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A Short History of the United States by Edward Channing

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American commerce. Old laws were looked up and enforced. American
vessels that disobeyed them were seized by the British. But if any
American vessel obeyed these laws, Napoleon seized it as soon as it
entered a French harbor.

[Sidenote: Impressment. _Eggleston_, 240.]

249. The Impressment Controversy.--With the British the United
States had still another cause of complaint. British warships stopped
American vessels and took away all their seamen who looked like
Englishmen. These they compelled to serve on British men-of-war. As
Americans and Englishmen looked very much alike, they generally seized
all the best-looking seamen. Thousands of Americans were captured in
this way and forced into slavery on British men-of-war. This method of
kidnaping was called impressment.

[Sidenote: The embargo, 1807. _Eggleston_, 241; _McMaster_, 226-227,
228.]

[Sidenote: Failure of the embargo. _Source-Book_, 209-211.]

250. The Embargo, 1807-1809.--Jefferson hardly knew what to do. He
might declare war on both Great Britain and on France. But to do that
would surely put a speedy end to all American commerce. In the old days,
before the Revolutionary War, the colonists had more than once brought
the British to terms by refusing to buy their goods (pp. 84, 85).
Jefferson now thought that if the people of the United States should
refuse to trade with the British and the French, the governments both of
Great Britain and of France would be forced to treat American commerce
properly. Congress therefore passed an Embargo Act. This forbade vessels
to leave American ports after a certain day. If the people had been
united, the embargo might have done what Jefferson expected it would do.
But the people were not united. Especially in New England, the
shipowners tried in every way to break the law. This led to the passing
of stricter laws. Finally the New Englanders even talked of seceding
from the Union.

[Illustration: AN EARLY STEAM FERRYBOAT, ABOUT 1810.]

[Sidenote: Outrage on the _Chesapeake_, 1807. _McMaster_, 227.]

251. The Outrage on the _Chesapeake_, 1807.--The British now added
to the anger of the Americans by impressing seamen from the decks of an
American warship. The frigate _Chesapeake_ left the Norfolk navy yard
for a cruise. At once the British vessel _Leopard_ sailed toward her and
ordered her to stop. As the _Chesapeake_ did not stop, the _Leopard_
fired on her. The American frigate was just setting out, and everything
was in confusion on her decks. But a coal was brought from the cook's
stove, and one gun was fired. Her flag was then hauled down. The British
came on board and seized four seamen, who they said were deserters from
the British navy. This outrage aroused tremendous excitement. Jefferson
ordered all British warships out of American waters and forbade the
people to supply them with provisions, water, or wood. The British
offered to restore the imprisoned seamen and ordered out of American
waters the admiral under whose direction the outrage had been done. But
they would not give up impressment.

[Sidenote: Madison elected President, 1808.]

252. Madison elected President, 1808.--There is nothing in the
Constitution to limit the number of times a man may be chosen President.
Many persons would gladly have voted a third time for Jefferson. But he
thought that unless some limit were set, the people might keep on
reelecting a popular and successful President term after term. This
would be very dangerous to the republican form of government. So
Jefferson followed Washington's example and declined a third term,
Washington and Jefferson thus established a custom that has ever since
been followed. The Republicans voted for James Madison, and he was
elected President (1808).

[Illustration: MODERN DOUBLE-DECKED FERRYBOAT.]

[Sidenote: Non-Intercourse Act, 1809.]

253. The Non-Intercourse Act, 1809.--By this time the embargo had
become so very unpopular that it could be maintained only at the cost of
civil war. Madison suggested that the Embargo Act should be repealed,
and a Non-Intercourse Act passed in its place. Congress at once did as
he suggested. The Non-Intercourse Act prohibited commerce with Great
Britain and with France and the countries controlled by France. It
permitted commerce with the rest of the world. There were not many
European countries with which America could trade under this law. Still
there were a few countries, as Norway and Spain, which still maintained
their independence. And goods could be sold through them to the other
European countries. At all events, no sooner was the embargo removed
than commerce revived. Rates of freight were very high and the profits
were very large, although the French and the British captured many
American vessels.

[Sidenote: The Erskine treaty.]

[Sidenote: The British minister Jackson. _Source-Book_, 212-213]

254. Two British Ministers.--Soon after Madison's inauguration a
new British minister came to Washington. His name was Erskine, and he
was very friendly. A treaty was speedily made on conditions which
Madison thought could be granted. He suspended non-intercourse with
Great Britain, and hundreds of vessels set sail for that country. But
the British rulers soon put an end to this friendly feeling. They said
that Erskine had no authority to make such a treaty. They refused to
carry it out and recalled Erskine. The next British minister was a
person named Jackson. He accused Madison of cheating Erskine and
repeated the accusation. Thereupon Madison sent him back to London. As
the British would not carry out the terms of Erskine's treaty, Madison
was compelled to prohibit all intercourse with Great Britain.

[Sidenote: Still another policy. _McMaster_, 229-230.]

[Sidenote: French trickery.]

[Sidenote: British trickery.]

255. British and French Trickery.--The scheme of non-intercourse
did not seem to bring the British and the French to terms much better
than the embargo had done. In 1810, therefore, Congress set to work and
produced a third plan. This was to allow intercourse with both Great
Britain and France. But this was coupled with the promise that if one of
the two nations stopped seizing American ships and the other did not,
then intercourse with the unfriendly country should be prohibited.
Napoleon at once said that he would stop seizing American vessels on
November 1 of that year if the British, on their part, would stop their
seizures before that time. The British said that they would stop seizing
when Napoleon did. Neither of them really did anything except to keep on
capturing American vessels whenever they could get a chance.

[Sidenote: Indians of the Northwest. _Eggleston_, 242.]

[Sidenote: Tecumthe.]

256. Indian Troubles, 1810.--To this everlasting trouble with Great
Britain and France were now added the horrors of an Indian war. It came
about in this way. Settlers were pressing into Indiana Territory west of
the new state of Ohio. Soon the lands which the United States had bought
of the Indians would be occupied. New lands must be bought. At this time
there were two able Indian leaders in the Northwest. These were
Tecumthe, or Tecumseh, and his brother, who was known as "the Prophet."
These chiefs set on foot a great Indian confederation. They said that no
one Indian tribe should sell land to the United States without the
consent of all the tribes of the Confederation.

[Sidenote: Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811.]

257. Battle of Tippecanoe.--This determined attitude of the Indians
seemed to the American leaders to be very dangerous. Governor William
Henry Harrison of Indiana Territory gathered a small army of regular
soldiers and volunteers from Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana. He marched to
the Indian settlements. The Indians attacked him at Tippecanoe. He beat
them off and, attacking in his turn, routed them. Tecumthe was not at
the battle. But he immediately fled to the British in Canada. The
Americans had suspected that the British were stirring up the Indians to
resist the United States. The reception given to Tecumthe made them feel
that their suspicions were correct.

[Illustration: MEDAL PRESENTED TO HENRY CLAY.]

[Sidenote: Henry Clay.]

[Sidenote: John C. Calhoun.]

258. The War Party in Congress.--There were abundant reasons to
justify war with Great Britain, or with France, or with both of them.
But there would probably have been no war with either of them had it not
been for a few energetic young men in Congress. The leaders of this war
party were Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun. Clay was born in Virginia,
but as a boy he had gone to Kentucky. He represented the spirit of the
young and growing West. He was a true patriot and felt angry at the way
the British spoke of America and Americans, and at the way they acted
toward the United States. He was a very popular man and won men to him
by his attractive qualities and by his energy. Calhoun was a South
Carolinian who had been educated in Connecticut. He was a man of the
highest personal character. He had a strong, active mind, and he was
fearless in debate. As with Clay so with Calhoun, they both felt the
rising spirit of nationality. They thought that the United States had
been patient long enough. They and their friends gained a majority in
Congress and forced Madison to send a warlike message to Congress.

[Sidenote: Madison's war message, 1812. _McMaster>_, 231;
_Source-Book_, 214-216.]

259. Madison's Reasons for War, 1812.--In his message Madison
stated the grounds for complaint against the British as follows: (1)
they impressed American seamen; (2) they disturbed American commerce by
stationing warships off the principal ports; they refused to permit
trade between America and Europe; (4) they stirred up the western
Indians to attack the settlers; (5) they were really making war on the
United States while the United States was at peace with them. For these
reasons Madison advised a declaration of war against Great Britain, and
war was declared.

QUESTIONS AND TOPICS

CHAPTER 22

Sec.Sec. 228, 229.--_a_. Draw a map showing the states and territories in
1800.

_b_. How and why had the center of population changed since 1791? Where
is it now?

_c_. Why did so many people live near tide water? Do the same reasons
exist to-day?

Sec.Sec. 230-232.--_a_. What were the "best roads" in 1800?

_b_. Describe the dangers and discomforts of traveling in 1800.

_c_. What were the early steamboats like?

Sec.Sec. 233, 234.--_a_. What fact hindered the growth of cotton on a large
scale in colonial times?

_b_. How did Whitney's cotton gin change these conditions?

Sec.Sec. 235, 236.--_a_. Why had manufacturing received so little attention
before the Revolution?

_b_. How did the new government encourage manufacturing?

CHAPTER 23

Sec. 237.--_a_. How did Jefferson's inauguration illustrate his political
ideas?

_b_. Compare his method of opening Congress with that employed by
Washington and Adams. Which method is followed to-day?

Sec.Sec. 238.--_a_. What is the Civil Service? How had Washington and Adams
filled offices? Was their action wise?

Sec.Sec. 239.--_a_. Explain the Judiciary Act of 1801.

_b_. What power has Congress over the Judiciary? (Constitution, Art.
III).

Sec.Sec. 240.--_a_. What was Jefferson's policy toward expenses? How did he
carry it out? What was the result of these economies?

