--The end of the Confederacy was now
plainly in sight. Lee's men were starving. They were constantly
deserting either to go to the aid of their perishing families or to
obtain food from the Union army. As soon as the roads were fit for
marching, Grant set his one hundred and twenty thousand men once more in
motion. His object was to gain the rear of Lee's army and to force him
to abandon Petersburg. A last despairing attack on the Union center only
increased Grant's vigor. On April 1 Sheridan with his cavalry and an
infantry corps seized Five Forks in the rear of Petersburg and could not
be driven away. Petersburg and Richmond were abandoned. Lee tried to
escape to the mountains. But now the Union soldiers marched faster than
the starving Southerners. Sheridan, outstripping them, placed his men
across their path at Appomattox Court House. There was nothing left save
surrender. The soldiers of the Army of Northern Virginia, now only
thirty-seven thousand strong, laid down their arms, April 9, 1865. Soon
Johnston surrendered, and the remaining small isolated bands of
Confederates were run down and captured.

[Sidenote: Murder of Lincoln, April 14, 1865. _Higginson_, 322-323;
_Source-book_, 333-335.]

436. Lincoln murdered, April 14, 1865.--The national armies were
victorious. President Lincoln, never grander or wiser than in the moment
of victory, alone stood between the Southern people and the Northern
extremists clamoring for vengeance. On the night of April 14 he was
murdered by a sympathizer with slavery and secession. No one old enough
to remember the morning of April 15, 1865, will ever forget the horror
aroused in the North by this unholy murder. In the beginning Lincoln
had been a party leader. In the end the simple grandeur of his nature
had won for him a place in the hearts of the American people that no
other man has ever gained. He was indeed the greatest because the most
typical of Americans. Vice-President Andrew Johnson, a war Democrat from
Tennessee, became President. The vanquished secessionists were soon to
taste the bitter dregs of the cup of defeat.

[Illustration: MAYOR'S OFFICE, APRIL 15th, 1865, Death notice of
Abraham Lincoln]


[Use maps constantly while studying this period. The maps provided in
Dodge's _Bird's-Eye View _are admirably adapted to this purpose.]


Sec. 380.--_a_. What did Lincoln say about the Union? What did he say about
slavery? What oath did Lincoln take?

_b_. Was his inaugural conciliatory to the South?

Sec.Sec. 381, 382.--_a_. What was the result of Buchanan's attempt to send
supplies to Fort Sumter?

_b_. Why did Lincoln inform the governor of South Carolina of his
determination to succor Fort Sumter?

_c_. What was the effect on Northern opinion of the attack on Fort

_d_. Could the Southerners have done otherwise than fire on the flag?

Sec.Sec. 383-385.--_a_. Why were the Virginians so divided? What resulted from
this division?

_b_. What were the "border states"? Could these states have been

_c_. Describe the especial importance of Maryland.

_d_. What oath had the officers of the United States army and navy
taken? Did Lee and other officers who resigned necessarily believe in
the right of secession? Give your reasons.


Sec.Sec. 386, 387.--_a_. State the advantages of the Southerners from the
geographical point of view.

_b_. Explain how rivers were lines of defense.

_c_. Describe carefully the plan of the Bull Run campaign.

_d_. Why was the Shenandoah Valley so important?

Sec.Sec. 388-390.--_a_. Why was McClellan placed in command of the Army of the

_b_. Of what advantage to the South were the negroes?

_c_. Describe the plan of the Peninsular Campaign. What was the great
objection to it?

Sec. 391.--_a_. Describe the _Merrimac_, the _Monitor_. Compare them with
the _Congress_.

_b_. What effect did the _Monitor-Merrimac_ fight have on McClellan's

Sec.Sec. 392, 393.--_a_ Describe the Peninsular Campaign. Why were not more
soldiers sent to McClellan?

_b_. What is meant by the phrase "change of base"?

_c_. How did Lee secure the removal of McClellan's army from the James?

Sec.Sec. 394, 395.--_a_ Why did Lee invade Maryland? _b_. Describe the battle
of Antietam, of Fredericksburg. What was the result of each of
these battles?

Sec.Sec. 396, 397.--_a_. Give an account of the early life and training of
Grant and of Thomas.

_b_. Why were the seizures of Cairo and Paducah and the battle of Mill
Springs important?

_c_. What is meant by the phrase "unconditional surrender"?

Sec.Sec. 398, 399.--_a_. Explain carefully the importance to the South of New
Orleans and the lower Mississippi.

_b_. Give an account of Farragut's early life. How did it fit him for
this work?

_c_. Describe the operations against New Orleans.

Sec. 400.--_a_. Explain carefully the plan of the campaign to Corinth Why
was Corinth important?

_b_. What quality in Grant was conspicuous at Shiloh?

Sec. 401.--_a_. What was Bragg's object in invading Kentucky? How far did
he succeed? Why was Chattanooga important?


Sec.Sec. 402, 403.--_a_. What is a blockade? What was the effect of the
blockade on the South?

_b_. Had sea power been in Southern hands, could the Union have been

_c_. Why was Charleston so difficult to capture? (Compare with the
Revolutionary War.)

Sec.Sec. 405, 406.--_a_. What help did the Southerners hope to obtain from
Great Britain and France? Why? How were their hopes disappointed?

_b_. What do you think of the action of the English mill operatives?

_c_. Describe the Trent Affair. What do you think of Lincoln's action?
Did the British government act wisely?

Sec.Sec. 406, 407.--_a_. What had the Republican party declared about slavery
in the states? What had Lincoln said in his inaugural?

_b_. How had the war altered Lincoln's power as President?

_c_. Why was it necessary for Lincoln to follow Northern sentiment?

_d_. What is contraband of war? How were the slaves contraband?

Sec.Sec. 408, 409.--_a_. What steps had already been taken by Congress toward
freeing the slaves?

_b_. How was the Emancipation Proclamation justified? Upon what would
its enforcement depend?

_c_. What slave states were not affected by this proclamation?

_d_. How was slavery as an institution abolished throughout the United

Sec.Sec. 410, 411.--_a_. Why was not the North united upon this war?

_b_. What is the force of the writ of _habeas corpus_? Why is it so

_c_. What was the "draft," and why was it necessary?


Sec.Sec. 412-415.--_a_. Explain the position of the armies at the beginning of

_b_. Why was the conquest of Vicksburg so difficult? How was it finally

_c_. What effect did the control of the Mississippi have upon the

Sec. 416.--_a_. What was Lee's object in invading Pennsylvania?

_b_. What position did the Union army keep as regards the Confederates?

Sec.Sec. 417-419.--_a_. Describe the battle-field of Gettysburg. Why was the
battle so important?

_b_. Describe in detail the principal events of each day of the battle.

_c_. Learn Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address." How was this ground
hallowed? What was the great task before the people?

Sec.Sec. 420, 421.--_a_. Describe the battle of Chickamauga. Review Thomas's
services up to this time.

_b_. Describe the three parts of the battle of Chattanooga.


