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A Short History of the United States by Edward Channing

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_a_. Why is the period covered by this division so important?

_b_. Give the principal events since the Revolution which made Western
expansion possible.

_c_. Explain, using a chart, the changes in parties since 1789.

_d_. What were the good points in Jackson's administration? The


_a_. Select some one invention between 1790 and 1835, describe it,
explain the need for it, and the results which have followed from it.

_b_. The Erie Canal.

_c_. The career of Webster, Clay, or Calhoun.

_d_. Life and works of any one of the literary men of this period.

_e_. The Ashburton Treaty, with a map.


The personality of Andrew Jackson, representing as he does a new element
in social and political life, deserves a careful study. The financial
policy of his administration is too difficult for children. With brief
comparisons with present-day conditions the study of this subject can be
confined to what is given in the text. Jackson's action at the time of
the nullification episode may well be compared with Buchanan's inaction
in 1860-61. The constitutional portions of Webster's great speeches are
too hard for children, but his burning words of patriotism may well be
learned by the whole class. The spoils system may be lightly treated
here. It can best be studied in detail later in connection with civil
service reform.

[Illustration: THE UNITED STATES IN 1859.]



Books for Study and Reading

References.--Scribner's _Popular History_, IV; _McMaster's_ _With
the Fathers_, Coffin's _Building the Nation_, 314-324.

Home Readings.--Wright's _Stories of American Progress_; Bolton's
_Famous Americans_; Brooks's _Boy Settlers_; Stowe's _Uncle Tom's
Cabin_; Lodge's _Webster_.



[Sidenote: Antislavery sentiments of the Virginians.]

[Sidenote: Slavery in the far South.]

[Sidenote: _Source-book_, 244-248, 251-260.]

323. Growth of Slavery in the South.--South of Pennsylvania and of
the Ohio River slavery had increased greatly since 1787 (p. 136).
Washington, Jefferson, Henry, and other great Virginians were opposed to
the slave system. But they could find no way to end it, even in
Virginia. The South Carolinians and Georgians fought every proposition
to limit slavery. They even refused to come into the Union unless they
were given representation in Congress for a portion at least of their
slaves. And in the first Congress under the Constitution they opposed
bitterly every proposal to limit slavery. Then came Whitney's invention
of the cotton gin. That at once made slave labor vastly more profitable
in the cotton states and put an end to all hopes of peaceful
emancipation in the South.

[Sidenote: Proposal to end slavery with compensation.]

[Sidenote: The _Liberator_.]

324. Rise of the Abolitionists.--About 1830 a new movement in favor
of the negroes began. Some persons in the North, as, for example,
William Ellery Channing, proposed that slaves should be set free, and
their owners paid for their loss. They suggested that the money received
from the sale of the public lands might be used in this way. But nothing
came of these suggestions. Soon, however, William Lloyd Garrison began
at Boston the publication of a paper called the _Liberator_. He wished
for complete abolition without payment. For a time he labored almost
alone. Then slowly others came to his aid, and the Antislavery Society
was founded.

[Sidenote: Anti-abolitionist sentiment in the North. _Higginson_, 268.]

[Sidenote: Disunion sentiment of abolitionists.]

[Sidenote: The Garrison riot, 1835. _Source-Book_, 248-251.]

325. Opposition to the Abolitionists.--It must not be thought that
the abolitionists were not opposed. They were most vigorously opposed.
Very few Northern men wished to have slavery reestablished in the North.
But very many Northern men objected to the antislavery agitation
because they thought it would injure business. Some persons even argued
that the antislavery movement would bring about the destruction of the
Union. In this idea there was a good deal of truth. For Garrison grew
more and more outspoken. He condemned the Union with slaveholders and
wished to break down the Constitution, because it permitted slavery.
There were anti-abolitionist riots in New York, New Jersey, and New
Hampshire. In Boston the rioters seized Garrison and dragged him about
the streets (1835).

[Sidenote: Nat Turner's Rebellion, 1831.]

[Sidenote: Incendiary publications in the mails. _McMaster_, 313-314.]

326. Slave Rebellion in Virginia, 1831.--At about the time that
Garrison established the _Liberator_ at Boston, a slave rebellion broke
out in Virginia. The rebels were led by a slave named Nat Turner, and
the rebellion is often called "Nat Turner's Rebellion." It was a small
affair and was easily put down. But the Southerners were alarmed,
because they felt that the Northern antislavery agitation would surely
lead to more rebellions. They called upon the government to forbid the
sending of the _Liberator_ and similar "incendiary publications" through
the mails.

[Sidenote: Right of petition.]

[Sidenote: J.Q. Adams and antislavery petitions, 1836. _Hero Tales_,

[Sidenote: The "gag-resolutions." _McMaster_, 314-315.]

327. The Right of Petition.--One of the most sacred rights of
freemen is the right to petition for redress of grievances. In the old
colonial days the British Parliament had refused even to listen to
petitions presented by the colonists. But the First Amendment to the
Constitution forbade Congress to make any law to prevent citizens of the
United States from petitioning. John Quincy Adams, once President, was
now a member of the House of Representatives. In 1836 he presented
petition after petition, praying Congress to forbid slavery in the
District of Columbia. Southerners, like Calhoun, thought these petitions
were insulting to Southern slaveholders. Congress could not prevent the
antislavery people petitioning. They could prevent the petitions being
read when presented. This they did by passing "gag-resolutions." Adams
protested against these resolutions as an infringement on the rights of
his constituents. But the resolutions were passed. Petitions now came
pouring into Congress. Adams even presented one from some negro slaves.

[Sidenote: Growth of antislavery feeling in the North.]

328. Change in Northern Sentiment.--All these happenings brought
about a great change of sentiment in the North. Many people, who cared
little about negro slaves, cared a great deal about the freedom of the
press and the right of petition. Many of these did not sympathize with
the abolitionists, but they wished that some limit might be set to the
extension of slavery. At the same time the Southerners were uniting to
resist all attempts to interfere with slavery. They were even determined
to add new slave territory to the United States.



[Sidenote: The Mexican Republic, 1821.]

[Sidenote: Texas secedes from Mexico, 1836, _McMaster_, 320-322; _Hero
Tales_, 173-181.]

329. The Republic of Texas.--The Mexicans won their independence
from Spain in 1821 and founded the Mexican Republic. Soon immigrants
from the United States settled in the northeastern part of the new
republic. This region was called Texas. The Mexican government gave
these settlers large tracts of land, and for a time everything went on
happily. Then war broke out between the Mexicans and the Texans. Led by
Samuel Houston, a settler from Tennessee, the Texans won the battle of
San Jacinto and captured General Santa Anna, the president of the
Mexican Republic. The Texans then established the Republic of Texas
(1836) and asked to be admitted to the Union as one of the
United States.

[Sidenote: Question of the admission of Texas to the Union.]

330. The Southerners and Texas.--The application of Texas for
admission to the Union came as a pleasant surprise to many Southerners.
As a part of the Mexican Republic Texas had been free soil. But Texas
was well suited to the needs of the cotton plant. If it were admitted to
the Union, it would surely be a slave state or, perhaps, several slave
states. The question of admitting Texas first came before Jackson. He
saw that the admission of Texas would be strongly opposed in the North.
So he put the whole matter to one side and would have nothing to do with
it. Tyler acted very differently. Under his direction a treaty was made
with Texas. This treaty provided for the admission of Texas to the
Union. But the Senate refused to ratify the treaty. The matter,
therefore, became the most important question in the presidential
election of 1844.

[Illustration: JAMES K. POLK.]

[Sidenote: Candidates for the presidency, 1844.]

[Sidenote: The Liberty party.]

[Sidenote: Polk elected.]

331. Election of 1844.--President Tyler would have been glad of a
second term. But neither of the great parties wanted him as a leader.
The Democrats would have gladly nominated Van Buren had he not opposed
the acquisition of Texas. Instead they nominated James K. Polk of
Tennessee, an outspoken favorer of the admission of Texas. The Whigs
nominated Henry Clay, who had no decided views on the Texas question. He
said one thing one day, another thing another day. The result was that
the opponents of slavery and of Texas formed a new party. They called it
the Liberty party and nominated a candidate for President. The Liberty
men did not gain many votes. But they gained enough votes to make Clay's
election impossible and Polk was chosen President.

[Sidenote: Texas admitted by joint resolution, 1845. _McMaster_, 325.]

332. Acquisition of Texas, 1845.--Tyler now pressed the admission
of Texas upon Congress. The two houses passed a joint resolution. This
resolution provided for the admission of Texas, and for the formation
from the territory included in Texas of four states, in addition to the
state of Texas, and with the consent of that state. Before Texas was
actually admitted Tyler had ceased to be President. But Polk carried out
his policy, and on July 4, 1845, Texas became one of the United States.

[Sidenote: Southern boundary of Texas.]

[Sidenote: Taylor on the Rio Grande.]

[Sidenote: War declared, 1846. Lowell in _Source-Book_, 271-276.]

333. Beginning of the Mexican War, 1846.--The Mexicans had never
acknowledged the independence of Texas. They now protested against its
admission to the United States. Disputes also arose as to the southern
boundary of Texas. As no agreement could be reached on this point,
President Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to march to the Rio Grande
and occupy the disputed territory. Taylor did as he was ordered, and the
Mexicans attacked him. Polk reported these facts to Congress, and
Congress authorized the President to push on the fighting on the ground
that "war exists, and exists by the act of Mexico herself."

[Sidenote: The three parts of the Mexican War.]

[Sidenote: Taylor's campaign. _McMaster_, 326-327.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Buena Vista, 1847.]

