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A Short History of Monks and Monasteries by Alfred Wesley Wishart

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meditation, than He is with him who cultivates holy emotions and
heavenly aspirations, while pursuing some honorable and useful calling?
The answer to these questions discloses the chief fallacy in the
monastic ideal, the effect of which was the creation of an artificial
piety. There is no special virtue in silence, celibacy, and abstinence
from the enjoyment of God's gifts to mankind.

The crying need of Christianity to-day is a willingness on the part of
Christ's followers to live for others instead of self. Men and women are
needed who, like many of the monks and nuns, will identify themselves
with the toiling multitudes, and who will forego the pleasures of the
world and the prospects of material gain or social preferment, for the
sake of ministering to a needy humanity. The essence of Christianity is
a love to God and man that expresses itself in terms of social service
and self-sacrifice. Monasticism helped to preserve that noble essence
of all true religion. But a revival of the apostolic spirit in these
times would not mean a triumph for monasticism. Stripped of its rigid
vows of celibacy, poverty and obedience, monasticism is dead.

The spirit of social service, the insistence upon soul-purity, and the
craving for participation in the divine nature, are the fruits of
Christianity, not of monasticism, which merely sought to carry out the
Christian ideal. But it is not necessary, in order to realize this
ideal, to wage war on human nature. True Christianity is perfectly
compatible with wealth, health and social joys. The realms of industry,
politics and home-life are a part of God's world. A religious ideal
based on a distorted view of social life, that involves a renunciation
of human joy and the extinction of natural desires, and that prohibits
the free exercise of beneficent faculties, as conditions of its
realization, can never establish its right to permanent and universal
dominion. The faithful discharge of unromantic, secular duties, the
keeping of one's heart pure in the midst of temptation, and the
unheralded altruism of private life, must ever be as welcome in the
sight of God as the prayers of the recluse, who scorns the world of
secular affairs.

True religion, the highest religion, is possible beyond the walls of
churches and convents. The so-called secular employments of business and
politics, of home and school, may be conducted in a spirit of lofty
consecration to the Eternal, and so carried on, may, in their way,
minister to the highest welfare of humanity. The old distinction,
therefore, between the secular and the sacred is pernicious and false.
There are some other sacred things besides monasteries and prayers.
Human life itself is holy; so are the commonplace duties of the untitled
household and factory saints.

"God is in all that liberates and lifts,
In all that humbles, sweetens, and consoles."

Modern monasticism has forsaken the column of St. Simeon Stylites and
the rags of St. Francis. It has given up the ancient and fantastic feats
of asceticism, and the spiritual extravagances of the early monks. The
old monasticism never could have arisen under a religious system
controlled by natural and healthful spiritual ideas. It has no
attractions for minds unclouded by superstition. It has lost its hold
upon the modern man because the ancient ideas of God and his world, upon
which it thrived, have passed away.

Such are some of the effects of the monastic institution. Its history is
at once a warning and an inspiration. Its dreamy asceticism, its gloomy
cells, are gone. Its unworldly motives, its stern allegiance to duty,
its protest against self-indulgence, its courage and sincerity, will
ever constitute the potent energy of true religion. Its ministrations to
the broken-hearted, and its loving care of the poor, must ever remain as
a shining example of practical Christianity. In the simplicity of the
monk's life, in the idea of "brotherhood," in the common life for common
ends, a Christian democracy will always find food for reflection. As the
social experiments of modern times reveal the hidden laws of social and
religious progress, it will be found that in spite of its glaring
deficiencies, monasticism was a magnificent attempt to realize the ideal
of Christ in individual and social life. As such it merits neither
ridicule nor obloquy. It was a heroic struggle with inveterate ignorance
and sin, the history of which flashes many a welcome light upon the
problems of modern democracy and religion.

Monastic forms and vows may pass away with other systems that will have
their day, but its fervor of faith, and its warfare against human
passion and human greed, its child-like love of the heavenly kingdom
will never die. The revolt against its superstitions and excesses is
justifiable only in a society that seeks to actualize its underlying
religious ideal of personal purity and social service.

APPENDIX

NOTE A

The derivation and meaning of a few monastic terms may be of interest to
the reader.

Abbot, from [Greek: abba], literally, father. A title originally given
to any monk, but afterwards restricted to the head or superior of a
monastery.

Anchoret, anchorite, from the Greek, [Greek: anachoretes], a recluse,
literally, one retired. In the classification of religious ascetics, the
anchorets were those who were most excessive in their austerities, not
only choosing solitude but subjecting themselves to the greatest
privations.

Ascetic, [Greek: asketes], one who exercises, an athlete. The term was
first applied to those practicing self-denial for athletic purposes. In
its ecclesiastical sense, it denotes those who seek holiness through
self-mortification.

Canon Regular. About A.D. 755, Chrodegangus, Bishop of Metz, gave a
cloister-life law to his clergy, who came to be called canons, from
[Greek: kanon], rule. The canons were originally priests living in a
community like monks, and acting as assistants to the bishops. They
gradually formed separate and independent bodies. Benedict XII. (1399)
tried to secure a general adoption of the rule of Augustine for these
canons, which gave rise to the distinction between canons regular (i.e.,
those who follow that rule), and canons secular (those who do not).

Cenobite, from the Greek, [Greek: koinos], common, and [Greek: bios],
life; applied to those living in monasteries.

Clerks Regular. This is a title given to certain religious orders
founded in the sixteenth century. The principal societies are: the
Theatines, founded by Cajetan of Thiene, subsequently Pope Paul IV.;
and Priests of the Oratory, instituted by Philip Neri, of Florence.
These two orders have been held in high repute, numbering among their
members many men of rank and intellect.

Cloister, from the Latin, _Claustra_, that which closes or shuts, an
inclosure; hence, a place of religious retirement, a monastery.

Hermit, or eremite, from the Greek, [Greek: heremos], desolate,
solitary. One who dwells alone apart from society, or with but few
companions. Not used of those who dwell in cloisters.

Monastery, comes from the same source as monk. Commonly applied to a
house used exclusively by monks. The term, however, strictly includes
the abbey, the priory, the nunnery, the friary, and in this broad sense
is synonymous with convent, which is from the Latin, _convenire_, to
meet together.

Monk, from the Greek, [Greek: mhonos], alone, single. Originally, a man
who retired from the world for religious meditation. In later use, a
member of a community. It is used indiscriminately to denote all persons
in monastic orders, in or out of the monasteries.

Nun, from _nouna_, i.e., chaste, holy. "The word is probably of Coptic
origin, and occurs as early as in Jerome." (Schaff).

Regulars. Until the tenth century it was not customary to regard the
monks as a part of the clerical order. Before that time they were known
as _religiosi_ or _regulares_. Afterwards a distinction was made between
parish priests, or secular clergy, and the monks, or regular clergy.

For more detailed information on these and other monastic words, see The
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, and McClintock and Strong's
Encyclopedia.

NOTE B

The Pythagoreans are likened to the Jesuits probably on account of their
submission to Pythagoras as Master, their love of learning and their
austerities. Like the Jesuits, the Pythagorean league entangled itself
with politics and became the object of hatred and violence. Its
meeting-houses were everywhere sacked and burned. As a philosophical
school Pythagoreanism became extinct about the middle of the
fourth century.

NOTE C

The Encyclopaedia Brittanica divides the monastic institutions into five
classes:

1. Monks. 2. Canons Regular. 3. Military Orders. 4. Friars. 5. Clerks
Regular. All of these have communities of women, either actually
affiliated to them, or formed on similar lines.

Saint Benedict distinguishes four sorts of monks: 1. Coenobites, living
under an abbot in a monastery. 2. Anchorites, who retire into the
desert. 3. Sarabaites, dwelling two or three in the same cell. 4.
Gyrovagi, who wander from monastery to monastery. The last two kinds he
condemns. The Gyrovagi or wandering monks were the pest of convents and
the disgrace of monasticism. They evaded all responsibilities and spent
their time tramping from place to place, living like parasites, and
spreading vice and disorder wherever they went.

There were really four distinct stages in the development of the
monastic institution:

1. Asceticism. Clergy and laymen practiced various forms of self-denial
without becoming actual monks.

2. The hermit life, which was asceticism pushed to an external
separation from the world. Here are to be found anchorites, and stylites
or pillar-saints.