Sec.Sec. 422, 423.--_a_. How had Grant shown his fitness for high command? Was
it wise to have one man in command of all the armies? Why?

_b_. Review Sherman's career up to this time. Why did Grant impose trust
in him?

_c_. What was the result of Hood's attacks?

Sec.Sec. 424-426.--_a_. What was the real object of Sherman's march to the

_b_. Describe the destruction of Hood's army. What does it show as to
Thomas's ability?

_c_. What did Sherman's army accomplish on its way to the sea?

Sec.Sec. 427-430.--_a_. Compare the conditions of the two armies in Virginia.
Explain the advantages of the Confederates.

_b_. Describe the battle of the Wilderness, noting the conditions
favorable to the Confederates.

_c_. Describe the movement to the James. What advantages had Grant not
possessed by McClellan?

Sec.Sec. 431, 432.--_a_. Why was Petersburg important?

_b_. How did Lee try to compel the withdrawal of Grant? Why did he not

_c_. Describe Sheridan's work in the Shenandoah Valley. Read a short
account of Sheridan's career to 1865, and state his services to the
Union cause.

Sec.Sec. 433.--_a_. How had Sherman's victories affected the blockade?

_b_. What aid had Great Britain given to the Confederates? Why did she
not give more assistance?

Sec.Sec. 434, 435.--_a_. How did Sherman's occupation of Raleigh affect Lee?

_b_. Describe the condition of Lee's army. How was its capture

Sec. 436.--_a_. Why was Lincoln's death a terrible loss to the South?

_b_. Why is he the greatest of all Americans?


_a_. Review the steps which led to the war for the Union.

_b_. What were Lincoln's personal views as to slavery? Why could he not
carry them out?

_c_. What were Lincoln's leading characteristics? Give illustrations to
support your view.

_d_. Study Grant's military career and try to find out why he succeeded
where others failed.

_e_. Arrange a table of the leading campaigns, giving dates, leaders,
end to be attained, important battles, and result.

_f_. Give the two most important battles of the war. Why do you select


_a_. Life in Southern prisons.

_b_. The Shenandoah Valley in the war.

_c_. Any important battle or naval action, or leading general, or naval

_d_. The part played by your own state or town in the war, or the
history of one of your state regiments.


A few days spent upon a study of the field of war will save a great deal
of time. Channing's _Students' History_ will enable the teacher to
indicate the most important strategic points. Maps have been sparingly
provided in this book, as the simple plans in Dodge's _Bird's-eye View_
can easily be reproduced on the blackboard. In general, campaigns should
be studied rather than battles.

Pictures relating to this period are easily obtainable and may be freely
used. It is an excellent plan to ask some veteran to describe his
experiences, and the local post of the Grand Army of the Republic will
often lend material aid in making the war real to the pupils. Grant's
career should be especially studied, and the reasons for his successes
carefully noted.

Indeed, the study of this period may well center around Lincoln and
Grant. Lincoln's inaugurals are too difficult to be studied thoroughly.
But the teacher can easily select portions, as the last paragraph of the
second inaugural. Lincoln's Gettysburg Address should be learned by
every pupil, and his letter to Greeley _(Students' History, _p. 539)
will throw a flood of light on Lincoln's character. In studying this
period, as well as other periods, it is better to dwell on the
patriotism and heroism of our soldiers, sailors, and statesmen than to
point out their mistakes and personal faults.

Literature is so rich in reference to this time that nothing more than
the mention of the works of Lowell, Whittier, Holmes, and Longfellow
is needed.

[Illustration: THE PRESENT FLAG, 1900.]



Books for Study and Reading

References.--Scribner's _Popular History_, V; McMaster's _School
History_, chs. xxx-xxxiii; Andrews's _Last Quarter-Century._

Home Readings.--Hale's _Mr. Merriam's Scholars._



[Sidenote: Position of the seceded states.]

[Sidenote: Lincoln's policy of reconstruction. _McMaster_, 427-428.]

437. Lincoln's Reconstruction Policy.--The great question now
before the country was what should be done with the Southern states and
people. And what should be done with the freedmen? On these questions
people were not agreed. Some people thought that the states were
"indestructible"; that they could not secede or get out of the Union.
Others thought that the Southern states had been conquered and should be
treated as a part of the national domain. Lincoln thought that it was
useless to go into these questions. The Southern states were out of the
"proper practical relations with the Union." That was clear enough. The
thing to do, therefore, was to restore "proper practical relations" as
quickly and as quietly as possible. In December, 1863, Lincoln had
offered a pardon to all persons, with some exceptions, who should take
the oath of allegiance to the United States, and should promise to
support the Constitution and the Emancipation Proclamation. Whenever
one-tenth of the voters in any of the Confederate states should do these
things, and should set up a republican form of government, Lincoln
promised to recognize that government as the state government. But the
admission to Congress of Senators and Representatives from such a
reconstructed state would rest with Congress. Several states were
reconstructed on this plan. But public opinion was opposed to this quiet
reorganization of the seceded states. The people trusted Lincoln,
however, and had he lived he might have induced them to accept his plan.

[Sidenote: Andrew Johnson President, 1865.]

[Sidenote: His ideas on reconstruction. _McMaster_, 428.]

438. President Johnson's Reconstruction Plan.--Johnson was an able
man and a patriot. But he had none of Lincoln's wise patience. He had
none of Lincoln's tact and humor in dealing with men. On the contrary,
he always lost his temper when opposed. Although he was a Southerner, he
hated slavery and slave owners. On the other hand, he had a Southerner's
contempt for the negroes. He practically adopted Lincoln's
reconstruction policy and tried to bring about the reorganization of the
seceded states by presidential action.

[Sidenote: Force of Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation.]

[Sidenote: Abolition of slavery, 1865.]

439. The Thirteenth Amendment, 1865.--President Lincoln's
Emancipation Proclamation (p. 331) had freed the slaves in those states
and parts of states which were in rebellion against the national
government. It had not freed the slaves in the loyal states. It had not
destroyed slavery as an institution. Any state could reestablish slavery
whenever it chose. Slavery could be prohibited only by an amendment of
the Constitution. So the Thirteenth Amendment was adopted, December,
1865. This amendment declares that "neither slavery nor involuntary
servitude, except as a punishment for crime, ... shall exist within the
United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." In this way
slavery came to an end throughout the United States.

[Illustration: HORSE CAR.]

[Sidenote: Forced labor in the South. _McMaster_, 429.]

[Sidenote: The Freedmen's Bureau. _Source-book_, 339-342.]

440. Congress and the President, 1865-66.--Unhappily many of the
old slave states had passed laws to compel the negroes to work. They had
introduced a system of forced labor which was about the same thing as
slavery. In December, 1865, the new Congress met. The Republicans were
in the majority. They refused to admit the Senators and Representatives
from the reorganized Southern states and at once set to work to pass
laws for the protection of the negroes. In March, 1865, while the war
was still going on, and while Lincoln was alive, Congress had
established the Freedmen's Bureau to look after the interests of the
negroes. Congress now (February, 1866) passed a bill to continue the
Bureau and to give it much more power. Johnson promptly vetoed the bill.
In the following July Congress passed another bill to continue the
Freedmen's Bureau. In this bill the officers of the Bureau were given
greatly enlarged powers, the education of the blacks was provided for,
and the army might be used to compel obedience to the law. Johnson
vetoed this bill also.