334. Taylor's Campaigns.--The Mexican War easily divides itself
into three parts: (1) Taylor's forward movement across the Rio Grande;
(2) Scott's campaign, which ended in the capture of the City of Mexico;
and (3) the seizure of California. Taylor's object was to maintain the
line of the Rio Grande, then to advance into Mexico and injure the
Mexicans as much as possible. The battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la
Palma (May 8, 9, 1846) were fought before the actual declaration of war.
These victories made Taylor master of the Rio Grande. In September he
crossed the Rio Grande. So far all had gone well. But in the winter
many of Taylor's soldiers were withdrawn to take part in Scott's
campaign. This seemed to be the Mexicans' time. They attacked Taylor
with four times as many men as he had in his army. This battle was
fought at Buena Vista, February, 1847. Taylor beat back the Mexicans
with terrible slaughter. This was the last battle of Taylor's campaign.

[Sidenote: Scott's campaign. _Eggleston_, 284-286; _McMaster_, 327-328.]

[Sidenote: He captures City of Mexico, 1847.]

335. Scott's Invasion of Mexico.--The plan of Scott's campaign was
that he should land at Vera Cruz, march to the city of Mexico,--two
hundred miles away,--capture that city, and force the Mexicans to make
peace. Everything fell out precisely as it was planned. With the help of
the navy Scott captured Vera Cruz. He had only about one-quarter as many
men as the Mexicans. But he overthrew them at Cerro Gordo, where the
road to the City of Mexico crosses the coast mountains (April, 1847).
With the greatest care and skill he pressed on and at length came within
sight of the City of Mexico. The capital of the Mexican Republic stood
in the midst of marshes, and could be reached only over narrow causeways
which joined it to the solid land. August 20, 1847, Scott beat the
Mexicans in three pitched battles, and on September 14 he entered the
city with his army, now numbering only six thousand men fit for
active service.

[Illustration: THE BEAR FLAG.]

[Sidenote: California.]

[Sidenote: The "Bear Republic," 1846.]

[Sidenote: California seized by American soldiers.]

336. Seizure of California.--California was the name given to the
Mexican possessions on the Pacific coast north of Mexico itself. There
were now many American settlers there, especially at Monterey. Hearing
of the outbreak of the Mexican War, they Set up a republic of their own.
Their flag had a figure of a grizzly bear painted on it, and hence their
republic is often spoken of as the Bear Republic. Commodore Stockton
with a small fleet was on the Pacific coast. He and John C. Fremont
assisted the Bear Republicans until soldiers under Colonel Kearney
reached them from the United States by way of Santa Fe.

[Illustration: JOHN C. FREMONT.]

[Sidenote: Mexican cessions, 1848.]

[Sidenote: The Gadsden Purchase, 1853. _McMaster_, 334.]

337. Treaty of Peace, 1848.--The direct cause of the Mexican War
was Mexico's unwillingness to give up Texas without a struggle. But the
Mexicans had treated many Americans very unjustly and owed them large
sums of money. A treaty of peace was made in 1848. Mexico agreed to
abandon her claims to Texas, California, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and
Colorado. The United States agreed to withdraw its armies from Mexico,
to pay Mexico fifteen million dollars, and to pay the claims of American
citizens on Mexico. These claims proved to amount to three and one-half
million dollars, In the end, therefore, the United States paid eighteen
and one-half million dollars for this enormous and exceedingly valuable
addition to its territory. When the time came to run the boundary line,
the American and Mexican commissioners could not agree. So the United
States paid ten million dollars more and received an additional strip of
land between the Rio Grande and the Colorado rivers. This gave the
United States its present southern boundary. This agreement was made in
1853 by James Gadsden for the United States, and the land bought is
usually called the Gadsden Purchase.

[Sidenote: Oregon.]

[Sidenote: Joint occupation by United States and Great Britain.]

338. The Oregon Question.--It was not only in the Southwest that
boundaries were disputed; in the Northwest also there was a long
controversy which was settled while Polk was President. Oregon was the
name given to the whole region, between Spanish and Mexican California
and the Russian Alaska. The United States and Great Britain each
claimed to have the best right to Oregon. As they could not agree as to
their claims, they decided to occupy the region jointly. As time went on
American settlers and missionaries began to go over the mountains to
Oregon. In 1847 seven thousand Americans were living in the Northwest.

[Sidenote: "All Oregon or none."]

[Sidenote: Division of Oregon, 1846.]

339. The Oregon Treaty, 1846.--The matter was now taken up in
earnest. "All Oregon or none," "Fifty-four forty or fight," became
popular cries. The United States gave notice of the ending of the joint
occupation. The British government suggested that Oregon should be
divided between the two nations. In 1818 he boundary between the United
States and British North America had been fixed as the forty-ninth
parallel from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. It was now
proposed to continue this line to the Pacific. The British government,
however, insisted that the western end of the line should follow the
channel between Vancouver's Island and the mainland so as to make that
island entirely British. The Mexican War was now coming on. It would
hardly do to have two wars at one time. So the United States gave way
and a treaty was signed in 1846. Instead of "all Oregon," the United
States received about one-half. But it was a splendid region and
included not merely the present state of Oregon, but all the territory
west of the Rocky Mountains between the forty-second and the forty-ninth
parallels of latitude.



[Sidenote: Should Oregon and Mexican cessions be free soil?]

[Sidenote: The Wilmot Proviso. _McMaster_, 324.]

340. The Wilmot Proviso, 1846.--What should be done with Oregon and
with the immense territory received from Mexico? Should it be free soil
or should it be slave soil? To understand the history of the dispute
which arose out of this question we must go back a bit and study the
Wilmot Proviso. Even before the Mexican War was fairly begun, this
question came before Congress. Every one admitted that Texas must be a
slave state. Most people were agreed that Oregon would be free soil. For
it was too far north for negroes to thrive. But what should be done with
California and with New Mexico? David Wilmot of Pennsylvania thought
that they should be free soil. He was a member of the House of
Representatives. In 1846 he moved to add to a bill giving the President
money to purchase land from Mexico a proviso that none of the territory
to be acquired at the national expense should be open to slavery. This
proviso was finally defeated. But the matter was one on which people
held very strong opinions, and the question became the most important
issue in the election of 1848.

[Illustration: ZACHARY TAYLOR.]

[Sidenote: Candidates for the presidency, 1848.]

[Sidenote: "Squatter sovereignty."]

[Sidenote: Free Soil party. _McMaster_, 334-335.]

[Sidenote: Taylor and Fillmore elected.]

341. Taylor elected President, 1848.--Three candidates contested
the election of 1848. First there was Lewis Cass of Michigan, the
Democratic candidate. He was in favor of "squatter sovereignty," that
is, allowing the people of each territory to have slavery or not as they
chose. The Whig candidate was General Taylor, the victor of Buena Vista.
The Whigs put forth no statement of principles. The third candidate was
Martin Van Buren, already once President. Although a Democrat, he did
not favor the extension of slavery. He was nominated by Democrats who
did not believe in "squatter sovereignty," and by a new party which
called itself the Free Soil party. The abolitionists or Liberty party
also nominated a candidate, but he withdrew in favor of Van Buren. The
Whigs had nominated Millard Fillmore of New York for Vice-President. He
attracted to the Whig ticket a good many votes in New York. Van Buren
also drew a good many votes from the Democrats. In this way New York was
carried for Taylor and Fillmore. This decided the election, and the Whig
candidates were chosen.

[Illustration: THE SITE OF SAN FRANCISCO IN 1847. From an original

[Sidenote: Discovery of gold in California, 1848.]

[Sidenote: The "rush" to California, 1849. _McMaster_, 337-338;
_Source-Book_, 276-279.]

342. California.--Before the treaty of peace with Mexico was
ratified, even before it was signed, gold was discovered in California.
Reports of the discovery soon reached the towns on the western seacoast.
At once men left whatever they were doing and hastened to the hills to
dig for gold. Months later rumors of this discovery began to reach the
eastern part of the United States. At first people paid little attention
to them. But when President Polk said that gold had been found, people
began to think that it must be true. Soon hundreds of gold-seekers
started for California. Then thousands became eager to go. These first
comers were called the Forty-Niners, because most of them came in the
year 1849. By the end of that year there were eighty thousand immigrants
in California.

[Sidenote: California constitutional convention, 1849.]

[Sidenote: Slavery forbidden.]

343. California seeks Admission to the Union.--There were eighty
thousand white people in California, and they had almost no government
of any kind. So in November, 1849, they held a convention, drew up a
constitution, and demanded admission the Union as a state. The peculiar
thing about this constitution was that it forbade slavery in California.
Many of the Forty-Niners were Southerners. But even they did not want
slavery. The reason was that they wished to dig in the earth and win
gold. They would not allow slave holders to work their mining claims
with slave labor, for free white laborers had never been able to work
alongside of negro slaves. So they did not want slavery in California.

[Sidenote: Divisions on the question of the extension of slavery.
_McMaster_, 335-336.]

344. A Divided Country.--This action of the people of California at
once brought the question of slavery before the people. Many Southerners
were eager to found a slave confederacy apart from the Union. Many
abolitionists were eager to found a free republic in the North. Many
Northerners, who loved the Union, thought that slavery should be
confined to the states where it existed. They thought that slavery
should not be permitted in the territories, which belonged to the people
of the United States as a whole. They argued that if the territories
could be kept free, the people of those territories, when they came to
form state constitutions, would forbid slavery as the people of
California had just done. They were probably right, and for this very
reason the Southerners wished to have slavery in the territories. So
strong was the feeling over these points that it seemed as if the Union
would split into pieces.

[Sidenote: Taylor's policy.]

