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A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature by John W. Cousin

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spiritual influence upon his generation.

_Life_ by J.D. Coleridge (1869), another by Rev. W. Lock (1895).

KEIGHTLEY, THOMAS (1789-1872).--Historian, _ed._ at Trinity Coll.,
Dublin, wrote works on mythology and folklore, and at the request of Dr.
Arnold of Rugby, a series of text-books on English, Greek, and other
histories. His _History of Greece_ was translated into modern Greek.
Among his other books are _Fairy Mythology_ (1850), and _Mythology of
Ancient Greece and Italy_, and a work on Popular Tales and their
transmission from one country to another.

KEITH, ROBERT (1681-1757).--Historian, _b._ in Kincardineshire, belonged
to the family of the Earls Marischal, and was Bishop of Fife in the
Scottish Episcopal Church. He was deeply versed in Scottish antiquities,
and _pub._ _History of the Affairs of Church and State in Scotland_
during the Reformation. He also compiled _A Catalogue of the Bishops of
Scotland_ (1755).

KELLY, HUGH (1739-1777).--Dramatist, _s._ of a Dublin publican, worked in
London as a staymaker, 1760, and after ed. various journals, wrote
_Memoirs of a Magdalen_ (1767). His play, _False Delicacy_ (1768), had an
extraordinary success, and was translated into French, German, and
Portuguese. His other plays had no great success. He left off writing for
the stage in 1774, and endeavoured to practise as a barrister, but
without success. He also wrote political pamphlets, for which he received
a pension from Government.

KEN, THOMAS (1637-1711).--Religious writer, _s._ of an attorney, was _b._
at Little Berkhampstead, _ed._ at Winchester and Oxf., and entering the
Church received the living of Brightstone, Isle of Wight, where he
composed his _Morning, Evening, and Midnight Hymns_, perhaps the most
widely known of English hymns. These he was accustomed to sing daily to
the lute. After holding other benefices he became Bishop of Bath and
Wells, and a Chaplain to Charles II. He was one of the "Seven Bishops"
sent to the Tower by James II. Refusing to take the oaths to William and
Mary, he was deprived, and spent his later years in comparative poverty,
though he found an asylum at Longleat with Lord Weymouth. Izaak Walton
was his brother-in-law. K. wrote a manual of prayers for Winchester
School, and other devotional works.

KENNEDY, JOHN PENDLETON (1795-1870).--Novelist, _b._ in Baltimore, was
distinguished as a lawyer and politician. He wrote three novels, _Swallow
Barn_ (1832), _Horse Shoe Robinson_ (1835), and _Rob of the Bowl_ (1838),
which give a vivid presentation of life in the Southern States.

KENNEDY, WALTER (_fl._ 1500).--_S._ of Lord K., was _ed._ at Glasgow, and
is perhaps best known as Dunbar's antagonist in the _Flyting of Dunbar
and Kennedy_. Other poems are _Praise of Aige_ (Age), _Ane Ballat in
Praise of Our Lady_, and _The Passion of Christ_. Most of his work is
probably lost.

KILLIGREW, THOMAS (1612-1683).--Dramatist, _s._ of Sir Robert K., of
Hanworth, was a witty, dissolute courtier of Charles II., and wrote nine
plays, each in a different city. Of them the best known is _The Parson's
Wedding_.

KING, HENRY (1592-1669).--Poet, _s._ of a Bishop of London, was _ed._ at
Westminster School and Oxf. He entered the Church, and rose in 1642 to be
Bishop of Chichester. The following year he was deprived, but was
reinstated at the Restoration. He wrote many elegies on Royal persons and
on his private friends, who included Donne and Ben Jonson. A selection
from his _Poems and Psalms_ was _pub._ in 1843.

KINGLAKE, ALEXANDER WILLIAM (1809-1891).--_B._ near Taunton, _ed._ at
Eton and Camb., was called to the Bar in 1837, and acquired a
considerable practice, which in 1856 he abandoned in order to devote
himself to literature and public life. His first literary venture had
been _Eothen_, a brilliant and original work of Eastern travel, _pub._ in
1844; but his _magnum opus_ was his _Invasion of the Crimea_, in 8 vols.
(1863-87), which is one of the most effective works of its class. It has,
however, been charged with being too favourable to Lord Raglan, and
unduly hostile to Napoleon III., for whom the author had an extreme
aversion. Its great length is also against it.

KINGSFORD, WILLIAM (1819-1898).--Historian, _b._ in London, served in the
army, and went to Canada, where he was engaged in surveying work. He has
a place in literature for his _History of Canada_ in 10 vols., a work of
careful research, though not distinguished for purely literary merits.

KINGSLEY, CHARLES (1819-1875).--Novelist and historian, _s._ of a
clergyman, was _b._ at Holne Vicarage near Dartmoor, but passed most of
his childhood at Barnack in the Fen country, and Clovelly in Devonshire,
_ed._ at King's Coll., London, and Camb. Intended for the law, he entered
the Church, and became, in 1842, curate, and two years later rector, of
Eversley, Hampshire. In the latter year he _pub._ _The Saints' Tragedy_,
a drama, of which the heroine is St. Elizabeth of Hungary. Two novels
followed, _Yeast_ (1848) and _Alton Locke_ (1850), in which he deals with
social questions as affecting the agricultural labouring class, and the
town worker respectively. He had become deeply interested in such
questions, and threw himself heart and soul, in conjunction with F.D.
Maurice and others, into the schemes of social amelioration, which they
supported under the name of Christian socialism, contributing many tracts
and articles under the signature of "Parson Lot." In 1853 appeared
_Hypatia_, in which the conflict of the early Christians with the Greek
philosophy of Alexandria is depicted; it was followed in 1855 by
_Westward Ho_, perhaps his most popular work; in 1857 by _Two Years Ago_,
and in 1866 by _Hereward the Wake_. _At Last_ (1870), gave his
impressions of a visit to the West Indies. His taste for natural history
found expression in _Glaucus, or the Wonders of the Shore_ (1855), and
other works. _The Water Babies_ is a story for children written to
inspire love and reverence of Nature. K. was in 1860 appointed to the
Professorship of Modern History at Camb., which he held until 1869. The
literary fruit of this was _Roman and Teuton_ (1864). In the same year he
was involved in a controversy with J.H. Newman, which resulted in the
publication by the latter of his _Apologia_. K., who had in 1869 been
made a Canon of Chester, became Canon of Westminster in 1873. Always of a
highly nervous temperament, his over-exertion resulted in repeated
failures of health, and he _d._ in 1875. Though hot-tempered and
combative, he was a man of singularly noble character. His type of
religion, cheerful and robust, was described as "muscular Christianity."
Strenuous, eager, and keen in feeling, he was not either a profoundly
learned, or perhaps very impartial, historian, but all his writings are
marked by a bracing and manly atmosphere, intense sympathy, and great
descriptive power.

KINGSLEY, HENRY (1830-1876).--Novelist, brother of the above, _ed._ at
King's Coll., London, and Oxf., which he left without graduating, and
betook himself to the Australian gold-diggings, being afterwards in the
mounted police. On his return in 1858 he devoted himself industriously to
literature, and wrote a number of novels of much more than average merit,
including _Geoffrey Hamlyn_ (1859), _The Hillyars and the Burtons_
(1865), _Ravenshoe_ (1861), and _Austin Elliot_ (1863). Of these
_Ravenshoe_ is generally regarded as the best. In 1869 he went to
Edinburgh to ed. the _Daily Review_, but he soon gave this up, and became
war correspondent for his paper during the Franco-German War.

KINGSLEY, MARY HENRIETTA (1862-1900).--Traveller, _dau._ of George Henry
K. (himself a traveller, and author of _South Sea Bubbles_, a very
successful book), and niece of Charles K. (_q.v._). She travelled in West
Africa, where she made valuable observations and collections. Her
_Travels in West Africa_ is one of the most original and stimulating
books of its class. Miss K. had a singular power of viewing the religious
rites of savage peoples from their point of view. She was about to
undertake another journey, but stopped to nurse Boer prisoners, and _d._
of fever.

KINGSTON, WILLIAM HENRY GILES (1814-1880).--Writer of tales for boys,
_b._ in London, but spent much of his youth in Oporto, where his _f._ was
a merchant. His first book, _The Circassian Chief_, appeared in 1844. His
first book for boys, _Peter the Whaler_, was _pub._ in 1851, and had such
success that he retired from business and devoted himself entirely to the
production of this kind of literature, in which his popularity was
deservedly great; and during 30 years he wrote upwards of 130 tales,
including _The Three Midshipmen_ (1862), _The Three Lieutenants_ (1874),
_The Three Commanders_ (1875), _The Three Admirals_ (1877), _Digby
Heathcote_, etc. He also conducted various papers, including _The
Colonist_, and _Colonial Magazine and East India Review_. He was also
interested in emigration, volunteering, and various philanthropic
schemes. For services in negotiating a commercial treaty with Portugal he
received a Portuguese knighthood, and for his literary labours a
Government pension.

KIRKLAND, JOSEPH (1830-1894).--Novelist, _b._ in New York State, was a
lawyer in Chicago, then served in the war. He is remembered as the author
of two very vivid and life-like novels of pioneer life in the Far West,
_Illinois Zury_ and _The McVeys_. Other works are _The Captain of Company
K._ and _The Story of Chicago_.

KITTO, JOHN (1804-1854).--Biblical scholar, _s._ of a Cornish stonemason,
was _b._ at Plymouth. At the age of 12 a fall led to his becoming totally
deaf. From poverty and hardship he was rescued by friends, to whom his
mental powers had become known, and the means of education were placed
within his reach. By these he profited so remarkably that he became a
valuable contributor to Biblical scholarship. He travelled much in the
East in the pursuit of his favourite studies. Among his works are
_Scripture Lands_, _Daily Bible Illustrations_, and _The Lost Senses_ in
2 vols., one dealing with Deafness and the other with Blindness. He also
ed. _The Pictorial Bible_, _The Journal of Sacred Literature_, _The
Cyclopaedia of Bible Literature_, and contributed to various periodicals.
He received a pension of L100 from Government. In 1844 the Univ. of
Giessen conferred upon him the degree of D.D.

KNIGHT, CHARLES (1791-1873).--Publisher and writer, _b._ at Windsor,
where his _f._. was a bookseller. After serving his apprenticeship with
him he went to London, and in 1823 started business as a publisher, and
co-operated effectively with Brougham and others in connection with The
Society for Diffusing Useful Knowledge. He was publisher for the Society,
and issued _The Penny Magazine_, _Penny Cyclopaedia_, _Pictorial History
of England_, etc. He ed. with success _The Pictorial Shakespeare_, and
was the author of a vol. of essays, _Once upon a Time_, an autobiography,
_Passages from a Working Life_ (1863), a _History of the Thirty Years'
Peace_, which was completed by Miss Harriet Martineau, and various other
works.

KNIGHT, HENRY GALLY (1786-1846).--A country gentleman of Yorkshire, _ed._
at Eton and Camb., was the author of several Oriental tales, _Ilderim, a
Syrian Tale_ (1816), _Phrosyne, a Grecian Tale_, and _Alashtar, an
Arabian Tale_ (1817). He was also an authority on architecture, and wrote
various works on the subject, including _The Ecclesiastical Architecture
of Italy_, and _The Normans in Sicily_, which brought him more reputation
than his novels.

KNOLLES, RICHARD (1550?-1610).--Historian, _b._ at Coldashby,
Northamptonshire, and _ed._ at Oxf., _pub._ in 1603 _The History of the
Turks_, which went through many ed. Its principal value now is as a piece
of fine English of its time, for which it is ranked high by Hallam. K.
was master of a school at Sandwich. The History was continued by Sir Paul
Rycaut (1628-1700).

KNOWLES, HERBERT (1798-1817).--Poet, author of the well-known _Stanzas
written in Richmond Churchyard_, which gave promise of future excellence.
But he _d._ a few weeks after he had been enabled, through the help of
Southey to whom he had sent some of his poems, to go to Camb.

KNOWLES, JAMES SHERIDAN (1784-1862).--Dramatist, _s._ of James K.,
schoolmaster and lexicographer, was _b._ at Cork. He was the author of a
ballad, _The Welsh Harper_, which had great popularity, and gained for
him the notice of Hazlitt and others. For some years he studied medicine,
which, however, he abandoned for literature, and produced several plays,
including _Caius Gracchus_ (1815), _Virginius_ (1820), _The Hunchback_
(1832), and _The Love Chase_ (1837), in some of which he acted. He gave
up the stage in 1843, became a preacher in connection with the Baptist
communion, and enjoyed great popularity. He _pub._ two polemical works,
_The Rock of Rome_, and _The Idol demolished by its own Priests_.