[Sidenote: Civil Rights Bill, 1866.]

[Sidenote: It is passed over Johnson's veto.]

[Sidenote: The Fourteenth Amendment, 1866.]

441. The Fourteenth Amendment.--While this contest over the
Freedmen's Bureau was going on, Congress passed the Civil Rights Bill to
protect the freedmen. This bill provided that cases concerning the civil
rights of the freedmen should be heard in the United States courts
instead of in the state courts. Johnson thought that Congress had no
power to do this. He vetoed the bill, and Congress passed it over his
veto. Congress then drew up the Fourteenth Amendment. This forbade the
states to abridge the rights of the citizens, white or black. It further
provided that the representation of any state in Congress should be
diminished whenever it denied the franchise to any one except for taking
part in rebellion. Finally it guaranteed the debt of the United States,
and declared all debts incurred in support of rebellion null and void.
Every Southern state except Tennessee refused to accept this amendment.

[Illustration: ANDREW JOHNSON.]

[Sidenote: Elections of 1866.]

[Sidenote: Tenure of Office Act, 1867.]

[Sidenote: The Reconstruction Acts, 1867.]

[Sidenote: Process of reconstruction. _Source-Book_, 344-346.]

442. The Reconstruction Acts, 1867.--The Congressional elections of
November, 1866, were greatly in favor of the Republicans. The Republican
members of Congress felt that this showed that the North was with them
in their policy as to reconstruction. Congress met in December, 1866,
and at once set to work to carry out this policy. First of all it passed
the Tenure of Office Act to prevent Johnson dismissing Republicans from
office. Then it passed the Reconstruction Act. Johnson vetoed both of
these measures, and Congress passed them both over his veto. The
Reconstruction Act was later amended and strengthened. It will be well
to describe here the process of reconstruction in its final form. First
of all the seceded states, with the exception of Tennessee, were formed
into military districts. Each district was ruled by a military officer
who had soldiers to carry out his directions. Tennessee was not included
in this arrangement, because it had accepted the Fourteenth Amendment.
But all the other states, which had been reconstructed by Lincoln or by
Johnson, were to be reconstructed over again. The franchise was given to
all men, white or black, who had lived in any state for one
year--excepting criminals and persons who had taken part in rebellion.
This exception took the franchise away from the old rulers of the South.
These new voters could form a state constitution and elect a legislature
which should ratify the Fourteenth Amendment. When all this had been
done, Senators and Representatives from the reconstructed state might be
admitted to Congress.

[Sidenote: Charges against Johnson.]

[Sidenote: He is impeached.]

[Sidenote: But not convicted.]

443. Impeachment of Johnson, 1868.--President Johnson had vetoed
all these bills. He had declared that the Congress was a Congress of
only a part of the states, because Representatives from the states
reconstructed according to his ideas were not admitted. He had used
language toward his opponents that was fairly described as indecent and
unbecoming the chief officer of a great nation. Especially he had
refused to be bound by the Tenure of Office Act. Ever since the
formation of the government the Presidents had removed officers when
they saw fit. The Tenure of Office Act required the consent of the
Senate to removals as well as to appointments. Among the members of
Lincoln's cabinet who were still in office was Edwin M. Stanton. Johnson
removed him, and this brought on the crisis. The House impeached the
President. The Senate, presided over by Chief Justice Chase, heard the
impeachment. The Constitution requires the votes of two-thirds of the
Senators to convict. Seven Republicans voted with the Democrats against
conviction, and the President was acquitted by one vote.

[Sidenote: Napoleon's plans.]

[Sidenote: Action of the United States.]

[Sidenote: Withdrawal of the French, 1868.]

444. The French in Mexico.--Napoleon III, Emperor of the French,
seized the occasion of the Civil War to set the Monroe Doctrine at
defiance and to refound a French colonial empire in America. At one
time, indeed, he seemed to be on the point of interfering, to compel the
Union government to withdraw its armies from the Confederate states.
Then Napoleon had an idea that perhaps Texas might secede from the
Confederacy and set up for itself under French protection. This failing,
he began the establishment of an empire in Mexico with the Austrian
prince, Maximilian, as Emperor. The ending of the Civil War made it
possible for the United States to interfere. Grant and Sheridan would
gladly have marched troops into Mexico and turned out the French, but
Seward said that the French would have to leave before long anyway. He
hastened their going by telling the French government that the sooner
they left the better. They were withdrawn in 1868. Maximilian insisted
on staying. He was captured by the Mexicans and shot. The Mexican
Republic was reestablished.

[Sidenote: Purchase of Alaska, 1867.]

[Sidenote: The fur seals.]

[Sidenote: Boundary controversy.]

445. The Purchase of Alaska, 1867.--In 1867 President Johnson sent
to the Senate, for ratification, a treaty with Russia for the purchase
of Russia's American possessions. These were called Alaska, and
included an immense tract of land in the extreme Northwest. The price to
be paid was seven million dollars. The history of this purchase is still
little known. The Senate was completely taken by surprise, but it
ratified the treaty. Until recent years the only important product of
Alaska has been the skins of the fur seals. To preserve the seal herds
from extinction, the United States made rules limiting the number of
seals to be killed in any one year. The Canadians were not bound by
these rules, and the herds have been nearly destroyed. In recent years
large deposits of gold have been found in Alaska and in neighboring
portions of Canada. But the Canadian deposits are hard to reach without
first going through Alaska. This fact has made it more difficult to
agree with Great Britain as to the boundary between Alaska and Canada.

[Sidenote: Grant nominated for the presidency.]

[Sidenote: The Democrats.]

[Sidenote: Grant elected, 1868.]

446. Grant elected President, 1868.--The excitement over
reconstruction and the bitter contest between the Republicans in
Congress and the President had brought about great confusion in
politics. The Democrats nominated General F. P. Blair, a gallant
soldier, for Vice-President. For President they nominated Horatio
Seymour of New York. He was a Peace Democrat. As governor of New York
during the war he had refused to support the national government. The
Republicans nominated General Grant.

He received three hundred thousand more votes than Seymour. Of the two
hundred and ninety-four electoral votes, Grant received two hundred
and fifteen.



[Sidenote: The Fifteenth Amendment, 1870.]

447. The Fifteenth Amendment.--In February, 1869, just before
Grant's inauguration, Congress proposed still another amendment,
providing that neither the United States nor any state could abridge the
rights of citizens of the United States on account of race, color, or
previous condition of servitude. The state legislatures hastened to
accept this amendment, and it was declared in force in March, 1870.

[Sidenote: Progress of reconstruction.]