[Sidenote: California demands admission.]

345. President Taylor's Policy.--General Taylor was now President.
He was alarmed by the growing excitement. He determined to settle the
matter at once before people could get any more excited. So he sent
agents to California and to New Mexico to urge the people to demand
admission to the Union at once. When Congress met in 1850, he stated
that California demanded admission as a free state. The Southerners were
angry. For they had thought that California would surely be a
slave state.

[Sidenote: Clay's compromise scheme, 1850. _McMaster_, 339-341;
_Source-Book_, 279-281.]

346. Clay's Compromise Plan.--Henry Clay now stepped forward to
bring about a "union of hearts." His plan was to end all disputes
between Northerners and Southerners by having the people of each section
give way to the people of the other section. For example, the
Southerners were to permit the admission of California as a free state,
and to consent to the abolition of the slave trade in the District of
Columbia. In return, the Northerners were to give way to the Southerners
on all other points. They were to allow slavery in the District of
Columbia. They were to consent to the organization of New Mexico and
Utah as territories without any provision for or against slavery. Texas
claimed that a part of the proposed Territory of New Mexico belonged to
her. So Clay suggested that the United States should pay Texas for this
land. Finally Clay proposed that Congress should pass a severe Fugitive
Slave Act. It is easily seen that Clay's plan as a whole was distinctly
favorable to the South. Few persons favored the passage of the whole
scheme. But when votes were taken on each part separately, they all
passed. In the midst of the excitement over this compromise President
Taylor died, and Millard Fillmore, the Vice-President, became President.

[Illustration: MILLARD FILLMORE.]

[Sidenote: Art. IV, sec. 2.]

[Sidenote: Fugitive Slave Act of 1793.]

[Sidenote: Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. _McMaster_, 341-343.]

[Sidenote: Results of passage of this act. _Higginson_, 281;
_Source-Book_, 282-284.]

[Sidenote: The "Underground Railway." _Source-Book_, 260-263.]

347. The Fugitive Slave Act.--The Constitution provides that
persons held to service in one state escaping into another state shall
be delivered up upon claim of the person to whom such service may be
due. Congress, in 1793, had passed an act to carry out this provision of
the Constitution. But this law had seldom been enforced, because its
enforcement had been left to the states, and public opinion in the North
was opposed to the return of fugitive slaves. The law of 1850 gave the
enforcement of the act to United States officials. The agents of slave
owners claimed many persons as fugitives. But few were returned to the
South. The important result of these attempts to enforce the law was to
strengthen Northern public opinion against slavery. It led to redoubled
efforts to help runaway slaves through the Northern states to Canada. A
regular system was established. This was called the "Underground
Railway." In short, instead of bringing about "a union of hearts," the
Compromise of 1850 increased the ill feeling between the people of the
two sections of the country.

[Sidenote: "Uncle Tom's Cabin."]

[Sidenote: Effects of this book.]

348. "Uncle Tom's Cabin."--It was at this time that Mrs. Harriet
Beecher Stowe wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin." In this story she set forth the
pleasant side of slavery--the light-heartedness and kind-heartedness of
the negroes. In it she also set forth the unpleasant side of
slavery--the whipping of human beings, the selling of human beings, the
hunting of human beings. Of course, there never was such a slave as
Uncle Tom. The story is simply a wonderful picture of slavery as it
appeared to a brilliant woman of the North. Hundreds of thousands of
copies of this book were sold in the South as well as in the North.
Plays founded on the book were acted on the stage. Southern people when
reading "Uncle Tom" thought little of the unpleasant things in it: they
liked the pleasant things in it. Northern people laughed at the pretty
pictures of plantation life: they were moved to tears by the tales of
cruelty. "Uncle Tom's Cabin" and the Fugitive Slave Law convinced the
people of the North that bounds must be set to the extension of slavery.



[Sidenote: Campaign of 1852.]

[Sidenote: Pierce elected President.]

349. Pierce elected President, 1852.--It was now Campaign time for
a new election. The Whigs had been successful with two old soldiers, so
they thought they would try again with another soldier and nominated
General Winfield Scott, the conqueror of Mexico. The Democrats also
nominated a soldier, Franklin Pierce of New Hampshire, who had been in
northern Mexico with Taylor. The Democrats and Whigs both said that they
would stand by the Compromise of 1850. But many voters thought that
there would be less danger of excitement with a Democrat in the White
House and voted for Pierce for that reason. They soon found that they
were terribly mistaken in their belief.

[Sidenote: The Nebraska bill, 1854. _Source-Book, 284-287._]

[Sidenote: Douglas asserts Compromise of 1820 to be repealed.]

350. Douglas's Nebraska Bill.--President Pierce began his term of
office quietly enough. But in 1854 Senator Douglas of Illinois brought
in a bill to organize the Territory of Nebraska. It will be remembered
that in 1820 Missouri had been admitted to the Union as a slave state.
In 1848 Iowa had been admitted as a free state. North of Iowa was the
free Territory of Minnesota. Westward from Missouri, Iowa, and Minnesota
was an immense region without any government of any kind. It all lay
north of the compromise line of 1820 (p. 222), and had been forever
devoted to freedom by that compromise. But Douglas said that the
Compromise of 1820 had been repealed by the Compromise of 1850. So he
proposed that the settlers of Nebraska should say whether that territory
should be free soil or slave soil, precisely as if the Compromise of
1820 had never been passed. Instantly there was a tremendous uproar.

[Illustration: FRANKLIN PIERCE.]

[Sidenote: The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854.]

[Sidenote: Antislavery senators attack the bill.]

[Sidenote: The Independent Democrats.]

351. The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854.--Douglas now changed his bill
so as to provide for the formation of two territories. One of these he
named Kansas. It had nearly the same boundaries as the present state of
Kansas, except that it extended westward to the Rocky Mountains. The
other territory was named Nebraska. It included all the land north of
Kansas and between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains. The
antislavery leaders in the North attacked the bill with great fury.
Chase of Ohio said that it was a violation of faith. Sumner of
Massachusetts rejoiced in the fight, for he said men must now take sides
for freedom or for slavery. Some, independent Democrats published "An
Appeal." They asked their fellow-citizens to take their maps and see
what an immense region Douglas had proposed to open to slavery. They
denied that the Missouri Compromise had been repealed. Nevertheless, the
bill passed Congress and was signed by President Pierce.

[Illustration: Territory opened to slavery.]

[Sidenote: Abraham Lincoln, _Hero Tales_, 325-335.]

[Sidenote: Aroused by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.]

352. Abraham Lincoln.--Born in Kentucky, Abraham Lincoln went with
his parents to Indiana and then to Illinois. As a boy he was very poor
and had to work hard. But he lost no opportunity to read and to study.
At the plow or in the long evenings at home by the firelight he was ever
thinking and studying. Growing to manhood he became a lawyer and served
one term in Congress. The passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act aroused
his indignation as nothing had ever aroused it before. He denied that
any man had the right to govern another man, be he white or be he black,
without that man's consent. He thought that blood would surely be shed
before the slavery question would be settled in Kansas, and the first
shedding of blood would be the beginning of the end of the Union.

[Sidenote: Seward's challenge to the Southerners. _McMaster_, 347-351.]

[Sidenote: The Sons of the South.]

[Sidenote: Fraudulent election. _Source-Book_, 287-289.]

353. Settlement of Kansas.--In the debate on the Kansas-Nebraska
bill Senator Seward of New York said to the Southerners: "Come on,
then.... We will engage in competition for the soil of Kansas, and God
give the victory to the side that is strong in numbers as it is in
right." Seward spoke truly. The victory came to those opposed to the
extension of slavery. But it was a long time in coming. As soon as the
act was passed, armed "Sons of the South" crossed the frontier of
Missouri and founded the town of Atchison. Then came large bands of
armed settlers from the North and the East. They founded the towns of
Lawrence and Topeka. An election was held. Hundreds of men poured over
the boundary of Missouri, outvoted the free-soil settlers in Kansas, and
then went home. The territorial legislature, chosen in this way, adopted
the laws of Missouri, slave code and all, as the laws of Kansas. It
seemed as if Kansas were lost to freedom.

[Sidenote: Free-state constitution.]

[Sidenote: The Senate refuses to admit Kansas.]

354. The Topeka Convention.--The free-state voters now held a
convention at Topeka. They drew up a constitution and applied to
Congress for admission to the Union as the free state of Kansas. The
free-state men and the slave-state men each elected a Delegate to
Congress. The House of Representatives now took the matter up and
appointed a committee of investigation. The committee reported in favor
of the free-state men, and the House voted to admit Kansas as a free
state. But the Senate would not consent to anything of the kind. The
contest in Kansas went on and became more bitter every month.

[Sidenote: Origin of the Republican party. _McMaster_, 352-355.]

[Sidenote: Anti-Nebraska men.]

355. The Republican Party.--The most important result of the
Kansas-Nebraska fight was the formation of the Republican party. It was
made up of men from all the other parties who agreed in opposing
Douglas's Kansas-Nebraska policy. Slowly they began to think of
themselves as a party and to adopt the name of the old party of
Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe--Republican.

[Sidenote: Presidential candidates, 1856.]

[Sidenote: Buchanan.]

[Sidenote: Fremont.]

356. Buchanan elected President, 1856.--The Whigs and the
Know-Nothings nominated Millard Fillmore for President and said nothing
about slavery. The Democrats nominated James Buchanan of Pennsylvania
for President and John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky for Vice-President.
They declared their approval of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and favored a
strict construction of the Constitution. The Republicans nominated John
C. Fremont. They protested against the extension of slavery and declared
for a policy of internal improvements at the expense of the nation. The
Democrats won; but the Republicans carried all the Northern states
save four.