3. Coenobitism, or monastic life proper, consisting of associations of
monks under one roof, and ruled by an abbot.

4. Monastic orders, or unions of cloisters, the various abbots being
under the authority of one supreme head, who was, at first, generally
the founder of the brotherhood.

Under this last division are to be classed the Mendicant Friars, the
Military Monks, the Jesuits and other modern organizations. The members
of these orders commenced their monastic life in monasteries, and were
therefore coenobites, but many of them passed out of the cloister to
become teachers, preachers or missionary workers in various fields.

NOTE D

Matins. One of the canonical hours appointed in the early church, and
still observed in the Roman Catholic Church, especially in monastic
orders. It properly begins at midnight. The name is also applied to the
service itself, which includes the Lord's Prayer, the Angelic
Salutation, the Creed and several psalms.

Lauds, a religious service in connection with matins; so called from the
reiterated ascriptions of praise to God in the psalms.

Prime. The first hour or period of the day; follows after matins and
lauds; originally intended to be said at the first hour after sunrise.

Tierce, terce. The third hour; half-way between sunrise and noon.

Sext. The sixth hour, originally and properly said at midday.

None, noon. The ninth hour from sunrise, or the middle hour between
midday and sunset--that is, about 3 o'clock.

Vespers, the next to the last of the canonical hours--the even-song.

Compline. The last of the seven canonical hours, originally said after
the evening meal and before retiring to sleep, but in later medieval and
modern usage following immediately on vespers.

B.V.M.--Blessed Virgin Mary.

NOTE E

The literary and educational services of the monks are described in many
histories, but the reader will find the best treatment of this subject
in the scholarly yet popular work of George Haven Putnam, "Books and
Their Makers During the Middle Ages," to which we are largely indebted
for the facts given in this volume.

NOTE F

In many interesting particulars St. Francis may be compared with General
Booth of the Salvation Army. In their intense religious fervor, in their
insistence upon obedience, humility, and self-denial, in their services
for the welfare of the poor, in their love of the "submerged tenth,"
they are alike. True, there are no monkish vows in the Salvation Army
and its doctrines bear a general resemblance to those of other
Protestant communions, but like the old Franciscan order, it is
dominated by a powerful missionary spirit, and its members are actuated
by an unsurpassed devotion to the common people. In the autocratic,
military features of the Army, it more nearly approaches the ideal of
Loyola. It is quite possible that the differences between Francis and
Booth are due more to the altered historical environment than to any
radical diversities in the characters of the two men.

NOTE G

The quotations from Father Sherman are taken from an address delivered
by him in Central Music Hall, Chicago, Illinois, on Monday, February 5,
1894, in which he extolled the virtues of Loyola and defended the aims
and character of the Society of Jesus.

NOTE H

Those who may wish to study the casuistry of the Jesuits, as it appears
in their own works, are referred to two of the most important and
comparatively late authorities: Liguori's "_Theologia Moralis_," and
Gury's "_Compendium Theologioe Moralis_" and "_Casus Conscientiae_." Gury
was Professor of Moral Theology in the College Romain, the Jesuits'
College in Rome. His works have passed through several editions. They
were translated from the Latin into French by Paul Bert, member of the
Chamber of Deputies. An English translation of the French rendering was
published by B.F. Bradbury, of Boston, Massachusetts. The reader is also
referred to Pascal's "Provincial Letters" and to Migne's "_Dictionnaire
de cas de Conscience_."

NOTE I

The student may profitably study the life and teachings of Wyclif in
their bearing upon the destruction of the monasteries. Wyclif was
designated as the "Gospel Doctor" because he maintained that "the law
of Jesus Christ infinitely exceeds all other laws." He held to the right
of private judgment in the interpretation of Scripture, and denied the
infallibility claimed by the pontiffs. He opposed pilgrimages, held
loosely to image-worship and rejected the system of tithing as it was
then carried on. Wyclif was also a persistent and public foe of the
mendicant friars. The views of this eminent reformer were courageously
advocated by his followers, and for nearly two generations they
continued to agitate the English people. It is easy to understand,
therefore, how Wyclif's opinions assisted in preparing the nation for
the Reformation of the sixteenth century, although it seemed that
Lollardy had been everywhere crushed by persecution. The Lollards
condemned, among other things, pilgrimages to the tombs of the saints,
papal authority and the mass. Their revolt against Rome led in some
instances to grave excesses.

NOTE J

In France, the religious houses suppressed by the laws of February 13,
1790, and August 18, 1792, amounted (without reckoning various minor
establishments) to 820 abbeys of men and 255 of women, with aggregate
revenues of 95,000,000 livres.

The Thirty Years' War in Germany wrought much mischief to the
monasteries. On the death of Maria Theresa, in 1780, Joseph II., her
son, dissolved the Mendicant Orders and suppressed the greater number of
monasteries and convents in his dominions.

Although Pope Alexander VII. secured the suppression of many small
cloisters in Italy, he was in favor of a still wider abolition on
account of the superfluity of religious institutes, and the general
degeneration of the monks. Various minor suppressions had taken place in
Italy, but it was not until the unification of the kingdom that the
religious houses were declared national property. The total number of
monasteries suppressed in Italy, down to 1882, was 2,255, involving an
enormous displacement of property and dispersion of inmates.

The fall of the religious houses in Spain dates from the law of June 21,
1835, which suppressed nine hundred monasteries at a blow. The remainder
were dissolved on October 11th, in the same year.

No European country had so many religious houses in proportion to its
population and area as Portugal. In 1834 the number suppressed
exceeded 500.

NOTE K

The criticism of Schaff is just in its estimate of the general influence
of the monastic ideal, but there were individual monks whose views of
sin and salvation were singularly pure and elevating. Saint Hugh, of
Lincoln, said to several men of the world who were praising the lives of
the Carthusian monks: "Do not imagine that the kingdom of Heaven is only
for monks and hermits. When God will judge each one of us, he will not
reproach the lost for not having been monks or solitaries, but for not
having been true Christians. Now, to be a true Christian, three things
are necessary; and if one of these three things is wanting to us, we are
Christians only in name, and our sentence will be all the more severe,
the more we have made profession of perfection. The three things are:
_Charity in the heart, truth on the lips, and purity of life_; if we are
wanting in these, we are unworthy of the name of Christian."

THE END

INDEX

A

Abbey, _see_ Monastery.
Abbot, meaning of word, 425;
as father of family of monks, 143;
election of, 144;
description of installation of, 145;
wealth and political influence of, 147;
disorders among lay, 179;
as a feudal lord, 373;
in legislative assemblies, 400.
Abelard opposed by Bernard, 196.
Abraham, St., the hermit, 50;
quoted, 60.
Abstinence, no virtue in false, 419.
Accountability, personal, sense of maintained by monks, 414.
Act of Succession, 298.
Agriculture, monasteries centers of, 155;
and the Cistercian monks, 192;
fostered by monks, 403.
_See_ Benedict, Order of St.
Alaric the Goth sacks Rome, 103.
Albans, St., Abbey of, Morton on its vices, 338.
Albertus Magnus, a Dominican, 242.
Albigensians, Hallam on doctrines of, 232;
Hardwick on same, 233;
Dominic preaches against, 234;
Dominic's part in crusade against, 235.
Alcuin, on corruptions of monks, 173;
education and, 167.
Alexander IV., Pope, on the stigmata of St. Francis, 221;
and the University of Paris quarrel, 250.
Alfred, King, the Great, complains of monks, 173;
his reformatory measures, 181.
Alien Priories, confiscated, 338;
origin of, 340.
Allen, on the fate of the Templars, 202;
on Dominic and the Albigensian crusade, 238;
on spiritual pride of the Mendicants, 257;
on the genius of feudalism, 373;
on the deficiencies of monastic characters, 394.
Alms-giving, _see_ Charity.
Alverno, Mount, and the stigmata of St. Francis, 219.
Ambrose, embraces ascetic Christianity, 84;
Theodosius on, 115;
saying of Gibbon applied to, 116;
describes Capraria, 126;
his influence on Milanese women, 126.
Ammonius, the hermit, visits Rome, 72.
Anglicans, claims of, respecting the early British Church, 162.
Anglo-Saxons and British Christianity, 164.
Anglo-Saxon Church, effect of Danish invasion on, 181;
effect of Dunstan's work on, 187.
_See_ Britain.
Anslem, of Canterbury, on flight from the world, 369.
Anthony, St.,
visits Paul of Thebes, 37;
his strange experiences, 38;
buries Paul, 41;
birth and early life of, 43;
his austerities, 44, 45;
miracles of, 46;
his fame and influence, 47;
his death, 48;
Taylor on biography of, 48.
Ap Rice, a Royal Commissioner, 311.
Aquinas, Thomas, a Dominican, 242.
Ascetic, The, his morbid introspection, 392;
meaning of word, 425.
_See_ Monks and Hermits.
Asceticism, in India, 18-20, 357;
among Chaldeans, 20;
in China, 20;
among the Greeks, 21, 22;
the Essenes, 23;
in apostolic times, 27;
the Gnostics, 27;
and the Bible, 30, 366;
in post-apostolic times, 31;
modifications of, under Basil, 64;
protests against, in early Rome, 124;
various forms of, 385;
effects of, 391, 401.
_See_ Monasticism.
Aske, Robert, heads revolt against Henry VIII., 326.
Athanasius, St., visits hermits, 35;
his life of Anthony, 42;
influence of same on Rome, 80, 83;
spreads Pachomian rule, 63;
visits Rome, 71,
and effect of, 80;
visits Gaul, 119;
his saying on fasting, 121.
Atonement, for sin, the monk's influence on doctrine of, 417.
Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, his life, and services to monasticism,
117, 119;
influenced by biography of Anthony, 43;
on marriage and celibacy, 112;
charges monks with fraud, 128.
Augustine, Rule of, adopted by Dominic, 232, 241.
Augustine, the monk, his mission to England, 161.
Augustinians, 246.
Aurelius, Emperor, Christianity during reign of, 124.
Austerities, Robertson on, 94.
_See_ Asceticism and Self-denial
Austin Canons, 118.