[Sidenote: Reunion, 1870.]

448. End of Reconstruction.--Three states only were still
unreconstructed. These were Virginia, Texas, and Mississippi. In 1869
Congress added to the conditions on which they could be readmitted to
the Union the acceptance of the Fifteenth Amendment. Early in 1870 they
all complied with the conditions and were readmitted. The Union was now
again complete. Since 1860 four states had been added to the Union.
These were Kansas, West Virginia, Nevada, and Nebraska. There were now
thirty-seven states in all.

[Sidenote: The carpetbaggers. _McMaster_, 439-414.]

[Sidenote: The Ku-Klux-Klan.]

[Sidenote: The Force Acts.]

449. The Southerners and the Negroes.--The first result of the
Congressional plan of reconstruction was to give the control of the
Southern states to the freedmen and their white allies. Some of these
white friends of the freedmen were men of character and ability, but
most of them were adventurers who came from the North to make their
fortunes. They were called the "carpetbaggers," because they usually
carried their luggage in their hands. The few Southern whites who
befriended the negroes were called "scalawags" by their white neighbors.
Secret societies sprang into being. The most famous was the
Ku-Klux-Klan. The object of these societies was to terrorize the
freedmen and their white friends and to prevent their voting. This led
to the passage of the Force Acts. These laws provided severe penalties
for crimes of intimidation. They also provided that these cases should
be tried in United States courts. Federal soldiers, stationed in the
South, could be used to compel obedience to the law.

[Sidenote: Relations with Great Britain.]

[Sidenote: Treaty of Washington, 1871. _Source-Book_, 355-358.]

[Sidenote: The Geneva Award.]

450. The Alabama Claims.--During the Civil War vessels built in
British shipyards, or refitted and supplied with coal at British ports,
had preyed upon American commerce. The most famous of these vessels was
the _Alabama_. The claims for losses caused by these vessels which the
United States presented to Great Britain were therefore called the
"Alabama Claims." There also were disputes with Great Britain over the
fisheries and over the western end of the Oregon boundary. In 1871 the
United States and Great Britain made an arrangement called the Treaty of
Washington. By this treaty all these points of dispute were referred to
arbitration. The Oregon boundary was decided in favor of the United
States, but the fishery dispute was decided in favor of Great Britain.
The "Alabama Claims" were settled by five arbitrators who sat at Geneva
in Switzerland. They decided that Great Britain had not used "due
diligence" to prevent the abuse of her ports by the Confederates. They
condemned her to pay fifteen and one-half million dollars damages to the
United States.

[Sidenote: The Chicago fire, 1871.]

451. The Chicago Fire, 1871.--Early one morning in October, 1871, a
Chicago woman went to the barn to milk her cow. She carried a lighted
kerosene lamp, for it was still dark. The cow kicked over the lamp. The
barn was soon ablaze. A furious gale carried the burning sparks from one
house to another. And so the fire went on spreading all that day and
night and the next day. Nearly two hundred million dollars' worth of
property was destroyed. The homes of nearly one hundred thousand persons
were burned down. In a surprisingly short time the burnt district was
rebuilt, and Chicago grew more rapidly than ever before.

[Sidenote: Rings. _Source-Book_, 352-355.]

[Sidenote: Bribery.]

452. Corruption in Politics.--New York City had no two hundred
million dollar fire. But a "ring" of city officers stole more than one
hundred and fifty million dollars of the city's money. In other cities
also there was great corruption. Nor were the state governments free
from bribery and thieving. Many officers in the national government were
believed to be mixed up in schemes to defraud the people. The truth of
the matter was that the Civil War had left behind it the habit of
spending money freely. A desire to grow suddenly rich possessed the
people. Men did not look closely to see where their money came from.

[Illustration: CHICAGO IN 1832.]

[Sidenote: Objections to Grant.]

[Sidenote: Liberal Republicans.]

[Sidenote: Horace Greeley.]

[Sidenote: Grant reelected, 1872.]

453. Election of 1872.--In fact, this condition of the public
service made many persons doubtful of the wisdom of reelecting President
Grant. There was not the slightest doubt as to Grant's personal honesty.
There were grave doubts as to his judgment in making appointments.
Reconstruction, too, did not seem to be restoring peace and prosperity
to the South. For these reasons many voters left the Republican party.
They called themselves Liberal Republicans and nominated Horace Greeley
for President. He had been one of the most outspoken opponents of
slavery. The Democrats could find no better candidate, so they, too,
nominated Greeley. But many Democrats could not bring themselves to vote
for him. They left their party for the moment and nominated a third
candidate. The result of all this confusion was the reelection of
Grant. But the Democrats elected a majority of the House of


[Sidenote: Rebellion in Cuba, 1867.]

[Sidenote: Spanish cruelty.]

[Sidenote: The _Virginius_ affair.]

[Sidenote: Spanish promises end rebellion, 1877.]

454. The Cuban Rebellion, 1867-77.--When the other Spanish-American
colonies won their independence (p. 223), Cuba remained true to Spain.
But by 1867 the Cubans could no longer bear the hardships of Spanish
rule. They rebelled and for ten years fought for freedom. The Spaniards
burned whole villages because they thought the inhabitants favored the
rebels. They even threatened to kill all Cuban men found away from their
homes. This cruelty aroused the sympathy of the Americans. Expeditions
sailed from the United States to help the Cubans, although the
government did everything it could to prevent their departure. One of
these vessels carrying aid to the Cubans was named the _Virginius_. The
Spaniards captured her, carried her to Santiago, and killed forty-six of
her crew. There came near being a war with Spain over this affair. But
the Spaniards apologized and saluted the American flag. In 1877
President Grant made up his mind that the war had lasted long enough. He
adopted a severe tone toward Spain. The Spanish government made terms
with the rebels, and the rebellion came to an end.

[Sidenote: The Credit Mobilier.]

[Sidenote: The Whiskey Ring.]

455. Scandals in Political Life.--In 1872 the House of
Representatives made a searching inquiry into the charges of bribery in
connection with the building of the Pacific railroads. Oakes Ames of
Massachusetts was the head of a company called the "Credit Mobilier."
This company had been formed to build the Union Pacific Railway. Fearing
that Congress would pass laws that might hurt the enterprise, Ames gave
stock in the company to members of Congress. But nothing definite could
be proved against any members, and the matter dropped. Soon after the
beginning of Grant's second term, many evil things came to light. One of
these was the Whiskey Ring, which defrauded the government of large sums
of money with the aid of the government officials. Grant wished to have
a thorough investigation, and said, "Let no guilty man escape." The
worst case of all, perhaps, was that of W. W. Belknap, Secretary of
War. But he escaped punishment by resigning.


[Sidenote: Failure of reconstruction. _Source-Book_, 349-351.]