KNOX, JOHN (1505?-1572).--Reformer and historian, was _b._ near
Haddington, and _ed._ at the Grammar School there and at Glasgow. He is
believed to have had some connection with the family of K. of Ranfurly in
Renfrewshire. The year of his birth was long believed to be 1505, but of
late some writers have found reason to hold that he was really _b._ some
years later, 1510 or even 1513. At Glasgow he was the pupil of John Major
(_q.v._), and became distinguished as a disputant. He is believed to have
been ordained a priest about 1530, after which he went to St. Andrews and
taught. About this time, however, there is a gap of 12 years or more,
during which almost nothing is known of his life. About 1545 he came
under the influence of George Wishart, who was burned as a heretic at
St. Andrews in the following year, and embraced the Reformation
principles, of which he became a champion on the Continent, in England,
and finally and especially in Scotland. He joined the reforming party in
St. Andrews in 1547, and was, much against his will, elected their
minister. The next year he was made prisoner, sent to France, and
condemned to the galleys, where he remained for nearly two years. For the
next five years he was in England, chiefly at Newcastle and Berwick,
where he was zealously engaged in propagating and defending the reformed
doctrines. On the accession of Mary in 1553 K. escaped to the Continent,
where he remained--at Dieppe, Frankfort on the Maine, and Geneva--until
1559. During this period, in addition to his pastoral and ecclesiastical
activities, he wrote copiously, the best known of his works of that time
being his _First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment
[government] of Women_. The first, it proved also the last, as he never
produced the other two which he promised or threatened. He finally
returned to Scotland in 1559, and was at once the chief actor and the
chief narrator of the crowded and pregnant events which culminated in the
abdication of Queen Mary and the establishment of Protestantism in
Scotland. As minister of the High Church of Edin. K. was at the centre of
events, which he probably did more to mould than any other man. As
Carlyle says, "He is the one Scotchman to whom, of all others, his
country and the world owe a debt." Here, after his long battle with
principalities and powers, and spiritual wickedness in high places, his
triumphs, and disappointments, after growing weakness and becoming "weary
of the world," he _d._ on November 24, 1572. His place in literature he
has by virtue of his _Historie of the Reformation in Scotland_. It
extends from 1558-67. Its language is much more English than that spoken
and written in Scotland at the time. It is of the highest historical
value, and in style terse, vigorous, with flashes of a quiet, somewhat
saturnine humour, and of vivid description--the writing of a great man of
action dealing with the events in which he had been the leading actor.
His own figure and that of the Queen are those round which the drama
turns. The leading features of his character were courage and intense
earnestness. "Here," said the Regent Morton, "lies a man who never feared
the face of man." And with all his sternness there was in him a vein of
cordial friendliness and humour. He has been accused of intolerance, and
of harshness in his dealings with the Queen. But as Carlyle has said, as
regards the second accusation, "They are not so coarse, these speeches;
they seem to me about as fine as the circumstances would permit. It was
unfortunately not possible to be polite with the Queen of Scotland unless
one proved untrue to the nation."

_Lives_ by M'Crie (1812), and Prof. Hume Brown (1895). _Works_ ed. by D.
Laing.

KNOX, VICESIMUS (1752-1821).--Essayist, etc., _ed._ at Oxf., took orders,
and became Head Master of Tunbridge School. He _pub._ _Essays Moral and
Literary_ (1778), and compiled the formerly well-known _Elegant
Extracts_, often reprinted.

KNOX, WILLIAM (1789-1825).--Poet, _s._ of a farmer in Roxburghshire,
wrote several books of poetry, _The Lonely Hearth_, _Songs of Israel_,
_Harp of Zion_, etc., which gained him the friendship of Scott. He fell
into dissipated habits, was latterly a journalist in Edin., and _d._ at
36.

KYD, THOMAS (1558-1595).--Dramatist, _s._ of a London scrivener, _ed._ at
Merchant Taylor's School, appears to have led the life of hardship so
common with the dramatists of his time, was for a short time imprisoned
for "treasonable and Atheistic views," and made translations from the
French and Italian. His drama, _The Spanish Tragedy_ (1594), had
extraordinary popularity, and was translated into Dutch and German. Some
of the scenes are believed to have been contributed by another hand,
probably by Ben Jonson. He also produced a play on the story of Hamlet,
not now in existence, and he may have written the first draft of _Titus
Andronicus_. Other plays which have been attributed to him are _The First
Part of Jeronimo_ (1605), _Cornelia_ (1594), _The Rare Triumphs of Love
and Fortune_, and _The Tragedye of Solyman and Perseda_ (1599). But,
although one of the best known dramatists in his day, very little is now
certain either as to his personal history or his works.

LAIDLAW, WILLIAM (1780-1845).--Poet, _s._ of a border farmer, became
steward and amanuensis to Sir W. Scott, and was the author of the
beautiful and well-known ballad, _Lucy's Flittin'_.

LAING, DAVID (1793-1878).--Antiquary, _s._ of a bookseller in Edin., with
whom he was in partnership until his appointment, in 1837, as librarian
of the Signet Library. He ed. many of the publications of the Bannatyne
Club, of which he was sec. (1823-61). He was also Honorary Prof. of
Antiquities to the Royal Scottish Academy. Among the more important works
which he ed. were _Baillie's Letters and Journals_ (1841-2), _John Knox's
Works_ (1846-64), and the poems of Sir D. Lyndsay, Dunbar, and Henryson.

LAING, MALCOLM (1762-1818).--Was a country gentleman in Orkney. He
completed Henry's _History of Great Britain_, and wrote a _History of
Scotland from the Union of the Crowns to the Union of the Kingdoms_
(1802). He was an assailant of the authenticity of the Ossianic poems,
and wrote a dissertation on the Participation of Mary Queen of Scots in
the Murder of Darnley. He did much to improve the agriculture of Orkney.

LAMB, LADY CAROLINE (1785-1828).--Novelist, _dau._ of 3rd Earl of
Bessborough, _m._ the Hon. William Lamb, afterwards Lord Melbourne and
Prime Minister. She wrote three novels, which, though of little literary
value, attracted much attention. The first of these, _Glenarvon_ (1816),
contained a caricature portrait of Lord Byron, with whom the authoress
had shortly before been infatuated. It was followed by _Graham Hamilton_
(1822), and _Ada Reis_ (1823). Happening to meet the hearse conveying the
remains of Byron, she became unconscious, and fell into mental
alienation, from which she never recovered.

LAMB, CHARLES (1775-1834).--Essayist and poet, was _b._ in London, his
_f._ being confidential clerk to Samuel Salt, one of the benchers of the
Inner Temple. After being at a school in the neighbourhood, he was sent
by the influence of Mr. Salt to Christ's Hospital, where he remained from
1782-89, and where he formed a lifelong friendship with Coleridge. He was
then for a year or two in the South Sea House, where his elder brother
John was a clerk. Thence he was in 1792 transferred to the India House,
where he remained until 1825, when he retired with a pension of
two-thirds of his salary. Mr. Salt _d._ in 1792, and the family,
consisting of the _f._, mother, Charles, and his sister Mary, ten years
his senior, lived together in somewhat straitened circumstances. John,
comparatively well off, leaving them pretty much to their own resources.
In 1796 the tragedy of L.'s life occurred. His sister Mary, in a sudden
fit of insanity, killed her mother with a table-knife. Thenceforward,
giving up a marriage to which he was looking forward, he devoted himself
to the care of his unfortunate sister, who became, except when separated
from him by periods of aberration, his lifelong and affectionate
companion--the "Cousin Bridget" of his essays. His first literary
appearance was a contribution of four sonnets to Coleridge's _Poems on
Various Subjects_ (1796). Two years later he _pub._, along with his
friend Charles Lloyd, _Blank Verse_, the little vol. including _The Old
Familiar Faces_, and others of his best known poems, and his romance,
_Rosamund Gray_, followed in the same year. He then turned to the drama,
and produced _John Woodvil_, a tragedy, and _Mr. H._, a farce, both
failures, for although the first had some echo of the Elizabethan music,
it had no dramatic force. Meantime the brother and sister were leading a
life clouded by poverty and by the anxieties arising from the condition
of the latter, and they moved about from one lodging to another. L.'s
literary ventures so far had not yielded much either in money or fame,
but in 1807 he was asked by W. Godwin (_q.v._) to assist him in his
"Juvenile Library," and to this he, with the assistance of his sister,
contributed the now famous _Tales from Shakespeare_, Charles doing the
tragedies and Mary the comedies. In 1808 they wrote, again for children,
_The Adventures of Ulysses_, a version of the _Odyssey, Mrs. Leicester's
School_, and _Poetry for Children_ (1809). About the same time he was
commissioned by Longman to ed. selections from the Elizabethan
dramatists. To the selections were added criticisms, which at once
brought him the reputation of being one of the most subtle and
penetrating critics who had ever touched the subject. Three years later
his extraordinary power in this department was farther exhibited in a
series of papers on Hogarth and Shakespeare, which appeared in Hunt's
_Reflector_. In 1818 his scattered contributions in prose and verse were
_coll._ as _The Works of Charles Lamb_, and the favour with which they
were received led to his being asked to contribute to the _London
Magazine_ the essays on which his fame chiefly rests. The name "Elia"
under which they were written was that of a fellow-clerk in the India
House. They appeared from 1820-25. The first series was printed in 1823,
the second, _The Last Essays of Elia_, in 1833. In 1823 the L.'s had left
London and taken a cottage at Islington, and had practically adopted Emma
Isola, a young orphan, whose presence brightened their lives until her
marriage in 1833 to E. Moxon, the publisher. In 1825 L. retired, and
lived at Enfield and Edmonton. But his health was impaired, and his
sister's attacks of mental alienation were ever becoming more frequent
and of longer duration. During one of his walks he fell, slightly hurting
his face. The wound developed into erysipelas, and he _d._ on December
29, 1834. His sister survived until 1847.

The place of L. as an essayist and critic is the very highest. His only
rival in the former department is Addison, but in depth and tenderness of
feeling, and richness of fancy L. is the superior. In the realms of
criticism there can be no comparison between the two. L. is here at once
profound and subtle, and his work led as much as any other influence to
the revival of interest in and appreciation of our older poetry. His own
writings, which are self-revealing in a quite unusual and always charming
way, and the recollections of his friends, have made the personality of
Lamb more familiar to us than any other in our literature, except that of
Johnson. His weaknesses, his oddities, his charm, his humour, his
stutter, are all as familiar to his readers as if they had known him, and
the tragedy and noble self-sacrifice of his life add a feeling of
reverence for a character we already love.

Life and Letters and Final Memorials by Talfourd, also Memoir by B.W.
Proctor and A. Ainger prefixed to ed. of _Works_ (1883-88). Life, Works,
and Letters of Charles and Mary Lamb, in 9 vols., E.V. Lucas, and 12
vols. ed. W. Macdonald.

LANDON, LETITIA ELIZABETH (1802-1838).--Poetess, _dau._ of an army agent,
was _b._ in London. She was a prolific and, in her day, remarkably
popular writer, but she wrote far too easily and far too much for
permanent fame. Many of her poems appeared in the _Literary Gazette_, and
similar publications, but she _pub._ separately _The Fate of Adelaide_
(1821), _The Improvisatrice_ (1824), _The Troubadour_ (1825), _The
Venetian Bracelet_ (1829), etc. She also wrote a few novels, of which
_Ethel Churchill_ was the best, and a tragedy _Castruccio Castracani_
(1837). She _m._ a Mr. Maclean, Governor of one of the West African
Colonies, where, shortly after her arrival, she was found dead from the
effects of an overdose of poison, which it was supposed she had taken as
a relief from spasms to which she was subject. She was best known by her
initials, L.E.L., under which she was accustomed to write.

LANDOR, WALTER SAVAGE (1775-1864).--Poet and miscellaneous author, _s._
of a physician, was _b._ at Ipsley Court, Warwick, the property of his
mother, and _ed._ at Rugby and Oxf., where he earned the nickname of "the
mad Jacobin," and whence he was rusticated. His whole long life
thereafter was a series of quarrels, extravagances, and escapades of
various kinds, the result of his violent prejudices, love of paradox, and
ungovernable temper. He quarrelled with his _f._, his wife, most of his
relations, and nearly all his friends, ran through a large fortune, and
ended his days in Italy supported by a pension granted by his brothers.
Yet he was not devoid of strong affections and generosity. His earliest
publication was _Poems_ (1795); _Gebir_ (1798), an epic, had little
success, but won for him the friendship of Southey. In 1808 he went to
Spain to take part in the war against Napoleon, and saw some service. His
first work to attract attention was his powerful tragedy of _Don Julian_
(1811). About the same time he _m._ Miss Julia Thuillier--mainly, as
would appear, on account of her "wonderful golden hair"--and purchased
the estate of Llantony Abbey, Monmouthshire, whence, after various
quarrels with the local authorities, he went to France. After a residence
of a year there, he went in 1815 to Italy, where he lived until 1818 at
Como, which, having insulted the authorities in a Latin poem, he had to
leave. At Florence, which was his residence for some years, he commenced
his famous _Imaginary Conversations_, of which the first two vols.
appeared 1824, the third 1828, fourth and fifth 1829. Other works were
_The Examination of W. Shakespeare touching Deer-stealing_ (1834),
_Pericles and Aspasia_ (1836), _Pentameron_ (1837), _Hellenics_ (1847),
and _Poemata et Inscriptiones_ (1847). He quarrelled finally with his
wife in 1835, and returned to England, which, however, he had to leave in
1858 on account of an action for libel arising out of a book, _Dry Sticks
Fagoted_. He went to Italy, where he remained, chiefly at Florence, until
his death. L. holds one of the highest places among the writers of
English prose. His thoughts are striking and brilliant, and his style
rich and dignified.