B

Bacon, Roger, a Franciscan, 228;
imprisonment of, 407.
Bagot, Richard, on the English reformation, 345.
Bale, John, on the fall of the monasteries, 333.
Baluzii, on the prosperity of the Franciscans, 255.
Bangor, Monastery of, founded, 123;
slaughter of its monks, 165.
Barbarians, the struggle of the monks with, 148, 149, 170;
conversion of, 398.
Basil the Great, 63;
revolts against excessive austerities, 64;
founder of Greek monasticism, 64, 65;
his rules, 65;
adopts irrevocable vows, 65;
on marriage, 66;
enforces strict obedience, 66.
Bede, The Venerable, on the British
Church, 123; on monks and
animals, 156.
Begging Friars, _see_ Mendicants,
Franciscans and Dominicans.
Benedict, Pope, XI., 221; XII.,
consecrates Monte Cassino,
135; on the stigmata of St.
Francis, 221.
Benedict of Aniane, his attempted
reform, 176.
Benedict, of Nursia, birth and
early life, 131; his trials, 132;
his fame attracts followers, 133;
his strictness provokes opposition,
133; retires to Monte Cassino,
134; conquers Paganism,
135; his miracles and power
over barbarians, 137; his last
days, 13 8; his rules, 138; Schaff
on same, 148; Cardinal Newman
on mission of, 149; saying
of, on manual labor, 403.
Benedict, Order of St., 131; rules
of, 138; the novitiate, 140;
daily life of monks, 140; meaning
of term "order," 143;
abbots of, 144; manual labor,
147, 403; Schaff on rules of,
148; its dealings with barbarians,
148, 398; its literary and
educational services, 151; its
agricultural work, 155, 404;
spread of, 158; its followers
among the royalty, 159.
Bernard, of Clairvaux, his birth
and monastic services, 193;
character of his monastery,
192; on drugs and doctors,
194; his reforms, 195; Vaughan
on, 195; Storrs on, 197; the
Crusades, 197; on the abuses
of charity, 411.
Bernardone, Peter, father of Francis,
208. _See_ Francis.
Bethlehem, Jerome's monasteries
at, 85, 88; Paula establishes
monasteries at, 100.
Bible, The, and monasticism, 30,
376.
Bigotry, of monks, 394.
Biography, monastic history centers
in, 84.
Bjoernstrom, on the stigmata, 223.
Blaesilla, murmurs against monks
at her funeral, 125.
Blunt, on the: fall of the monasteries,
333.
Boccaccio, comments on his visit
to Monte Cassino, 136.
Boleyn, Anne, and Henry VIII.,
294.
Bollandists, Catholic, on Dominic
and the Inquisition, 238.
Bonaventura, on the stigmata of
Francis, 220; a Franciscan, 228;
on vices of the monks, 337.
Boniface, the apostle to the Germans,
167.
Bonner, Bishop, persuades Prior
Houghton to sign oath of
supremacy, 303.
Brahminism, asceticism under, 19.
Britain, Tertullian, Origen, and
Bede, on Christianity in, 123;.
relation of early church in, to
Rome, 162; monasticism in,
162, 168.
Brotherhood of Penitence, 229.
Bruno, the abbot of Cluny, 177.
Bruno, founder of Carthusian order,
188; Ruskin on the order, 189;
the monastery of the Chartreuse, 189;
his eulogy of solitude, 396.
Bryant, poem of, on fall of monasteries, 353.
Buddha, on the ascetic life, 357.
Buddhism, asceticism under, 19.
Burke, Edmund, quoted by Gasquet on fall of monasteries, 312.
Burnet, on report of Royal Commissioners, 316.
Bury, Father, on Chinese monks, 20.

C

Cambridge, University of, the friars at, 252, 405.
Campeggio, Cardinal, the divorce proceedings of Henry VIII. and, 294.
Capraria, Rutilius and Ambrose on island of, 126.
Capuchins, 246.
Carlyle, Thomas, on Mahomet, 33;
quotes Jocelin on Abbot Samson's election, 145;
on the twelfth century, 157;
on the monastic ideal, 174;
on Jesuitical obedience, 271;
views of, criticised, 278.
Carmelites, 246.
Carthusians, The, establishment of, 188;
famous monastery of, 189;
rules of, 189;
in England, 191, 334.
_See_ Charterhouse.
Cassiodorus, the literary labors of, 152.
Casuistry, of the Jesuits, 272; 429.
Catacombs, visited by Jerome, 87.
Catharine, of Aragon, Henry's divorce from, 293.
Catholic, Roman, _see_ Rome, Church of.
Celibacy, praised by Jerome and Augustine, 112;
views of Helvidius on, opposed by Jerome, 113;
the struggle to establish sacerdotal, 183;
Lingard on, 183;
Lea on, 184;
vow of, 380;
and Scripture teaching, 381;
early Fathers on, 381;
a modern ecclesiastic's reasons for, 381;
how vow of, came to be imposed, 382;
no special virtue in, 419.
Cellani, Peter, Dominic retires to house of, 238;
Celtic Church, _see_ Britain.
Cenobites, meaning of term, 425;
origin of, in the East, 57;
habits of early, 58;
aims of, 60.
Chalcis, desert of, 87.
Chaldea, asceticism in, 20.
Chalippe, Father Candide, on miracles of saints, 224.
Channey, Maurice, on fall of the Charterhouse, 302.
Channing, William E., on various manifestations of the ascetic
spirit, 385;
on exaggerations of monasticism, 415.
Chapter, The,
defined, 144;
of Mats, 228.
Chapuys, despatches of, to Charles V., 297.
Charity, of monks, 348, 410;
true and false, 348, 412;
Bernard, Jacob of Vitry and Lecky on abuses of, 411;
as a passport to Heaven, 411.
Charlemagne, 118.
Charles V., Emperor, Pole writes to, 296;
Chapuy's despatches to, 297.
Charterhouse, of London, 191;
execution of monks of, 301, 334;
and the progress of England, 343.
_See_ Carthusians.
Chartreuse, Grand, monastery, 189.
Chastity, vow of, in Pachomian rule, 61.
_See_ Celibacy.
China, asceticism in, 20.
Chinese monks, Father Bury on, 20.
Christ, _see_ Jesus Christ.
Christian clergy, character of, in the fourth century, 77.
Christian ideal, tending toward fanaticism, 129.
Christian discipleship, nature of true, 390.
Christianity, asceticism and apostolic, 27, 28, 31;
conquers Roman empire, 71, 76;
endangered by success, 77;
in Rome in the fourth century, 79;
Lord on same, 80;
is opposed to fanaticism, 94;
in ancient Britain, 123, 161, 162;
Clarke on, 171;
Mozoomdar on essential principle of, 359;
requires some sort of self-denial, 390, 418, 419;
monasticism and, compared, 420;
monasticism furnishes example of, 422.
_See_ Britain and Church.
Chrysostom, becomes an ascetic, 84;
brief account of life of, 116;
monastic cause furthered by, 117.
Church, Christian, the triumphant, compared with church in age of
persecution, 109;
ideal of, furthers monasticism, 129;
and the barbarians, 149;
of the thirteenth century, 206;
its life-ideal, 369;
its union with paganism, 370.
_See_ Anglo-Saxon Church, Britain, and England, Church of.
Cistercian Order, the monks and rule of, 192;
decline of, 193.
Citeaux, Monastery at, 192.
Civic duties and monasticism, 399.
_See_ Monasticism.
Clairvaux, Bernard of, _see_ Bernard;
Monastery of, 193.
Clara, St., Nuns of, founded, 228.
Clarke, William Newton, on Christianity of first and second
centuries, 171.
Clarke, James Freeman, on Brahmin ascetics, 20.
Classics, Jerome's fondness for the, 95;
the monks and the, 405.
Clement XIV., Pope, dissolves the Society of Jesus, 279.
Clergy of the Christian Church, 77.
Clinton, Lord, on the work of suppression, 311.
Cloister, 426.
_See_ Monastery.
Cluny, Monastery at, 177;
the congregation of, 178.
Coke, Sir Edward, quoted, 329.
Columba, St., his church relations, 162.
Commissioners, The Royal, appointed to visit monasteries of England,
their methods, 308, 333;
character of, 311;
begin their work, 313;
their report, 316;
Parliament acts on same, 319.
Confession, among the Jesuits, 269.
Conscience, liberty of, renounced by monks, 394.
Constantine the Great, 71.
Contemplation, John Tauler on, 395;
Bruno on, 396.
Convents. _See_ Monasteries.
Copyright, first instance of quarrel for, 170.
Council, of Saragossa, 122;
of Trent, 382;
Lateran, 242.
Court of Augmentation, 319.
Crocella, Santa, chapel of, 131;
Romanus the monk, 131.
Cromwell, Richard, on Sir John Russell, 326.
Cromwell, Thomas, his life and aims, 308;
Green and Froude on, 309;
his religious views, 309;
Foxe and Gasquet on character of, 310;
becomes Vicegerent, 310;
inspires terror and hatred, 324;
his removal demanded, 326;
overcomes the Pilgrims of Grace, 326;
bribed for estates, 329.
Cross, loyalty to the, fostered by monks, 414;
power of the doctrine of, 418.
Crusades, effect of, on monastic types, 373.
_See_ Military Orders and Bernard.
Cyril, Bishop of Alexandria, 61;
and murder of Hypatia, 68.