_b_. Was the reduction of the navy wise? What conditions make a large
navy necessary?

Sec.Sec. 241-244.--_a_. When and how had Louisiana changed hands since its
settlement? Why were the Spaniards poor neighbors?

_b_. How did the United States acquire Louisiana?

_c_. Trace on a map the boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase. Compare
its value to-day with the price paid.

_d_. What important discoveries did Lewis and Clark make?

Sec.Sec. 245, 246.--_a_. Give instances which illustrate the disadvantages of
the old way of electing the President and Vice-President.

_b_. Explain carefully the changes made by the Twelfth Amendment, and
show how a President may be elected by a minority of the voters.

CHAPTER 24

Sec.Sec. 247.--_a_. Describe the doings of the African pirates. Why had
Washington and Adams paid them?

_b_. Describe Jefferson's action and state the results.

Sec.Sec. 248, 249.--_a_. Compare the power of France and Great Britain at this
time.

_b_. How did they try to injure one another? How did they treat American
ships?

_c_. Explain the impressment of sailors by the British.

Sec.Sec. 250, 251.--_a_. Describe the difficulties of Jefferson's position.

_b_. Give instances of refusal to buy British goods and the results.

_c_. Explain the Embargo Act. Why was it a failure?

_d_. Describe the outrage on the _Chesapeake_. Was the offer of the
British government enough? What more should have been promised?

Sec.Sec. 252, 253.--_a_. What were Jefferson's objections to a third term?
What custom was established by these early Presidents?

_b_. Where have we found Madison prominent before?

_c_. Explain the difference between the Embargo Act and the
Non-Intercourse Act.

Sec.Sec. 254, 255.--_a_. Describe the attempt to renew friendly intercourse
with Great Britain.

_b_. What do you think of Napoleon's treatment of the United States?

Sec.Sec. 256.--_a_. What caused the trouble with the Indians?

_b_. Describe Harrison's action. How were the British connected with
this Indian trouble?

Sec.Sec. 257-259.--_a_. How did all these affairs affect the relations between
the United States and Great Britain?

_b_. Explain the attitude of Clay and Calhoun.

_c_. What is meant by the "rising spirit of nationality"?

_d_. Illustrate, by facts already studied, the reasons given in
Madison's message.

GENERAL QUESTIONS

_a_. How has machinery influenced the history of the United States?

_b_. Draw a map showing the extent of the United States in 1802 and
1804.

_c_. What were the four most important things in Jefferson's
administrations? Why do you select these?

TOPICS FOR SPECIAL WORK

_a_. Robert Fulton or Eli Whitney.

_b_. Exploration of the Northwest.

_c_. War with the African pirates.

_d_. Life and manners in 1800.

SUGGESTIONS

The purchase of Louisiana and the early development of the West are
leading points in this period. With the latter must be coupled the
important inventions which made such development possible. Commercial
questions should receive adequate attention and should be illustrated by
present conditions.

Jefferson's attitude toward both the Louisiana Purchase and the
enforcement of the Embargo Act is an illustration of the effect which
power and responsibility have on those placed at the head of the
government. This can also be illustrated by events in our own time.

IX

WAR AND PEACE, 1812-1829

Books for Study and Reading

References.--Higginson's _Larger History, _365-442; Scribner's
_Popular History, _IV; Lossing's _Field-Book of the War of 1812;
_Coffin's _Building the Nation, _149-231.

Home Readings.--Barnes's _Yankee Ships; _Roosevelt's _Naval War of
1812; _Seawell's _Midshipman Paulding; _Holmes's _Old Ironsides;
_Goodwin's _Dolly Madison._

CHAPTER 25

THE SECOND WAR OF INDEPENDENCE, 1812 1815

[Sidenote: American plan of campaign, 1812.]

[Sidenote: Objections to it.]

260. Plan of Campaign, 1812.--The American plan of campaign was
that General Hull should invade Canada from Detroit. He could then march
eastward, north of Lake Erie, and meet another army which was to cross
the Niagara River. These two armies were to take up the eastward march
and join a third army from New York. The three armies then would capture
Montreal and Quebec and generally all Canada. It was a splendid plan.
But there were three things in the way of carrying it out: (i) there was
no trained American army; (2) there were no supplies for an army when
gathered and trained; and (3) there was a small, well-trained and
well-supplied army in Canada.

[Illustration: DETROIT, ABOUT 1815.]

[Sidenote: Hull's march to Detroit.]

[Sidenote: His misfortunes.]

[Sidenote: He surrenders Detroit, 1812.]

261. Hull's Surrender of Detroit, 1812.--In those days Detroit was
separated from the settled parts of Ohio by two hundred miles of
wilderness. To get his men and supplies to Detroit, Hull had first of
all to cut a road through the forest. The British learned of the actual
declaration of war before Hull knew of it. They dashed down on his
scattered detachments and seized his provisions. Hull sent out
expedition after expedition to gather supplies and bring in the
scattered settlers. Tecumthe and the other Indian allies of the British
captured one expedition after another. The British advanced on Detroit,
and Hull surrendered. By this disaster the British got control of the
upper lakes. They even invaded Ohio.

[Illustration: PERRY'S BATTLE FLAG.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Lake Erie 1813. McMaster, 234-235.]

[Sidenote: Battle of the Thames, 1813.]

262. Perry's Victory on Lake Erie, 1813.--But the British triumph
did not last long. In the winter of 1812-13 Captain Oliver Hazard Perry
built a fleet of warships on Lake Erie. They were built of green timber
cut for the purpose. They were poor vessels, but were as good as the
British vessels. In September, 1813, Perry sailed in search of the
British ships. Coming up with them, he hoisted at his masthead a large
blue flag with Lawrence's immortal words, "Don't give up the ship" (p.
212), worked upon it. The battle was fiercely fought. Soon Perry's
flagship, the _Lawrence_, was disabled and only nine of her crew were
uninjured. Rowing to another ship, Perry continued the fight. In fifteen
minutes more all the British ships surrendered. The control of Lake Erie
was now in American hands. The British retreated from the southern side
of the lake. General Harrison occupied Detroit. He then crossed into
Canada and defeated a British army on the banks of the river Thames
(October, 1813).

[Illustration: THE "CONSTITUTION." From an early painting of the escape
of the _Constitution_ from the British fleet. The men in the boat are
preparing to carry out a small anchor.]

[Sidenote: The _Constitution_.]

[Sidenote: Chased by a British fleet, 1812.]

[Sidenote: She escapes.]

263. The Frigate _Constitution_.--One of the first vessels to get
to sea was the _Constitution_, commanded by Isaac Hull. She sailed from
Chesapeake Bay for New York, where she was to serve as a guard-ship. On
the way she fell in with a British squadron. The _Constitution_ sailed
on with the whole British fleet in pursuit. Soon the wind began to die
away. The _Constitution's_ sails were soaked with water to make them
hold the wind better. Then the wind gave out altogether, Captain Hull
lowered his boats and the men began to tow the ship. But the British
lowered their boats also. They set a great many boats to towing their
fastest ship, and she began to gain on the _Constitution_. Then Captain
Hull found that he was sailing over shoal water, although out of sight
of land, so he sent a small anchor ahead in a boat. The anchor was
dropped and men on the ship pulled in the anchor line. This was done
again and again. The _Constitution _now began to gain on the British
fleet. Then a sudden squall burst on the ships. Captain Hull saw it
coming and made every preparation to take advantage of it. When the rain
cleared away, the _Constitution_ was beyond fear of pursuit. But she
could not go to New York, so Captain Hull took her to Boston. The
government at once ordered him to stay where he was; but, before the
orders reached Boston, the _Constitution_ was far away.

[Sidenote: _Constitution_ and _Guerriere_, 1812.]

[Sidenote: Reasons for the victory.]

264. _Constitution_ and _Guerriere_, 1812.--For some time Hull
cruised about in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. One day he sighted a British
frigate--the _Guerriere_--one of the ships that had chased the
_Constitution_. But now that Hull found her alone, he steered straight
for her. In thirty minutes from the firing of the first gun the
_Guerriere_ was a ruinous wreck. All of her masts and spars were shot
away and most of her crew were killed or wounded. The _Constitution_ was
only slightly injured, and was soon ready to fight another British
frigate, had there been one to fight. Indeed, the surgeons of the
_Constitution_ went on board of the _Guerriere_ to help dress the wounds
of the British seamen. The _Guerriere_ was a little smaller than the
_Constitution_ and had smaller guns. But the real reason for this great
victory was that the American ship and the American guns were very much
better handled than were the British ship and the British guns.

[Sidenote: _Wasp_ and the _Frolic_]

[Sidenote: Effect of these victories.]

265. The _Wasp_ and the _Frolic_, 1812.--At almost the same time
the American ship _Wasp_ captured the British brig _Frolic_. The _Wasp_
had three masts, and the _Frolic_ had only two masts. But the two
vessels were really of about the same size, as the American ship was
only five feet longer than her enemy, and had the lighter guns. In a few
minutes after the beginning of the fight the _Frolic_ was a shattered
hulk, with only one sound man on her deck. Soon after the conflict a
British battleship came up and captured both the _Wasp_ and her prize.
The effect of these victories of the _Constitution_ and the _Wasp_ was
tremendous. Before the war British naval officers had called the
_Constitution_ "a bundle of sticks." Now it was thought to be no longer
safe for British frigates to sail the seas alone. They must go in pairs
to protect each other from "Old Ironsides." Before long the
_Constitution_, now commanded by Captain Bainbridge, had captured the
British frigate _Java_, and the frigate _United States_, Captain
Decatur, had taken the British ship _Macedonian_. On the other hand, the
_Chesapeake_ was captured by the _Shannon_. This victory gave great
satisfaction to the British. But Captain Lawrence's last words, "Don't
give up the ship," have always been a glorious inspiration to
American sailors.