_Works_ ed. C.G. Crump, 10 vols.

LANE, EDWARD WILLIAM (1801-1876).--Arabic scholar, _s._ of a prebendary
of Hereford, where he was _b._, began life as an engraver, but going to
Egypt in search of health, devoted himself to the study of Oriental
languages and manners, and adopted the dress and habits of the Egyptian
man of learning. He _pub._ _Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians_
(1836), which remains a standard authority, and a translation of _The
Thousand and One Nights_ (1838-40) (Arabian Nights). What was intended to
be the great work of his life, his _Arabic Lexicon_, was left unfinished
at his death, but was completed by his nephew, Prof. S.L. Poole. L. was
regarded as the chief European Orientalist of his day.

LANGHORNE, JOHN (1735-1779).--Poet, _s._ of a clergyman, was _b._ at
Kirkby Stephen; having taken orders, he was for two years a curate in
London, and from 1776 Rector of Blagdon, Somerset, and Prebendary of
Wells. He is chiefly remembered as being the translator, jointly with his
brother, Rev. William L., of _Plutarch's Lives_, but in his day he had
some reputation as a poet, his chief work in poetry being _Studley Park_
and _Fables of Flora_. In his _Country Justice_ (1774-77) he dimly
foreshadows Crabbe, as in his descriptive poems he dimly foreshadows
Wordsworth. He was twice married, and both of his wives _d._ in giving
birth to a first child.

LANGLAND, WILLIAM (OR WILLIAM of LANGLEY) (1330?-1400?).--Poet. Little
can be gleaned as to his personal history, and of that little part is
contradictory. In a note of the 15th century written on one MS. he is
said to have been _b._ in Oxfordshire, the _s._ of a freeman named Stacy
de Rokayle, while Bale, writing in the 16th century, makes his name
Robert (certainly an error), and says he was _b._ at Cleobury Mortimer
in Shropshire. From his great poem, _Piers the Plowman_, it is to be
gathered that he was bred to the Church, and was at one time an inmate of
the monastery at Great Malvern. He _m._, however, and had a _dau._,
which, of course, precluded him from going on to the priesthood. It has
further been inferred from his poem that his f., with the help of
friends, sent him to school, but that on the death of these friends the
process of education came to an end, and he went to London, living in a
little house in Cornhill and, as he says, not only _in_ but _on_ London,
supporting himself by singing _requiems_ for the dead. "The tools I
labour with ... [are] _Paternoster_, and my primer _Placebo_, and
_Dirige_, and my _Psalter_, and my seven Psalms." References to legal
terms suggest that he may have copied for lawyers. In later life he
appears to have lived in Cornwall with his wife and _dau._ Poor himself,
he was ever a sympathiser with the poor and oppressed. His poem appears
to have been the great interest of his life, and almost to the end he was
altering and adding to, without, however, improving it. The full title of
the poem is _The Vision of Piers Plowman_. Three distinct versions of it
exist, the first _c._ 1362, the second _c._ 1377, and the third 1393 or
1398. It has been described as "a vision of Christ seen through the
clouds of humanity." It is divided into nine dreams, and is in the
unrhymed, alliterative, first English manner. In the allegory appear such
personifications as Meed (worldly success), Falsehood, Repentance, Hope,
etc. Piers Plowman, first introduced as the type of the poor and simple,
becomes gradually transformed into the Christ. Further on appear Do-well,
Do-bet, Do-best. In this poem, and its additions, L. was able to express
all that he had to say of the abuses of the time, and their remedy. He
himself stands out as a sad, earnest, and clear-sighted onlooker in a
time of oppression and unrest. It is thought that he may have been the
author of a poem, _Richard the Redeless_: if so he was, at the time of
writing, living in Bristol, and making a last remonstrance to the
misguided King, news of whose death may have reached him while at the
work, as it stops in the middle of a paragraph. He is not much of an
artist, being intent rather on delivering his message than that it should
be in a perfect dress. Prof. Manley, in the _Cambridge History of English
Literature_, advances the theory that _The Vision_ is not the work of
one, but of several writers, W.L. being therefore a dramatic, not a
personal name. It is supported on such grounds as differences in metre,
diction, sentence structure, and the diversity of view on social and
ecclesiastic matters expressed in different parts of the poem.

LANIER, SIDNEY (1842-1881).--Miscellaneous writer, _s._ of a lawyer of
Huguenot descent, was _b._ at Macon, Georgia. He had a varied career,
having been successively soldier, shopman, teacher, lawyer, musician, and
prof. His first literary venture was a novel, _Tiger Lilies_ (1867).
Thereafter he wrote mainly on literature, his works including _The
Science of English Verse_ (1881), _The English Novel_ (1883), and
_Shakespeare and his Forerunners_ (1902); also some poems which have been
greatly admired, including "Corn," "The Marshes of Glynn," and "The Song
of the Chattahoochee"; ed. of Froissart, and the Welsh _Mabinogion_ for
children. He worked under the shadow of serious lung trouble, which
eventually brought about his death.

LARDNER, DIONYSIUS (1793-1859).--Scientific writer, _s._ of a solicitor
in Dublin, and _b._ there, was intended for the law, but having no taste
for it, he entered Trinity Coll., Dublin, and took orders, but devoted
himself to literary and scientific pursuits, and became a contributor to
the _Edinburgh Review_, and various Encyclopaedias. In 1827 he was
appointed Prof. of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy in the Univ. of
London (afterwards Univ. Coll.), and in 1829 began his great work, _The
Cabinet Cyclopaedia_, which was finished in 133 vols. 20 years later. In
his literary undertakings, which included various other schemes of
somewhat similar character, he was eminently successful, financially and
otherwise. He lived in Paris from 1845 until his death.

LATIMER, HUGH (1485-1555).--Reformer and divine, _s._ of a Leicestershire
yeoman, went to Camb. in 1500, and became Fellow of Clare Hall. Taking
orders, he was at first a defender of the ancient faith, but convinced by
the arguments of Bilney, embraced the reformed doctrines. He was called
to appear before Wolsey, but dismissed on subscribing certain articles.
His opposition to the Pope, and his support of the King's supremacy,
brought him under the notice of Henry, and he was appointed chaplain to
Anne Boleyn, and in 1535 Bishop of Worcester. For preaching in favour of
the reformed doctrines he was twice imprisoned in the Tower, 1539 and
1546, and on the former occasion resigned his bishopric, which he
declined to resume on the accession of Edward VI. On the accession of
Mary he was with Ridley, Bishop of London, thrown into prison (1554), and
on October 16, 1555, burned at Oxf. His words of encouragement to his
fellow-martyr are well known, "Be of good comfort, Master Ridley, and
play the man; we shall this day light such a candle by God's grace in
England as I trust shall never be put out." He holds his place in English
literature by virtue of his sermons--especially that on _The
Ploughers_--which, like himself, are outspoken, homely, and popular, with
frequent touches of kindly humour.

LAUDER, SIR THOMAS DICK (1784-1848).--Novelist and miscellaneous writer,
_s._ of a Scottish baronet, wrote two novels, _Lochandhu_ (1825), and
_The Wolf of Badenoch_ (1827), but is best known for his _Account of the
Great Floods in Morayshire in 1829_. He also wrote _Legendary Tales of
the Highlands_, and contributed to scientific journals and magazines.

LAW, WILLIAM (1686-1761).--Divine, _s._ of a grocer at Kingscliffe,
Northamptonshire, was _ed._ at Camb., and in 1727 became tutor to the
_f._ of Edward Gibbon, the historian. About 1728 he _pub._ his best known
book, _A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life_, a work which has had a
profound influence upon the religious life of England, largely owing to
the impression which it produced upon such minds as those of Dr. Johnson,
the Wesleys, and others. In 1737 he became a student of the works of
Jacob Boehmen, the German mystic, and devoted himself largely to the
exposition of his views. The theological position of L. was a
complicated one, combining High Churchism, mysticism, and Puritanism: his
writings are characterised by vigorous thought, keen logic, and a lucid
and brilliant style, relieved by flashes of bright, and often sarcastic,
humour. His work attacking Mandeville's _Fable of the Bees_ (1723) is
perhaps that in which these qualities are best displayed in combination.
He retired in 1740 to Kingscliffe, where he had founded a school for 14
girls.

LAWRENCE, GEORGE ALFRED (1827-1876).--Novelist, was a barrister. He wrote
several novels, of which one--_Guy Livingstone_ (1857)--had great
popularity. On the outbreak of the American Civil War he went to America
with the intention of joining the Confederate Army, but was taken
prisoner and only released on promising to return to England.

LAYAMON (_fl._ 1200).--Metrical historian, the _s._ of Leovenath. All
that is known of him is gathered from his own writings. He was a priest
at Ernley (now Areley Regis), Worcestershire. In his day the works of
Geoffrey of Monmouth and Wace, in French, were the favourite reading of
the educated, and "it came to him in mind" that he would tell the story
of _Brut_ in English verse. He set out in search of books and, founding
his poem on the earlier writers, he added so much from his own knowledge
of Welsh and West of England tradition that while Wace's poem consists of
15,000 lines, his extends to 32,000. Among the legends he gives are those
of _Locrine_, _Arthur_, and _Lear_. The poem is in the old English
unrhymed, alliterative verse, and "marks the revival of the English mind
and spirit."

LAYARD, SIR AUSTIN HENRY (1817-1894).--Explorer of Nineveh, _b._ at
Paris, _s._ of a Ceylon civilian. After spending some years in the office
of a London solicitor, he set out in search of employment in Ceylon, but
passing through Western Asia, became interested in the work of excavating
the remains of ancient cities. Many of his finds--human-headed bulls,
etc.--were sent to the British Museum. Two books--_Nineveh and its
Remains_ (1848-49), and _The Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon_
(1853)--brought him fame, and on his return home he received many
honours, including the freedom of the City of London, the degree of
D.C.L. from Oxf., and the Lord Rectorship of Aberdeen Univ. He entered
Parliament, where he sat as a Liberal. He held the offices of
Under-Foreign Sec. (1861-66), and Chief Commissioner of Works (1868-69),
and was Ambassador to Spain 1869, and Constantinople 1877; and on his
retirement in 1878 he was made G.C.B. He was a very successful excavator,
and described his work brilliantly, but he was no great linguist, and
most of the deciphering of the inscriptions was done by Sir H. Rawlinson.
His last work was _Early Adventures in Persia, etc._, and he left an
autobiography, _pub._ in 1903. He also wrote on Italian art.

LEAR, EDWARD (1812-1888).--Artist and miscellaneous author, _b._ in
London, and settled in Rome as a landscape painter. He was an
indefatigable traveller, and wrote accounts, finely illustrated, of his
journeys in Italy, Greece, and Corsica. His best known works are,
however, his _Book of Nonsense_ (1840) (full of wit and _good_ sense),
_More Nonsense Rhymes_ (1871), and _Laughable Lyrics_ (1876). L. had also
a remarkable faculty for depicting birds.

LECKY, WILLIAM EDWARD HARTPOLE (1838-1903).--Historian, the _s._ of a
landed gentleman of Carlow, was _b._ near Dublin, and _ed._ at Cheltenham
and Trinity Coll., Dublin. Originally intended for the Church, he devoted
himself to a literary career. His first work of importance was _Leaders
of Public Opinion in Ireland_ (1861) (essays on Swift, Flood, Grattan,
and O'Connell). The study of Buckle's _History of Civilisation_ to some
extent determined the direction of his own writings, and resulted in the
production of two important works, _History of the Rise and Influence of
the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe_ (1865), and _History of European
Morals from Augustus to Charlemagne_ (1869), both remarkable for
learning, clearness, and impartiality. Both, however, gave rise to
considerable controversy and criticism. His principal work is _The
History of England in the Eighteenth Century_ (1878-90). Characterised by
the same sterling qualities as his preceding books, it deals with a
subject more generally interesting, and has had a wide acceptance. His
view of the American war, and the controversies which led to it, is more
favourable to the English position than that of some earlier historians.
Other works are _Democracy and Liberty_ (1896), and _The Map of Life_
(1899). Though of warm Irish sympathies, L. was strongly opposed to Home
Rule. He sat in Parliament for his Univ. from 1895 until his death. He
received many academical distinctions, and was a Corresponding Member of
the Institute of France, and one of the original members of the Order of
Merit.