D

Damian, Church of St., repaired by Francis, 211, 214.
Danish invasion of England, its consequences, 180.
Dante, on Francis and poverty, 215.
Democracy, Christian, and monasticism, 422.
Desert, Jerome on attractions of, 89.
De Tocqueville, on self-subjection, 143.
Dhaquit, the Chaldean, quoted, 20.
Dharmapala, on the ascetic ideal in India, 357.
Dill, Samuel, on Rome's fall and the Christian Church, 74, 79, 108,
109.
Domestic life, a field of forbidden fruit, 394, 398.
_See_ Family-ideal and Jerome.
Dominic, St., Innocent III. dreams of, 216;
early life of, 230;
his mother's dream, 231;
visits Languedoc, 232;
rebukes papal legates, 234;
his crusade against Albigensians, 234;
his relation to the Holy Inquisition, 235;
establishes his order, 239;
at Rome, 239;
his self-denial and death, 240;
canonized, 241.
Dominic, St., Nuns of, 242.
Dominicans, The, the Inquisition and, 238;
order of, founded, 239;
constitution of the order of, 241;
spread of, 241;
eminent members, 242;
three classes of, 242;
the preaching of, 249;
quarrel with the Franciscans, 249;
enter England, 251;
fatal success and decline of, 253, 256;
on the stigmata of Francis, 221;
liberal education and, 408.
Ducis, on the Hermits, 32.
Duns Scotus, a Franciscan, 228.
Dunstan, reforms of, 182;
his character and life-work, 186.

E

East, monasticism in the, _see_ Monasticism and Monks.
Echard, a Dominican, 242.
Eckenstein, Lina, on Morton's letter, 339.
Edersheim, on the Essenes, 24.
Edgar, King, aids Dunstan in reform, 186.
Education, The Mendicants and, 248;
the monks further, in England, 253;
the effect of monasticism on, 407.
Edward I. and III., confiscate alien priories, 338.
Egypt, The hermits of, 33;
Kingsley and Waddington on same, 34.
Elijah, and asceticism, 30.
Elizabeth, Princess, and the Act of Succession, 298.
Endowments of monasteries, abolished by first Mendicants, 244;
reason for some, 361.
England, Church of, separates from Rome, 328;
causes of, and by whom separation secured, 340, 342.
_See_ Britain.
Essenes, asceticism of, 23.
Ethelwold, aids Dunstan, 186.
Eudoxia, Empress, banishes Chrysostom, 117.
Eustochium, _see_ Paula.

F

Fabiola, St., Lecky on her charities, 105;
her care for sick, 105;
her death, 105.
Family-ideal, of monastery, Taunton on, 143.
_See_ Domestic Life.
Fanaticism, Christianity hostile to, 94;
tendency toward, among early Christians, 129.
Farrar, on the luxury of Rome, 75.
Fasting, amusing instance of rebellion of monks against, 120;
Athanasius on, 121.
_See_ Self-denial, Ascetic and Asceticism.
Ferdinand, of Austria, educated by Jesuits, 277.
Feudalism, monasticism affected by, 373.
Finnian, the monk, quarrels with Columba, 170.
Fisher, G.P., on the stigmata of Francis, 223.
Fisher, execution of, by Henry VIII., 301, 306.
Filial love, strangulation of, by monks, 397.
Forsyth, on St. Francis, 225.
Foxe, on Thomas Cromwell, 310.
France, New, and the Jesuits, 282.
Francis, St., his birth and early years, 208;
his dreams and sickness, 209;
visits Rome, 210;
seeking light on his duty, 210, 211;
sells his father's merchandise and keeps proceeds, 211;
renounces his father, 212;
assumes monkish habit, 213;
repairs Church of St. Damian, 214;
Dante on poverty and, 215;
visits Innocent III., 216;
visits Mohammedans, 217; a
lover of birds, 217;
Longfellow's poem on a homily of, 218;
his temptations, 218;
the stigmata, 219;
death of, 224;
his character, 225;
his rule, 226;
on prayer and preaching, 249;
method of, forsaken, 421.
Franciscans, The, first year of, 215;
order of, sanctioned, 216, 217;
three classes of, 226;
the rule of, 226;
Sabatier on rule of, 227;
the title "Friars Minor," 227;
number of, 228;
St. Clara and, 228;
The Third Order of, 229;
quarrel over the vow of poverty, 246;
prosperity of, 246;
educational work of, 248;
quarrel with Dominicans, 249;
settle in England, 251;
Baluzii on success of, 255;
fatal success of, 253.
Fratricelli, sketch of the, 247.
Freedom, religious, want of, 402.
Friars, Begging, _see_ Franciscans, Dominicans and Mendicants.
Friars Minor, 227.
Froude, on the Charterhouse monks, 302, 304;
on Thomas Cromwell, 309;
on the report of the Royal Commissioners, 317;
on the Catholics and the Reformation, 346.
Future punishment, the monks and the doctrine of, 417.