[Sidenote: Plan of campaign, 1814.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Lundy's Lane, 1814.]

266. Brown's Invasion of Canada, 1814.--In the first two years of
the war the American armies in New York had done nothing. But abler men
were now in command. Of these, General Jacob Brown, General Macomb,
Colonel Winfield Scott, and Colonel Ripley deserve to be remembered.
The American plan of campaign was that Brown, with Scott and Ripley,
should cross the Niagara River and invade Canada. General Macomb, with a
naval force under McDonough, was to hold the line of Lake Champlain. The
British plan was to invade New York by way of Lake Champlain. Brown
crossed the Niagara River and fought two brilliant battles at Chippewa
and Lundy's Lane. The latter battle was especially glorious because the
Americans captured British guns and held them against repeated attacks
by British veterans. In the end, however, Brown was obliged to retire.

[Sidenote: Invasion of New York.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Plattsburg, 1814.]

267. McDonough's Victory at Plattsburg, 1814.--General Prevost,
with a fine army of veterans, marched southward from Canada, while a
fleet sailed up Lake Champlain. At Plattsburg, on the western side of
the lake, was General Macomb with a force of American soldiers. Anchored
before the town was McDonough's fleet. Prevost attacked Macomb's army
and was driven back. The British fleet attacked McDonough's vessels and
was destroyed. That put an end to Prevost's invasion. He retreated back
to Canada as fast as he could go.

[Illustration: FORT McHENRY.]

[Sidenote: Burning of Washington, 1814.]

[Sidenote: "The Star-Spangled Banner."]

268. The British in the Chesapeake, 1814.--Besides their operations
on the Canadian frontier, the British tried to capture New Orleans and
the cities on Chesapeake Bay. The British landed below Washington. They
marched to the capital. They entered Washington. They burned the
Capitol, the White House, and several other public buildings. They then
hurried away, leaving their wounded behind them. Later on the British
attacked Baltimore and were beaten off with great loss. It was at this
time that Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner." He was
detained on board one of the British warships during the fight. Eagerly
he watched through the smoke for a glimpse of the flag over Fort McHenry
at the harbor's mouth. In the morning the flag was still there. This
defeat closed the British operations on the Chesapeake.

[Illustration: FLAG OF FORT McHENRY. Fifteen stars and fifteen
stripes--one of each for each state.]

[Sidenote: Jackson's Creek campaign, 1814.]

269. The Creek War.--The Creek Indians lived in Alabama. They saw
with dismay the spreading settlements of the whites. The Americans were
now at war. It would be a good chance to destroy them. So the Creeks
fell upon the whites and murdered about four hundred. General Andrew
Jackson of Tennessee commanded the American army in the Southwest. As
soon as he knew that the Creeks were attacking the settlers, he gathered
soldiers and followed the Indians to their stronghold. He stormed their
fort and killed most of the garrison.

[Illustration: BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS. From a sketch by one of Jackson's
staff.]

[Sidenote: Battle of New Orleans, 1815.]

[Sidenote: _Hero Tales_, 139-147.]

270. Jackson's Defense of New Orleans, 1814-15.--Jackson had
scarcely finished this work when he learned of the coming of a great
British expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi River. He at once
hastened to the defense of New Orleans. Below the city the country
greatly favored the defender. For there was very little solid ground
except along the river's bank. Picking out an especially narrow place,
Jackson built a breastwork of cotton bales and rubbish. In front of the
breastwork he dug a deep ditch. The British rushed to the attack. Most
of their generals were killed or wounded, and the slaughter was
terrible. Later, they made another attack and were again beaten off.

[Sidenote: Naval combats, 1814.]

271. The War on the Sea, 1814.--It was only in the first year or so
of the war that there was much fighting between American and British
warships. After that the American ships could not get to sea, for the
British stationed whole fleets off the entrances to the principal
harbors. But a few American vessels ran the blockade and did good
service. For instance, Captain Charles Stewart in the _Constitution_
captured two British ships at one time. But most of the warships that
got to sea were captured sooner or later.

[Sidenote: The privateers. _Hero Tales_, 129-136.]

272. The Privateers.--No British fleets could keep the privateers
from leaving port. They swarmed upon the ocean and captured hundreds of
British merchantmen, some of them within sight of the shores of Great
Britain. In all, they captured more than twenty-five hundred British
ships. They even fought the smaller warships of the enemy.

[Sidenote: Treaty of peace, 1814.]

273. Treaty of Ghent, 1814.--The war had hardly begun before
commissioners to treat for peace were appointed by both the United
States and Great Britain. But they did nothing until the failure of the
1814 campaign showed the British government that there was no hope of
conquering any portion of the United States. Then the British were ready
enough to make peace, and a treaty was signed at Ghent in December,
1814. This was two weeks before the British disaster at New Orleans
occurred, and months before the news of it reached Europe. None of the
things about which the war was fought were even mentioned in the treaty.
But this did not really make much difference. For the British had
repealed their orders as to American ships before the news of the
declaration of war reached London. As for impressment, the guns of the
_Constitution_ had put an end to that.

[Illustration: THE OLD STATE HOUSE. Where the Hartford Convention met.]

[Sidenote: New England Federalists.]

[Sidenote: Hartford Convention, 1814.]

274. The Hartford Convention, 1814.--While the New commissioners
were talking over the treaty of peace, other debaters were discussing
the war, at Hartford, Connecticut. These were leading New England
Federalists. They thought that the government at Washington had done
many things that the Constitution of the United States did not permit it
to do. They drew up a set of resolutions. Some of these read like those
other resolutions drawn up by Jefferson and Madison in 1798 (p. 175).
The Hartford debaters also thought that the national government had not
done enough to protect the coasts of New England from British attacks.
They proposed, therefore, that the taxes collected by the national
government in New England should be handed over to the New England
states to use for their defense. Commissioners were actually at
Washington to propose this division of the national revenue when news
came of Jackson's victory at New Orleans and of the signing of the
Treaty of Ghent. The commissioners hastened home and the Republican
party regained its popularity with the voters.

[Illustration: A REPUBLICAN SQUIB ON THE HARTFORD CONVENTION.]

[Sidenote: Gains of the war.]

[Sidenote: The American nation.]

275. Gains of the War.--The United States gained no territory after
all this fighting on sea and land. It did not even gain the abolition of
impressment in so many words. But what was of far greater importance,
the American people began to think of itself as a nation. Americans no
longer looked to France or to England as models to be followed. They
became Americans. The getting of this feeling of independence and of
nationality was a very great step forward. It is right, therefore, to
speak of this war as the Second War of Independence.

[Illustration: JAMES MONROE.]

CHAPTER 26

THE ERA OF GOOD FEELING, 1815-1824

[Sidenote: Monroe elected President, 1816, 1820.]

[Sidenote: Characteristics of the Era of Good Feeling. _McMaster_, 260.]

276. The Era as a Whole.--The years 1815-24 have been called the
Era of Good Feeling, because there was no hard political fighting in all
that time--at least not until the last year or two. In 1816 Monroe was
elected President without much opposition. In 1820 he was reelected
President without any opposition whatever. Instead of fighting over
politics, the people were busily employed in bringing vast regions of
the West under cultivation and in founding great manufacturing
industries in the East. They were also making roads and canals to
connect the Western farms with the Eastern cities and factories. The
later part of the era was a time of unbounded prosperity. Every now and
then some hard question would come up for discussion. Its settlement
would be put off, or the matter would be compromised. In these years the
Federalist party disappeared, and the Republican party split into
factions. By 1824 the differences in the Republican party had become so
great that there was a sudden ending to the Era of Good Feeling.

[Sidenote: Hard times, 1816-18.]

[Sidenote: Emigration to the West, 1816-18. _McMaster_, 241, 266-273.]

[Sidenote: Four states admitted, 1816-1819]

[Sidenote: Maine and Missouri apply for admission.]

277. Western Emigration.--During the first few years of this period
the people of the older states on the seacoast felt very poor. The
shipowners could no longer make great profits. For there was now peace
in Europe, and European vessels competed with American vessels. Great
quantities of British goods were sent to the United States and were sold
at very low prices. The demand for American goods fell off. Mill owners
closed their mills. Working men and women could find no work to do. The
result was a great rush of emigrants from the older states on the
seaboard to the new settlements in the West. In the West the emigrants
could buy land from the government at a very low rate, and by working
hard could support themselves and their families. This westward movement
was at its height in 1817. In the years 1816--19, four states were
admitted to the Union. These were Indiana (1816), Mississippi (1817),
Illinois (1818), and Alabama (1819). Some of the emigrants even crossed
the Mississippi River and settled in Missouri and in Arkansas. In 1819
they asked to be admitted to the Union as the state of Missouri, or
given a territorial government under the name of Arkansas. The people of
Maine also asked Congress to admit them to the Union as the state
of Maine.

[Sidenote: Objections to the admission of Missouri.]

278. Opposition to the Admission of Missouri.--Many people in the
North opposed the admission of Missouri because the settlers of the
proposed state were slaveholders. Missouri would be a slave state, and
these Northerners did not want any more slave states. Originally slavery
had existed in all the old thirteen states. But every state north of
Maryland had before 1819 either put an end to slavery or had
adopted some plan by which slavery would gradually come to an end.
Slavery had been excluded from the Northwest by the famous Ordinance of
1787 (p. 135). In these ways slavery had ceased to be a vital
institution north of Maryland and Kentucky. Why should slavery be
allowed west of the Mississippi River? Louisiana had been admitted as a
slave state (1812). But the admission of Louisiana had been provided for
in the treaty for the purchase of Louisiana from France. The Southerners
felt as strongly on the other side. They said that their slaves were
their property, and that they had a perfect right to take their
property and settle on the land belonging to the nation. Having founded
a slave state, it was only right that the state should be admitted to
the Union.