LEE, NATHANIEL (1653?-1692).--Dramatist, _s._ of a clergyman at Hatfield,
was _ed._ at Westminster School and Camb. After leaving the Univ. he went
to London, and joined the stage both as actor and author. He was taken up
by Rochester and others of the same dissolute set, led a loose life, and
drank himself into Bedlam, where he spent four years. After his recovery
he lived mainly upon charity, and met his death from a fall under the
effects of a carouse. His tragedies, which, with much bombast and
frequent untrained flights of imagination, have occasional fire and
tenderness, are generally based on classical subjects. The principal are
_The Rival Queens_, _Theodosius_, and _Mithridates_. He also wrote a few
comedies, and collaborated with Dryden in an adaptation of _Oedipus_, and
in _The Duke of Guise_.

LEE, SOPHIA (1750-1824), LEE, HARRIET (1757-1851).--Novelists and
dramatists, _dau._ of John L., an actor, were the authors of various
dramatic pieces and novels. By far their most memorable work was _The
Canterbury Tales_, 5 vols. (1797-1805) which, with the exception of two,
_The Young Lady's_ and _The Clergyman's_, were all by Harriet. The most
powerful of them, _Kruitzner_, fell into the hands of Byron in his
boyhood, and made so profound an impression upon him that, in 1821, he
dramatised it under the title of _Werner, or the Inheritance_. The
authoress also adapted it for the stage as _The Three Strangers_. The
tales are in general remarkable for the ingenuity of their plots. Harriet
lived to the age of 94, preserving to the last her vigour of mind and
powers of conversation. Godwin made her an offer of marriage to which,
however, his religious opinions presented an insuperable barrier.
Sophia's chief work was _The Chapter of Accidents_, a comedy, which had a
great run, the profits of which enabled the sisters to start a school at
Bath, which proved very successful, and produced for them a competence on
which they were able to retire in their later years.

LE FANU, JOSEPH SHERIDAN (1814-1873).--Novelist, _s._ of a Dean of the
Episcopal Church of Ireland, and grand-nephew of Richard Brinsley
Sheridan, was _ed._ at Trinity Coll., Dublin, and became a contributor
and ultimately proprietor of the _Dublin University Magazine_, in which
many of his novels made their first appearance. Called to the Bar in
1839, he did not practise, and was first brought into notice by two
ballads, _Phaudrig Croohoore_ and _Shamus O'Brien_, which had
extraordinary popularity. His novels, of which he wrote 12, include _The
Cock and Anchor_ (1845), _Torlough O'Brien_ (1847), _The House by the
Churchyard_ (1863), _Uncle Silas_ (perhaps the most popular) (1864), _The
Tenants of Malory_ (1867), _In a Glass Darkly_ (1872), and _Willing to
Die_ (posthumously). They are generally distinguished by able
construction, ingenuity of plot, and power in the presentation of the
mysterious and supernatural. Among Irish novelists he is generally ranked
next to Lever.

LEIGHTON, ROBERT (1611-1684).--Divine, was the _s._ of Alexander L.,
physician, and writer on theology, who, on account of his anti-prelatic
books, was put in the pillory, fined, and had his nose slit and his ears
cut off. Robert was _ed._ at Edin., after which he resided for some time
at Douay. Returning to Scotland he received Presbyterian ordination, and
was admitted minister of Newbattle, near Edin. In 1653 he was appointed
Principal and Prof. of Divinity in the Univ. of Edin., which offices he
held until 1662 when, having separated himself from Presbyterianism, he
was appointed Bishop of Dunblane, under the new Episcopal establishment.
He repeatedly but unsuccessfully endeavoured to bring about an
ecclesiastical union in Scotland on the basis of combining the best
elements in each system. Discouraged by his lack of success in his
well-meant efforts, he offered in 1665 to resign his see, but was
persuaded by Charles II. to remain in it, and in 1669 was promoted to be
Archbishop of Glasgow, from which position, wearied and disappointed, he
finally retired in 1674, and lived with his widowed sister, Mrs.
Lightmaker, at Broadhurst Manor, Sussex. On a visit to London he was
seized with a fatal illness, and _d._ in the arms of his friend, Bishop
Burnet, who says of him, "he had the greatest elevation of soul, the
largest compass of knowledge, the most mortified and heavenly disposition
that I ever saw in mortal." His sermons and commentaries, all _pub._
posthumously, maintain a high place among English religious classics,
alike for thought and style. They consist of his _Commentary on St.
Peter_, _Sermons_, and _Spiritual Exercises, Letters, etc._ His _Lectures
and Addresses_ in Latin were also _pub._

LELAND, CHARLES GODFREY (1824-1903).--American humorist, _b._ at
Philadelphia, was _ed._ at Princeton, and in Europe. In his travels he
made a study of the gipsies, on whom he wrote more than one book. His
fame rests chiefly on his _Hans Breitmann Ballads_ (1871), written in the
_patois_ known as Pennsylvania Dutch. Other books of his are _Meister
Karl's Sketch-book_ (1855), _Legends of Birds_ (1864), _Algonquin
Legends_ (1884), _Legends of Florence_ (1895), and _Flaxius, or Leaves
from the Life of an Immortal_.

LELAND or LEYLAND, JOHN (1506-1552).--Antiquary, _b._ in London, and
_ed._ at St. Paul's School and at Camb., Oxf., and Paris. He was a good
linguist, and one of the first Englishmen to acquire Greek, and he was
likewise acquainted with French, Italian, Spanish, Welsh, and
Anglo-Saxon. He became chaplain and librarian to Henry VIII., from whom
he received the Rectory of Poppeling, near Calais, and in 1533 the
appointment of King's Antiquary. Soon afterwards he was permitted to do
his work in France by deputy, and was commissioned to go over England in
search of documents and antiquities; and on the strength of this made his
famous tour, which lasted for about six years. He was able to do
something to stem the destruction of manuscripts on the dissolution of
the monasteries, and made vast collections of documents and information
regarding the monuments and general features of the country, which,
however, he was unable fully to digest and set in order. They formed,
nevertheless, an almost inexhaustible quarry in which succeeding workers
in the same field, such as Stow, Camden, and Dugdale, wrought. In his
last years he was insane, and hence none of his collections appeared in
his lifetime. His _Itinerary_ was, however, at length _pub._ by T. Hearne
in 9 vols. (1710-12), and his _Collectanea_ in 6 vols. (1715).

LEMON, MARK (1809-1870).--Journalist and humorist, _b._ in London, wrote
many theatrical pieces, and a few novels, of which the best is _Falkner
Lyle_, others being _Leyton Hall_, and _Loved at Last_. He also wrote
stories for children, lectured and gave public readings, and contributed
to various periodicals. He is best known as one of the founders and, from
1843 until his death, the ed. of _Punch_. His _Jest Book_ appeared in
1864.

LENNOX, CHARLOTTE (RAMSAY) (1720-1804).--Was _b._ in New York, of which
her _f._, Colonel Ramsay, was Governor. She wrote a novel, _The Female
Quixote_ (1752), which had considerable vogue in its day. Her other
writings--novels, translations, and a play--are now forgotten. She was
befriended by Dr. Johnson. Mrs. Thrale (_q.v._) said that "everybody
admired Mrs. L., but nobody liked her."

LESLIE, or LESLEY, JOHN (1527-1596).--Historian, studied at Aberdeen and
Paris, at the former of which he became, in 1562, Prof. of Canon Law. He
was a Privy Councillor 1565, and Bishop of Ross 1566, and was the
confidential friend of Queen Mary, who made him her ambassador to Queen
Elizabeth. He was thrown into the Tower for his share in promoting a
marriage between Mary and the Duke of Norfolk, whence being released on
condition of leaving England, he went first to Paris and then to Rome,
where he busied himself on behalf of his mistress. He became
Vicar-General of the diocese of Rouen in 1579, and _d._ at the monastery
of Guirtenburg near Brussels. While in England he wrote in Scots
vernacular his _History of Scotland_ from the death of James I. (where
Boece left off) to his own time. At Rouen he rewrote and expanded it in
Latin (1575), from which it was re-translated into Scots by James
Dalrymple in 1596.

L'ESTRANGE, SIR ROGER (1616-1704).--Journalist and pamphleteer, youngest
_s._ of a Norfolk baronet, was probably at Camb., and in 1638 took arms
for the King. Six years later he was captured, imprisoned in Newgate, and
condemned to death. He, however, escaped, endeavoured to make a rising in
Kent, and had to flee to Holland, where he was employed in the service of
Charles II. On receiving a pardon from Cromwell he returned to England in
1653. In view of the Restoration he was active in writing on behalf of
monarchy, and in 1663 _pub._ _Considerations and Proposals in order to
Regulating of the Press_, for which he was appointed Surveyor of
Printing-Presses and Licenser of the Press, and received a grant of the
sole privilege of printing public news. His first newspaper, _The
Intelligencer_, appeared in the same year, and was followed by _The News_
and the _City Mercury, or Advertisements concerning Trade_. Thereafter
his life was spent in ed. newspapers and writing political pamphlets in
support of the Court and against the Whigs and Dissenters. In 1685 he was
knighted. His controversies repeatedly got him into trouble, and after
the Revolution he lost his appointments, and was more than once
imprisoned. In addition to his political writings he translated _AEsop's
Fables_, Seneca's _Morals_, and Cicero's _Offices_. His _AEsop_ contains
much from other authors, including himself. In his writings he was lively
and vigorous but coarse and abusive.

LEVER, CHARLES JAMES (1806-1872).--Novelist, _b._ at Dublin, and _ed._ at
Trinity Coll. there. He studied medicine at Goettingen, and practised at
various places in Ireland. In 1837 he contributed to the _Dublin
University Magazine_ his first novel, _Harry Lorrequer_, and the
immediate and wide acceptance which it found decided him to devote
himself to literature. He accordingly followed it with _Charles O'Malley_
(1840), his most popular book. After this scarcely a year passed without
an addition to the list of his light-hearted, breezy, rollicking stories,
among which may be mentioned _Jack Hinton_ (1842), _Tom Burke of Ours_,
_Arthur O'Leary_, and _The Dodd Family Abroad_. _The O'Donoghue_ and _The
Knight of Gwynne_ (1847) are more in the nature of historical romances.
In 1864 he contributed to _Blackwood's Magazine_ a series of
miscellaneous papers, _Cornelius O'Dowd on Men, Women, and Things in
General_. L.'s life was largely spent abroad. After practising his
profession in Brussels 1840-42 he returned to Dublin to ed. the _Dublin
University Magazine_, which he did until 1845, after which he went to
Italy, settled at Florence, and thereafter was British Consul
successively at Spezzia and Trieste, at the latter of which he _d._ He
continued to produce novels up to the end of his life. Among the later
ones are _Sir Brooke Fosbrooke_, _The Bramleighs of Bishop's Folly_, and
_Lord Kilgobbin_ (1872).

LEWES, GEORGE HENRY (1817-1878).--Philosopher and miscellaneous writer,
_b._ in London, and _ed._ at Greenwich, and in Jersey and Brittany. His
early life was varied; he tried law, commerce, and medicine successively,
and was then for two years in Germany, on returning from which he tried
the London stage, and eventually settled down to journalism, writing for
the _Morning Chronicle_, for the _Penny Encyclopaedia_, and various
periodicals. Thereafter he ed. the _Leader_ (1851-54), and the
_Fortnightly Review_ (which he founded) (1865-66). His articles deal with
an extraordinary variety of subjects--criticism, the drama, biography,
and science, both physical and mental. His chief works are _The History
of Philosophy from Thales to Comte_, _Comte's Philosophy of the Sciences_
(1853), _The Psychology of Common Life_ (1859), _Studies in Animal Life_
(1862), _Problems of Life and Mind_ (1873-79). L. was an exceptionally
able dramatic critic, and in this department he produced _Actors and the
Art of Acting_ (1875), and a book on the Spanish Drama. By far his
greatest work, however, is his _Life and Works of Goethe_ (1855), which
remains the standard English work on the subject, and which by the end of
the century had, in its German translation, passed into 16 ed. He also
wrote two novels, _Ranthorpe_ (1847), and _Rose, Blanche, and Violet_
(1848), neither of which attained any success. In his writings he is
frequently brilliant and original; but his education and training,
whether in philosophy or biology, were not sufficiently thorough to give
him a place as a master in either. L.'s life was in its latter section
influenced by his irregular connection with Miss Evans ("George Eliot"),
with whom he lived for the last 24 years of it, in close intellectual
sympathy. To his appreciation and encouragement were largely due her
taking up prose fiction.