G

Gairdner, on Henry's breach with Rome, 301.
Galea, the Goth, awed by St. Benedict, 137.
Gardiner, burns heretics, 311.
Gasquet, on Thomas Cromwell, 310;
quotes Burke on the suppression, 312.
Gauls, monastic, complain to St. Martin, 120.
Germany, monasticism enters, 122.
Gervais, reason for his donations, 361.
Gibbon, on bones of Simeon, 57;
on Egyptian monks, 62;
on Roman marriages, 110;
saying of, applied to Ambrose, 116;
on military orders, 199;
quotes Zosimus, 348;
on the monastic aim, 362;
on the character of the monks, 388.
Gindeley, on the Jesuits and the Thirty Years' War, 277.
Giovanni di San Paolo, on gospel perfection, 226.
Glastonbury, fall of Abbey of, 314.
Gnostics, and asceticism, 27, 366.
Godfrey de Bouillon, endows Hospital of St. John, 201.
Godric, his unique austerities, 132.
Goldsmith, on the English character, 166.
Grand Chartreuse, monastery, 189.
Greece, asceticism in, 20.
Greeks, ancient, asceticism among the, 21.
Greek Church, monasticism of the, 64, 67.
Green, J.R., on the preaching friars, 254;
on Thomas Cromwell, 309;
on the suppression, 323.
Gregory of Nazianza, on ascetic moderation, 65.
Gregory, Pope, I., 138;
II., 135;
VII., 160, 178;
IX., 241;
X., 245.
Gregory, St., Monastery of, rules of, 141.
Griffin, Henry, on the Royal Commissioners, 311.
Grimke, on historic movements, 84.
Guigo, rules of, 190;
on vow of obedience, 383.
Guizot, on state of early Europe, 149;
on the Benedictines, 404;
on monastic education, 407.
Gustavus, contrasted to monks, 394.
Guzman, _see_ Dominic.

H

Hallam, on the Albigensians, 233, 235;
on the suppression, 334;
on charity of the monks, 349.
Happiness, the key to, 392.
Hardwick, on the Albigensian doctrines, 233.
Harnack, on early ascetics, 28;
on nominal Christianity of Rome, 77;
on life-ideal in the early church, 129;
on monasticism and the church, 414.
Hell, the monks' teachings about, 417.
Helvidius, on celibacy, 113.
Henry, King, II., and the British church, 165;
III., invites students to England, 252;
IV., confiscates alien priories, 338.
Henry VIII., and the independence of English church, 163;
and the fall of the monasteries, 286;
opinions respecting his character, 288, 290;
inconsistencies of, 291;
"Defender of the Faith," 293;
his divorce from Catharine, 293;
breach with Rome, 294, 300;
dangers to his throne, 295;
monks enraged at, 296;
as "Head of the Church," 297, 298;
Act of Succession, 298;
Oath of Supremacy, 298, 301;
excommunicated, 306;
the struggle for power, 324;
suppresses "Pilgrims of Grace," 326;
his use of monastic revenues, 328, 330;
Coke on his promises to Parliament, 329;
his motives for the suppression, 332;
Hooper on reforms of, 339;
an unconscious agent of new forces, 344;
two epochs met in reign of, 346;
Lecky on his use of monastic funds, 411.
Heresy, growth of, in thirteenth century, 206;
monks attempt extirpation of, 261, 402;
Jesuits and, 276, 409.
Heretical sects, attack vices of monks, 245.
Hermit life, founder of, 35;
unsuited to women, 107.
Hermits, The, of India, 20;
of Egypt, 33;
their mode of life, 49;
visit Rome, 71;
effect of story of, in Rome, 71, 80, 84;
of Augustine, 246.
Hilarion, the hermit, 49.
Hildebrand, _see_ Gregory VII.
Hill, on manual labor, 142;
on fall of monasticism, 345.
History, monastic contributions to, 406.
Hoensbroech, Count Paul von, on Jesuitical discipline, 268.
Holiness, false views of, 421.
_See_ Soul-purity and Salvation.
Holy Land, motives for exodus to, 97.
Holy Maid of Kent, 337.
Home-life, not to be despised, 420.
Honorius, III., Pope, sanctions Franciscan Order, 217;
confirms Dominican Order, 239.
Hooper, Bishop, on Henry's reforms, 339.
Hospital, Knights of, _see_ Knights.
Hospitals, founded by Fabiola, 105;
Lecky on, 105;
result of woman's sympathy, 111.
Houghton, Prior, _see_ Charterhouse.
Household duties, Jerome on, 114.
_See_ Domestic Life.
House of Lords, majority in the, changed, 347.
Houses, Religious, _see_ Monasteries.
Hugh, St., of Lincoln, and the swan, 157;
Ruskin on, 189.
Human affection, monks indifferent to, 394, 397.
Hume, on the suppression, 333.
Hypatia, Kingsley's, quoted, 61;
death of, 48.

I

Ideal, monastie, 354. _See_ Monasticism.
Ignatius, St., _see_ Loyola.
Independence, Jesuitism and personal, 270;
of thought, renounced by monks, 394.
_See_ Freedom, Liberty.
India, asceticism in, 18, 357.
India, monasticism in, 18, 357, 358;
causes of same, 355.
Individual, influence of the, 91;
effect of self-sacrifice upon the, 390;
effect of solitude upon the, 393.
Industry, modern, not to be despised, 420.
Innocent, Pope, III., 216, 234, 239, 242;
IV., 250;
VIII., 339.
Inquisition, The Holy, the Albigensian crusade and, 233;
relation of Dominicans toward, 235;
its establishment and management, 238.
Intellectual progress, monasticism opposed to true, 407;
in Europe, 409.
Introspection, evil effects of morbid, 392.
Iona, Monastery of, 168.
Ireland, St. Patrick labors in, 123;
monasteries of, as centers of culture, 169.
Isidore, the hermit, visits Rome, 72.
Itineracy, substituted for seclusion in cloister, 244.

J

Jacob of Vitry, on abuses of charity, 411.
James, the Apostle, quoted on rich men, 377.
Jerome, St., his life of Paul of Thebes, 35;
on Pachomian monks, 59;
his letter to Rusticus, 59;
on solitude, 61;
on number of Egyptian monks,
63; on clergy of the fourth and
fifth centuries, 77; in his cell,
85; Schaff on, 86; his birth
and early life, 86; his travels,
and austerities, 87, 92; organizes
monastic brotherhood,
88; his literary labors, 88;
glorifies desert life, 89; influences
Rome, 91; his temptations,
93; his fondness for the
classics, 95; his biographies of
Roman nuns, 96; his life of
St. Paula, 97, and of Marcella,
102; on folly of Roman women,
108; on marriage and celibacy,
112; on household duties, 113;
attacks the foes of monks, 127;
on vices of monks, 128; on
monastic aim, 360; on the
natural, 366.
Jesuits, _see_ Jesus, The Society of.
Jesuits, The Pagan, 22, 426.
Jesus Christ, the Essenes and, 26;
quoted by early ascetics, 31,
and by Jerome, 92; teachings
of, used by monks, 366, 376;
his doctrine of wealth, 377;
his attitude toward rich men,
379; the doctrine of the cross
and, 418.
Jesus, The Society of, Sherman on
nature of, 258; rejects seclusion,
258; Bishop Keane on,
259, 273; how differs from
other monastic communities,
259; founded by Loyola, 264;
constitution and polity of, 265;
grades of members of, 265;
vow of obedience in, 266; von
Hoensbroech on, 268; confession
in, 269; Carlyle on
obedience in, 271; casuistry of,
272, 429; its doctrine of probabilism,
274; the Roman
Church and, 275; Roman foes
of, 276; mission of, 276; its attitude
toward Reformation, 277;
the Thirty Years' War and, 277;
calumnies against, 279; Clement
XIV. dissolves, 279; expulsion
of, from Europe, 279;
missionary labors of, 280; Parkman
contrasts, with Puritans,
281; failure of, 283; restoration
of, 283; causes for rise of,
374; hostility of, to free government,
402; liberal education
opposed by, 409. _See_ Loyola.
Jewish asceticism, 23.
Jocelin, quoted by Carlyle, 145.
John, King, confiscates alien
priories, 338.
John, St., Knights of, _see_ Knights.
John, St., of Calama, visits his
sister in disguise, 397.
John, the Apostle, on love of the
world, 377.
John the Baptist, and asceticism,
30.
Johnson, on Monastery of Iona,
168.
Joseph, St., Church of, in England,
163.
Josephus on the Essenes, 23.
Jovinian, hostility of, toward
monks, 127; compared by
Neander to Luther, 127.
Julian, Emperor, the exodus of
monks and the, 127.
Juvenal, satire of, on Roman
women, 82.

K

Keane, Bishop, on the Jesuits,
259, 273.
Kennaquhair, installation of abbot
of, 145.
King, on Hildebrand, 178.
Kingsley, on Egypt and the hermits,
34; on Roman women,
82, 106; on fall of Rome, 78,
367.
Knights of St. John, their origin
and mission, 200.
Knights of the Hospital, sketch
of the, 198.
Knights Templars, rule of the,
197; rise and fall of, 202.