456. Anarchy in the South.--Meantime reconstruction was not working
well in the South. This was especially true of Louisiana, Arkansas, and
South Carolina. In Louisiana, and in Arkansas also, there were two sets
of governors and legislatures, and civil war on a small scale was going
on. In South Carolina the carpetbaggers and the negroes had gained
control. They stole right and left. In other Southern states there were
continued outrages on the negroes. President Grant was greatly troubled.
"Let us have peace," was his heartfelt wish. But he felt it necessary to
keep Federal soldiers in the South, although he knew that public opinion
in the North was turning against their employment. It was under these
circumstances that the election of 1876 was held.

[Sidenote: Election of 1876. _Higginson_, 331-334.]

[Sidenote: The electoral commission.]

[Sidenote: Hayes inaugurated, 1877.]

457. Election of 1876.--The Republican candidate was Rutherford B.
Hayes of Ohio. He was a gallant soldier of the Civil War, and was a man
of the highest personal character. His Democratic opponent was Samuel J.
Tilden of New York--a shrewd lawyer who had won distinction as governor
of the Empire State. When the electoral returns were brought in, there
appeared two sets of returns from each of three Southern states, and the
vote of Oregon was doubtful. The Senate was Republican, and the House
was Democratic. As the two houses could not agree as to how these
returns should be counted, they referred the whole matter to an
electoral commission. This commission was made up of five Senators, five
Representatives, and five justices of the Supreme Court. Eight of them
were Republicans and seven were Democrats. They decided by eight seven
that Hayes was elected, and he was inaugurated President on March
4, 1877.

[Sidenote: Southern politics _Higginson_, 334-335.]

[Sidenote: Troops withdrawn.]

458. Withdrawal of the Soldiers from the South.--The People of the
North were weary of the ceaseless political agitation in the South. The
old Southern leaders had regained control of nearly all the Southern
states. They could not be turned out except by a new civil war, and the
Northern people were not willing to go to war again. The only other
thing that could be done was to withdraw the Federal soldiers and let
the Southern people work out their own salvation as well as they could.
President Hayes recalled the troops, and all the Southern states at once
passed into the control of the Democrats.


[Sidenote: Panic and hard times.]

[Sidenote: The Pittsburgh riots, 1877.]

459. Strikes and Riots, 1877.--The extravagance and speculation of
the Civil War, and the years following its close, ended in a great panic
in 1873. After the panic came the "hard times." Production fell off. The
demand for labor diminished. Wages were everywhere reduced. Strikes
became frequent, and riots followed the strikes. At Pittsburg, in
western Pennsylvania, the rioters seized the railroad. They burned
hundreds of railroad cars and locomotives. They destroyed the railroad
buildings. At last the riot came to an end, but not until millions of
dollars' worth of property had been destroyed.

[Sidenote: The Stalwart Republicans.]

[Sidenote: Garfield elected President, 1880.]

460. Election of 1880.--At the beginning of his administration
Hayes had declared that he would not be a candidate for reelection. Who
should be the Republican standard bearer? Grant's friends proposed to
nominate him for a third term. The politicians who advocated a third
term for Grant were opposed to the candidacy of James G. Blaine. They
were called the Stalwart Republicans. In the convention they voted
steadily and solidly for Grant. Finally their opponents, with the cry of
"Anything to beat Grant," suddenly turned to an entirely new man, whose
name had been little mentioned. This was James A. Garfield of Ohio. He
had won distinction in the Civil War and had served with credit in
Congress. For Vice-President the Republicans nominated Chester A.
Arthur, a New York banker. The Democrats, on their part, nominated one
of the most brilliant and popular soldiers of the Army of the Potomac,
General Winfield Scott Hancock. The campaign was very hotly contested.
In the end Garfield won.

[Sidenote: Garfield murdered, 1881.]

[Sidenote: President Arthur.]

[Sidenote: Civil Service Reform. _Source-Book_, 363-365.]

461. Garfield murdered; Civil Service Reform.--President Garfield
took the oath of office on March 4, 1881. On July 2 he was shot in the
back by a disappointed office-seeker. Week after week he endured
terrible agony. At length, on September 19, the martyred President died.
Now at last the evils of the "Spoils System" were brought to the
attention of the American people. Vice-President Arthur became President
and entered heartily into projects of reform. A beginning was soon made.
But it was found to be a very difficult thing to bring about any lasting
reform. The Constitution gives the President the appointment of
officers, subject to the confirmation of the Senate. No act of Congress
can diminish the constitutional powers of the President except so far as
he consents, and one President cannot bind succeeding Presidents. Any
scheme of reform also costs money, which must be voted annually by
Congress. It follows, therefore, that the consent of every President and
of both Houses of every Congress is necessary to make the reform of the
civil service permanent. Nevertheless the reform has made steady
progress until now by far the greater part of the civil service is
organized on the merit system.

[Sidenote: J.G. Blaine]

[Sidenote: The Mugwumps.]

[Sidenote: Grover Cleveland.]

[Sidenote: Cleveland elected President, 1884.]

[Sidenote: Tariff reform.]

462. Election of 1884.--In 1884 the Republicans nominated James G.
Blaine of Maine for President. He was a man of magnetic address and had
made many friends, but he also had made many enemies. Especially many
Republican voters distrusted him. They felt that he had used his
position for private gain, although nothing was proved against him.
These Republicans were called "Mugwumps." They "bolted" the nomination
and supported the Democratic candidate, Grover Cleveland. As mayor of
Buffalo, Cleveland had done very well. He had then been elected governor
of New York by a very large majority. The campaign of 1884 was conducted
on lines of personal abuse that recall the campaigns of 1800 and of
1828. Cleveland carried four large Northern states and the "solid South"
and was elected.

[Illustration: GROVER CLEVELAND.]

463. Cleveland's Administration, 1885-89.--The great contest of
Cleveland's first term was a fierce struggle over the tariff. The
government's need of money during the Civil War had compelled Congress
to raise large sums by means of internal revenue taxes. These taxes in
turn had brought about a great increase in the tariff rates on goods
imported from foreign countries. The internal revenue taxes had been
almost entirely removed, but the war tariff substantially remained in
force. In 1887 Cleveland laid the whole question before Congress. For a
time it seemed probable that something would be done. But the opposition
in Congress was very active and very strong. It fell out, therefore,
that nothing important was done. The real significance of Cleveland's
first administration lay in the fact that the Southerners were once
again admitted to a share in the government of the nation. It marked,
therefore, the reunion of the American people.



Sec.Sec.437, 438.--_a_. Explain carefully Lincoln's plan for reconstruction.
How was it affected by his death?

_b_. What was Johnson's attitude toward reconstruction? Precisely what
is meant by "reconstruction"?

Sec.Sec.439-441.--_a_. What was the force of the Emancipation Proclamation?
How was the institution of slavery abolished?

_b_. Explain the reasons for the establishment of the freedmen's bureau.
What do you think of the provision relating to the use of the army?

_c_. How was Congress able to pass a bill over the President's veto?

_d_. Explain carefully the Fourteenth Amendment. What do you think of
the provision as to debts?

Sec.Sec.442, 443.--_a_. Why were the elections of 1866 important?