[Illustration: (Map) Missouri Compromise of 1820]

[Sidenote: This Missouri Compromise, 1820. _Higginson_, 254-256;
_Eggleston_, 258-261.]

[Sidenote: Both states admitted, 1820. _McMaster_,274-276.]

279. The Missouri Compromise, 1820.--When the question of the
admission of Maine and Missouri came before Congress, the Senate was
equally divided between the slave states and the free states. But the
majority of the House of Representatives was from the free states. The
free states were growing faster than were the slave states and would
probably keep on growing faster. The majority from the free states in
the House, therefore, would probably keep on increasing. If the free
states obtained a majority in the Senate also, the Southerners would
lose all control of the government. For these reasons the Southerners
would not consent to the admission of Maine as a free state unless at
the same time Missouri was admitted as a slave state. After a long
struggle Maine and Missouri were both admitted--the one as a free state,
the other as a slave state. But it was also agreed that all of the
Louisiana purchase north of the southern boundary of Missouri, with the
single exception of the state of Missouri, should be free soil
forever. This arrangement was called the Missouri Compromise. It was the
work of Henry Clay. It was an event of great importance, because it put
off for twenty-five years the inevitable conflict over slavery.

[Illustration: THE UNITED STATES IN 1820]

[Sidenote: Reasons for the purchase of Florida.]

[Sidenote: Jackson invades Florida, 1818.]

[Sidenote: The Florida purchase, 1819.]

280. The Florida Treaty, 1819.--While this contest was going on,
the United States bought of Spain a large tract of land admirably suited
to negro slavery. This was Florida. It belonged to Spain and was a
refuge for all sorts of people: runaway negroes, fugitive Indians,
smugglers, and criminals of all kinds. Once in Florida, fugitives
generally were safe. But they were not always safe. For instance, in
1818 General Jackson chased some fleeing Indians over the boundary. They
sought refuge in a Spanish fort, and Jackson was obliged to take the
fort as well as the Indians. This exploit made the Spaniards more
willing to sell Florida. The price was five million dollars. But when it
came to giving up the province, the Spaniards found great difficulty in
keeping their promises. The treaty was made in 1819, but it was not
until 1821 that Jackson, as governor of Florida, took possession of the
new territory. Even then the Spanish governor refused to hand over the
record books, and Jackson had to shut him up in prison until he became
more reasonable.

[Illustration: OLD HOUSES, ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA.]

[Sidenote: Formation of the Holy Alliance.]

[Sidenote: It interferes in Spanish affairs.]

[Sidenote: The Spanish Americans colonists rebel against Spain.]

[Sidenote: Russian attempts at colonization.]

281. The "Holy Alliance."--Most of the people of the other Spanish
colonies were rebelling against Spain, and there was a rebellion in
Spain itself. There were rebellions in other European countries as well
as in Spain. In fact, there seemed to be a rebellious spirit nearly
everywhere. This alarmed the European emperors and kings. With the
exception of the British king, they joined together to put down
rebellions. They called their union the Holy Alliance. They soon put the
Spanish king back on his throne. They then thought that they would send
warships and soldiers across the Atlantic Ocean to crush the rebellions
in the Spanish colonies. Now the people of the United States sympathized
with the Spanish colonists in their desire for independence. They also
disliked the idea of Europeans interfering in American affairs. "America
for Americans," was the cry. It also happened that Englishmen desired
the freedom of the Spanish colonists. As her subjects Spain would not
let them buy English goods. But if they were free, they could buy goods
wherever they pleased. The British government therefore proposed that
the United States and Great Britain should join in a declaration that
the Spanish colonies were independent states. John Quincy Adams, son of
John Adams, was Monroe's Secretary of State. He thought that this would
not be a wise course to follow, because it might bring American affairs
within European control. He was all the more anxious to prevent this
entanglement, as the Czar of Russia was preparing to found colonies on
the western coast of North America and Adams wanted a free hand to
deal with him.

[Sidenote: The Monroe Doctrine, 1822. _McMaster_, 262-265]

[Sidenote: Action of Great Britain. End of European interference in
America.]

282. The Monroe Doctrine, 1823.--It was under these circumstances
that President Monroe sent a message to Congress. In it he stated the
policy of the United States as follows: (1) America is closed to
colonization by any European power; (2) the United States have not
interfered and will not interfere in European affairs; (3) the United
States regard the extension of the system of the Holy Alliance to
America as dangerous to the United States; and (4) the United States
would regard the interference of the Holy Alliance in American affairs
as an "unfriendly act." This part of the message was written by Adams.
He had had a long experience in diplomacy. He used the words "unfriendly
act" as diplomatists use them when they mean that such an "unfriendly
act" would be a cause for war. The British government also informed the
Holy Allies that their interference in American affairs would be
resented. The Holy Alliance gave over all idea of crushing the Spanish
colonists. And the Czar of Russia agreed to found no colonies south of
fifty-four degrees and forty minutes north latitude.

[Sidenote: Meaning of the Monroe Doctrine.]

283. Meaning of the Monroe Doctrine.--The ideas contained in
Monroe's celebrated message to Congress are always spoken of as the
Monroe Doctrine. Most of these ideas were not invented by Monroe or by
Adams. Many of them may be found in Washington's Neutrality
Proclamation, in Washington's Farewell Address, in Jefferson's Inaugural
Address, and in other documents. What was new in Monroe's message was
the statement that European interference in American affairs would be
looked upon by the United States as an "unfriendly act," leading to war.
European kings might crush out liberty in Europe. They might divide Asia
and Africa among themselves. They must not interfere in
American affairs.

CHAPTER 27

NEW PARTIES AND NEW POLICIES, 1824-1829

[Sidenote: End of Monroe's administrations.]

284. End of the Era of Good Feeling.--The Era of Good Feeling came
to a sudden ending in 1824. Monroe's second term as President would end
in 1825. He refused to be a candidate for reelection. In thus following
the example set by Washington, Jefferson, and Madison, Monroe confirmed
the custom of limiting the presidential term to eight years. There was
no lack of candidates to succeed him in his high office.

[Sidenote: J.Q. Adams]

285. John Quincy Adams.--First and foremost was John Quincy Adams
of Massachusetts. He was Monroe's Secretary of State, and this office
had been a kind of stepping-stone to the presidency. Monroe had been
Madison's Secretary of State; Madison had been Jefferson's Secretary of
State; and Jefferson had been Washington's Secretary of State, although
he was Vice-President when he was chosen to the first place. John Quincy
Adams was a statesman of great experience and of ability. He was a man
of the highest honor and intelligence. He was nominated by the
legislatures of Massachusetts and of the other New England states.

[Illustration: John C. Calhoun.]

[Sidenote: W.H. Crawford.]

[Sidenote: Tenure of Office Act.]

[Sidenote: The Crawford machine.]

286. William H. Crawford.--Besides Adams, two other members of
Monroe's cabinet wished to succeed their chief. These were John C.
Calhoun and William H. Crawford. Calhoun soon withdrew from the contest
to accept the nomination of all the factions to the place of
Vice-President. Crawford was from Georgia and was Secretary of the
Treasury. As the head of that great department, he controlled more
appointments than all the other members of the cabinet put together. The
habit of using public offices to reward political friends had begun in
Pennsylvania. Washington, in his second term, Adams, and Jefferson had
appointed to office only members of their own party. Jefferson had also
removed from office a few political opponents (p. 187). But there were
great difficulties in the way of making removals. Crawford hit upon the
plan of appointing officers for four years only. Congress at once fell
in with the idea and passed the Tenure of Office Act, limiting
appointments to four years. Crawford promptly used this new power to
build up a strong political machine in the Treasury Department, devoted
to his personal advancement. He was nominated for the presidency by a
Congressional caucus and became the "regular" candidate.

[Sidenote: Henry Clay.]

[Sidenote: Andrew Jackson.]

287. Clay and Jackson.--Two men outside of the cabinet were also
put forward for Monroe's high office. These were Andrew Jackson of
Tennessee and Henry Clay of Kentucky. Clay and Calhoun had entered
politics at about the same time. They had then believed in the same
policy. Calhoun had abandoned his early ideas. But Clay held fast to
the policy of "nationalization." He still favored internal improvements
at the national expense. He still favored the protective system. He was
the great "peacemaker" and tried by means of compromises to unite all
parts of the Union (p. 222). He loved his country and had unbounded
faith in the American people. The legislatures of Kentucky and other
states nominated him for the presidency. The strongest man of all the
candidates was Andrew Jackson, the "Hero of New Orleans." He had never
been prominent in politics. But his warlike deeds had made his name and
his strength familiar to the voters, especially to those of the West. He
was a man of the people, as none of his rivals were. He stood for
democracy and the Union. The legislatures of Tennessee and other states
nominated Jackson for the presidency.

[Sidenote: The election of 1824.]

[Sidenote: It goes to the House of Representatives.]

[Sidenote: The House chooses Adams.]

288. Adams chosen President, 1824.--The election was held. The
presidential electors met in their several states and cast their votes
for President and Vice-President. The ballots were brought to Washington
and were counted. No candidate for the presidency had received a
majority of all the votes cast. Jackson had more votes than any other
candidate, next came Adams, then Crawford, and last of all Clay. The
House of Representatives, voting by states, must choose one of the first
three President. Clay, therefore, was out of the race. Clay and his
friends believed in the same things that Adams and his friends believed
in, and had slight sympathy with the views of Jackson or of Crawford.
So they joined the Adams men and chose Adams President. The Jackson men
were furious. They declared that the Representatives had defeated the
"will of the people."

[Illustration: JOHN QUINCY ADAMS.]

[Sidenote: Adams appoints Clay Secretary of State.]

[Sidenote: Charges of a bargain.]

[Sidenote: Weakness of Adams's administration.]