[Sidenote: Dred Scott decision, 1857. _McMaster_, 355-357;
_Source-Book_, 290-291]

[Sidenote: Opinions of the judges.]

357. The Dred Scott Decision, 1857.--The Supreme Court of the
United States now gave a decision in the Dred Scott case that put an end
to all hope of compromise on the slavery question. Dred Scott had been
born a slave. The majority of the judges declared that a person once a
slave could never become a citizen of the United States and bring suit
in the United States courts. They also declared that the Missouri
Compromise was unlawful. Slave owners had a clear right to carry their
property, including slaves, into the territories, and Congress could not
stop them.

[Sidenote: Lincoln's policy.]

[Sidenote: His debates with Douglas. _McMaster_, 388-389; _Source-Book_,

358. The Lincoln and Douglas Debates, 1858.--The question of the
reelection of Douglas to the Senate now came before the people of
Illinois. Abraham Lincoln stepped forward to contest the election with
him. "A house divided against itself cannot stand," said Lincoln. "This
government cannot endure half slave and half free.... It will become all
one thing or all the other." He challenged Douglas to debate the issues
with him before the people, and Douglas accepted the challenge. Seven
joint debates were held in the presence of immense crowds. Lincoln
forced Douglas to defend the doctrine of "popular sovereignty." This
Douglas did by declaring that the legislatures of the territories could
make laws hostile to slavery. This idea, of course, was opposed to the
Dred Scott decision. Douglas won the election and was returned to the
Senate. But Lincoln had made a national reputation.

[Illustration: HARPER'S FERRY.]

[Sidenote: Civil war in Kansas. _McMaster_, 357.]

[Sidenote: John Brown.]

[Sidenote: The slave constitution.]

[Sidenote: Douglas opposes Buchanan.]

359. "Bleeding Kansas."--Meantime civil war had broken out in
Kansas, Slavery men attacked Lawrence, killed a few free-state settlers,
and burned several buildings. Led by John Brown, an immigrant from New
York, free-state men attacked a party of slave-state men and killed five
of them. By 1857 the free-state voters had become so numerous that it
was no longer possible to outvote them by bringing men from Missouri,
and they chose a free-state legislature. But the fraudulent slave-state
legislature had already provided for holding a constitutional convention
at Lecompton. This convention was controlled by the slave-state men and
adopted a constitution providing for slavery. President Buchanan sent
this constitution to Congress and asked to have Kansas admitted as a
slave state. But Douglas could not bear to see the wishes of the
settlers of Kansas outraged. He opposed the proposition vigorously and
it was defeated. It was not until 1861 that Kansas was admitted to the
Union as a free state.

[Sidenote: John Brown's Raid, 1859. _Higginson_, 286-289;
_Source-Book_, 294-296.]

[Sidenote: He seizes Harper's Ferry.]

[Sidenote: His execution, 1859.]

360. John Brown's Raid, 1859.--While in Kansas John Brown had
conceived a bold plan. It was to seize a strong place in the mountains
of the South, and there protect any slaves who should run away from
their masters. In this way he expected to break slavery in pieces within
two years. With only nineteen men he seized Harper's Ferry, in Virginia,
and secured the United States arsenal at that place. But he and most of
his men were immediately captured. He was executed by the Virginian
authorities as a traitor and murderer. The Republican leaders denounced
his act as "the gravest of crimes." But the Southern leaders were
convinced that now the time had come to secede from the Union and to
establish a Southern Confederacy.



Sec. 323.--_a_. Why were the people of South Carolina so opposed to any
limitation of slavery? How did they show their opposition?

_b_. Had slavery disappeared in the North because people thought that it
was wrong?

Sec.Sec. 324, 325.--_a_. What suggestions were made by some in the North for
the ending of slavery? What do you think of these suggestions?

_b_. For what did Garrison contend, and how did he make his views known?
Why were these views opposed in the North?

Sec. 326.--_a_. Why were the Southerners so alarmed by Nat Turner's

_b_. What power had Congress over the mails? How would you have voted on
this question?

Sec.Sec. 327, 328.--_a_. Why is the right of petition so important? How is
this right secured to citizens of the United States?

_b_. Why should these petitions be considered as insulting to

_c_. Why were the Southerners so afraid of any discussion of slavery?


Sec.Sec. 329, 330.--_a_. Show by the map the extent of the Mexican Republic.

_b_. Why did Texas wish to join the United States? What attitude had
Mexico taken on slavery?

Sec.Sec. 331, 332.--_a_. Explain carefully how the Texas question influenced
the election of 1844.

_b_. What was the Liberty party? How did its formation make the election
of Polk possible?

_c_. What is a "joint resolution"?

Sec. 333.--How did the Mexicans regard the admission of Texas? What dispute
with Mexico arose? Did Mexico begin the war?

Sec.Sec. 334, 335.--_a_. What was the plan of Taylor's campaign? Of Scott's

_b_. Mention the leading battles of Taylor's campaign. Of Scott's

Sec.Sec. 336, 337.--_a_. What action did the American settlers in California
take? With what result?

_b_. Explain by a map the Mexican cessions of 1848 and 1853.

Sec.Sec. 338, 339.--_a_. What was the extent of Oregon in 1845?

_b_. How was the dispute finally settled? Explain by a map.

_c_. What was the extent of Oregon in 1847? Is it the same to-day?

_d_. Of what value was this region to the United States?


Sec.Sec. 340, 341.--_a_. Why was there little question whether Oregon would be
slave or free?

_b_. Explain carefully Wilmot's suggestion. What would be the arguments
in Congress for and against this "proviso"?

_c_. What is meant by "squatter sovereignty"? What do you think of the
wisdom and justice of such a plan?

Sec.Sec. 342, 343.--_a_. Describe the discovery of gold in California and the
rush thither. What difference did _one year_ make in the population of

_b_. What attitude did California take on the slavery question? Why?

Sec.Sec. 344, 345.--_a_. How had the question of slavery already divided the

_b_. What extreme parties were there in the North and the South?

_c_. Why was the question about the territories so important?

_d_. What action did President Taylor take? Why? What do you think of
the wisdom of this policy?

Sec.Sec. 346, 347.--_a_. State the provisions of Clay's compromise plan. Which
of these favored the North? The South?

_b_. What law had been made as to fugitive slaves? Why had it not been
enforced? Why was the change made in 1850 so important?

_c_. How would you have acted had you been a United States officer
called to carry out the Fugitive Slave Law?

Sec. 348.--_a_. Who was Mrs. Stowe? What view did she take of slavery?

_b_. Were there any good points in the slave system?

_c_. Why is this book so important?


Sec.Sec. 349-351.--_a_. Who were the candidates in 1852? Who was chosen? Why?

_b_. What doctrine did Douglas apply to Kansas and Nebraska?

_c_. Why did Chase call this bill "a violation of faith"?

_d_. Was Douglas a patriot? Chase? Sumner? Pierce?

Sec. 352.--_a_. Give an account of the early life and training of Abraham

_b_. What did he think of the Kansas-Nebraska Act?

Sec.Sec. 353, 354.--_a_. What effect did the Kansas-Nebraska Act have on the
settlement of Kansas?

_b_. Describe the election. Do you think that laws made by a legislature
so elected were binding?

_d_. Explain the difference in the attitude of the Senate and House on
the Kansas question.

Sec.Sec. 355, 356.--_a_. How was the Republican party formed? _b_. Were its
principles like or unlike those of the Republican party of Jefferson's
time? Give your reasons.

Sec. 357.--_a_. What rights did the Supreme Court declare a slave could not
possess? Was a slave a person or a thing?

_b_. What power does the Constitution give Congress over a territory?
(Art. IV, Sec. 3.)

Sec. 358.--_a_. Explain carefully the quotations from Lincoln's speeches.

_b_. Was the doctrine of popular sovereignty necessarily favorable to
slavery? Give illustrations to support your reasons.

_c_. Was Douglas's declaration in harmony with the decision of the
Supreme Court?

Sec.Sec. 359, 360.--_a_. Compare the attitude of Douglas and Buchanan upon the
admission of Kansas.

_b_. Describe John Brown's raid. Was he a traitor?


_a_. Give, with dates, the important laws as to slavery since 1783.

_b_. What were the arguments in favor of the extension of slavery?
Against it?

_c_. Find and learn a poem against slavery by Whittier, Lowell, or

_d_. Make a table of elections since 1788, with the leading parties,
candidates, and principal issues. Underline the name of the
candidate elected.


_a_. John Brown in Kansas or at Harper's Ferry.

_b_. The career, to this time, of any man mentioned in Chapters 33 and

_c_. Any one fugitive slave case: Jerry McHenry in Syracuse (A.J. May's
_Antislavery Conflicts_), Shadrach, Anthony Burns.


Preparation is especially important in teaching this period. The teacher
will find references to larger books in Channing's _Students' History._

Show how the question of slavery was really at the basis of the Mexican
War. Geographical conditions and the settlement of the Western country
should be carefully noted. A limited use of the writings and speeches of
prominent men and writers is especially valuable at this point.

Have a large map of the United States in the class room, cut out and
fasten upon this map pieces of white and black paper to illustrate the
effects of legislation under discussion, and also to illustrate the
various elections.

The horrors of slavery should be but lightly touched. Emphasize
especially the fact that slavery prevented rather than aided the
development of the South, and was an evil economically as well
as socially.

[Illustration: THE UNITED STATES IN 1860.]


SECESSION, 1860-1861

Books for Study and Reading

References.--Scribner's _Popular History_, IV, 432-445; McMaster's
_School History_, chap. xxvi (industrial progress, 1840-60).