L

Labor, manual, Jerome on, 59;
in Pachomian rule, 60; Hill on
benefits of, 142; among the
Benedictines, 147, 404; Benedict
on, 403; effect of Mendicants
on, 404; not to be despised,
420.
Lama, Grand, in India, 21.
Lateran Council, 242.
Latimer, Bishop, and the monastic
funds, 323.
Laumer, St., and wild animals,
156.
Laveleye on Christianity, 378.
Lay abbots, disorders among the,
179.
Layton, a Royal Commissioner,
311. 312.
Lea, on celibacy, 184; on the
Reformation, 342.
Learning, influence of Alcuin
and Wilfred on, 167; Irish
monasteries as centers of, 169;
monks further, in England,
252; the monks and secular,
406; effects of monasticism on
the course of, 407. _See_ Literary
services.
Lecky, on Fabiola's hospitals, 105;
on asceticism and civilization,
401; on industry and the monastic
ideal, 405; on abuses of
alms-giving, 411; on the monastic
doctrines of hell, 418.
Legh, a Royal Commissioner, 311.
Leo X., Pope, 293.
Liberty, the Jesuits on, 375. _See_
Freedom and Independence.
Libraries, monastic, 152.
Lincoln, Abraham, quoted, 205.
Lingard, on Bede and the conversion
of King Lucius, 124;
on the Anglo-Saxon Church,
181.
Literary services of monks, 153,
406. _See_ Learning.
Lollardism, way paved for destruction
of cloisters by, 294.
_See_ 429.
Lombards destroy Monte Cassino,
135.
London, John, a Royal Commissioner,
311.
Longfellow, poem of, on Francis,
218; on Monte Cassino, 135-
Lord, John, on needed religious
reforms, 80.
Loyola, St. Ignatius, his birth,
261; enters upon religious work,
262; his pilgrimage to the Holy
Land, 263; his education, 263;
imprisonments, 263; founds Society
of Jesus, 264; his "Spiritual
Exercises," 265, 267; on
obedience, 267; his mission,
276; Sherman on, 278; compared
with Hamilcar, 409. _See_
Society of Jesus.
Lucius, a British king, embraces
Christianity, 124.
Luther, influence of, in history, 92;
an Augustinian monk, 118;
Henry VIII. attacks, 293.
Lytton, his views of Jesuits denounced,
278.

M

Macarius, the hermit, 49.
Macaulay, his views of Jesuits
opposed, 278; on the aims of
Jesuits, 283; on the Roman
Church, 402.
Mabie, H.W., on the monks
and the classics, 408.
Mahomet, Carlyle on, 33.
Maitland, on Benedictine monasteries,
155.
Maitre, on desecration of cloisters,
350.
Malmesbury, his charges against
the monks, 173.
Manicheism, relation of, to Albigensians,
233.
Marcella, St., Jerome on life of,
102; her austerities and charity,
103.
Maria dei Angeli, Sta., Francis
hears call in church of, 214.
Marriage, Basil on, 66; how
esteemed in Rome, 110; Gibbon
on, in Rome, 110; Jerome
and Augustine on, 112;
vow of celibacy and, 381.
Married life in Rome, Jerome on,
114.
Martensen, on ascetics, 391; on
solitude and society, 395.
Martin, St., of Tours, credibility
of biography of, 119; sketch
of his life, 120; his death, 122;
churches and shrines in honor
of, 122.
Martinmas, 122.
Materialism, monasticism and, 350,
413; of the West, 371.
Mathews, Shailer, on Christ and
riches, 379.
Matthew of Paris, on prosperity
of friars, 246.
Maur, St., walks on water, 137.
Maximilian, of Bavaria, educated
by Jesuits, 277.
Melrose Abbey, 289.
Mendicant Friars, The, 205; success
of, 242, 255; their value
to Rome, 243; confined to four
societies, 246; quarrels among,
246; their educational work,
248; in England, 251; decline
of, 253; as preachers, 244;
254; effects of prosperity on,
256.
Mendicity of monks, 245.
Milan, church of, Emperor refused
entrance to the, 115.
Military-religious orders, their origin,
labors and decline, 197.
Militia of Jesus Christ, 242.
Mill, John Stuart, on preaching
friars, 244.
Milman, on the early church leaders,
129; on dream of Dominic's mother, 231;
on bigotry of monks, 395;
on monks and natural affections, 398.
Milton, contrasted to monks, 394.
Miracles, 224.
_See_ Anthony, Stylites, St. Martin, etc.
Missionary labors, of monks, 148, 171, 398;
of the Jesuits, 280, 281.
Modern life and thought, monasticism rejected by, 421.
Mohammedans, mission of Francis to, 217.
Monastery, of Pachomius, 58;
Monte Cassino, 134;
St. Gregory's, rules of, 141;
Kennaquhair, 145;
Vivaria, 152;
Bangor, 165;
Iona, 168;
Cluny, 177;
Grand Chartreuse, 189;
Charterhouse, 191, 301, 334, 343;
Citeaux, 192;
Clairvaux, 193;
St. Nicholas, 240;
Melrose, 289;
Glastonbury, 314.
Monasteries, in Egypt, 44;
of Jerome, 88;
of Paula, 100;
in early Britain, 123;
as literary centers, 151;
decline of, in Middle Ages, 173;
destruction of, by Danes, 180;
corruptions of, in Dunstan's time, 185;
abandonment of endowments, 244;
fall of, in England, 286;
fall of, in various countries, 288, 430;
obstacles to progress, 343;
new uses of, 350;
life in, 392;
charity of, 410.
Monasteries, The Fall of, in England, 286;
various views of, 288;
necessity for dispassionate judgment, 289;
events preceding, 293;
progress and, 300;
the Charterhouse, 302;
the Royal Commissioners and their methods, 308, 313;
Glastonbury, 314;
report of commissioners, 313, 314;
action of Parliament, 319;
the lesser houses, 319;
the larger houses, 320;
total number and the revenues of, 321;
effect of, upon the people, 322;
Green on same, 323;
uprisings and rebellions, 325;
use of funds, 328;
justification for, 331;
Bale, Blunt and Hume on justification for, 333;
Hallam on, 334;
charges against monks true, 336;
Bonaventura and Wyclif on vices of monks, 337;
confiscation of alien priories, 338;
compared with suppression in other countries, 339, 430;
alienation of England from Rome, 342;
superficial explanation of, 343;
true view of, 344;
monks and reform, 344;
causes of, enumerated, 345;
results of, 345, 347;
general review of, 352;
Bryant on, 353.
Monasticism, Eastern, origin of, 17, 29;
philosophy and, 18;
Christian, 29;
the Scriptures and, 30;
in Egypt, 33;
virtual founder of, 42;
under Pachomius, 58, 63;
under Basil, 63;
character of, in Greek church, 67;
perplexing character of, 69.
_See_ Jerome, Basil and Athanasius.
Monasticism, Western, 71;
introduction in Rome, 71;
effect upon Rome, 80;
women and, 96, 106;
Gregory the Great and, 160;
in England, 162; spread of, 115;
in Germany, 122;
in Spain, 122;
in early Britain, 123, 168;
disorders and oppositions, 124;
enemies of, 127;
its eclipse, 130;
code of, 139;
reforms of, and military types, 173, 197;
decline of, in the Middle Ages, 173, 179;
Benedict of Aniane tries to reform, 176;
in England, in Middle Ages, 180;
failure of reforms, 196, 207;
its moral dualism, 205;
its recuperative power, 205;
in the thirteenth century, 206;
new features of, 244;
popes demand reforms in, 286;
attacked by governments, 287;
Hill on fall of, in England, 345;
a fetter on progress, 347;
alms-giving and, 348;
age of, compared to modern times, 351.
Monasticism, Causes and Ideals of, 354;
causative motives, 355;
the desire for salvation, 356;
quotations on the ideal, 129, 173, 174, 357, 358, 360;
nothing gained by return to ideal, 352;
motive for endowments, 361;
the love of solitude, 362;
various motives, 364;
beliefs affecting the causative motives, 365;
Gnostic teachings, 366;
effect of the social condition of Roman Empire, 367;
the flight from the world, 368;
causes of variations in types, 371;
East and West compared, 371;
effect of political changes, 372;
the Crusades, 373;
effect of feudalism, 373;
effect of the intellectual awakening, 374;
the Modern Age and the Jesuits, 374;
the fundamental vows, 375.
Monasticism, Effects of, 386;
the good and evil of, 387;
variety of opinions respecting, 387;
the diversity of facts, 389;
elements of truth and worth, 390;
effects of self-sacrifice, 390, of solitude, 393;
the monks as missionaries, 398;
civic duties, 399;
upon civilization, 401;
upon agriculture, 403;
upon secular learning, 405;
the charity of monks, 410;
upon religion, 412, 413;
the sense of sin, 414;
the atonement for sin, 417;
the distinction between the secular and the religious, 418;
monasticism and Christianity, 420;
old monastic methods forsaken, 421;
summary of effects, 423.
Monastic Orders, the usual history of, 174.
_See_ Benedict, Order of St., Franciscans, etc.
Monks, not peculiar to Christianity, 17;
Jerome on habits of, 36;
in Egypt, 44;
Pachomian, 58;
number of Eastern, 63;
under Basil, 63;
character of Eastern, 67, 69;
as theological fighters, 68;
Hypatia and the, 68;
in the desert of Chalcis, 87;
in early Rome, 96;
motives of early, 106, 128;
of Augustine, 118; under
Martin of Tours, 120;
opposition to Roman, 125, 147;
disorders among the early, 128, 150;
literary services of, 151, 153, 167, 169, 248, 253, 405, 406;
agricultural services of, 155, 192, 403;
wild animals and the, 156;
early British, 162, 168;
influence of the, in England, 166;
the barbarians and the, 148, 171, 398;
military, 173, 197;
corruptions of, 124, 173, 175, 179, 196, 206, 336;
the celibacy of, 183;
changes in the character of, 284;
rebel against Henry VIII., 296;
as obstacles to progress, 300, 343;
required to take the Oath of Supremacy, 301;
pious frauds of, in England, 318;
receive pensions, 320;
oppose reforms in England, 344;
privileges and powers of the, affected by the suppression, 347;
charity of the, 348, 410, 411;
objects of the, 360;
once held in high esteem, 361;
their flight from Rome, 368;
diversity of opinions respecting the, 388;
effect of austerities on the, 390;
effect of solitude on the, 393;
deficiencies in the best, 394;
as missionaries, 398;
civic duties and the, 399;
military quarrels incited by the, 401;
enthusiasm for religion kept alive by the, 413;
their sense of sin, exaggeration in their views and methods, 413;
their doctrine of hell, 417;
the doctrine of the cross and the, 418.
_See_ Mendicants, Benedict, Order of St., etc.
Montaigne, on the temptations of solitude, 393.
Montalembert, on Eastern monachism, 67;
on Benedict, 130;
on the ruin of French cloisters, 351;
on the attractions of solitude, 364;
on the value of the monks, 388, 406.
Montanists, The, and asceticism, 27.
Monte Cassino, Monastery at, Montalembert on, 134;
sketch of its history, 134.
Montserrat, tablet on Ignatius in church at, 262.
More, Sir Thomas, causes of his death, 298;
his character, 299;
influence of, in prison, 303, 305;
on Henry's ambition, 322.
Morton, Cardinal, on the vices of the monks, 338.
Mosheim, on Francis, 225;
on the quarrel of the Franciscans, 247.
Mozoomdar, on the motives and spirit of Oriental asceticism, 358.
Mutius, taught renunciation, 62.