LEWIS, SIR GEORGE CORNEWALL (1806-1863).--Scholar and statesman, _s._ of
Sir Thomas F.L., a Radnorshire baronet, was _ed._ at Eton and Oxf. He
studied law, was called to the Bar in 1831, and entered Parliament in
1847, where his intellect and character soon gained him great influence.
After serving on various important commissions and holding minor offices,
he became Chancellor of the Exchequer 1855-58, Home Sec. 1859-61, and War
Sec. 1861-63. His official labours did not prevent his entering into
profound and laborious studies, chiefly in regard to Roman history, and
the state of knowledge among the ancients. In his _Inquiry into the
Credibility of Ancient Roman History_ (1855), he combated the methods and
results of Niebuhr. Other works are _On the Use and Abuse of Political
Terms_, _Authority in Matters of Opinion_, _The Astronomy of the
Ancients_, and a _Dialogue on the best Form of Government_. The somewhat
sceptical turn of his mind led him to sift evidence minutely, and the
labour involved in his wide range of severe study and his public duties
no doubt shortened his valuable life.

LEWIS, MATTHEW GREGORY (1775-1818).--Novelist, _s._ of Matthew L., Deputy
Sec. in the War Office, was _ed._ at Westminster and Oxf. Thereafter he
went to Germany. From his childhood tales of witchcraft and the
supernatural had a powerful fascination for him, and in Germany he had
ample opportunities for pursuing his favourite study, with the result
that at the age of 20 he became the author of _The Monk_, a tale in which
the supernatural and the horrible predominate to an unprecedented
extent, and from which he is known as "Monk L." The same characteristic
appears in all his works, among which may be mentioned _Tales of Terror_
(1779), _Tales of Wonder_ (to which Sir W. Scott contributed), and
_Romantic Tales_ (1808). Though affected and extravagant in his manners,
L. was not wanting in kindly and generous feelings, and in fact an
illness contracted on a voyage to the West Indies to inquire into and
remedy some grievances of the slaves on his estates there was the cause
of his death.

LEYDEN, JOHN (1775-1811).--Poet and Orientalist, _b._ at Denholm,
Roxburghshire, gave early evidence of superior ability, and his _f._, who
was a shepherd, destined him for the Church. He accordingly entered the
Univ. of Edin., where he had a brilliant career, showing a special
aptitude for languages and natural history. In 1800 he became a
licentiate of the Church, but continued his scientific and linguistic
studies, and also began to write. In 1799 he had _pub._ a sketch of the
_Discoveries and Settlements of the Europeans in Northern and Western
Africa_, and he contributed to Scott's _Minstrelsy of the Scottish
Border_, and to "Monk" Lewis's _Tales of Wonder_. His enthusiasm for
Oriental learning led to application being made on his behalf to
Government for some situation which would make his acquirements available
for the public service, but the only opening which could be obtained was
that of a ship's surgeon. By extraordinary exertions L. qualified himself
for this in a few months, and set sail for the East, after finishing his
poem, _Scenes of Infancy_. Soon after his arrival at Madras his health
gave way, and after some time passed in Prince of Wales Island he visited
the Malay Peninsula, and some of the East Indian Islands, collecting vast
stores of linguistic and ethnographical information, on which was founded
his great _Dissertation on the Indo-Persian, Indo-Chinese, and Dekkan
Languages_ (1807). Soon after this L. was appointed a prof. in the Bengal
Coll., and a little later a judge in Calcutta. In 1811 he accompanied the
Governor-General, Lord Minto, to Java. His health, however, had been
undermined by his almost super-human exertions, and immediately after
landing he contracted a fever, of which he _d._ in three days at the
early age of 36. Two Oriental works translated by him, _Sejarah Malayu_
(Malay Annals) and _Commentaries of Baber_ were _pub._ respectively in
1821 and 1826.

LIDDELL, HENRY GEORGE (1811-1898).--Historian, etc. _Ed._ at Charterhouse
and Christ Church, Oxf., of which in 1855 he became Dean. He wrote a
_History of Ancient Rome_ (1855), and, along with R. Scott, _pub._ a
_Greek-English Lexicon_ (1843).

LIDDON, HENRY PARRY (1829-1890).--Divine, _s._ of a captain in the navy,
was _b._ at North Stoneham, Hants, and _ed._ at King's Coll. School,
London, and Oxf. He took orders 1853, was Vice-Principal of Cuddesdon
Theological Coll. 1854-59, Prebendary of Salisbury 1864, and Canon of St.
Paul's 1870. He was also Ireland Prof. of Exegesis at Oxf. 1870-82. In
1866 he delivered his Bampton Lectures on _The Divinity of Our Lord_, and
came to be recognised as one of the ablest and most eloquent
representatives of the High Church party. His sermons in St. Paul's were
among the leading features of the religious life of London. L. was an
ardent protagonist in the various controversies of his time bearing upon
ecclesiastical and moral questions.

LIGHTFOOT, JOSEPH BARBER (1828-1889).--Theologian and scholar, _b._ at
Liverpool, and _ed._ at King Edward's School, Birmingham, and Camb.,
entered the Church, and was successively Hulsean Prof. of Divinity 1861,
Chaplain to Queen Victoria 1862, member of the New Testament Company of
Revisers 1870-80, Margaret Prof. of Divinity, Camb., 1875, and Bishop of
Durham 1879. He was probably the greatest scholar of his day in England,
especially as a grammarian and textual critic. Among his works are
_Commentaries_ on several of the minor Pauline epistles, a fragmentary
work on the Apostolic Fathers, _Leaders in the Northern Church_ (1890),
and _The Apostolic Age_ (1892).

LILLO, GEORGE (1693-1739).--Dramatist, of Dutch descent, was _b._ in
London, succeeded his _f._ in business as a jeweller, in which he had
good speed, and devoted his leisure to the composition of plays in the
line of what was known as the "domestic drama." He wrote in all seven of
these, among which are _The London Merchant, or the History of George
Barnewell_, acted 1731, _The Christian Hero_ (1735), and _Fatal
Curiosity_ (1736). He was a friend of Fielding, who said of him that "he
had the spirit of an old Roman joined to the innocence of a primitive
Christian."

LINDSAY, or LYNDSAY, SIR DAVID (1490-1555).--Scottish poet and satirist,
_s._ of David L. of Garmylton, near Haddington, was _b._ either there or
at The Mount in Fife, and _ed._ at St. Andrews. Early in life he was at
the Court of James IV., and on the King's death was appointed to attend
on the infant James V., whose friend and counsellor he remained, though
his advice was, unhappily for his country, not always given heed to. In
1529 he was knighted and made Lyon King at Arms. He was employed on
various missions to the Emperor Charles V., and to Denmark, France, and
England. He was always in sympathy with the people as against the nobles
and the clergy, and was their poet, with his words in their mouths. He
favoured the Reformers, and was one of those who urged Knox to become a
preacher. He did not, however, adhere to the reformed congregation, and
_d._ at least nominally in the Roman Church. Yet he lashed the vices of
the clergy as they had never been lashed before, and only escaped their
vengeance by the protection of the King, who also condoned the severities
directed against himself. His latter days were spent at The Mount, where
he _d._ His chief writings are _The Dreme_, written 1528, _The Complaynt
to the King_ (1529), _The Testament and Complaynt of our Soverane Lord's
Papyngo_ (Parrot) (1530), _Ane Pleasant Satyre of the Three Estaitis_, _A
Dialogue betwixt Experience and a Courtier_ (1552), _The Monarchy_
(1554), and _The History of Squyer Meldrum_. L. was a true poet, gifted
with fancy, humour, and a powerful satiric touch and a love of truth and
justice. He had a strong influence in turning the minds of the common
people in favour of the Reformation.

_Works_ ed. by Chalmers (3 vols., 1806), and D. Laing (3 vols., 1879).

LINDSAY, or LINDESAY, ROBERT (1500?-1565?).--Historian, Laird or tenant
of Pitscottie, Fife, wrote a history entitled _The Chronicles of
Scotland_, intended as a continuation of that of Boece. It deals with the
period 1436-1515, and though often inaccurate in detail, is often vivid
and quaint.

LINGARD, JOHN (1771-1851).--Historian, _b._ at Winchester of humble Roman
Catholic parentage, was in 1782 sent to the English Coll. at Douay,
whence he escaped from the revolutionaries in 1793, and returning to
England, went to Crookhall Coll., near Durham, and afterwards to Ushaw.
Ordained a priest in 1795, he became Vice-Pres. and Prof. of Philosophy
at the latter coll. In 1806 he _pub._ _The Antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon
Church_, and while a missioner at Hornby, Lancashire, began his _History
of England to the Accession of William and Mary_ (8 vols., 1819-30). In
the preparation of this work L. had access to material hitherto _unpub._,
and not available for Protestant historians, such as documents in the
Vatican and other Roman Catholic sources, and was consequently able to
throw new light on various parts of his subject. The work was attacked by
various writers from the Protestant standpoint. L. replied to his critics
with the result that it is now generally admitted that the history, while
in parts coloured by the theological and political point of view of the
author, is generally an impartial and valuable work, and it remains a
leading authority on the Reformation period viewed from the side of the
enlightened Roman Catholic priesthood. This opinion is supported by the
fact that the Ultramontane party among the Roman Catholics regarded the
book as a dangerous one in respect of the interests of their Church.

LINTON, MRS. ELIZA LYNN (1822-1898).--Novelist and miscellaneous writer,
_dau._ of a clergyman, settled in London in 1845, and next year produced
her first novel, _Azeth, the Egyptian; Amymone_ (1848), and _Realities_
(1851), followed. None of these had any great success, and she then
joined the staff of the _Morning Chronicle_, and _All the Year Round_. In
1858 she _m._ W.J. Linton, an eminent wood-engraver, who was also a poet
of some note, a writer upon his craft, and a Republican. In 1867 they
separated in a friendly way, the husband going to America, and the wife
devoting herself to novel-writing, in which she attained wide popularity.
Her most successful works were _The True History of Joshua Davidson_
(1872), _Patricia Kemball_ (1874), and _Christopher Kirkland_. She was a
severe critic of the "new woman."

LISTER, THOMAS HENRY (1800-1842).--Novelist, _ed._ at Westminster and
Camb., was latterly the first Registrar-General for England and Wales. He
wrote several novels, among which are _Granby_ (1826), _Herbert Lacy_
(1828), _Arlington_ (1832). He was also the author of a Life of
Clarendon.

LITHGOW, WILLIAM (1582-1645).--Traveller, _b._ at Lanark, claimed at the
end of his various peregrinations to have tramped 36,000 miles on foot.
Previous to 1610 he had visited Shetland, Switzerland, and Bohemia. In
that year he set out for Palestine and Egypt. His next journey, 1614-16,
was in Tunis and Fez; but his last, 1619-21, to Spain, ended
unfortunately in his apprehension at Malaga and torture as a spy. He
gave an account of his travels in _Rare Adventures and Paineful
Peregrinations_, and wrote _The Siege of Breda_, _The Siege of
Newcastle_, and _Poems_.

LIVINGSTONE, DAVID (1813-1873).--Missionary explorer, _b._ at Blantyre,
Lanarkshire, spent the years between 10 and 24 as an operative in a
cotton mill there. Becoming interested in foreign missions he qualified
himself, and entering the service of the London Missionary Society, set
out in 1846 to South Africa. He subsequently made journeys into the
interior, which ultimately developed into his great pioneering and
exploration expeditions, in which he discovered Lake Ngami 1849, and the
river Zambesi 1851. In 1856 he visited England, _pub._ his _Missionary
Travels_ (1857), and retired from the service of the London Missionary
Society. He was Consul at Quilimane 1858-64, and in 1858 commanded an
expedition for exploring Eastern and Central Africa, in the course of
which he discovered Lakes Shirwa and Nyassa 1859. Again visiting England
he _pub._ his second book, _The Zambesi and its Tributaries_ (1865).
Returning to Africa he organised an expedition to the Nile basin,
discovered Lake Bangweolo, explored the cannibal country, enduring
terrible sufferings and dangers, from which he was rescued just in time
by H.M. Stanley. His last journey was to discover the sources of the
Nile, but it proved fatal, as he _d._ at a village in Ilala. His remains
were brought home and buried in Westminster Abbey. L. was a man of
indomitable courage, and of a simple nobility of character. His writings
are plain, unadorned statements of his work and experiences. He ranks
among the greatest explorers and philanthropists. The diary which he kept
was _pub._ as _Last Journals of David Livingstone in Central Africa_
(1874). His view of his duty in the circumstances in which he found
himself was to be a pioneer opening up new ground, and leaving native
agents to work it up.

LLOYD, ROBERT (1733-1764).--Poet, _ed._ at Westminster and Camb., _pub._
_The Actor_ (1760), a poem which had considerable popularity, some
miscellaneous verses, and a comic opera, _The Conscious Lovers_ (1764).
He was a friend of Churchill, who showed him much kindness in his
frequent misfortunes; and on hearing of C.'s death he took to bed, and
soon _d._, apparently of a broken heart.