Home Readings.--Page's _The Old South_.



[Sidenote: Area of the United States, 1860.]

[Sidenote: Population, 1860.]

361. Growth of the Country.--The United States was now three times
as large as it was at Jefferson's election. It contained over three
million square miles of land. About one-third of this great area was
settled. In the sixty years of the century the population had increased
even faster than the area had increased. In 1800 there were five and a
half million people living in the United States. In 1860 there were over
thirty-one million people within its borders. Of these nearly five
millions were white immigrants. More than half of these immigrants had
come in the last ten years, and they had practically all of them settled
in the free states of the North. Of the whole population of thirty-one
millions only twelve millions lived in the slave states, and of these
more than four millions were negro slaves.

[Sidenote: New states. _McMaster_, 365-368.]

362. Change of Political Power.--The control of Congress had now
passed into the hands of the free states of the North. The majority of
the Representatives had long been from the free states. Now more
Senators came from the North than from the South. This was due to the
admission of new states. Texas (1845) was the last slave state to be
admitted to the Union. Two years later the admission of Wisconsin gave
the free states as many votes in the Senate as the slave states had. In
1850 the admission of California gave the free states a majority of two
votes in the Senate. This majority was increased to four by the
admission of Minnesota in 1858, and to six by the admission of Oregon in
1859. The control of Congress had slipped forever from the grasp of the
slave states.

[Sidenote: The cities.]

[Sidenote: New York.]

[Sidenote: Chicago.]

363. The Cities.--The tremendous increase in manufacturing, in
farming, and in trading brought about a great increase in foreign
commerce. This in turn led to the building up of great cities in the
North and the West. These were New York and Chicago; and they grew
rapidly because they formed the two ends of the line of communication
between the East and the West by the Mohawk Valley (p. 239). New York
now contained over eight hundred thousand inhabitants. It had more
people within its limits than lived in the whole state of South
Carolina. The most rapid growth was seen in the case of Chicago. In
1840 there were only five thousand people in that city; it now contained
one hundred and nine thousand inhabitants. Cincinnati and St. Louis,
each with one hundred and sixty thousand, were still the largest cities
of the West, and St. Louis was the largest city in any slave state. New
Orleans, with nearly as many people as St. Louis, was the only large
city in the South.

[Sidenote: The North and the South.]

[Sidenote: Growth of the Northwest.]

[Sidenote: Density of population, 1860.]

364. The States.--As it was with the cities so it was with the
states--the North had grown beyond the South. In 1790 Virginia had as
many inhabitants as the states of New York and Pennsylvania put
together. In 1860 Virginia had only about one-quarter as many
inhabitants as these two states. Indeed, in 1860 New York had nearly
four million inhabitants, or nearly as many inhabitants as the whole
United States in 1791 (p. 156). But the growth of the states of the
Northwest had been even more remarkable. Ohio now had a million more
people than Virginia and stood third in population among the states of
the Union. Illinois was the fourth state and Indiana the sixth. Even
more interesting are the facts brought out by a study of the map showing
the density of population or the number of people to the square mile in
the several states. It appears that in 1860 Ohio, Pennsylvania,
Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and
Massachusetts each had over forty-five inhabitants to the square mile,
while not a single Southern state had as many as forty-five inhabitants
to the square mile. This shows us at once that although the Southern
states were larger in extent than the Northern states, they were much
less powerful.

[Illustration: DENSITY OF POPULATION IN 1860.]

[Sidenote: Improvements in living.]

365. City Life.--In the old days the large towns were just like the
small towns except that they were larger. Life in them was just about
the same as in the smaller places. Now, however, there was a great
difference. In the first place the city could afford to have a great
many things the smaller town could not pay for. In the second place it
must have certain things or its people would die of disease or be killed
as they walked the streets. For these reasons the streets of the
Northern cities were paved and lighted and were guarded by policemen.
Then, too, great sewers carried away the refuse of the city, and
enormous iron pipes brought fresh water to every one within its limits.
Horse-cars and omnibuses carried its inhabitants from one part of the
city to another, and the railroads brought them food from the
surrounding country.

[Illustration: AN OMNIBUS]

[Sidenote: Growth of the railroad systems.]

366. Transportation.--Between 1849 and 1858 twenty-one thousand
miles of railroad were built in the United States, In 1860 there were
more than thirty thousand miles of railroad in actual operation. In 1850
one could not go from New York to Albany without leaving the railroad
and going on board a steamboat. In 1860 one continuous line of rails ran
from New York City to the Mississippi River. Traveling was still
uncomfortable according to our ideas. The cars were rudely made and
jolted horribly. One train ran only a comparatively short distance. Then
the traveler had to alight, get something to eat, and see his baggage
placed on another train. Still, with all its discomforts, traveling in
the worst of cars was better than traveling in the old stagecoaches.
Many more steamboats were used, especially on the Great Lakes and the
Western rivers.

[Illustration: HORACE GREELEY]

[Sidenote: Schools.]

[Sidenote: Newspapers.]

[Sidenote: Horace Greeley.]

367. Education.--The last thirty years had also been years of
progress in learning. Many colleges were founded, especially in the
Northwest. There was still no institution which deserved the name of
university. But more attention was being paid to the sciences and to the
education of men for the professions of law and medicine. The newspapers
also took on their modern form. The _New York Herald_, founded in 1835,
was the first real newspaper. But the _New York Tribune_, edited by
Horace Greeley, had more influence than any other paper in the country.
Greeley was odd in many ways, but he was one of the ablest men of the
time. He called for a liberal policy in the distribution of the public
lands and was forever saying, "Go West, young man, go West." The
magazines were now very much better than in former years, and America's
foremost writers were doing some of their best work.


[Sidenote: The telegraph.]

[Sidenote: The Howe sewing machine.]

[Sidenote: Agriculture machinery.]

[Sidenote: Stagnation in the South.]

368. Progress of Invention.--The electric telegraph was now in
common use. It enabled the newspapers to tell the people what was going
on as they never had done before. Perhaps the invention that did as much
as any one thing to make life easier was the sewing machine. Elias Howe
was the first man to make a really practicable sewing machine. Other
inventors improved upon it, and also made machines to sew other things
than cloth, as leather. Agricultural machinery was now in common use.
The horse reaper had been much improved, and countless machines had been
invented to make agricultural labor more easy and economical. Hundreds
of homely articles, as friction matches and rubber shoes, came into use
in these years. In short, the thirty years from Jackson's inauguration
to the secession of the Southern states were years of great progress.
But this progress was confined almost wholly to the North. In the South,
living in 1860 was about the same as it had been in 1830, or even in
1800. As a Southern orator said of the South, "The rush and whirl of
modern civilization passed her by."


SECESSION, 1860-1861

[Illustration: WILLIAM H. SEWARD.]

[Sidenote: Candidates for the Republican nomination 1860.]

[Sidenote: Lincoln nominated. The platform.]

369. The Republican Nomination, 1860.--Four names were especially
mentioned in connection with the Republican nomination for President.
These were Seward, Chase, Cameron, and Lincoln. Seward was the best
known of them all. In the debates on the Compromise of 1850 he had
declared that there was "a higher law" than the Constitution, namely,
"the law of nature in men's hearts." In another speech he had termed the
slavery contest "the irrepressible conflict." These phrases endeared him
to the antislavery men. But they made it impossible for many moderate
Republicans to follow him. Senator Chase of Ohio had also been very
outspoken in his condemnation of slavery. Senator Cameron of
Pennsylvania was an able political leader. But all of these men were
"too conspicuous to make a good candidate." They had made many enemies.
Lincoln had spoken freely. But he had never been prominent in national
politics. He was more likely to attract the votes of moderate men than
either of the other candidates. After a fierce contest he was nominated.
The Republican platform stated that there was no intention to interfere
with slavery in the states where it existed; but it declared the party's
opposition to the extension of slavery. The platform favored internal
improvements at the national expense. It also approved the
protective system.

[Sidenote: The Charleston convention, 1860. _McMaster_, 360-361.]

[Sidenote: The Douglas Democrats.]

[Sidenote: The Breckinridge Democrats.]

370. The Democratic Nominations.--The Democratic convention met at
Charleston, South Carolina. It was soon evident that the Northern
Democrats and the Southern Democrats could not agree. The Northerners
were willing to accept the Dred Scott decision and to carry it out. But
the Southerners demanded that the platform should pledge the party
actively to protect slavery in the territories. To this the Northerners
would not agree. So the convention broke up to meet again at Baltimore.
But there the delegates could come to no agreement. In the end two
candidates were named. The Northerners nominated Douglas on a platform
advocating "popular sovereignty." The Southerners nominated John C.
Breckinridge of Kentucky. In their platform they advocated states'
rights, and the protection of slavery in the territories by the federal

[Sidenote: The Constitutional Union party.]

371. The Constitutional Union Party.--Besides these three
candidates, cautious and timid men of all parties united to form the
Constitutional Union party. They nominated Governor John Bell of
Tennessee for President. In their platform they declared for the
maintenance of the Constitution and the Union, regardless of slavery.


[Sidenote: The campaign of 1860.]

[Sidenote: Lincoln elected.]

372. Lincoln elected President, 1860.--With four candidates in the
field and the Democratic party hopelessly divided, there could be little
doubt of Lincoln's election. He carried every Northern state except
Missouri and New Jersey. He received one hundred and eighty electoral
notes. Breckenridge carried every Southern state except the "border
states" of Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee, and received seventy-two
electoral votes. Bell carried the three "border" Southern states and
Douglas carried Missouri and New Jersey. There was no doubt as to
Lincoln's election. He had received a great majority of the electoral
votes. But his opponents had received more popular votes than he had
received. He was therefore elected by a minority of the voters.