N

Neander, compares Jovinian to Luther, 127;
on the dreams of Francis, 209.
Newman, Cardinal, on Benedict's mission, 149.
Nicholas, St., Monastery of, 240.
Normans, The, and the alien priories, 341.
Novitiate, Benedictine, extended by Gregory, 160;
of the Jesuits, 260, 269.
_See_ various orders.
Nun, _see_ Women.
Nunneries, origin of, 106.

O

Obedience, vow of, in Pachomian rule, 61;
enforced by Basil, 66;
among the Jesuits, 266;
Loyola on, 267;
Dom Guigo on, 383;
its value and its abuses, 384.
Observantines, 246.
Oliphant, Mrs., on the temptations of Francis, 218;
on the stigmata, 222.
Origen, on Christianity in Britain, 123.
Oswald, aids Dunstan in reforms, 186.
Oxford University, friars enter, 251;
founded by monks, 406.

P

Pachomius, St., 32;
birth and early life of, 58.
Pachomian Monks, rules of, 58;
vows, 61;
their number and spread, 63.
Pagan philosophy powerless to save Rome, 76.
Palgrave on the miter, 400.
Pamplona, Ignatius wounded at siege of, 262.
Parkman, Francis, on the Puritans and the Jesuits, 281;
on the Roman Church, 386.
Parliament of Religions, World's Fair, views of asceticism at the,
357, 358.
Paris, University of, 249, 406.
Paschal II., Pope, the gift of Cluny, 178.
Patrick, St., 122;
labors in Ireland, 123;
was he a Romanist? 162.
Paul, The Apostle, on asceticism, 27.
Paul III., Pope, excommunicates Henry VIII., 306.
Paul of Thebes, Jerome's life of, 35;
his early life, 36;
visited by Anthony, 37;
his death, 40;
effect of his biography on the times, 42.
Paula, St., Jerome on death of, 98, 101;
her austerities and charities, 98, 100;
separates from her children, 98;
her monasteries at Bethlehem, 100;
inscription on her tombstone, 102;
faints at her daughter's funeral, 125.
Paulinus, embraces ascetic Christianity, 84.
Peter, The Apostle, marriage of, 115.
Peter the Venerable, 178.
Petrarch, Mabie on, and the classics, 408.
Peyto, Friar, denounces Henry VIII., 296:
Philanthropy, spirit of, kept alive by monks, 412.
_See_ Charity.
Philip IV., King, of France, his charges against the Knights, 202.
Phillips, Wendell, on the reading of history, 386.
Philo, on the Essenes, 23;
on the Therapeutae, 27.
Philosophy, ascetic influence of Greek, 21;
Gnostic, 27;
Pagan, and fall of Rome, 76.
Pike, Luke Owen, on the character of Henry VIII., 290;
on the lawlessness of monks, 336.
Pilgrims of Grace, 326;
their demands and overthrowal, 327.
Pillar Saints, 51.
Plague, Black, and the monks, 410.
Plato, ascetic teachings of, 22.
Pliny, on the Essenes, 25.
Pole, Reginald, on Henry VIII. and Rome, 295.
Politics, not to be despised, 420.
Portus, inn at, 105.
Potitianus, affected by Anthony's biography, 83.
Poverty, vow of, in Pachomian rule, 61;
Franciscans quarrel over, 246;
and the Scriptures, 376.
Preaching Friars, _see_ Dominicans, Franciscans and Mendicants.
Pride, spiritual, of monks, 395.
Probabilism, doctrine of, 274.
Protestantism, effect of, upon monasticism, 286;
guilty of persecution, 332;
and the Church of England, 340;
its real value to England, 346;
its religious ideal, 356.
Putnam, on the rule of St. Benedict, 139;
on Cassiodorus, 153;
on the first quarrel over copyright, 170.
Pythagoras, asceticism of, 21, 426.