_b_. What was the force of the Tenure of Office Act, and why was it

_c_. Describe the actual process of reconstruction.

_d_. Why was Johnson impeached? Why did the impeachment fail?

Sec.Sec.444, 445.--_a_. How did this act of Napoleon's set the Monroe Doctrine
at defiance?

_b_. What action did the government take? With what result?

_c_. What advantage has Alaska been to the United States?

Sec.446.--_a_. What were the issues in the campaign of 1868?

_b_. What had Blair done for the Union?

_c_. What did the election of Grant show?


Sec.Sec.447-449.--_a_. What were the provisions of the Fifteenth Amendment?

_b_. Under what conditions were the remaining seceded states readmitted?

_c_. What was the Force Act? Why was it passed?

Sec.450.--_a_. How was the injury to our shipping during the Civil War
connected with Great Britain?

_b_. What is meant by "arbitration"? Is it better to settle disputes by
arbitration or by war?

Sec.Sec.451-452.--_a_. Describe the Chicago fire and its results.

_b_. Why was there so much bribery and corruption at this time?

_c_. Should city governments be conducted as business enterprises?

Sec.453.--_a_. Why was there so much opposition to Grant's reelection?

_b_. Why did the Democrats nominate Greeley? What was the result of the

Sec.454.--_a_. What trouble broke out in Cuba? Why?

_b_. Describe the _Virginius_ affair. How did the Cuban rebellion come
to an end?

Sec.Sec.455, 456.--_a_. What scandal arose in connection with the Union
Pacific Railway?

_b_. What was the "Whiskey Ring"? What was Grant's wish?

_c_. What troubles arose in the South? Could they have been avoided?

Sec.Sec.457, 458.--_a_. Why was there a dispute about the election of 1876?
How was it settled?

_b_. Was it wise to let the Southerners work out their questions for
themselves or not? Why?

Sec.Sec.459, 460.--_a_. Compare the panic of 1873 with that of 1877 explaining
the likenesses and differences.

_b_. Why was opposition to the nomination of Grant so strong?

_c_. Who were nominated? Who was elected?

Sec.Sec.461.--_a_. What was the cause of Garfield's murder?

_b_. Why is Civil Service Reform so difficult?

_c_. What is meant by the "Merit System"? Do you consider such a system
better or worse than the Spoils System? Why?

Sec.Sec.462, 463.--_a_. Why was Blaine so strongly opposed? Who were the
"Mugwumps"? How did their action influence the election?

_b_. What is the difference between internal revenue taxes and customs

_c_. What was the real significance of Cleveland's first election?


_a_. Give all the treaties with Great Britain, with dates, reason for
the treaty, and results.

_b_. Why were there no executions for treason at the close of the Civil

_c_. What two methods does the Constitution provide for its amendment?
Which method has always been followed?

_d_. What were the chief difficulties in the way of reconstruction?

_e_. What are the important duties of citizens? Why do you select these?


_a_. Impeachment of Johnson.

_b_. The Chicago fire.

_c_. Civil Service Reform.

_d_. Industrial activity in the South.


The importance of the topics treated in Part XIV can hardly be
overestimated. The opportunities to impress the pupils with their public
duties are many and important. Reconstruction should be broadly treated
and not discussed in a partisan spirit. It is better to dwell on our
duties to the negroes than to seek out Northern blunders and Southern
mistakes. In connection with the amendments the whole question of the
suffrage can be discussed in the responsibility devolving upon the voter
fully set forth. Questions of municipal organizations also arise and can
be illustrated by local experience.



Books for Study and Reading

References.--Scribner's _Popular History_, V, 579-659;
McMaster's _School History_, chs. xxxiv, xxxv.

Home Readings.--Any short, attractive account of the Spanish



[Sidenote: Benjamin Harrison elected President, 1888.]

464. Benjamin Harrison elected President, 1888.--In 1888 the
Democrats put forward Cleveland as their candidate for President. The
Republicans nominated Benjamin Harrison of Indiana. Like Hayes and
Garfield, he had won renown in the Civil War and was a man of the
highest honor and of proved ability. The prominence of the old Southern
leaders in the Democratic administration, and the neglect of the
business interests of the North, compelled many Northern Republicans who
had voted for Cleveland to return to the Republican party. The result
was the election of Harrison and of a Republican majority in the House
of Representatives.

[Sidenote: The McKinley tariff, 1890.]

[Sidenote: Reciprocity.]

465. The McKinley Tariff, 1890.--One of the questions most
discussed in the campaign of 1888 was the reform of the tariff. There
seem to have been two sets of tariff reformers. One set of reformers
proposed to reform the tariff by doing away with as much of it as
possible. The other set of reformers proposed to readjust the tariff
duties so as to make the protective system more consistent and more
perfect. Led by William McKinley, the Republicans set to work to reform
the tariff in this latter sense. This they did by generally raising the
duties on protected goods. The McKinley Tariff Act also offered
reciprocity to countries which would favor American goods. This offer
was in effect to lower certain duties on goods imported from Argentina,
for instance, if the Argentine government would admit certain American
goods to Argentina on better terms than similar goods imported from
other countries.


[Sidenote: Gold and Silver]

[Sidenote: Sherman Silver Law.]

466. The Sherman Silver Law, 1890.--In the Civil War gold and
silver had disappeared from circulation. But after the close of the war
a gradual return was made to specie payments. In the colonial days the
demand for silver, as compared with the demand for gold, outran the
supply. The consequence was that silver was constantly becoming worth
more in comparison with gold. In the nineteenth century the supply of
silver has greatly outstripped the demand, with the result that silver
has greatly declined in value as compared with gold. In 1871 the
government decided to use silver for small coins only, and not to allow
silver to be offered in payment of a larger sum than five dollars. This
was called the "demonetization of silver." In 1878 a small but earnest
band of advocates of the free coinage of silver secured the passage of
an act of Congress for the coinage of two million silver dollars each
month. The silver in each one of these dollars was only worth in gold
from ninety to sixty cents. In 1890, Senator John Sherman of Ohio
brought in a bill to increase the coinage of these silver dollars which,
in 1894, were worth only forty nine cents on the dollar in gold.

[Sidenote: Business depression.]

[Sidenote: Cleveland elected President, 1892.]

467. Election of 1892.--One result of this great increase in the
silver coinage was to alarm business men throughout the country.
Business constantly declined. Every one who could lessened his expenses
as much as possible. Mill owners and railroad managers discharged their
workers or reduced their wages. Harrison and Cleveland were again the
Republican and Democratic candidates for the presidency. As is always
the case, the party in power was held to be responsible for the hard
times. Enough voters turned to Cleveland to elect him, and he was
inaugurated President for the second time (March 4, 1893).

[Sidenote: Scarcity of money.]

[Sidenote: Repeal of the Sherman Law.]

[Sidenote: Wilson tariff.]