[Illustration: LINCOLN'S BOOKCASE. From the Keyes-Lincoln Memorial
Collection, Chicago.]

[Sidenote: Weakness of the Republicans.]

[Sidenote: Southern fears.]

373. The North and the South.--Lincoln had been elected by a
minority of the people. He had been elected by the people of one
section. Other Presidents had been chosen by minorities. But Lincoln
was the first man to be chosen President by the people of one section.
The Republicans, moreover, had not elected a majority of the members of
the House of Representatives, and the Senate was still in the hands of
the Democrats. For two years at least the Republicans could not carry
out their ideas. They could not repeal the Kansas-Nebraska Act. They
could not admit Kansas to the Union as a free state. They could not
carry out one bit of their policy. In their platform they had declared
that they had no intention to interfere with slavery in the states.
Lincoln had said over and over again that Congress had no right to
meddle with slavery in the states. The Southern leaders knew all these
things. But they made up their minds that now the time had come to
secede from the Union and to establish a Southern Confederacy. For the
first time all the southernmost states were united. No matter what
Lincoln and the Republicans might say, the Southern slaveholders
believed that slavery was in danger. In advising secession, many of them
thought that by this means they could force the Northerners to accept
their terms as the price of a restored Union. Never were political
leaders more mistaken.

[Sidenote: Southern conventions.]

374. Threats of Secession, November, 1860.--The Constitution
permits each state to choose presidential electors as it sees fit. At
the outset these electors had generally been chosen by the state
legislatures. But, in the course of time, all the states save one had
come to choose them by popular vote. The one state that held to the old
way was South Carolina. Its legislature still chose the state's
presidential electors. In 1860 the South Carolina legislature did this
duty and then remained in session to see which way the election would
go. When Lincoln's election was certain, it called a state convention to
consider the question of seceding from the United States. In other
Southern states there was some opposition to secession. In Georgia,
especially, Alexander H. Stephens led the opposition. He said that
secession "was the height of madness." Nevertheless he moved a
resolution for a convention. Indeed, all the southernmost states
followed the example of South Carolina and summoned conventions.

[Sidenote: Buchanan's compromise plan.]

[Crittenden's plan of compromise. _McMaster_, 380-381.]

[Sidenote: It fails to pass Congress.]

375. The Crittenden Compromise Plan.--Many men hoped that even now
secession might be stopped by some compromise. President Buchanan
suggested an amendment to the Constitution, securing slavery in the
states and territories. It was unlikely that the Republicans would
agree to this suggestion. The most hopeful plan was brought forward in
Congress by Senator Crittenden of Kentucky. He proposed that amendments
to the Constitution should be adopted: (1) to carry out the principle of
the Missouri Compromise (p. 222);(2) to provide that states should be
free or slave as their people should determine; and (3) to pay the slave
owners the value of runaway slaves. This plan was carefully considered
by Congress, and was finally rejected only two days before Lincoln's

[Sidenote: South Carolina secedes, 1860. _Eggleston_, 304-305.]

[Sidenote: Six other states secede.]

376. Secession of Seven States, 1860-61.--The South Carolina
convention met in Secession Hall, Charleston, on December 17, 1860.
Three days later it adopted a declaration "that the union now subsisting
between South Carolina and other states, under the name of the United
States of America, is hereby dissolved." Six other states soon joined
South Carolina. These were Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia,
Louisiana, and Texas.

[Sidenote: Confederate states constitution]

[Sidenote: Views of Jefferson Davis.]

377. The "Confederate States of America."--The next step was for
these states to join together to form a confederation. This work was
done by a convention of delegates chosen by the conventions of the seven
seceding states. These delegates met at Montgomery, Alabama. Their new
constitution closely resembled the Constitution of the United States.
But great care was taken to make it perfectly clear that each member of
the Confederacy was a sovereign state. Exceeding care was also taken
that slavery should be protected in every way. Jefferson Davis of
Mississippi was chosen provisional president, and Alexander H. Stephens
provisional vice-president.


[Sidenote: Views of Jefferson Davis.]

[Sidenote: Views of Alexander H. Stephens. _Source-Book_, 296-299.]

378. Views of Davis and Stephens.--Davis declared that Lincoln had
"made a distinct declaration of war upon our (Southern) institutions."
His election was "upon the basis of sectional hostility." If "war must
come, it must be on Northern and not on Southern soil.... We will carry
war ... where food for the sword and torch awaits our armies in the
densely populated cities" of the North. For his part, Stephens said the
new government's "foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, upon the
great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man."

[Sidenote: "Let the erring sisters" go in peace.]

[Sidenote: Greeley's opinions.]

[Sidenote: Buchanan's opinions.]

379. Hesitation in the North.--At first it seemed as if Davis was
right when he said the Northerners would not fight. General Scott,
commanding the army, suggested that the "erring sisters" should be
allowed to "depart in peace," and Seward seemed to think the same way.
The Abolitionists welcomed the secession of the slave states. Horace
Greeley, for instance, wrote that if those states chose to form an
independent nation, "they had a clear moral right so to do." For his
part, President Buchanan thought that no state could constitutionally
secede. But if a state should secede, he saw no way to compel it to come
back to the Union. So he sat patiently by and did nothing.



Sec.Sec. 361, 362.--_a_. Compare the area and population of the United States
in 1800 and in 1860.

_b_. Compare the white population of the North and the South. Were all
the Southern whites slave owners?

_c_. Why had the control of the House passed to the free states? Did a
white man in the North and in the South have proportionally the same
representation in the House? Why?

_d_. What change in the control of the Senate had taken place? Why? Why
was this change so important?

Sec.Sec. 363, 364.--_a_. What had caused the growth of the Northern cities?
Why were there so few large cities in the slave states?

_b_. How had the population of the states changed since 1790? What had
caused the growth of the Northwest?

_c_. Where was there the greatest density of population? Why?

Sec.Sec. 365, 366.--_a_. Describe the change of life in the cities. What
arrangements were made for the comfort and health of the people?

_b_. How had railroads increased, and what improvements had been made?

Sec.Sec. 367, 368.--_a_. Of what use are newspapers? How do they influence
the opinions of the people? What policy did Horace Greeley uphold? Why?

_b_. Who were some of the important writers? Mention two works of each.

_c_. What influence did the telegraph have? Was this important?

_d_. Describe some of the other inventions.

_e_. Why had this progress been confined mainly to the North?


Sec. 369.--_a_. Who were the leading Republican candidates?

_b_. Why was Lincoln nominated? What is the meaning of the phrase "too

_c_. What did Seward mean by saying that there was a "higher law" than
the Constitution? Why was the slavery contest "irrepressible"?

_d_. What declaration was made by the Republican party as to slavery?
Compare this policy with the Wilmot Proviso.

Sec.Sec. 370, 371.--_a_. What divisions took place in the Democratic party?

_b_. What candidates were named? What policy did each uphold?

_c_. How had the demands of the Southerners concerning slavery

_d_. What third party was formed? By whom? What does the name show?

Sec.Sec. 372, 373.--_a_. What was the result of the election?

_b_. What was there peculiar in Lincoln's election?

_c_. Were the Southern states in any particular danger?

_d_. Why should the Southerners have felt so strongly about this
election? What was their hope in threatening secession?

Sec.Sec.374, 375.--_a_ Give arguments for and against secession. In what other
question similar to this had South Carolina led?

_b_. Were the people of the South generally in favor of secession?

_c_. What compromise did Buchanan suggest? What do you think of the
wisdom of the plan?

_d_. Explain carefully the points in Crittenden's plan. Discuss its

Sec.Sec. 376, 377.--_a_ Could one state dissolve the Union? _b_. What other
states followed South Carolina?

_c_. What government was formed by them? What two points were
especially emphasized in their constitution? Why these?

Sec.Sec. 378, 379.--_a_. What statement did Davis make as to Lincoln? Was it
true or false? Give your reasons.

_b_. Why did Davis advocate war on Northern soil?

_c_. Why was there such hesitation in the North? State the opinions of
Scott, Greeley, and Buchanan.

_d_. What would Jackson probably have done had he been President?


_a_. Was the South justified in thinking that the North would yield?
Give illustrations to support your view.

_b_. Were the years 1857-61 more or less "critical" than the years
1783-87? Why?

_c_. How was the South dependent upon the North?


_a_. Comparison between the North and the South.

_b_. Any invention mentioned in this part.

_c_. Some writer of this period.

_d_. The condition of your own state (or town or city) in 1860.


The first chapter of this part should be taught very slowly, and at each
point the contrast between the North and the South should be
pointed out.

In Chapter 36 the changed attitude of the Southern politicians should be
noted and their demands clearly set forth. The fact that the slave
owners while a minority in the South dominated public opinion should be
pointed out.

In considering the question of secession it will be well to review the
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, the Hartford Convention, and the
Nullification episode. The weakness of Pierce and Buchanan may be
contrasted with the strength of Jackson, and will serve as an
introduction to the study of Lincoln's character.



Books for Study and Reading

References.--Dodge's _Bird's-Eye View_; Scribner's _Popular
History_, IV and V; McMaster's _School History_. chap, xxix (the cost of
the war); Lincoln's _Inaugurals_ and _Gettysburg Address_.

Home Readings.--_Battles and Leaders of the Civil War_ (composed
largely of articles that had previously appeared in the _Century
Magazine_; Whittier's _Barbara Frietchie; _Coffin's _Winning his Way_
and other stories; Soley's _Sailor Boys of '61_; Trowbridge's _Drummer
Boy_ and other stories; Read's _Sheridan's Ride_; Champlin's _Young
Folks' History of the War for the Union_).