LOCKE, DAVID Ross (PETROLEUM V. NASBY) (1833-1888).--Humorist, _b._ in
New York State. His political satires really influenced opinion during
the war. He was a printer and then a journalist, and his writings include
_Swingin' round the Cirkle_, _Struggles of P.V. Nasby_, _Nasby in Exile_,
and two novels, _A Paper City_ and _The Demagogue_.

LOCKE, JOHN (1632-1704).--Philosopher, _s._ of a landsteward, was _b._ at
Wrington, near Bristol, and _ed._ at Westminster School and Oxf. In 1660
he became lecturer on Greek, in 1662 on Rhetoric, and in 1664 he went as
sec. to an Embassy to Brandenburg. While a student he had turned from the
subtleties of Aristotle and the schoolmen, had studied Descartes and
Bacon, and becoming attracted to experimental science, studied medicine,
and practised a little in Oxf. At the same time his mind had been much
exercised by questions of morals and government, and in 1667 he wrote
his _Essay on Toleration_. In the same year he became known to Lord
Ashley (afterwards 1st Earl of Shaftesbury), in whose house he went to
reside. Here he made the acquaintance of Buckingham, Halifax, and other
leading men of the time, and was entrusted by Ashley with the education
of his _s._, and afterwards of his grandson, the famous 3rd Earl of
Shaftesbury (_q.v._). He was also employed by him to draw up a
constitution for the new colony of Carolina, the provisions of which in
regard to religion were regarded as too liberal and were, at the instance
of the Established Church, departed from. In 1672 when Ashley became
Chancellor he bestowed upon L. the office of Sec. of Presentations, and
afterwards a post at the Board of Trade. In 1675 L. graduated M.B., and
in the same year went for the benefit of his health, which had always
been delicate, to Montpelier, where there was then a celebrated medical
school, and subsequently to Paris, where he became acquainted with most
of the eminent Frenchmen of the day. Recalled by Shaftesbury in 1679 he
returned to England but, his patron having in 1682 been obliged to take
refuge in Holland from a prosecution for high treason, he followed him
there. In consequence of this he became obnoxious to the Government, and
was in 1684 deprived of his studentship at Christ Church. Shaftesbury
having _d._ in Holland, L. remained there until the Revolution, when he
returned to England in the fleet which carried the Princess of Orange. He
was now in favour with Government, and had the offer of diplomatic
employment which, on account of his health, he declined, but was
appointed a Commissioner of Appeals. In 1698 he was an adviser of the
Government on the question of the coinage, and was made a member of the
newly instituted Council on Trade, which position he resigned in 1700.
During his last years he lived with Sir Francis and Lady Masham at Gates
in Essex, where Lady M., who was a _dau._ of Ralph Cudworth (_q.v._), and
an old friend, assiduously tended his last years. The services of L. to
his country in civil and religious matters were various and great; but it
is upon his philosophical writings, and chiefly on his _Essay on the
Human Understanding_ (1690) that his fame rests. It is divided into four
books, of which the first treats of innate ideas (the existence of which
he denies), the second traces the origin of ideas, the third deals with
language, and the fourth lays down the limits of the understanding. Other
works of his are _Thoughts concerning Education_ (1693), _On the Conduct
of the Understanding_ (_pub._ posthumously), _The Reasonableness of
Christianity_ (1695), _Treatise on Government_, and _Letters on
Toleration_. If not a very profound or original philosopher L. was a
calm, sensible, and reasonable writer, and his books were very
influential on the English thought of his day, as well as on the French
philosophy of the next century. His style is plain and clear, but lacking
in brightness and variety.

_Lives_ by Lord King (1829), and Bourne (1876). _Works_ ed. by Prof. A.C.
Fraser (1894). _See_ also T.H. Green's Introduction to Hume (1874).

LOCKER-LAMPSON, FREDERICK (1821-1895).--Poet, _s._ of the sec. of
Greenwich Hospital, held appointments in Somerset House and the
Admiralty. He wrote a number of clever _vers de societe_, which were
_coll._ as _London Lyrics_ (1857). He also compiled _Lyra Elegantiarum_,
an anthology of similar verse by former authors, and _Patchwork_, a book
of extracts, and wrote an autobiography, _My Confidences_ (1896).

LOCKHART, JOHN GIBSON (1794-1854).--Novelist and biographer, _s._ of a
minister of the Church of Scotland of good family, was _b._ at
Cambusnethan, Lanarkshire, and _ed._ at Glasgow and Oxf. He studied law
at Edin., and was called to the Scottish Bar in 1816, but had little
taste for the profession. Having, however, already tried literature (he
had translated Schlegel's _Lectures on the History of Literature_), he
devoted himself more and more to a literary life. He joined John Wilson,
and became one of the leading contributors to _Blackwood's Magazine_.
After bringing out _Peter's Letters to his Kinsfolk_ (1819), sketches
mainly of Edinburgh society, he produced four novels, _Valerius_ (1821),
_Adam Blair_ (1822), _Reginald Dalton_ (1824), and _Matthew Wald_ (1824).
His _Life of Burns_ appeared in 1828. He was ed. of the _Quarterly
Review_ 1824-53. In 1820 he had _m._ Sophia, _dau._ of Sir Walter Scott,
which led to a close friendship with the latter, and to his writing his
famous _Life of Scott_, undoubtedly one of the greatest biographies in
the language. His later years were overshadowed with deep depression
caused by the death of his wife and children. A singularly reserved and
cold manner led to his being regarded with dislike by many, but his
intimate friends were warmly attached to him.

LODGE, THOMAS (1558?-1625).--Poet and dramatist, _s._ of Sir Thomas L.,
Lord Mayor of London, was _ed._ at Merchant Taylor's School and Oxf. He
was a student of Lincoln's Inn, but abandoned law for literature,
ultimately studied medicine, and took M.D. at Oxf. 1603; having become a
Roman Catholic, he had a large practice, chiefly among his
co-religionists. In 1580 he _pub._ _A Defence of Plays_ in reply to
Gosson's _School of Abuse_; and he wrote poems, dramas, and romances. His
principal dramatic works are _The Wounds of Civil War_, and (in
conjunction with Greene, _q.v._) _A Looking-glass for London and England_.
Among his romances may be mentioned _Euphues' Shadow_, _Forbonius
and Prisceria_ (1584), and _Rosalynde, Euphues' Golden Legacie_ (1590).
His poems include _Glaucus and Scilia_ (1589), _Phillis honoured with
Pastoral Sonnets, Elegies, and Amorous Delights_ (1593). _Rosalynde_, his
best known work, and the source from which Shakespeare is said to have
drawn _As you like It_, was written to beguile the tedium of a voyage to
the Canaries. _Robin the Divell_ and _William Longbeard_ are historical
romances. L. was also a voluminous translator. He was one of the founders
of the regular English drama, but his own plays are heavy and tedious.
His romances, popular in their day, are sentimental and over-refined in
language, but are enlivened by lyrical pieces in which he is far more
successful than in his dramatic work.

LOGAN, JOHN (1748-1788).--Poet, _s._ of a small farmer at Soutra,
Midlothian, was destined for the ministry of a small Dissenting sect to
which his _f._ belonged, but attached himself to the Church of Scotland,
and became minister of South Leith in 1773. He read lectures on the
philosophy of history in Edin., and was the author of a vol. of poems.
He also ed. those of his friend, Michael Bruce (_q.v._), in such a way,
however, as to lead to a controversy, still unsettled, as to the
authorship of certain of the pieces inserted. L., in fact, suppressed
some of Bruce's poems and introduced others of his own. Unfortunately for
the reputation of both poets the disputed authorship extends to the gem
of the collection, the exquisite _Ode to the Cuckoo_, beginning "Hail,
beauteous stranger of the grove," which Burke considered the most
beautiful lyric in the language. L. fell into dissipated habits, resigned
his ministerial charge, and went to London, where he took an active part
in the controversy regarding the impeachment of Warren Hastings.

LONG, GEORGE (1800-1879).--Classical scholar, _ed._ at Camb. He was Prof.
of Ancient Languages in the Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, 1824-28,
of Greek at University Coll., London, 1828-31, and of Latin there,
1842-46. He did much for the diffusion of education, was one of the
founders and sec. of the Royal Geographical Society, and ed. of the
_Penny Cyclopaedia_. He translated Marcus Aurelius (1862), and _The
Discourses of Epictetus_ (1877), and wrote _Two Discourses on Roman Law_
(1847), a subject on which he was the greatest English authority.

LONGFELLOW, HENRY WADSWORTH (1807-1882).--Poet, was _b._ at Portland,
Maine, the _s._ of Stephen L., a lawyer. From childhood he cared little
for games, but was always devoted to reading. In 1822 he was sent to
Bowdoin Coll., of which his _f._ was a Trustee, and after graduating was
appointed to a new Chair of Modern Languages, which the coll. had decided
to establish, and with the view of more completely qualifying him for his
duties, he was sent to Europe for a three years' course of study. He
accordingly went to France, Spain, and Italy. Returning in 1829 he
commenced his professional duties, writing also in the _North American
Review_. In 1831 he entered into his first marriage, and in 1833 he
_pub._ his first books, a translation from the Spanish, followed by the
first part of _Outre Mer_, an account of his travels. At the end of the
year L. was invited to become Prof. of Modern Languages at Harvard, an
offer which he gladly accepted. He paid a second visit to Europe
accompanied by his wife, who, however, _d._ at Amsterdam. He returned to
his duties in 1836, and in 1838 appeared _Voices of the Night_,
containing the "Psalm of Life" and "Excelsior," which had extraordinary
popularity, and gave him a place in the affections of his countrymen
which he held until his death. The same year saw the publication of
_Hyperion_. His next work was _Ballads and other Poems_, containing "The
Wreck of the Hesperus" and "The Village Blacksmith." In 1843 he _m._ his
second wife, and in the same year appeared _The Spanish Student_, a
drama. The _Belfry of Bruges_ and _Evangeline_ (1847), generally
considered his masterpiece, followed. In 1849 he _pub._ _Kavanagh_, a
novel which added nothing to his reputation, and in 1851 _Seaside and
Fireside_, and _The Golden Legend_. Having now a sufficient and secure
income from his writings, he resigned his professorship, and devoted
himself entirely to literature. _Hiawatha_ appeared in 1855, and _The
Courtship of Miles Standish_ in 1858. In 1861 he lost his wife under
tragic circumstances, a blow which told heavily upon him. His latest
works were a translation of Dante's _Divina Commedia_, _Tales of a
Wayside Inn_, _The New England Tragedies_, and _The Divine Tragedy_, the
last two of which he combined with _The Golden Legend_ into a trilogy,
which he named _Christus_. In 1868 he paid a last visit to England, where
he was received with the highest honour. Later works were _Three Books of
Song_, _Aftermath_, and _Ultima Thule_. He _d._ on March 14, 1882. L.
lacked the intensity of feeling and power of imagination to make him a
great poet; but few poets have appealed to a wider circle of readers. If
he never soars to the heights or sounds the deeps of feeling he touches
the heart by appealing to universal and deep-seated affections. He was a
man of noble and chivalrous character.

_Lives_ by S. Longfellow in Riverside ed. of works (11 vols. 1886-90),
Robertson (Great Writers Series), and Higginson (American Men of
Letters).

LOVELACE, RICHARD (1618-1658).--Poet, _b._ at Woolwich, _s._ of Sir
William L., was _ed._ at Oxf., where he is described by Anthony Wood as
"the most amiable and beautiful person that eye ever beheld." He was an
enthusiastic Royalist, and spent his whole fortune in support of that
cause. For presenting "the Kentish petition" in favour of the King, he
was imprisoned in 1642, when he wrote his famous song, _When Love with
unconfined wings_. After his release he served in the French army, and
was wounded at Dunkirk. Returning, he was again imprisoned, 1648, and
produced his _Lucasta: Epodes, Odes_, etc. He lives in literature by a
few of his lyrics which, though often careless, are graceful and tender.
He _d._ in poverty.

LOVER, SAMUEL (1797-1868).--Song-writer and novelist, was a painter of
portraits, chiefly miniatures. He produced a number of Irish songs, of
which several--including _The Angel's Whisper_, _Molly Bawn_, and _The
Four-leaved Shamrock_--attained great popularity. He also wrote some
novels, of which _Rory O'More_ (in its first form a ballad), and _Handy
Andy_ are the best known, and short Irish sketches, which, with his
songs, he combined into a popular entertainment called _Irish Nights_. He
joined with Dickens in founding _Bentley's Magazine_.