289. Misfortunes of Adams's Administration.--Adams's first mistake
was the appointment of Clay as Secretary of State. It was a mistake,
because it gave the Jackson men a chance to assert that there had been a
"deal" between Adams and Clay. They called Clay the "Judas of the West."
They said that the "will of the people" had been defeated by a "corrupt
bargain." These charges were repeated over and over again until many
people really began to think that there must be some reason for them.
The Jackson men also most unjustly accused Adams of stealing the
nation's money. The British government seized the opportunity of Adams's
weak administration to close the West India ports to American shipping.

[Sidenote: Early tariff laws.]

[Sidenote: The tariff of 1816.]

[Sidenote: Tariff of 1824.]

290. Early Tariffs.--Ever since 1789 manufactures had been
protected (p. 155). The first tariff rates were very low. But the
Embargo Act, the non-intercourse law, and the War of 1812 put an end to
the importation of foreign goods. Capitalists invested large amounts of
money in cotton mills, woolen mills, and iron mills. With the return of
peace in 1815, British merchants flooded the American markets with cheap
goods (p. 220). The manufacturers appealed to Congress for more
protection, and Congress promptly passed a new tariff act (1816). This
increased the duties over the earlier laws. But it did not give the
manufacturers all the protection that they desired. In 1824 another law
was drawn up. It raised the duties still higher. The Southerners opposed
the passage of this last law. For they clearly saw that protection did
them no good. But the Northerners and the Westerners were heartily in
favor of the increased duties, and the law was passed.

[Sidenote: Agitation for more protection, 1828.]

[Sidenote: Scheme of the Jackson men.]

[Sidenote: Tariff of 1828.]

291. The Tariff of Abominations, 1828.--In 1828 another
presidential election was to be held. The manufacturers thought that
this would be a good time to ask for even higher protective duties,
because the politicians would not dare to oppose the passage of the law
for fear of losing votes. The Jackson men hit upon a plan by which they
would seem to favor higher duties while at the same time they were
really opposing them. They therefore proposed high duties on
manufactured goods. This would please the Northern manufacturers. They
proposed high duties on raw materials. This would please the Western
producers. But they thought that the manufacturers would oppose the
final passage of the bill because the high duties on raw materials would
injure them very much. The bill would fail to pass, and this would
please the Southern cotton growers. It was a very shrewd little plan.
But it did not work. The manufacturers thought that it would be well at
all events to have the high duties on manufactured goods--perhaps they
might before long secure the repeal of the duties on raw materials. The
Northern members of Congress voted for the bill, and it passed.

[Sidenote: Election of 1828.]

[Sidenote: Jackson elected President. _McMaster_, 301.]

292. Jackson elected President, 1828.--In the midst of all this
discouragement as to foreign affairs and this contest over the tariff,
the presidential campaign of 1828 was held. Adams and Jackson were the
only two candidates. Jackson was elected by a large majority of
electoral votes. But Adams received only one vote less than he had
received in 1824. The contest was very close in the two large states of
Pennsylvania and New York. Had a few thousand more voters in those
states cast their votes for Adams, the electoral votes of those states
would have been given to him, and he would have been elected. It was
fortunate that Jackson was chosen. For a great contest between the
states and the national government was coming on. It was well that a man
of Jackson's commanding strength and great popularity should be at the
head of the government.

QUESTIONS AND TOPICS

CHAPTER 25

Sec.Sec. 260-262.--_a_. Explain by a map the American plan of campaign and
show its advantages and disadvantages.

_b_. Describe Perry's victory. How did this turn the scale of war?

Sec.Sec. 263-265.--_a_. Describe the escape of the _Constitution_ from the
British fleet. Describe the destruction of the _Guerriere_ and of the
_Frolic_. What was the reason for the American successes?

_b_. Why was the effect of these victories so great?

_c_. Why did the capture of the _Chesapeake_ cause so much delight in
England? Why are Lawrence's words so inspiring?

Sec.Sec. 266, 267.--_a_. Compare the second plan for the invasion of Canada
with the earlier one.

_b_. Discuss the events of Brown's campaign and its results.

_c_. Compare Prevost's campaign with Burgoyne's. Why was it
unsuccessful?

_d_. What do Perry's and McDonough's victories show?

Sec.Sec. 268.--_a_. Why were the British attacks directed against these three
portions of the country?

_b_. Describe the attack on Washington. Was the burning of the public
buildings justifiable?

_c_. Read the "Star-Spangled Banner" and explain the allusions.

Sec.Sec. 269, 270.--_a_. Describe Jackson's plans for the defense of New
Orleans. Why were they so successful?

_b._ Why did not this success of the Americans have more effect on the
peace negotiations?

Sec.Sec. 271, 272.--_a._ Why were most of the naval conflicts during the first
year of the war? What is a blockade? What is a privateer?

_b._ What work did the privateers do?

Sec. 273.--_a._ Why was so little advance made at first toward a treaty of
peace?

_b._ Why was the news of the treaty so long in reaching Washington?

_c._ What was settled by the war?

Sec. 274.--_a._ Were the Federalists or the Republicans more truly the
national party?

_b._ What propositions were made by the Hartford Convention? If such
proposals were carried out, what would be the effect on the Union?

_c._ Compare the principles underneath these resolutions with those of
the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.

Sec.275.--_a._ Note carefully the effect of this war.

_b._ Why is it called the Second War of Independence?

CHAPTER 26

Sec.Sec. 276, 277.--_a._ What is meant by the Era of Good Feeling? Is this
period more important or less important than the period of war which
preceded it? Why?

_b._ What matters occupied the attention of the people?

_c._ What shows the sudden increase in Western migration?

Sec.Sec. 278, 279.--_a._ State carefully the objections to the admission of
Missouri on the part of the Northerners. Why did the Southerners object
to the admission of Maine?

_b._ Trace on a map the line between the free states and the slave
states. Why was slavery no longer of importance north of this line? Why
was it important south of this line?

_c._ Why were the free states gaining faster than the slave states?

_d._ Explain the Missouri Compromise. How did the Compromise postpone
the conflict over slavery?

Sec. 280.--_a._ Why was Florida a danger to the United States?

_b._ What people in the United States would welcome the purchase of
Florida?

_c._ What does this section show you as to Jackson's character?

Sec. 281.--_a_. Why was the Holy Alliance formed? What did the allies
propose as to America?

_b_. How was this proposal regarded by Americans? Why?

_c_. How was it regarded by Englishmen? Why?

Sec.Sec. 282, 283.--_a_. Explain carefully the four points of Monroe's
message.

_b_. Were these ideas new? What is an "unfriendly act"?

_c_. What action did Great Britain take? What was the result of the
declarations of the United States and Great Britain.

_d_. What was the new point in Monroe's message?

_e_. Do we still keep to the Monroe Doctrine in all respects?

CHAPTER 27

Sec.Sec. 284-288.--_a_. Who were the candidates for President in 1824?
Describe the qualities and careers of each of them. For whom would you
have voted had you had the right to vote in 1824?

_b_. How were these candidates nominated? What is a caucus?

_c_. Describe the Tenure of Office Act. Should a man be given an office
simply because he has helped his party?

_d_. In what respects was Jackson unlike the early Presidents?

_e_. What was the result of the election? Who was finally chosen? Why?
If you had been a Representative in 1824, for whom would you have voted?
voted? Why?

_f_. What is a majority? A plurality?

Sec. 289.--_a_. Why was the appointment of Clay a mistake?

_b_. What charges were made against Adams?

_c_. Describe the misfortunes of Adams's administration.

Sec.Sec. 290, 291.--_a_. How are manufactures protected?

_b_. Why were the protective tariffs of no benefit to the Southerners?

_c_. Why was an attempt for a higher tariff made in 1828?

_d_. Explain the plan of the Jackson men. Why did the plan fail?

Sec. 292.--_a_. Describe the election of 1828.

_b_. How was Jackson fitted to meet difficulties?

GENERAL QUESTIONS

_a_. Why was the navy better prepared for war than the army?

_b_. Why did slaveholders feel the need of more slave territory in the
Union?

_c_. Jackson has been called "a man of the people." Explain this title.

TOPICS FOR SPECIAL WORK

_a_. Early life of Andrew Jackson (to 1828).

_b_. A battle of the War of 1812, e.g. Lake Erie, Lundy's Lane,
Plattsburg, New Orleans, or a naval combat.

_c_. The frigate _Constitution_.

_d_. The career of Clay, of Calhoun, of J.Q. Adams, or of Monroe.

SUGGESTIONS

The results of the War of 1812 should be carefully studied and compared
with the proposals of the Hartford Convention. These last can be taught
by comparison with the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.

To the Missouri Compromise much time and careful explanation should be
given. Touch upon the economic side of slavery, and explain how the
continued supremacy of the slave power was threatened.

The Monroe Doctrine is another difficult topic; but it can be explained
by recent history.

The election of 1824 can be carefully employed to elucidate the mode of
electing President, and the struggle over the tariffs can be illustrated
by recent tariff contests.

[Illustration: FLAG ADOPTED IN 1818. A star for each state and a stripe
for each of the original states.]

[Illustration: UNITED STATES IN 1830]

X

THE NATIONAL DEMOCRACY,
1829-1844

Books for Study and Reading

References.--Scribner's _Popular History_, IV; Lodge's _Webster_;
Coffin's _Building the Nation_, 251-313.

Home Readings.--Roosevelt's _Winning of the West_; Hale's _Stories
of Inventions_; Wright's _Stories of American Progress_.

CHAPTER 28

THE AMERICAN PEOPLE IN 1830

[Sidenote: Changes in conditions.]

293. A New Race.--Between the election of President Jefferson and
the election of President Jackson great changes had taken place. The old
Revolutionary statesmen had gone. New men had taken their places. The
old sleepy life had gone. Everywhere now was bustle and hurry. In 1800
the Federalists favored the British, and the Republicans favored the
French. Now no one seemed to care for either the British or the French.
At last the people had become Americans. The Federalist party had
disappeared. Every one now was either a National Republican and voted
for Adams, or a Democratic Republican and voted for Jackson.