R

Reade, Charles, on the monk's flight from the world, 368.
Reading, the monks of, their pious frauds, 318.
Recluses, _see_ Hermits.
Reformed Orders, 173.
Reform, monastic, 173, 205;
fails to stop decline of monasteries, 196, 207, 286;
demanded by popes, 286;
failure of, 336.
_See_ Monasticism.
Reformation, The Protestant, furthered by certain Franciscans, 247;
relation of Mendicants to, 248;
the Jesuits and, 277; 278, 283;
in England, its character, and results, 345,346;
and the monastic life, 374.
Relics, fraudulent, 128, 318.
Religion, monasticism and, 18, 412;
influence of feelings and opinions, 354;
enthusiasm for, fostered by monks, 413;
the sense of sin, 414;
salvation, 417;
the distinction between the secular and the religious, 418, 420;
the doctrine of the cross, 418;
essence of, 419;
true, possible outside of convents, 421.
Religious houses, _see_ Monasteries.
Renunciation of the world, 358, 369.
_See_ Self-denial.
Rice, Ap, a Royal Commissioner, 311.
Riches, _see_ Wealth.
Richard II., confiscates alien priories, 338.
Robertson, F. W., on excessive
austerities, 94.
Rome, Church of, her claims
respecting the early British
Church, 162; writers of, on
the stigmata, 223; her relation
to the Jesuits, 275, and the
English people, 294, 341;
martyrs of, 332; writers of, on
the fall of monasteries, 334,
335; England separates from,
342; her religious ideal, 356;
Parkman on, 386; Macaulay
on, 403. _See_ Henry VIII.
Rome, Monasticism introduced in,
71; social and religious state
of, in the fourth century, 72,
74; Dill on causes of the
fall of, 74; classes of society
in, 75; Farrar on luxury of,
75; epigram of Silvianus, 76;
Kingsley on ruin of, 78; Jerome
on sack of, by Alaric, 103.
_See_ Jerome.
Roman Empire, nominally Christian,
73;. its impending doom,
73, 367.
Romanus, a monk, 131.
Royalty, affected by monasticism,
179.
Rules, monastic, the first, 58;
before Benedict, 107; of Augustine,
118; of St. Benedict,
138, 139, 147, 151, 158; of
Dom Guigo, 189; of St. Francis,
226. _See_ Celibacy, Poverty,
Obedience.
Ruskin, on St. Hugh of Lincoln,
189.
Rusticus, a monk, 59.
Rutilius, on the monks, 126.

S

Sabatier, on rule of St. Francis,
227.
Saint, Paul of Thebes, 35; Anthony,
37; Athanasius, 42; Abraham,
50, 60; Macarius, 49;
Hilarion, 49; Simeon Stylites,
51; Pachomius, 58; Basil,
63; Gregory of Nazianza, 65;
Jerome, 85; Paula, 97; Marcella,
102; Fabiola, 105; Ambrose,
115; Chrysostom, 116;
Augustine, 117; Martin of
Tours, 119; Maur, 137; Patrick,
123, 162; Benedict of
Nursia, 131; Hugh of Lincoln,
157, 189; Gregory the Great,
159; Columba, 162, 168, 170;
Boniface, 167; Wilfred, 167;
Benedict of Aniane, 176;
Dunstan, 182; Bruno, 188;
Bernard, 192; Francis, 208;
Clara, 228; Dominic, 230;
Loyola, 261.
Salvation, the desire for, 70, 111,
355, 396; the struggle for,
95; monastic views of, 417.
Samson, Abbot, election of, 145.
Santa Crocella, chapel of, 131.
Saracens burn Monte Cassino
monastery, 135.
Saragossa, Council of, forbids
priests to assume monks' robes,
122.
Savonarola, a Dominican, 242.
Saxons invade England, 180.
Schaff, Philip, on origin of monasticism,
18; on Montanists,
28; on the biography of the
hermit Paul, 35;
on St. Jerome, 86;
on Augustine, 117;
on Benedictine rule, 148;
on monasteries as centers of learning, 153;
on effects of monasticism, 387.
Scholastica, story about, 138.
Schools, monastic, 154, 167.
_See _ Learning.
Scott, Walter, on installation of an abbot, 145;
on the crusaders, 199.
Seclusion, 244, 259.
_See_ Solitude.
Secular life, duties of, 113;
the monks and, 399;
distinction between religion and the, 418;
true view of, 420.
Self-crucifixion, 418.
Self-denial, its nature, 356;
Mozoomdar on, 358.
Selfishness, engendered by monasticism, 396.
Self-forgetfulness, the key to happiness, 392.
Self-mastery, the craving for, 70.
Self-sacrifice, effect of, upon the individual, 390;
meaning of true, 419.
_See_ Asceticism.
Serapion, monks of, 63.
Severus, his life of St. Martin, 119.
Sherman, Father Thomas E., on the Society of Jesus, 258;
on Loyola, 278.
Sick, ministered to by women, 350.
_See_ Charity.
Silvianus, epigram of, on dying Rome, 76.
Simon de Montfort, 237.
Simeon Stylites, birth and early life of, 51;
austerities of, 52;
his fame, 52;
lives on a pillar, 53;
Tennyson on, 54;
death of, 56;
refuses to see his mother, 397;
method of, forsaken, 421.
Sin, monastic confessions of, 413;
consciousness of, preserved by monks, 414;
exaggerated views of, 415;
false methods to get rid of, 416;
monastic influence on doctrine of atonement for, 417.
Sisterhoods, _see_ Women.
Sixtus IV. and V., Popes, on the stigmata, 221.
Social service, spirit of, 419, 423.
Solitude, of Egypt, 33;
provided for in Pachomian rules, 60;
Jerome on, 61;
the love of, as a cause of monasticism, 362, 363;
effects of, upon the individual, 393;
Montaigne on temptations of, 393;
society and, 395.
Soul-purity, struggles for, 95.
_See_ Salvation.
Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius, 265.
Spain, monasticism enters, 122.
Starbuck, Charles C., on the casuistry of the Jesuits, 274.
Stigmata, of St. Francis, 219.
Storrs, on Bernard, 197.
Subiaco, desert of, 131.
Superstitions, monastic, when revolt against is justifiable, 423.
Suppression of monasteries,
_see_ Monasteries, The Fall of.
Supremacy, the monks required to take the oath of, 301.

T

Tabenna, Monastery at, 32, 58.
Tauler, John, a Dominican, 242;
on service and contemplation,
395.

Taunton, E.L., on the family-idea
of monasteries, 143; on Augustine
and British monks, 165.
Taylor, Isaac, on the biography
of Anthony, 48.
Templars, _see_ Knights.
Tennyson, on Stylites, 54.
Tertullian, on Christianity in
Britain, 123.
Thackeray, views of, on Jesuits
opposed, 278.
Theodoret, on Stylites, 51, 53.
Theodosius, Abbot, 50.
Theology, the monks and, 406;
White on same, 416.
Theophilus, joins Eudoxia against
Chrysostom, 117.
Therapeutae, Philo on the, 27.
Thieffroy, on charity of monks,
410.
Third Order, _see_ Franciscans and
Dominicans.
Thirty Years' War, the Jesuits
and the, 277.
Trench, on monastic history, 175;
on genius in creation, 207;
on the stigmata, 223.
Trent, Council of, restricts Mendicants,
246; on marriage, 382.

U

Universities, foundations of, laid
by monks, 405.
Urban II., Pope, the gift of
Cluny monastery, 178.

V

Valens, Emperor, fails to stop
flight from Rome, 127.
Vaughan, on Bernard's reforms,
195; on the need of reformation,
402.
Virgins, _see_ Marriage.
Virgil, Jerome's fondness for, 95;
Mabie on reading of, 408.
Vivaria, literary work in monastery
at, 152.
Voltaire, on the monks, 388.
Vows, monastic, 61; irrevocable,
66, 112; usual history of,
174; of the military orders,
198; the fundamental, 375;
the passing away of, 423. _See_
Poverty, Celibacy and Obedience.
Vulgate, Jerome, 85.

W

Waddington, on the hermits, 34;
on conscience and method of
monks, 390.
War, monks incite to, 401.
Watch-dogs of the Church, a term
applied to the Dominicans, 249.
Wealth, Christ's doctrine of, 377;
not in itself an evil, 379; its
true value, 405; compatible
with Christianity, 420.
White, on the theology of the
monks, 416.
Whiting, Richard, Abbot of
Glastonbury, 315.
Widows, _see_ Women and Marriage.
Wilfred, St., his monastic labors, 167.
William of Aquitaine, 177.
William of Amour, 250.
William of Orange, 394.
Wolsey, Cardinal, 294, 308.
Women, welcome call of monks, 81;
Kingsley on same, 82;
Juvenal on Roman women, 82;
Jerome's influence on, 86, 96;
monasticism and, 106;
hermit life unsuited to, 107;
effect of corrupt society on, 107,
no; distinguished by mercy, in, 350;
compared with monks, 111;
married life of, in Rome, 112;
influence of Ambrose upon, 126;
regulation of Guigo concerning monks and, 190.
Wyclif, attacks the friars, 253, 337;
spirit of, affects monasticism, 295, 429.

X

Ximenes, Cardinal, a Franciscan, 228.

Z

Zosimus, on charity of monks, 348.

_Printed at_ THE BRANDT PRESS, _Trenton, N.J., U.S.A_.

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