LOWELL, JAMES RUSSELL (1819-1891).--Poet and essayist, _b._ at Camb.,
Massachusetts, _s._ of a Unitarian minister, was _ed._ at Harvard. He
began active life as a lawyer, but soon abandoned business, and devoted
himself mainly to literature. In 1841 he _pub._ a vol. of poems, _A
Year's Life_, and in 1843 a second book of verses appeared. He also wrote
at this time political articles in the _Atlantic_ and _North American
Review_. In 1848 he _pub._ a third vol. of _Poems_, _A Fable for
Critics_, _The Biglow Papers_, and _The Vision of Sir Launfal_; and he
was in 1855 appointed Professor of Modern Languages at Harvard in
succession to Longfellow. _Among my Books_ appeared in 2 series, in 1870
and 1876. His later poems included various _Odes_ in celebration of
national events, some of which were _coll._ in _Under the Willows_, _The
Cathedral_, and _Heartsease and Rue_. In 1877 he was appointed United
States minister to Spain, and he held a similar appointment in England
1880-85. He _d._ at Elmwood, the house in which he was _b._ L. was a man
of singularly varied gifts, wit, humour, scholarship, and considerable
poetic power, and he is the greatest critic America has yet produced. He
was a strong advocate of the abolition of slavery.

LOWTH, ROBERT (1710-1787).--Theologian and scholar, _s._ of William L.,
Prebendary of Winchester, and author of a _Commentary on the Prophets_,
was _b._ at Winchester, and _ed._ there and at Oxf. Entering the Church
he became Bishop successively of St. David's, Oxf., and London. In 1753
he _pub._ _De Sacra Poesi Hebraeorum_. He also wrote a _Life of William of
Wykeham_, the founder of Winchester Coll., and made a new translation of
Isaiah.

LYDGATE, JOHN (1370?-1451?).--Poet, _b._ in Suffolk, was ordained a
priest in 1397. After studying at Oxf., Paris, and Padua, he taught
literature in his monastery at Bury St. Edmunds. He appears to have been
a bright, clear-minded, earnest man, with a love of the beautiful, and a
faculty of pleasant, flowing verse. He wrote copiously and with tiresome
prolixity whatever was required of him, moral tales, legends of the
saints, and histories, and his total output is enormous, reaching 130,000
lines. His chief works are _Troy Book_ (1412-20), written at the request
of Henry V. when Prince of Wales, _The Falls of Princes_ (1430-38), and
_The Story of Thebes_ (_c._ 1420). These books were first _printed_ in
1513, 1494, and _c._ 1500 respectively. L. also wrote many miscellaneous
poems. He was for a time Court poet, and was patronised by Humphrey, Duke
of Gloucester; but the greater part of his life was spent in the
monastery at Bury St. Edmunds. He was an avowed admirer of Chaucer,
though he largely follows the French romancists previous to him.

LYELL, SIR CHARLES (1797-1875).--Geologist and writer, _s._ of Charles
L., of Kinnordy, Forfarshire (a distinguished botanist and student of
Dante), was brought up near the New Forest. After going to school at
various places in England, he was sent to Oxf., where under Buckland he
imbibed a taste for science. He studied law, and was called to the Bar,
but soon devoted himself to geology, and made various scientific tours on
the Continent, the results of his investigations being _pub._ chiefly in
the Transactions of the Geological Society, of which he was afterwards
repeatedly Pres. His two chief works are _The Principles of Geology_
(1830-33), and _The Elements of Geology_ (1838). In these books he
combated the necessity of stupendous convulsions, and maintained that the
greatest geologic changes might be produced by remote causes still in
operation. He also _pub._, among other works, _Geological Evidence of the
Antiquity of Man_ (1863). He was Prof. of Geology in King's Coll.,
London, 1831-33, Pres. of the British Association 1864, knighted in 1848,
and _cr._ a Baronet in 1864. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. In his
later years he was generally recognised as the greatest of living
geologists.

LYLY, JOHN (1554?-1606).--Dramatist and miscellaneous writer, was _b._ in
the Weald of Kent, and _ed._ at both Oxf. and Camb. He wrote several
dramas, most of which are on classical and mythological subjects,
including _Campaspe_ and _Sapho and Phao_ (1584), _Endymion_ (1591), and
_Midas_ (1592). His chief fame, however, rests on his two didactic
romances, _Euphues, the Anatomy of Wit_ (1579), and _Euphues and his
England_ (1580). These works, which were largely inspired by Ascham's
_Toxophilus_, and had the same objects in view, viz., the reform of
education and manners, exercised a powerful, though temporary, influence
on the language, both written and spoken, commemorated in our words
"euphuism" and "euphuistic." The characteristics of the style have been
set forth as "pedantic and far-fetched allusion, elaborate indirectness,
a cloying smoothness and drowsy monotony of diction, alliteration,
punning, and such-like puerilities, which do not, however, exclude a good
deal of wit, fancy, and prettiness." Many contemporary authors, including
Shakespeare, made game of it, while others, _e.g._ Greene, admired and
practised it. L. also wrote light dramatic pieces for the children of the
Chapel Royal, and contributed a pamphlet, _Pappe with an Hatchet_ (1589)
to the Mar-prelate controversy in which he supported the Bishops. He sat
in Parliament for some years.

LYNDESAY, SIR D., (_see_ LINDSAY.)

LYTE, HENRY FRANCIS (1793-1847).--Hymn-writer, _b._ at Ednam, near Kelso,
of an ancient Somersetshire family, and _ed._ at Trinity Coll., Dublin,
took orders, and was incumbent of Lower Brixham, Devonshire. He _pub._
_Poems: chiefly religious_ (1833). He is chiefly remembered for his
hymns, one of which, _Abide with Me_, is universally known and loved.

LYTTELTON, GEORGE, 1ST LORD LYTTELTON (1709-1773).--Poet, _s._ of Sir
Thomas L., of Hagley, Worcestershire, _ed._ at Eton and Oxf., was the
patron of many literary men, including Thomson and Mallet, and was
himself a somewhat voluminous author. Among his works are _Letters from a
Persian in England to his friend in Ispahan_ (1735), a treatise _On the
Conversion of St. Paul_ (1746), _Dialogues of the Dead_ (1760), which had
great popularity, and a _History of the Reign of Henry II._,
well-informed, careful, and impartial, but tedious. He is chiefly
remembered by his _Monody_ on the death of his wife. The stanza in _The
Castle of Indolence_ in which Thomson is playfully described (canto 1,
st. lxviii.), is by L., who is himself referred to in lxv. He took some
part in public affairs, and was Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1756.

LYTTON, EDWARD GEORGE EARLE LYTTON-BULWER, 1ST LORD
(1803-1873).--Novelist and statesman, third son of General Earle Bulwer
of Heydon and Dalling, Norfolk, and of Elizabeth Lytton, heiress of
Knebworth, Herts, was _b._ in London, and _ed._ privately and at Camb. He
began to write when still a boy, and _pub._, in 1820, _Ismael and other
Poems_. His marriage in 1825 to Rosina Wheeler, an Irish beauty, caused a
quarrel with his mother, and the loss of his income, and thus
incidentally gave the impulse to his marvellous literary activity. The
marriage proved an unhappy one, and was terminated by a separation in
1836. During its continuance, however, his life was a busy and productive
one, its literary results including _Falkland_ (1827), _Pelham_ (1828),
_Paul Clifford_ (1830), _Eugene Aram_ (1832), _The Pilgrims of the
Rhine_, _Last Days of Pompeii_, _Rienzi_ (1835), besides _England and the
English_, _Athens its Rise and Fall_, and innumerable tales, essays, and
articles in various reviews and magazines, including the _New Monthly_,
of which he became ed. in 1831. In the same year he entered Parliament as
a Liberal, but gradually gravitated towards Conservatism, and held office
in the second government of Lord Derby as Colonial Sec. 1858-59. As a
politician he devoted himself largely to questions affecting authors,
such as copyright and the removal of taxes upon literature. He continued
his literary labours with almost unabated energy until the end of his
life, his works later than those already mentioned including the _Last of
the Barons_ (1843), _Harold_ (1848), the famous triad of _The Caxtons_
(1850), _My Novel_ (1853), and _What will he do with it?_ (1859); and his
studies in the supernatural, _Zanoni_ (1842), and _A Strange Story_
(1862). Later still were _The Coming Race_ (1870) and _Kenelm Chillingly_
(1873). To the drama he contributed three plays which still enjoy
popularity, _The Lady of Lyons_, _Richelieu_, both (1838), and _Money_
(1840). In poetry he was less successful. _The New Timon_, a satire, is
the best remembered, largely, however, owing to the reply by Tennyson
which it brought down upon the author, who had attacked him. In his
works, numbering over 60, L. showed an amazing versatility, both in
subject and treatment, but they have not, with perhaps the exception of
the Caxton series, kept their original popularity. Their faults are
artificiality, and forced brilliancy, and as a rule they rather dazzle by
their cleverness than touch by their truth to nature. L. was raised to
the peerage in 1866.

_Life, Letters, etc._, of Lord Lytton by his son, 2 vols., comes down to
1832 only. Political Memoir prefaced to _Speeches_ (2 vols., 1874).

LYTTON, EDWARD ROBERT BULWER, 1ST EARL OF LYTTON (1831-1891).--Poet and
statesman, _s._ of the above, was _ed._ at Harrow and Bonn, and
thereafter was private sec. to his uncle, Sir H. Bulwer, afterwards Lord
Dalling and Bulwer (_q.v._), at Washington and Florence. Subsequently he
held various diplomatic appointments at other European capitals. In 1873
he succeeded his _f._ in the title, and in 1876 became Viceroy of India.
He was _cr._ an Earl on his retirement in 1880, and was in 1887 appointed
Ambassador at Paris, where he _d._ in 1891. He valued himself much more
as a poet than as a man of affairs; but, though he had in a considerable
degree some of the qualities of a poet, he never quite succeeded in
commanding the recognition of either the public or the critics. His
writings, usually appearing under the pseudonym of "Owen Meredith,"
include _Clytemnestra_ (1855), _The Wanderer_ (1857), _Lucile_ (1860),
_Chronicles and Characters_ (1868), _Orval, or the Fool of Time_ (1869),
_Fables in Song_ (1874), and _King Poppy_ (1892). As Viceroy of India he
introduced important reforms, and his dispatches were remarkable for
their fine literary form.

MACAULAY, MRS. CATHERINE (SAWBRIDGE) (1731-1791).--_Dau._ of a landed
proprietor of Kent, was an advocate of republicanism, and a sympathiser
with the French Revolution. She wrote a _History of England from the
Accession of James I. to the Elevation of the House of Hanover_ (8 vols.,
1763-83), which had great popularity in its day, some critics, _e.g._
Horace Walpole, placing it above Hume. Though a work of no real research
or authority, it is in the main well written.

MACAULAY, THOMAS BABINGTON, LORD (1800-1859).--Historian, essayist, and
statesman, _s._ of Zachary M., a wealthy merchant, and one of the leaders
of the anti-slavery party, was _b._ at Rothley Temple, Leicestershire,
and _ed._ at a private school and at Trinity Coll., Camb., of which he
became a Fellow in 1824, and where, though he gained distinction as a
classical scholar and debater, he did not take a high degree, owing to
his weakness in mathematics. About the time of his leaving the Univ. his
prospects were entirely changed by the failure of his father's firm. He
accordingly read law, and in 1826 was called to the Bar, which led to his
appointment two years later as a Commissioner in Bankruptcy. He had by
this time made his first appearance in print, in _Knight's Quarterly
Magazine_, and in 1825 he formed the connection with the _Edinburgh
Review_ which redounded so greatly to the fame of both. His first
contribution was the famous essay on Milton, which, although he
afterwards said of it that "it contained scarcely a paragraph which his
matured judgment approved," took the reading public by storm, and at once
gave him access to the first society in London, in which his
extraordinary conversational powers enabled him to take a leading place.
He now began to turn his mind towards public life, and by favour of Lord
Lansdowne sat in the House of Commons for his family borough of Calne.
Entering the House in 1830 in the thick of the Reform struggle, M. at
once leaped into a foremost place as a debater, and after the passage of
the Reform Bill sat as one of the two members for the new borough of
Leeds, and held office as Sec. to the Board of Control. The acquaintance
with Indian affairs which he thus gained led to his appointment as a
member of the Supreme Council of India, whither he went in 1834. Here his
chief work was the codification of the criminal law, which he carried out
with great ability, and by which he wrote his name on the history of the
empire. By the regard for the rights of the natives which he showed, he
incurred much ill-will in interested quarters. For this he consoled
himself with the pleasures of literature, which gradually assumed the
preponderance in his mind over political ambitions. In 1838 he returned
to England. The next year he began _The History of England_, but for some
time to come his energies were still divided between this task, the
demands of the _Edinburgh Review_, and politics. He was elected for
Edin., for which he sat until 1847, when he was thrown out on the
Maynooth question, and from 1839-41 was Sec. for War. The _Lays of
Ancient Rome_ were _pub._ in 1842, and a collection of his essays in _The
Edinburgh_ the following year. In 1846 he joined the government of Lord
John Russell as Paymaster-General, an office with light duties, his
retirement from which, however, followed the loss of his seat in the next
year. He was now finally set free for his great work, which became
thenceforth the leading interest of his life. The first and second vols.
appeared in 1848, and were received with extraordinary applause. In 1852
he was offered, but declined, a seat in the coalition government of Lord
Aberdeen, accepting, however, the seat in Parliament which Edin., now
repentant, gave him unsolicited. His health began about this time to
show symptoms of failure, and he spoke in the House only once or twice.
In 1855 the third and fourth vols. of the _History_ came out, and meeting
with a success both at home and in America unprecedented in the case of
an historical work, were translated into various foreign languages. In
1857 M. was raised to the Peerage, a distinction which he appreciated and
enjoyed. His last years were spent at Holly Lodge, Kensington, in
comparative retirement, and there he _d._ on December 28, 1859. Though
never _m._, M. was a man of the warmest family affections. Outside of his
family he was a steady friend and a generous opponent, disinterested and
honourable in his public life. Possessed of an astonishing memory,
knowledge of vast extent, and an unfailing flow of ready and effective
speech, he shone alike as a parliamentary orator and a conversationalist.
In his writings he spared no pains in the collection and arrangement of
his materials, and he was incapable of deliberate unfairness.
Nevertheless, his mind was strongly cast in the mould of the orator and
the pleader: and the vivid contrasts, antitheses, and even paradoxes
which were his natural forms of expression do not always tend to secure a
judicial view of the matter in hand. Consequently he has been accused by
some critics of party-spirit, inaccuracy, and prejudice. He has not
often, however, been found mistaken on any important matter of fact, and
in what he avowedly set himself to do, namely, to give a living picture
of the period which he dealt with, he has been triumphantly successful.
Unfortunately, strength and life failed before his great design was
completed. He is probably most widely known by his _Essays_, which retain
an extraordinary popularity.