[Sidenote: Population, 1830.]

[Sidenote: Area, 1830.]

[Sidenote: Growth of the cities.]

[Sidenote: Settlement of the West.]

294. Numbers and Area.--In 1800 there were only five and one-half
million people in the whole United States. Now there were nearly
thirteen million people. And they had a very much larger country to live
in. In 1800 the area of the United States was about eight hundred
thousand square miles. But Louisiana and Florida had been bought since
then. Now (1830) the area of the United States was about two million
square miles. The population of the old states had greatly increased.
Especially the cities had grown. In 1800 New York City held about sixty
thousand people; it now held two hundred thousand people. But it was in
the West that the greatest growth had taken place. Since 1800 Ohio,
Indiana, Illinois, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Missouri had all
been admitted to the Union.

[Sidenote: Difficulties of transport over the Alleghanies. _McMaster_,
252, 280-282.]

[Sidenote: The Cumberland Road.]

295. National Roads.--Steamboats were now running on the Great
Lakes and on all the important rivers of the West. The first result of
this new mode of transport was the separation of the West from the East.
Steamboats could carry passengers and goods up and down the Mississippi
and its branches more cheaply and more comfortably than people and goods
could be carried over the Alleghanies. Many persons therefore advised
the building of a good wagon road to connect the Potomac with the Ohio.
The eastern end of this great road was at Cumberland on the Potomac in
Maryland. It is generally called, therefore, the Cumberland Road. It was
begun at the national expense in 1811. By 1820 the road was built as far
as Wheeling on the Ohio River. From that point steamboats could steam to
Pittsburg, Cincinnati, St. Louis, or New Orleans. Later on, the road was
built farther west, as far as Illinois. Then the coming of the railroad
made further building unnecessary.

[Sidenote: The Erie Canal, 1825. _McMaster_, 282-284.]

[Sidenote: De Witt Clinton.]

[Sidenote: Results of the building of the Erie Canal.]

296. The Erie Canal.--The best way to connect one steamboat route
with another was to dig a canal. The most famous of all these canals was
the one connecting the Hudson River with Lake Erie, and called the Erie
Canal. It was begun in 1817 and was completed so that a boat could pass
through it in 1825. It was De Witt Clinton who argued that such a canal
would benefit New York City by bringing to it the produce of the
Northwest and of western New York. At the same time it would benefit the
farmers of those regions by bringing their produce to tide water cheaper
than it could be brought by road through Pennsylvania. It would still
further benefit the farmers by enabling them to buy their goods much
cheaper, as the rates of freight would be so much lower by canal than
they were by road. People who did not see these things as clearly as De
Witt Clinton saw them, spoke of the enterprise most sneeringly and
called the canal "Clinton's big ditch." It very soon appeared that
Clinton was right. In one year the cost of carrying a ton of grain from
Lake Erie to the Hudson River fell from one hundred dollars to fifteen
dollars. New York City soon outstripped all its rivals and became the
center of trade and money in the United States. Other canals, as the
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, were marvels of skill. But they were not so
favorably situated as the Erie Canal and could not compete with it
successfully.

[Illustration: CONESTOGA WAGON AND TEAM.]

[Sidenote: The first railroads. _McMaster_, 285-289.]

297. Early Railroads.--The best stone and gravel roads were always
rough in places. It occurred to some one that it would be better to lay
down wooden rails, and then to place a rim or flange on the wagon wheels
to keep them on the rails. The first road of this kind in America was
built at Boston in 1807. It was a very rude affair and was only used to
carry dirt from the top of a hill to the harbor. The wooden rails soon
wore out, so the next step was to nail strips of iron on top of them.
Long lines of railroads of this kind were soon built. Both passengers
and goods could be carried on them. Some of them were built by private
persons or by companies. Others were built by a town or a state. Any one
having horses and wagons with flanged wheels could use the railway on
the payment of a small sum of money. This was the condition of affairs
when the steam locomotive was invented.

[Illustration: AN EARLY LOCOMOTIVE.]

[Sidenote: Invention of the locomotive, 1830.]

[Sidenote: Hardships of early railroad travel.]

298. The Steam Locomotive.--Steam was used to drive boats through
the water. Why should not steam be used to haul wagons over a railroad?
This was a very easy question to ask, and a very hard one to answer.
Year after year inventors worked on the problem. Suddenly, about 1830,
it was solved in several places and by several men at nearly the same
time. It was some years, however, before the locomotive came into
general use. The early railroad trains were rude affairs. The cars were
hardly more than stagecoaches with flanged wheels. They were fastened
together with chains, and when the engine started or stopped, there was
a terrible bumping and jolting. The smoke pipe of the engine was very
tall and was hinged so that it could be let down when coming to a low
bridge or a tunnel. Then the smoke and cinders poured straight into the
passengers' faces. But these trains went faster than canal boats or
steamboats. Soon the railroad began to take the first place as a means
of transport.

[Illustration: A LOCOMOTIVE OF TO-DAY.]

[Sidenote: Use of hard coal.]

[Sidenote: Growth of the cities.]

299. Other Inventions.--The coming of the steam locomotive hastened
the changes which one saw on every side in 1830. For some time men had
known that there was plenty of hard coal or anthracite in Pennsylvania.
But it was so hard that it would not burn in the old-fashioned stoves
and fireplaces. Now a stove was invented that would burn anthracite, and
the whole matter of house warming was completely changed. Then means
were found to make iron from ore with anthracite. The whole iron
industry awoke to new life. Next the use of gas made from coal became
common in cities. The great increase in manufacturing, and the great
changes in modes of transport, led people to crowd together in cities
and towns. These inventions made it possible to feed and warm large
numbers of persons gathered into small areas. The cities began to grow
so fast that people could no longer live near their work or the shops.
Lines of stagecoaches were established, and the coaches were soon
followed by horse cars, which ran on iron tracks laid in the streets.

[Illustration: AN EARLY HORSE CAR.]

[Sidenote: Growth of the school system.]

[Sidenote: Webster's "Dictionary."]

[Sidenote: American men of letters.]

[Sidenote: American men of science.]

300. Progress in Letters.--There was also great progress in
learning. The school system was constantly improved. Especially was this
the case in the West, where the government devoted one thirty-sixth part
of the public lands to education. High schools were founded, and soon
normal schools were added to them. Even the colleges awoke from their
long sleep. More students went to them, and the methods of teaching were
improved. Some slight attention, too, was given to teaching the
sciences. In 1828 Noah Webster published the first edition of his great
dictionary. Unfortunately he tried to change the spelling of many words.
But in other ways his dictionary was a great improvement. He defined
words so that they could be understood, and he gave the American meaning
of many words, as "congress." American writers now began to make great
reputations. Cooper, Irving, and Bryant were already well known. They
were soon joined by a wonderful set of men, who speedily made America
famous. These were Emerson, Lowell, Longfellow, Holmes, Hawthorne,
Prescott, Motley, Bancroft, and Sparks. In science, also, men of mark
were beginning their labors, as Pierce, Gray, Silliman, and Dana. Louis
Agassiz before long began his wonderful lectures, which did much to make
science popular. In short, Jackson's administration marks the time when
American life began to take on its modern form.

[Illustration: NOAH WEBSTER.]

CHAPTER 29

THE REIGN OF ANDREW JACKSON, 1829-1837

[Sidenote: Jackson's early career.]

[Sidenote: His "kitchen cabinet".]

301. General Jackson.--Born in the backwoods of Carolina, Jackson
had early crossed the Alleghanies and settled in Tennessee. Whenever
trouble came to the Western people, whenever there was need of a stout
heart and an iron will, Jackson was at the front. He always did his
duty. He always did his duty well. Honest and sincere, he believed in
himself and he believed in the American people. As President he led the
people in one of the stormiest periods in our history. Able men gathered
about him. But he relied chiefly on the advice of a few friends who
smoked their pipes with him and formed his "kitchen cabinet." He seldom
called a regular cabinet meeting. When he did call one, it was often
merely to tell the members what he had decided to do.

[Sidenote: Party machines.]

[Sidenote: The Spoils System.]

302. The Spoils System.--Among the able men who had fought the
election for Jackson were Van Buren and Marcy of New York and Buchanan
of Pennsylvania. They had built up strong party machines in their
states. For they "saw nothing wrong in the principle that to the victors
belong the spoils of victory." So they rewarded their party workers with
offices--when they won. The Spoils System was now begun in the national
government. Those who had worked for Jackson rushed to Washington. The
hotels and boarding-houses could not hold them. Some of them camped out
in the parks and public squares of the capital. Removals now went
merrily on. Rotation in office was the cry. Before long Jackson removed
nearly one thousand officeholders and appointed political partisans in
their places.

[Sidenote: The North and the South. _McMaster_, 301-304.]

303. The North and the South.--The South was now a great
cotton-producing region. This cotton was grown by negro slaves. The
North was now a great manufacturing and commercial region. It was also a
great agricultural region. But the labor in the mills, fields, and ships
of the North was all free white labor. So the United States was really
split into two sections: one devoted to slavery and to a few great
staples, as cotton; the other devoted to free white labor and to
industries of many kinds.

[Sidenote: The South and the tariff, 1829.]

[Sidenote: Calhoun's "Exposition."]

304. The Political Situation, 1829.--The South was growing richer
all the time; but the North was growing richer a great deal faster than
was the South. Calhoun and other Southern men thought that this
difference in the rate of progress was due to the protective system. In
1828 Congress had passed a tariff that was so bad that it was called the
Tariff of Abominations (p. 231). The Southerners could not prevent its
passage. But Calhoun wrote an "Exposition" of the constitutional
doctrines in the case. This paper was adopted by the legislature of
South Carolina as giving its ideas. In this paper Calhoun declared that
the Constitution of the United States was a compact. Each state was a
sovereign state and could annul any law passed by Congress. The
protective system was unjust and unequal in operation. It would bring
"poverty and utter desolation to the South." The tariff act should be
annulled by South Carolina and by other Southern states.