[Sidenote: Lincoln's inaugural address, March 4, 1861.]

380. Lincoln's Inauguration.--On March 4, 1861, President Lincoln
made his first inaugural address. In it he declared: "The Union is much
older than the Constitution.... No state upon its own motion can
lawfully get out of the Union.... In view of the Constitution and the
laws the Union is unbroken ... I shall take care that the laws of the
Union be faithfully executed in all the states." As to slavery, he had
"no purpose ... to interfere with the institution of slavery in the
states where it exists." He even saw no objection to adopt an amendment
of the Constitution to prohibit the Federal government from interfering
with slavery in the states. But he was resolved to preserve, protect,
and defend the Constitution of the United States.



[Sidenote: Fort Sumter. _Source-Book_, 299-302.]

[Sidenote: The call to arms, April 15, 1861.]

381. Fall of Fort Sumter, April, 1861.--The strength of Lincoln's
resolve was soon tested. When South Carolina seceded, Major Anderson,
commanding the United States forces at Charleston, withdrew from the
land forts to Fort Sumter, built on a shoal in the harbor. He had with
him only eighty fighting men and was sorely in need of food and
ammunition. Buchanan sent a steamer, the _Star of the West, _to
Charleston with supplies and soldiers. But the Confederates fired on
her, and she steamed away without landing the soldiers or the supplies.
Lincoln waited a month, hoping that the secessionists would come back to
the Union of their own accord. Then he decided to send supplies to Major
Anderson and told the governor of South Carolina of his decision.
Immediately (April 12) the Confederates opened fire on Fort Sumter. On
April 14 Anderson surrendered. The next day President Lincoln issued a
proclamation calling for seventy-five thousand volunteers.

[Sidenote: The Northern volunteers. _McMaster_, 386-387; _Source-Book_,

[Sidenote: Douglas, Buchanan, and Pierce]

[Sidenote: Progress of secession.]

382. Rising of the North.--There was no longer a question of
letting the "erring sisters" depart in peace. The Southerners had fired
on "Old Glory." There was no longer a dispute over the extension of
slavery. The question was now whether the Union should perish or should
live. Douglas at once came out for the Union and so did the former
Presidents, Buchanan and Franklin Pierce. In the Mississippi Valley
hundreds of thousands of men either sympathized with the slaveholders or
cared nothing about the slavery dispute. But the moment the Confederates
attacked the Union, they rose in defense of their country and
their flag.

[Sidenote: West Virginia.]

383. More Seceders.--The Southerners flocked to the standards of
the Confederacy, and four more states joined the ranks of secession.
These were Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia. In
Virginia the people were sharply divided on the question of secession.
Finally Virginia seceded, but the western Virginians, in their turn,
seceded from Virginia and two years later were admitted to the Union as
the state of West Virginia. Four "border states" had seceded; but four
other "border states" were still within the Union. These were Delaware,
Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri.

[Sidenote: Kentucky and Maryland saved to the Union.]

[Sidenote: Missouri saved to the Union. _Eggleston_, 310.]

384. The Border States.--The people of Maryland and of Kentucky
were evenly divided on the question of secession. They even tried to set
up as neutral states. But their neutrality would have been so greatly to
the advantage of the seceders that this could not be allowed. Lincoln's
firm moderation and the patriotism of many wise leaders in Kentucky
saved that state to the Union. But Maryland was so important to the
defense of Washington that more energetic means had to be used. In
Missouri, a large and active party wished to join the Confederacy. But
two Union men, Frank P. Blair and Nathaniel Lyon, held the most
important portions of the state for the Union. It was not until a year
later, however, that Missouri was safe on the Northern side.

[Sidenote: Southern sentiment in Washington.]

[Sidenote: Southern Unionists.]

[Sidenote: First bloodshed, April 19, 1861.]

385. To the Defense of Washington.--The national capital was really
a Southern town, for most of the permanent residents were Southerners,
and the offices were filled with Southern men. In the army and navy,
too, were very many Southerners. Most of them, as Robert E. Lee, felt
that their duty to their state was greater than their duty to their
flag. But many Southern officers felt differently. Among these were two
men whose names should be held in grateful remembrance, Captain David G.
Farragut and Colonel George H. Thomas. The first soldiers to arrive in
Washington were from Pennsylvania; but they came unarmed. Soon they were
followed by the Sixth Massachusetts. In passing through Baltimore this
regiment was attacked. Several men were killed, others were wounded.
This was on April 19, 1861,--the anniversary of the battles of
Lexington and Concord. It was the first bloodshed of the war.




[Sidenote: The field of war.]

386. Nature of the Conflict.--The overthrow of the Confederate
states proved to be very difficult. The Alleghany Mountains cut the
South into two great fields of war. Deep and rapid rivers flowed from
the mountains into the Atlantic or into the Mississippi. Each of these
rivers was a natural line of defense. The first line was the Potomac and
the Ohio. But when the Confederates were driven from this line, they
soon found another equally good a little farther south. Then again the
South was only partly settled. Good roads were rare, but there were many
poor roads. The maps gave only the good roads. By these the Northern
soldiers had to march while the Southern armies were often guided
through paths unknown to the Northerners, and thus were able to march
shorter distances between two battlefields or between two
important points.

[Sidenote: Plan of campaign.]

[Sidenote: Disaster at Bull Run, July, 1861. _Source-Book_, 305-308.]

387. The Bull Run Campaign, July, 1861.--Northern soldiers crossed
the Potomac into Virginia and found the Confederates posted at Bull Run
near Manassas Junction. Other Northern soldiers pressed into the
Shenandoah Valley from Harper's Ferry. They, too, found a Confederate
army in front of them. The plan of the Union campaign is now clear:
General McDowell was to attack the Confederates at Bull Run, while
General Patterson attacked the Confederates in the Valley, and kept them
so busy that they could not go to the help of their comrades at Bull
Run. It fell out otherwise, for Patterson retreated and left the
Confederate general, Johnston, free to go to the aid of the sorely
pressed Confederates at Bull Run. McDowell attacked vigorously and broke
the Confederate line; but he could not maintain his position. The Union
troops at first retreated slowly. Then they became frightened and fled,
in all haste, back to Washington. The first campaign ended in disaster.

[Illustration: GENERAL MCCLELLAN.]

[Sidenote: The Army of the Potomac, 1862.]

388. The Army of the Potomac.--While the Bull Run campaign was
going on in eastern Virginia, Union soldiers had been winning victories
in western Virginia. These were led by General George B. McClellan. He
now came to Washington and took command of the troops operating in front
of the capital. During the autumn, winter, and spring he drilled his men
with great skill and care. In March, 1862, the Army of the Potomac left
its camps a splendidly drilled body of soldiers.

[Sidenote: Southern preparations. _Source-Book_, 308-311.]

[Sidenote: Richmond.]

[Sidenote: Army of Northern Virginia.]

389. The Army of Northern Virginia.--Meantime the government of the
Confederacy had gathered great masses of soldiers. There were not nearly
as many white men of fighting age in the South as there were in the
North. But what men there were could be placed in the fighting line,
because the negro slaves could produce the food needed by the armies and
do the hard labor of making forts. The capital of the Confederacy was
now established at Richmond, on the James River, in Virginia. The army
defending this capital was called the Army of Northern Virginia. It was
commanded by Joseph E. Johnston; but its ablest officers were Robert E.
Lee and Thomas J. Jackson (Stonewall Jackson).

[Sidenote: McClellan's plan of campaign, 1862.]

[Sidenote: Objections to it.]

390. Plan of the Peninsular Campaign.--The country between the
Potomac and the James was cut up by rivers, as the Rappahannock, the
Mattapony, and Pamunkey, and part of it was a wilderness. McClellan
planned to carry his troops by water to the peninsula between the James
and the York and Pamunkey rivers. He would then have a clear road to
Richmond, with no great rivers to dispute with the enemy. Johnston would
be obliged to leave his camp at Bull Run and march southward to the
defense of Richmond. The great objection to the plan was that Johnston
might attack Washington instead of going to face McClellan. General
Jackson also was in the Shenandoah Valley. He might march down the
Valley, cross the Potomac, and seize Washington. So the government kept
seventy-five thousand of McClellan's men for the defense of the
Federal capital.

[Illustration: THE "MONITOR."]

[Sidenote: The _Monitor_ and the _Merrimac_. _Hero Tales_, 183, 195.]

391. The _Monitor_ and the _Merrimac_.--On March 8 a queer-looking
craft steamed out from Norfolk, Virginia, and attacked the Union fleet
at anchor near Fortress Monroe. She destroyed two wooden frigates, the
_Cumberland_ and the _Congress_, and began the destruction of the
_Minnesota_. She then steamed back to Norfolk. This formidable vessel
was the old frigate _Merrimac_. Upon her decks the Confederates had
built an iron house. From these iron sides the balls of the Union
frigates rolled harmlessly away. But that night an even stranger-looking
ship appeared at Fortress Monroe. This was the _Monitor_, a floating
fort, built of iron. She was designed by John Ericsson, a Swedish
immigrant. When the _Merrimac_ came back to finish the destruction of
the _Minnesota_, the _Monitor_ steamed directly to her. These two
ironclads fought and fought. At last the _Merrimac_ steamed away and
never renewed the fight.

[Sidenote: Battle of Fair Oaks, May, 1862.]

[Sidenote: The Seven Days.]

[Sidenote: Malvern Hill.]