468. Silver and the Tariff.--In the summer of 1893 there was a
great scarcity of money. Thousands of people withdrew all the money they
could from the banks and locked it up in places of security. But
Congress repealed the Sherman Silver Law and put an end to the
compulsory purchase of silver and the coinage of silver dollars. This
tended to restore confidence. The Democrats once more overhauled the
tariff. Under the lead of Representative Wilson of West Virginia they
passed a tariff act, lowering some duties and placing many articles on
the free list.

[Sidenote: Chicago Exhibition, 1893.]

469. The Chicago Exhibition, 1893.--The four hundredth anniversary
of the Columbian discovery of America occurred in October, 1892.
Preparations were made for holding a great commemorative exhibition at
Chicago. But it took so long to get everything ready that the exhibition
was not held until the summer of 1893. Beautiful buildings were erected
of a cheap but satisfactory material. They were designed with the
greatest taste, and were filled with splendid exhibits that showed the
skill and resources of Americans, and also with the products of foreign
countries. Hundreds of thousands of persons from all parts of the
country visited the exhibition with pleasure and great profit. No more
beautiful or successful exhibition has ever been held.


[Sidenote: William McKinley.]

[Sidenote: W.J. Bryan.]

[Sidenote: McKinley elected President, 1896.]

470. Election of 1896.--In 1896 the Republicans held their
convention at St. Louis and nominated William McKinley of Ohio for
President. They declared in favor of the gold standard, unless some
arrangement with other nations for a standard of gold and silver could
be made. They also declared for protection to home industries. The
Democrats held their convention at Chicago. The men who had stood by
Cleveland found themselves in a helpless minority. William Jennings
Bryan of Nebraska was nominated for President on a platform advocating
the free coinage of silver and many changes in the laws in the
direction of socialism. The Populists and the Silver Republicans also
adopted Bryan as their candidate. Now, at last, the question of the gold
standard or the silver standard was fairly before the voters. They
responded by electing McKinley and a Republican House of

[Illustration: WILLIAM MCKINLEY.]

[Sidenote: The Dingley tariff, 1897.]

471. The Dingley Tariff, 1897.--The Republicans, once more in
control of the government, set to work to reform the tariff in favor of
high protection. Representative Dingley of Maine was chairman of the
committee of the House that drew up the new bill, and the act as finally
passed goes by his name. It raised the duties on some classes of goods
and taxed many things that hitherto had come in free. Especially were
duties increased on certain raw materials for manufactures, with a view
to encourage the production of such materials in the United States. The
reciprocity features of the McKinley tariff (P. 383) were also restored.



[Sidenote: The Cubans rebel, 1894.]

[Sidenote: Spanish cruelties, _Source-book_, 374-379.]

472. The Cuban Rebellion, 1894-98.--The Cubans laid down their arms
in 1877 (p. 372) because they relied on the promises of better
government made by the Spaniards. But these promises were never carried
out. Year after year the Cuban people bore with their oppression. But at
last their patience was worn out. In 1894 they again rebelled. The
Spaniards sent over an army to subdue them. Soon tales of cruelty on the
part of the Spaniards reached the United States. Finally the Spanish
governor, General Weyler, adopted the cruel measure of driving the old
men, the women, and the children from the country villages and huddling
them together in the seaboard towns. Without money, without food, with
scant shelter, these poor people endured every hardship. They died by
thousands. The American people sent relief, but little could be done to
help them. The Cubans also fitted out expeditions in American ports to
carry arms and supplies to the rebels. The government did everything in
its power to stop these expeditions, but the coast line of the United
States is so long that it was impossible to stop them all, especially as
large numbers of the American people heartily sympathized with the
Cubans. Constant disputes with Spain over the Cuban question naturally
came up and gave rise to irritation in the United States and in Spain.

[Illustration: THE "MAINE."]

[Sidenote: Destruction of the _Maine_, 1898.]

[Sidenote: Cuban independence recognized.]

473. The Declaration of War, 1898.--On January 5, 1898, the
American battleship _Maine_ anchored in Havana harbor. On February 15
she was destroyed by an explosion and sank with two hundred and
fifty-three of her crew. A most competent Court of Inquiry was
appointed. It reported that the _Maine_ had been blown up from the
outside. The report of the Court of Inquiry was communicated to the
Spanish government in the hope that some kind of apology and reparation
might be made. But all the Spanish government did was to propose that
the matter should be referred to arbitration. The condition of the
Cubans was now dreadful. Several Senators and Representatives visited
Cuba. They reported that the condition of the Cubans was shocking. The
President laid the whole matter before Congress for its determination.
On April 19, 1898, Congress recognized the independence of the Cuban
people and demanded the withdrawal of the Spaniards from the island.
Congress also authorized the President to compel Spain's withdrawal and
stated that the United States did not intend to annex Cuba, but to leave
the government of the island to its inhabitants. Before these terms
could be formally laid before the Spanish government, it ordered the
American minister to leave Spain.

[Illustration: THE "OLYMPIA." From a photograph by Irving Underhill.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Manila Bay, May 1, 1898.]

474. The Destruction of the Spanish Pacific Fleet.--Admiral Dewey,
commanding the American squadron on the Asiatic station, had
concentrated all his vessels at Hong Kong, in the belief that war was at
hand. Of course he could not stay at Hong Kong after the declaration of
war. The only thing that he could do was to destroy the Spanish fleet
and use Spanish ports as a naval base. The Spanish fleet was in Manila
Bay. Thither sailed Dewey. In the darkness of the early morning of May
1, Dewey passed the Spanish forts at the entrance of the bay. The fleet
was at anchor near the naval arsenal, a few miles from the city of
Manila. As soon as it was light Dewey opened fire on the Spaniards. Soon
one Spanish ship caught fire, then another, and another. Dewey drew off
out of range for a time while his men rested and ate their breakfasts.
He then steamed in again and completed the destruction of the enemy's
fleet. Not an American ship was seriously injured. Not one American
sailor was killed. This victory gave the Americans the control of the
Pacific Ocean and the Asiatic waters, as far as Spain was concerned. It
relieved the Pacific seacoast of the United States of all fear of
attack. It made it possible to send soldiers and supplies to Manila,
without fear of attack while on the way. And it was necessary to send
soldiers because Dewey, while he was supreme on the water and could
easily compel the surrender of Manila, could not properly police the
town after its capture.

[Sidenote: Defense of the Atlantic seaboard.]

[Sidenote: Blockade of Cuba.]

475. The Atlantic Seacoast and the Blockade.--No sooner did war
seem probable than the people on the Atlantic seacoast were seized with
an unreasoning fear of the Spanish fleets. For the Spaniards had a few
new fast ships. The mouths of the principal harbors were blocked with
mines and torpedoes. The government bought merchant vessels of all kinds
and established a patrol along the coast. It also blockaded the more
important Cuban seaports. But the Cuban coast was so long that it was
impossible to blockade it all. As it was, great suffering was inflicted
on the principal Spanish armies in Cuba.

[Sidenote: The Spanish-Atlantic fleet.]

[Sidenote: The American fleet.]