[Illustration: DANIEL WEBSTER, 1833.]

[Sidenote: Hayne's speech, 1830.]

[Sidenote: Webster's reply to Hayne.]

305. Webster and Hayne, 1830.--Calhoun was Vice-President and
presided over the debates of the Senate. So it fell to Senator Hayne of
South Carolina to state Calhoun's ideas. This he did in a very able
speech. To him Daniel Webster of Massachusetts replied in the most
brilliant speeches ever delivered in Congress. The Constitution, Webster
declared, was "the people's constitution, the people's government; made
by the people and answerable to the people. The people have declared
that this constitution ... shall be the supreme law." The Supreme Court
of the United States alone could declare a national law to be
unconstitutional; no state could do that. He ended this great speech
with the memorable words, "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and
inseparable."

[Sidenote: Tariff of 1832.]

[Sidenote: "Nullified" by South Carolina, 1833.]

[Sidenote: Jackson's warning.]

[Sidenote: He prepares to enforce the law.]

[Sidenote: The Force Bill, 1833.]

306. Nullification, 1832-33.--In 1832 Congress passed a new tariff
act. The South Carolinians decided to try Calhoun's weapon of
nullification. They held a convention, declared the act null and void,
and forbade South Carolinians to obey the law. They probably thought
that Jackson would not oppose them. But they should have had no doubts
on that subject. For Jackson already had proposed his famous toast on
Jefferson's birthday, "Our federal Union, it must be preserved." He now
told the Carolinians that he would enforce the laws, and he set about
doing it with all his old-time energy. He sent ships and soldiers to
Charleston and ordered the collector of that port to collect the duties.
He then asked Congress to give him greater power. And Congress passed
the Force Bill, giving him the power he asked for. The South
Carolinians, on their part, suspended the nullification ordinance and
thus avoided an armed conflict with "Old Hickory," as his admirers
called Jackson.

[Sidenote: Tariff of 1833.]

307. The Compromise Tariff, 1833.--The nullifiers really gained a
part of the battle, for the tariff law of 1832 was repealed. In its
place Congress passed what was called the Compromise Tariff. This
compromise was the work of Henry Clay, the peacemaker. Under it the
duties were to be gradually lowered until, in 1842, they would be as low
as they were by the Tariff Act of 1816 (p. 231).

[Sidenote: Second United States Bank, 1816.]

[Sidenote: Jackson's dislike of the bank.]

308. The Second United States Bank.--Nowadays any one with enough
money can open a national bank under the protection of the government at
Washington. At this time, however, there was one great United States
Bank. Its headquarters were at Philadelphia and it had branches all over
the country. Jackson, like Jefferson (p. 163), had very grave doubts as
to the power of the national government to establish such a bank. Its
size and its prosperity alarmed him. Moreover, the stockholders and
managers, for the most part, were his political opponents. The United
States Bank also interfered seriously with the operations of the state
banks--some of which were managed by Jackson's friends. The latter urged
him on to destroy the United States Bank, and he determined to
destroy it.

[Sidenote: Jackson, Clay, and the bank charter.]

[Sidenote: Constitution, Art. I, sec. 7, par. 3.]

[Sidenote: Reelection of Jackson, 1832.]

309. Struggle over the Bank Charter.--The charter of the bank would
not come to an end until 1836, while the term for which Jackson had been
elected in 1828 would come to an end in 1833. But in his first message
to Congress Jackson gave notice that he would not give his consent to a
new charter. Clay and his friends at once took up the challenge. They
passed a bill rechartering the bank. Jackson vetoed the bill. The Clay
men could not get enough votes to pass it over his veto. The bank
question, therefore, became one of the issues of the election of 1832.
Jackson was reflected by a large majority over Clay.

The people were clearly on his side, and he at once set to work to
destroy the bank.

[Sidenote: The bank and the government.]

[Sidenote: Removal of the deposits, 1833. _McMaster_, 305-308.]

310. Removal of the Deposits.--In those days there was no United
States Treasury building at Washington, with great vaults for the
storing of gold, silver, and paper money. There were no sub-treasuries
in the important commercial cities. The United States Bank and its
branches received the government's money on deposit and paid it out on
checks signed by the proper government official. In 1833 the United
States Bank had in its vaults about nine million dollars belonging to
the government. Jackson directed that this money should be drawn out as
required, to pay the government's expenses, and that no more government
money should be deposited in the bank. In the future it should be
deposited in certain state banks. The banks selected were controlled by
Jackson's political friends and were called the "pet banks."

[Illustration: ANDREW JACKSON, 1815. "Our Federal union, it must be
preserved."--Jackson's toast at the Jefferson dinner.]

[Sidenote: Speculation in Western lands. _McMaster_, 309.]

[Sidenote: The specie circular, 1836.]

311. Jackson's Specie Circular, 1836.--The first result of the
removal of the deposits was very different from what Jackson had
expected. At this time there was active speculation in Western lands.
Men who had a little spare money bought Western lands. Those who had no
money in hand, borrowed money from the banks and with it bought Western
lands. Now it happened that many of the "pet banks" were in the West.
The government's money, deposited with them, tempted their managers to
lend money more freely. This, in turn, increased the ease with which
people could speculate. Jackson saw that unless something were done to
restrain this speculation, disaster would surely come. So he issued a
circular to the United States land officers. This circular was called
the Specie Circular, because in it the President forbade the land
officers to receive anything except gold and silver and certain
certificates in payment for the public lands.

[Illustration: A SETTLER'S CABIN.]

[Sidenote: Payment of the national debt. _McMaster_, 309-310.]

312. Payment of the Debt, 1837.--The national debt had now all been
paid. The government was collecting more money than it could use for
national purposes. And it was compelled to keep on collecting more money
than it could use, because the Compromise Tariff (p. 248) made it
impossible to reduce duties any faster than a certain amount each year.
No one dared to disturb the Compromise Tariff, because to do so would
bring on a most bitter political fight. The government had more money in
the "pet banks" than was really safe. It could not deposit more
with them.

[Sidenote: Distribution of the surplus.]

[Sidenote: Van Buren elected President, 1836.]

313. Distribution of the Surplus, 1837.--A curious plan was now hit
upon. It was to loan the surplus revenues to the states in proportion to
their electoral votes. Three payments were made to the states. Then the
Panic of 1837 came, and the government had to borrow money to pay its
own necessary expenses. Before this occurred, however, Jackson was no
longer President. In his place was Martin Van Buren, his Secretary of
State, who had been chosen President in November, 1836.

CHAPTER 30

DEMOCRATS AND WHIGS, 1837-1844

[Sidenote: Causes of the Panic.]

[Sidenote: Hard times, 1837-39.]

314. The Panic of 1837.--The Panic was due directly to Jackson's
interference with the banks, to his Specie Circular, and to the
distribution of the surplus. It happened in this way. When the Specie
Circular was issued, people who held paper money at once went to the
banks to get gold and silver in exchange for it to pay for the lands
bought of the government. The government on its part drew out money from
the banks to pay the states their share of the surplus. The banks were
obliged to sell their property and to demand payment of money due them.
People who owed money to the banks were obliged to sell their property
to pay the banks. So every one wanted to sell, and few wanted to buy.
Prices of everything went down with a rush. People felt so poor that
they would not even buy new clothes. The mills and mines were closed,
and the banks suspended payments. Thousands of working men and women
were thrown out of work. They could not even buy food for themselves or
their families. Terrible bread riots took place. After a time people
began to pluck up their courage. But it was a long time before "good
times" came again.

[Sidenote: The national finances.]

[Sidenote: The Sub-Treasury plan.]

[Sidenote: Independent Treasury Act, 1840.]

315. The Independent Treasury System.--What should be done with the
government's money? No one could think of depositing it with the state
banks. Clay and his friends thought the best thing to do would be to
establish a new United States Bank. But Van Buren was opposed to that.
His plan, in short, was to build vaults for storing money in Washington
and in the leading cities. The main storehouse or Treasury was to be in
Washington, subordinate storehouses or sub-treasuries were to be
established in the other cities. To these sub-treasuries the collectors
of customs would pay the money collected by them. In this way the
government would become independent of the general business affairs of
the country. In 1840 Congress passed an act for putting this plan into
effect. But before it was in working order, Van Buren was no longer
President.

[Sidenote: New parties.]

[Sidenote: The Democrats.]

[Sidenote: The Whigs.]

316. Democrats and Whigs.--In the Era of Good Feeling there was but
one party--the Republican party. In the confused times of 1824 the
several sections of the party took the names of their party leaders: the
Adams men, the Jackson men, the Clay men, and so on. Soon the Adams men
and the Clay men began to act together and to call themselves National
Republicans. This they did because they wished to build up the nation's
resources at the expense of the nation. The Jackson men called
themselves Democratic Republicans, because they upheld the rights of the
people. Before long they dropped the word "Republican" and called
themselves simply Democrats. The National Republicans dropped the whole
of their name and took that of the great English liberal party--the
Whigs. This they did because they favored reform.

[Illustration: Log Cabin Song Book.]

[Sidenote: "A campaign of humor." _Higginson_, 269; _McMaster_,
315-316.]

[Sidenote: Harrison and Tyler elected, 1840.]