392. The Peninsular Campaign, 1862.--By the end of May McClellan
had gained a position within ten miles of Richmond. Meantime, Jackson
fought so vigorously in the Shenandoah Valley that the Washington
government refused to send more men to McClellan, although Johnston had
gone with his army to the defense of Richmond. On May 31 the Army of the
Potomac and the Army of Northern Virginia fought a hard battle at Fair
Oaks. Johnston was wounded, and Lee took the chief command. He summoned
Jackson from the Valley and attacked McClellan day after day, June 26
to July 2, 1862. These terrible battles of the Seven Days forced
McClellan to change his base to the James, where he would be near the
fleet. At Malvern Hill Lee and Jackson once more attacked him and were
beaten off with fearful loss.

[Sidenote: Lee's plan of campaign.]

[Sidenote: Second battle of Bull Run, August, 1862.]

393. Second Bull Run Campaign.--The Army of the Potomac was still
uncomfortably near Richmond. It occurred to Lee that if he should strike
a hard blow at the army in front of Washington, Lincoln would recall
McClellan. Suddenly, without any warning, Jackson appeared at Manassas
Junction (p. 317). McClellan was at once ordered to transport his army
by water to the Potomac, and place it under the orders of General John
Pope, commanding the forces in front of Washington. McClellan did as he
was ordered. But Lee moved faster than he could move. Before the Army of
the Potomac was thoroughly in Pope's grasp, Lee attacked the Union
forces near Bull Run. He defeated them, drove them off the field and
back into the forts defending Washington (August, 1862).

[Sidenote: Lee invades Maryland.]

[Sidenote: Antietam, September, 1862. _Hero Tales_, 199-209.]

394. The Antietam Campaign, 1862.--Lee now crossed the Potomac into
Maryland. But he found more resistance than he had looked for. McClellan
was again given chief command. Gathering his forces firmly together, he
kept between Lee and Washington, and threatened Lee's communications
with Virginia. The Confederates drew back. McClellan found them strongly
posted near the Antietam and attacked them. The Union soldiers fought
splendidly. But military writers say that McClellan's attacks were not
well planned. At all events, the Army of the Potomac lost more than
twelve thousand men to less than ten thousand on the Confederate side,
and Lee made good his retreat to Virginia. McClellan was now removed
from command, and Ambrose E. Burnside became chief of the Army of
the Potomac.


[Sidenote: Battle of Fredericksburg, December, 1862.]

395. Fredericksburg, December, 1862.--Burnside found Lee strongly
posted on Marye's Heights, which rise sharply behind the little town of
Fredericksburg on the southern bank of the Rappahannock River. Burnside
attacked in front. His soldiers had to cross the river and assault the
hill in face of a murderous fire--and in vain. He lost thirteen thousand
men to only four thousand of the Confederates. "Fighting Joe" Hooker now
succeeded Burnside as commander of the Army of the Potomac. We must now
turn to the West, and see what had been doing there in 1861-62.

[Sidenote: General Grant.]

[Sidenote: He seizes Cairo.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Mill Springs, January, 1862.]

396. Grant and Thomas.--In Illinois there appeared a trained
soldier of fierce energy and invincible will, Ulysses Simpson Grant. He
had been educated at West Point and had served in the Mexican War. In
September, 1861, he seized Cairo at the junction of the Ohio and the
Mississippi. In January, 1862, General George H. Thomas defeated a
Confederate force at Mill Springs, in the upper valley of the Cumberland
River. In this way Grant and Thomas secured the line of the Ohio and
eastern Kentucky for the Union.

[Illustration: THE BRIDGE AT ANTIETAM. Burnside's soldiers charged over
the bridge from the middle foreground.]

[Sidenote: Capture of Fort Henry, February, 1862.]

[Sidenote: Fort Donelson.]

397. Forts Henry and Donelson, February, 1862.--In February, 1862,
General Grant and Commodore Foote attacked two forts which the
Confederates had built to keep the Federal gunboats from penetrating the
western part of the Confederacy. Fort Henry yielded almost at once, but
the Union forces besieged Fort Donelson for a longer time. Soon the
Confederate defense became hopeless, and General Buckner asked for the
terms of surrender. "Unconditional surrender," replied Grant, and
Buckner surrendered. The lower Tennessee and the lower Cumberland were
now open to the Union forces.

[Sidenote: The lower Mississippi.]

[Sidenote: Admiral Farragut.]

398. Importance of New Orleans.--New Orleans and the lower
Mississippi were of great importance to both sides, for the possession
of this region gave the Southerners access to Texas, and through Texas
to Mexico. Union fleets were blockading every important Southern port.
But as long as commerce overland with Mexico could be maintained, the
South could struggle on. The Mississippi, too, has so many mouths that
it was difficult to keep vessels from running in and out. For these
reasons the Federal government determined to seize New Orleans and the
lower Mississippi. The command of the expedition was given to Farragut,
who had passed his boyhood in Louisiana. He was given as good a fleet as
could be provided, and a force of soldiers was sent to help him.

[Illustration: A RIVER GUNBOAT.]

[Sidenote: Capture of New Orleans, April, 1862. _Higginson_, 303-304;
_Source-Book_, 313-315.]

399. New Orleans captured, April, 1862.--Farragut carried his fleet
into the Mississippi, but found his way upstream barred by two forts on
the river's bank. A great chain stretched across the river below the
forts, and a fleet of river gunboats with an ironclad or two was in
waiting above the forts. Chain, forts, and gunboats all gave way before
Farragut's forceful will. At night he passed the forts amid a terrific
cannonade. Once above them New Orleans was at his mercy. It surrendered,
and with the forts was soon occupied by the Union army. The lower
Mississippi was lost to the Confederacy.

[Illustration: A WAR-TIME ENVELOPE.]

[Sidenote: Shiloh, April, 1862.]

[Sidenote: Corinth, May, 1862.]

400. Shiloh and Corinth, April, May, 1862.--General Halleck now
directed the operations of the Union armies in the West. He ordered
Grant to take his men up the Tennessee to Pittsburg Landing and there
await the arrival of Buell with a strong force overland from Nashville.
Grant encamped with his troops on the western bank of the Tennessee
between Shiloh Church and Pittsburg Landing. Albert Sidney Johnston, the
Confederate commander in the West, attacked him suddenly and with great
fury. Soon the Union army was pushed back to the river. In his place
many a leader would have withdrawn. But Grant, with amazing courage,
held on. In the afternoon Buell's leading regiments reached the other
side of the river. In the night they were ferried across, and Grant's
outlying commands were brought to the front. The next morning Grant
attacked in his turn and slowly but surely pushed the Confederates off
the field. Halleck then united Grant's, Buell's, and Pope's armies and
captured Corinth.

[Sidenote: General Bragg invades Kentucky.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Perryville, October, 1862.]

[Sidenote: Murfreesboro', December, 1862. _Eggleston_, 331.]

401. Bragg in Tennessee and Kentucky.--General Braxton Bragg now
took a large part of the Confederate army, which had fought at Shiloh
and Corinth, to Chattanooga. He then marched rapidly across Tennessee
and Kentucky to the neighborhood of Louisville on the Ohio River. Buell
was sent after him, and the two armies fought an indecisive battle at
Perryville. Then Bragg retreated to Chattanooga. In a few months he was
again on the march. Rosecrans had now succeeded Buell. He attacked Bragg
at Murfreesboro'. For a long time the contest was equal. In the end,
however, the Confederates were beaten and retired from the field.



[Sidenote: The blockade.]

402. The Blockade.--On the fall of Fort Sumter President Lincoln
ordered a blockade of the Confederate seaports. There were few
manufacturing industries in the South. Cotton and tobacco were the
great staples of export. If her ports were blockaded the South could
neither bring in arms and military supplies from Europe, nor send cotton
and tobacco to Europe to be sold for money. So her power of resisting
the Union armies would be greatly lessened. The Union government bought
all kinds of vessels, even harbor ferryboats, armed them, and stationed
them off the blockaded harbors. In a surprisingly short time the
blockade was established. The Union forces also began to occupy the
Southern seacoast, and thus the region that had to be blockaded steadily
grew less.

[Sidenote: Effect of the blockade.]

403. Effects of the Blockade.--As months and years went by, and the
blockade became stricter and stricter, the sufferings of the Southern
people became ever greater. As they could not send their products to
Europe to exchange for goods, they had to pay gold and silver for
whatever the blockade runners brought in. Soon there was no more gold
and silver in the Confederacy, and paper money took its place. Then the
supplies of manufactured goods, as clothing and paper, of things not
produced in the South, as coffee and salt, gave out. Toward the end of
the war there were absolutely no medicines for the Southern soldiers,
and guns were so scarce that it was proposed to arm one regiment with
pikes. Nothing did more to break down Southern resistance than
the blockade.

[Sidenote: Hopes of the Southerners.]

404. The Confederacy, Great Britain, and France.--From the
beginning of the contest the Confederate leaders believed that the
British and the French would interfere to aid them. "Cotton is king,"
they said. Unless there were a regular supply of cotton, the mills of
England and of France must stop. Thousands of mill hands--men, women,
and children--would soon be starving. The French and the British
governments would raise the blockade. Perhaps they would even force the
United States to acknowledge the independence of the Confederate states.
There was a good deal of truth in this belief. For the British and
French governments dreaded the growing power of the American republic
and would gladly have seen it broken to pieces. But events fell out far
otherwise than the Southern leaders had calculated. Before the supply of
American cotton in England was used up, new supplies began to come in
from India and from Egypt. The Union armies occupied portions of the
cotton belt early in 1862, and American cotton was again exported. But
more than all else, the English mill operatives, in all their hardships,
would not ask their government to interfere. They saw clearly enough

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