476. The Atlantic Fleets.--Before long a Spanish fleet of four new,
fast armored cruisers and three large sea-going torpedo-boat destroyers
appeared in the West Indies. The Spanish admiral did not seem to know
exactly where to go. But after sailing around the Caribbean Sea for a
time, he anchored in Santiago harbor--on the southern coast of Cuba. In
the American navy there were only two fast armored cruisers, the _New
York _and the _Brooklyn_. These with five battleships--the _Oregon,
Iowa, Indiana, Massachusetts_, and _Texas_--and a number of smaller
vessels were placed under the command of Admiral Sampson and sent to
Santiago. Another fleet of sea-going monitors and unarmored cruisers
maintained the Cuban blockade.

[Sidenote: The _Oregon's_ voyage.]

477. The Oregon's Great Voyage.--When the _Maine_ was destroyed,
the _Oregon_ was at Puget Sound on the northwest coast. She was at once
ordered to sail to the Atlantic coast at her utmost speed. Steadily the
great battleship sped southward along the Pacific coast of North
America, Central America, and South America. She passed through Magellan
Straits and made her way up the eastern coast of South America. As she
approached the West Indies, it was feared that she might meet the whole
Spanish fleet. But she never sighted them. She reached Florida in
splendid condition and at once joined Sampson's squadron.

[Sidenote: Santiago.]

[Sidenote: Sinking of the _Merrimac_]

478. The Blockade of the Spanish Fleet.--Santiago harbor seemed to
have been designed as a place of refuge for a hard-pressed fleet. Its
narrow winding entrance was guarded by huge mountains strongly
fortified. The channel between these mountains was filled with mines and
torpedoes. The American fleet could not go in. The Spanish fleet must
not be allowed to come out unseen. Lieutenant Hobson was ordered to take
the collier _Merrimac_ into the narrow entrance and sink her across the
channel at the narrowest part. He made the most careful preparations.
But the _Merrimac_ was disabled and drifted by the narrowest part of the
channel before she sank. The Spanish admiral was so impressed by the
heroism of this attempt that he sent a boat off to the American squadron
to assure them that Hobson and his six brave companions were safe.

[Sidenote: Destruction of the Spanish Fleet.]

[Sidenote: Lessons of the victory.]

479. Destruction of the Spanish Fleet.--As the American vessels
could not enter Santiago harbor to sink the Spanish ships at their
anchors, it became necessary to send an army to Santiago. But the
Spaniards did not wait for the soldiers to capture the city. On Sunday
morning, July 3, the Spanish fleet suddenly appeared steaming out of the
harbor. The _Massachusetts_ was away at the time, getting a supply of
coal, and the _New York_ was steaming away to take Admiral Sampson to a
conference with General Shafter. But there were enough vessels left. On
came the Spaniards. The American ships rushed toward them. The Spaniards
turned westward and tried to escape along the coast. Soon one of them
was set on fire by the American shells. She was run on shore to prevent
her sinking. Then another followed her, and then a third. The
torpedo-boat destroyers were sunk off the entrance to the harbor. But
one ship now remained afloat. Speedily, she, too, was overtaken and
surrendered. In a few hours the whole Spanish fleet was destroyed;
hundreds of Spanish seamen were killed, wounded, or drowned, and sixteen
hundred Spanish sailors captured. The American loss was one man killed
and two wounded. The American ships were practically ready to destroy
another Spanish fleet had one been within reach. At Manila Bay and off
Santiago the American fleets were superior to the enemy's fleets. But
the astounding results of their actions were due mainly to the splendid
manner in which the American ships had been cared for and, above all,
to the magnificent training and courage of the men behind the guns.
Years of peace had not in any way dimmed the splendid qualities of the
American sea-fighters.

[Sidenote: Military preparations.]

[Sidenote: The volunteers.]

480. The American Army.--Meantime the American soldiers on shore at
Santiago were doing their work under great discouragement, but with a
valor and stubbornness that will always compel admiration. While the
navy was silently and efficiently increased to be a well-ordered force,
the army was not so well managed at first. Soldiers there were in
plenty. From all parts of the Union, from the South and from the North,
from the West and from the East, from the cattle ranches of the plains
and the classrooms of the great universities, patriots offered their
lives at their country's call. But there was great lack of order in the
management of the army. Sickness broke out among the soldiers. Volunteer
regiments were supplied with old-fashioned rifles. It seemed to be
difficult to move one regiment from one place to another without dire
confusion. When the Spanish fleet was shut up in Santiago harbor, a
force of fifteen thousand soldiers under General Shafter was sent to
capture Santiago itself and make the harbor unsafe for the ships.


[Sidenote: The landing.]

[Sidenote: La Guasimas. _Source-Book_, 380-382.]

[Sidenote: San Juan and Caney.]

[Sidenote: Fall of Santiago.]

481. The Santiago Expedition.--On June 22 and 23 the expedition
landed not far to the east of the entrance to Santiago harbor. Steep and
high mountains guard this part of the coast. But no attempt was made to
prevent the landing of the Americans. Dismounted cavalrymen of the
regular army and Roosevelt's Rough Riders, also on foot, at once pushed
on toward Santiago. At La Guasimas the Spaniards tried to stop them. But
the regulars and the Rough Riders drove them away, and the army pushed
on. By June 28 it had reached a point within a few miles of the city.
The Spaniards occupied two very strong positions at San Juan (San Huan)
and Caney. On July 1 they were driven from them. The regulars and the
volunteers showed the greatest courage and heroism. They crossed long
open spaces in the face of a terrible fire from the Spaniards, who were
armed with modern rifles. The rains now set in, and the sufferings of
the troops became terrible. On July 3 the Spanish fleet sailed out of
the harbor to meet its doom from the guns of the American warships.
Reinforcements were sent to Shafter, and heavy guns were dragged over
the mountain roads and placed in positions commanding the enemy's
lines. The Spaniards surrendered, and on July 17 the Americans entered
the captured city.


[Sidenote: The Porto Rico expedition.]

482. The Porto Rico Campaign.--The only other important colony
still remaining to Spain in America was Porto Rico. General Nelson A.
Miles led a strong force to its conquest. Instead of landing on the
northern coast near San Juan, the only strongly fortified position on
the seacoast, General Miles landed his men on the southern coast near
Ponce (Pon-tha). The inhabitants received the Americans with the
heartiest welcome. This was on August 1. The American army then set out
to cross the island. But before they had gone very far news came of the
ending of the hostilities.

[Sidenote: Fall of Manila.]

483. Fall of Manila.--When the news of Dewey's victory (p. 390)
reached the United States, soldiers were sent to his aid. But this took
time, for it was a very long way from San Francisco to the Philippines
and vessels suitable for transports were not easily procured on the
Pacific coast. General Wesley Merritt was given command of the land
forces. Meantime, for months Dewey with his fleet blockaded Manila from
the water side, while Philippine insurgents blockaded it from the land
side. Foreign vessels, especially the German vessels, jealously watched
the operations of the American fleet and severely taxed Dewey's

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