317. Election of 1840.--General William Henry Harrison was the son
of Benjamin Harrison of Virginia, one of the signers of the Declaration
of Independence. General Harrison had moved to the West and had won
distinction at Tippecanoe, and also in the War of 1812 (pp. 202, 209).
The Whigs nominated him in 1836, but he was beaten. They now renominated
him for President, with John Tyler of Virginia as candidate for
Vice-President. Van Buren had made a good President, but his term of
office was associated with panic and hard times. He was a rich man and
gave great parties. Plainly he was not a "man of the people," as was
Harrison. A Democratic orator sneered at Harrison, and said that all he
wanted was a log cabin of his own and a jug of cider. The Whigs eagerly
seized on this description. They built log cabins at the street corners
and dragged through the streets log cabins on great wagons. They held
immense open-air meetings at which people sang songs of "Tippecanoe and
Tyler Too." Harrison and Tyler received nearly all the electoral votes
and were chosen President and Vice-President.

[Sidenote: Death of Harrison, 1841.]

318. Death of Harrison, 1841.--The people's President was
inaugurated on March 4, 1841. For the first time since the establishment
of the Spoils System a new party came into control of the government.
Thousands of office-seekers thronged to Washington. They even slept in
out-of-the-way corners of the White House. Day after day, from morning
till night, they pressed their claims on Harrison. One morning early,
before the office-seekers were astir, he went out for a walk. He caught
cold and died suddenly, just one month after his inauguration. John
Tyler at once became President.

[Sidenote: President Tyler.]

[Sidenote: His contest with the Whigs.]

319. Tyler and the Whigs.--President Tyler was not a Whig like
Harrison or Clay, nor was he a Democrat like Jackson. He was a Democrat
who did not like Jackson ideas. As President, he proved to be anything
but a Whig. He was willing to sign a bill to repeal the Independent
Treasury Act, for that was a Democratic measure he had not liked; but he
refused to sign a bill to establish a new Bank of the United States.
Without either a bank or a treasury, it was well-nigh impossible to
carry on the business of the government. But it was carried on in one
way or another. Tyler was willing to sign a new tariff act, and one was
passed in 1842. This was possible, as the Compromise Tariff (p. 248)
came to an end in that year.

[Sidenote: Northeastern boundary dispute.]

[Sidenote: The Ashburton Treaty, 1842.]

320. Treaty with Great Britain, 1842.--Perhaps the most important
event of Tyler's administration was the signing of the Treaty of 1842
with Great Britain. Ever since the Treaty of Peace of 1783, there had
been a dispute over the northeastern boundary of Maine. If the boundary
had been run according to the plain meaning of the Treaty of Peace, the
people of Upper Canada would have found it almost impossible to reach
New Brunswick or Nova Scotia in winter. At that time of the year the St.
Lawrence is frozen over, and the true northern boundary of Maine ran so
near to the St. Lawrence that it was difficult to build a road which
would be wholly in British territory. So the British had tried in every
way to avoid settling the matter. It was now arranged that the United
States should have a little piece of Canada north of Vermont and New
York and should give up the extreme northeastern corner of Maine. It was
also agreed that criminals escaping from one country to the other should
be returned. A still further agreement was made for checking the slave
trade from the coast of western Africa.

[Illustration: JOHN TYLER.]

[Illustration: THE FIRST MORSE INSTRUMENT.]

[Sidenote: The Morse code.]

[Sidenote: First telegraph line, 1844.]

[Sidenote: Usefulness of the telegraph, _McMaster_, 372.]

321. The Electric Telegraph.--Benjamin Franklin and Joseph Henry
made great discoveries in electricity. But Samuel F. B. Morse was the
first to use electricity in a practical way. Morse found out that if a
man at one end of a line of wire pressed down a key, electricity could
be made at the same moment to press down another key at the other end of
the line of wire. Moreover, the key at the farther end of the line could
be so arranged as to make an impression on a piece of paper that was
slowly drawn under it by clockwork. Now if the man at one end of the
line held his key down for only an instant, this impression would look
like a dot. If he held it down longer, it would look like a short dash.
Morse combined these dots and dashes into an alphabet. For instance, one
dash meant the letter "t," and so on. For a time people only laughed at
Morse. But at length Congress gave him enough money to build a line from
Baltimore to Washington. It was opened in 1844, and proved to be a
success from the beginning. Other lines were soon built, and the Morse
system, greatly improved, is still in use. The telegraph made it
possible to operate long lines of railroad, as all the trains could be
managed from one office so that they would not run into one another. It
also made it possible to communicate with people afar off and get an
answer in an hour or so. For both these reasons the telegraph was very
important and with the railroads did much to unite the people of the
different portions of the country.

[Illustration: THE FIRST MCCORMICK REAPER.]

[Sidenote: Problems of what growing.]

[Sidenote: The McCormick reaper, 1831. _McMaster_, 31-372.]

[Sidenote: Results of this invention.]

322. The McCormick Reaper.--Every great staple depends for its
production on some particular tool. For instance, cotton was of slight
importance until the invention of the cotton gin (p. 185) made it
possible cheaply to separate the seed from the fiber. The success of
wheat growing depended upon the ability quickly to harvest the crop.
Wheat must be allowed to stand until it is fully ripened. Then it must
be quickly reaped and stored away out of the reach of the rain and wet.
For a few weeks in each year there was a great demand for labor on the
wheat farms. And there was little labor to be had. Cyrus H. McCormick
solved this problem for the wheat growers by inventing a horse reaper.
The invention was made in 1831, but it was not until 1845 that the
reaper came into general use. By 1855 the use of the horse reaper was
adding every year fifty-five million dollars to the wealth of the
country. Each year its use moved the fringe of civilization fifty miles
farther west. Without harvesting machinery the rapid settlement of the
West would have been impossible. And had not the West been rapidly
settled by free whites, the whole history of the country between 1845
and 1865 would have been very different from what it has been. The
influence of the horse reaper on our political history, therefore, is as
important as the influence of the steam locomotive or of the cotton gin.

[Illustration: MODERN HARVESTER.]

QUESTIONS AND TOPICS

CHAPTER 28

Sec.Sec. 293, 294.--Compare the condition of the United States in 1830 and
1800 as to (1) extent, (2) population, (3) interests and occupation of
the people. Illustrate these changes by maps, diagrams, or tables.

Sec.Sec. 295, 296.--_a_. How had the use of steamboats increased?

_b_. Why had this led to the separation of the West and the East? How
was it proposed to overcome this difficulty?

_c_. Do you think that roads should be built at national expense? Give
your reasons.

_d_. Mark on a map the Erie Canal, and show why it was so important.
Describe the effects of its use.

Sec.Sec. 297, 298.--_a_. Do you think that railroads should be carried on by
the state or by individuals? Why?

_b_. What influence has the railroad had upon the Union? Upon people's
minds? Upon the growth of cities? (Take your own city or town and think
of it without railroads anywhere.)

Sec.Sec. 299, 300.--_a_. Explain how one discovery or invention affected other
industries (as shown, for instance, in the use of anthracite coal).

_b_. How did these inventions make large cities possible?

_c_. Why is the education of our people so important?

_d_. What were the advantages of Webster's "Dictionary"?

CHAPTER 29

Sec.Sec. 301, 302.--_a_. Why is this chapter called the "Reign of Andrew
Jackson"? Do you think that a President should "reign"?

_b_. In what respects was Jackson fitted for President?

_c_. What is meant by his "kitchen cabinet"?

_d_. What is a "party machine"? How was it connected with the "spoils
system"?

_e_. Did the "spoils system" originate with Jackson?

Sec.Sec. 303, 304.--_a_. Compare carefully the North and the South. Why was
the North growing rich faster than the South?

_b_. Where have you already found the ideas expressed in Calhoun's
_Exposition_? Why was this doctrine so dangerous? Are the states
"sovereign states"?

Sec. 305.--_a_. What view did Webster take? How does his speech show the
increase of the love of the Union?

_b_. What is the "supreme law of the land"? Whose business is it to
decide on the constitutionality of a law? Is this wise?

Sec.Sec. 306, 307.--_a_. How did South Carolina oppose the Act of 1832?

_b_. How did Jackson oppose the South Carolinians?

_c_. Would a state be likely to nullify an act of Congress now? Give
your reasons.

Sec.Sec. 308, 309.--_a_. Was the United States Bank like the national banks of
the present day?

_b_. Why did Jackson dislike and distrust the United States Bank?

_c_. If a bill is vetoed by the President, how can it still be made a
law?

Sec.Sec. 310.--_a_. Where did the United States government keep its money?

_b_. How did Jackson try to ruin the United States Bank?

Sec.Sec. 311-313.--_a_. Why did people wish to buy Western lands? How did the
favoring the "pet banks" increase speculation?

_b_. What was done with the surplus? What was the effect of this
measure?

_c_. How did Jackson try to stop speculation?

CHAPTER 30

Sec.Sec. 314, 315.--_a_. Why did "prices go down with a rush"?

_b_. Describe the Independent Treasury plan. Where is the nation's money
kept to-day?

Sec.Sec. 316, 317.--_a_. State briefly the reasons for the split in the
Republican party. Had you lived in 1840, for whom would you have voted?
voted? Why?

_b_. Give an account of the early life of Harrison.

_c_. Describe the campaign of 1840, and compare it with the last
presidential campaign.

Sec.Sec. 318, 319.--_a_. What party came into power in 1841? Under the spoils
system what would naturally follow?

_b_. To what party did Tyler belong?

_c_. Why was it difficult for the government to carry on its business
without a bank or a treasury?

Sec.Sec. 320.--_a_. What dispute had long existed with Great Britain?

_b_. Why did the British object to the boundary line laid down in the
Treaty of 1783? Show on a map how the matter was finally settled.

Sec.Sec. 321, 322.--_a_. Explain carefully the application of electricity made
by Morse. Of what advantage has the telegraph been to the United States?

_b_. How did the McCormick reaper solve the difficulty in wheat growing?
What were the results of this invention?

_c_. Compare its influence upon our history with that of the cotton gin.

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