_Life_ by his nephew, Sir G.O. Trevelyan. _See_ also J.C. Monson's _Life_
(English Men of Letters).

MACCARTHY, DENIS FLORENCE (1817-1882).--Poet, _b._ at Dublin, and _ed._
at Maynooth with a view to the priesthood, devoted himself, however, to
literature, and contributed verses to _The Nation_. Among his other
writings are _Ballads, Poems, and Lyrics_ (1850), _The Bell Founder_
(1857), and _Under-Glimpses_. He also ed. a collection of Irish lyrics,
translated Calderon, and wrote _Shelley's Early Life_ (1872).

M'COSH, JAMES (1811-1894).--Philosophical writer, _s._ of an Ayrshire
farmer, was a minister first of the Church of Scotland, and afterwards of
the Free Church. From 1851-68 he was Prof. of Logic at Queen's Coll.,
Belfast, and thereafter Pres. of Princeton Coll., New Jersey. He wrote
several works on philosophy, including _Method of the Divine Government_
(1850), _Intuitions of the Mind inductively investigated_ (1860), _Laws
of Discursive Thought_ (1870), _Scottish Philosophy_ (1874), and
_Psychology_ (1886).

M'CRIE, THOMAS (1772-1835).--Biographer and ecclesiastical historian,
_b._ at Duns, and _ed._ at the Univ. of Edin., became the leading
minister of one of the Dissenting churches of Scotland. His _Life of
Knox_ (1813) ranks high among biographies for the ability and learning
which it displays, and was the means of vindicating the great Reformer
from a cloud of prejudice and misunderstanding in which he had been
enveloped. It was followed by a _Life of Andrew Melville_ (1819), Knox's
successor as the leader of the Reformers in Scotland, also a work of
great merit. M'C. also _pub._ histories of the Reformation in Italy and
Spain. He received the degree of D.D. in 1813.

MACDONALD, GEORGE (1824-1905).--Poet and novelist, _s._ of a farmer, was
_b._ at Huntly, Aberdeenshire, and _ed._ at the Univ. of Aberdeen, and at
the Independent Coll., Highbury. He became minister of a congregation at
Arundel, but after a few years retired, on account partly of theological
considerations, partly of a threatened, breakdown of health. He then took
to literature, and _pub._ his first book, _Within and Without_ (1856), a
dramatic poem, _Poems_ followed in 1857, and _Phantasies, a Faerie
Romance_, in 1858. He then turned to fiction, and produced numerous
novels, of which _David Elginbrod_ (1862), _Alec Forbes_ (1865), _Robert
Falconer_ (1868), _The Marquis of Lossie_ (1877), and _Sir Gibbie_
(1879), are perhaps the best. He also wrote stories for children of great
charm and originality, including _The Princess and the Goblin_, _At the
Back of the North Wind_, and _Ranald Bannerman's Boyhood_. As a novelist
he had considerable narrative and dramatic power, humour, tenderness, a
genial view of life and character, tinged with mysticism, and within his
limits was a true poet. On retiring from the ministry he attached himself
to the Church of England, but frequently preached as a layman, never
accepting any remuneration for his sermons.

MACKAY, CHARLES (1814-1889).--Poet and journalist, _s._ of a naval
officer, was _b._ at Perth, and _ed._ at the Royal Caledonian Asylum,
London, and at Brussels, but much of his early life was spent in France.
Coming to London in 1834, he engaged in journalism, _pub._ _Songs and
Poems_ (1834), wrote a _History of London_, _Popular Delusions_, and a
romance, _Longbeard_. His fame, however, chiefly rests upon his songs,
some of which, including _Cheer, Boys, Cheer_, were in 1846 set to music
by Henry Russell, and had an astonishing popularity. In 1852 he became
ed. of the _Illustrated London News_, in the musical supplement to which
other songs by him were set to old English music by Sir H.R. Bishop. M.
acted as _Times_ correspondent during the American Civil War, and in that
capacity discovered and disclosed the Fenian conspiracy. He had the
degree of LL.D. from Glasgow in 1846.

MACKENZIE, SIR GEORGE (1636-1691).--Lawyer and miscellaneous writer, _s._
of Sir Simon M., of Lochslin, a brother of the Earl of Seaforth, was
_ed._ at St. Andrews, Aberdeen, and Bourges, called to the Bar in 1659,
in 1677 became Lord Advocate, in which capacity he was the subservient
minister of the persecuting policy of Charles II. in Scotland, and the
inhumanity and relentlessness of his persecution of the Covenanters
gained for him the name of "Bloody Mackenzie." In private life, however,
he was a cultivated and learned gentleman with literary tendencies, and
is remembered as the author of various graceful essays, of which the best
known is _A Moral Essay preferring Solitude to Public Employment_ (1665).
He also wrote legal, political, and antiquarian works of value, including
_Institutions of the Law of Scotland_ (1684), _Antiquity of the Royal
Line of Scotland_ (1686), _Heraldry_, and _Memoirs of the Affairs of
Scotland from the Restoration of Charles II._, a valuable work which was
not _pub._ until 1821. M. was the founder of the Advocates' Library in
Edin. He retired at the Revolution to Oxf., where he _d._

MACKENZIE, HENRY (1745-1831).--Novelist and miscellaneous writer, _s._ of
a physician in Edin., where he was _b._ and _ed._ He studied for the law,
and became Controller of Taxes for Scotland. He was the author of three
novels, _The Man of Feeling_ (1771), _The Man of the World_ (1773), and
_Julia de Roubigne_ (1777), all written in a strain of rather
high-wrought sentimentalism, in which the influence of Sterne is to be
seen. He was also a leading contributor to _The Mirror_ and _The
Lounger_, two periodicals somewhat in the style of the _Spectator_. In
his later days he was one of the leading members of the literary society
of Edinburgh.

MACKINTOSH, SIR JAMES (1765-1832).--Philosopher and historian, was _b._
at Aldowrie, Inverness-shire, _s._ of an officer in the army and
landowner, _ed._ at Aberdeen, whence he proceeded to Edinburgh to study
medicine, in which he _grad._ in 1787. In the following year he went to
London, where he wrote for the press and studied law, and in 1791 he
_pub._ _Vindiciae Gallicae_ in answer to Burke's _Reflections on the French
Revolution_, which was well received by those who, in its earlier stages,
sympathised with the Revolution, and procured for him the friendship of
Fox, Sheridan, and other Whigs. Called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn in
1795, he delivered before that society in 1799 a brilliant course of
lectures on _The Law of Nature and Nations_, which greatly increased his
reputation. In 1804 he went out to India as Recorder of Bombay, and two
years later was appointed a Judge of the Admiralty Court. He remained in
India until 1811, discharging his official duties with great efficiency.
After his return he entered Parliament in 1813 as member for Nairnshire,
and attained a considerable reputation as a forcible and informing
speaker on questions of criminal law and general politics. On the
accession of the Whigs in 1830 he was made a member of the Board of
Control for India. He also held from 1818-24 the Professorship of Law and
General Politics at Haileybury. His true vocation, however, was to
literature, and it is to be regretted that so much of his time and
strength was withdrawn from it, his writings being confined to a
_Dissertation on the Progress of Ethical Philosophy_ in the _Encyclopaedia
Britannica_, a sketch of the History of England for Lardner's _Cabinet
Cyclopaedia_, a Life of Sir Thomas More for the same, a fragment of a
projected _History of the Revolution of 1688_, and some articles in the
_Edinburgh Review_.

MACKLIN, CHARLES (1697?-1797).--Actor and dramatist, _b._ in the north of
Ireland, was one of the most distinguished actors of his day, shining
equally in tragedy and comedy. Having killed another actor in a quarrel
he was tried for murder, but acquitted, and _d._ a centenarian. He wrote,
among other comedies, _Love a la Mode_ (1759) and _The Man of the World_
(1781), which were the only ones printed. He was the creator of Sir
Pertinax Macsycophant, a famous burlesque character.

M'LENNAN, JOHN FERGUSON (1827-1881).--Sociologist, _b._ at Inverness, and
_ed._ at Aberdeen and Camb., was in 1857 called to the Scottish Bar, and
was subsequently Parliamentary Draftsman for Scotland. His main
contribution to literature is his original and learned book, _Primitive
Marriage_ (1865). Another work, _The Patriarchal Theory_, left
unfinished, was completed by his brother (1884). These works and other
papers by M. gave a great impulse to the study of the problems with which
they deal, and cognate questions. M. received the degree of LL.D. from
Aberdeen in 1874.

"MACLEOD, FIONA," (_see_ SHARP, WILLIAM).

MACLEOD, NORMAN (1812-1872).--Scottish divine and miscellaneous writer,
_s._ of the Rev. Norman M., D.D., a distinguished minister of the
Scottish Church, studied at Edin., and was ordained in 1838. He became
one of the most distinguished ministers, and most popular preachers of
his Church, was made one of the Royal Chaplains in Scotland in 1857, and
became a trusted friend of Queen Victoria. He was the first ed. of _Good
Words_, to which he contributed many articles and stories, including _Wee
Davie_, _The Starling_, and _The Old Lieutenant and his Son_.

MACNEILL, HECTOR (1746-1818).--Poet, was in the West Indies 1780-86, and
clerk on a flagship. He wrote various political pamphlets, two novels,
and several poems, _The Harp_ (1789), _The Carse of Forth_, and
_Scotland's Skaith_, the last against drunkenness, but is best known for
his songs, such as _My Boy Tammy_, _I lo'ed ne'er a Laddie but ane_, and
_Come under my Plaidie_.

MACPHERSON, JAMES (1736?-1796).--Alleged translator of the Ossianic
poems, _s._ of a small farmer at Ruthven, Inverness-shire, studied for
the Church at Aberdeen and Edin., became teacher of the school in his
native parish, and afterwards tutor in a gentleman's family. In 1758 he
_pub._ _The Highlander_, an ambitious poem in 6 cantos, which, however,
attracted no attention. But in the following year he submitted to John
Home (_q.v._), the author of _Douglas_, certain writings which he
represented to be translations from ancient Gaelic poems. By the help of
Home and some of his friends M. was enabled to _pub._ a considerable
number of his _Fragments of Poetry translated from the Gaelic and Erse
Languages_. These were received with profound and widely-spread interest,
and gave rise to a controversy which can hardly yet be said to be
settled. While some authorities received them with enthusiastic
admiration, others immediately called their genuineness in question. In
the first instance, however, a subscription was raised to enable M. to
make a journey in search of further poetic remains, the result of which
was the production in 1761 of _Fingal_, an epic in 6 books, and in 1763
of _Temora_, also an epic, in 8 books. The fame which these brought to
their discoverer was great, and the sales enormous. In 1764 M. went as
sec. to the Governor of Pensacola in Florida. Returning in 1766 he
settled in London, became an energetic pamphleteer in support of the
Government, and in 1780 entered Parliament, and was next year appointed
to the lucrative post of Agent for the Nabob of Arcot. He retired in
1789, and bought an estate in his native parish, where he _d._ in 1796.
Great doubt still rests upon the subject of the Ossianic poems: it is,
however, generally admitted that M. took great liberties with the
originals, even if they ever really existed in anything at all resembling
the form given in the alleged translations. No manuscripts in the
original have ever been forthcoming. Few, however, will deny that M.
either discovered, or composed, a body of poetry unlike anything that has
preceded it, of unequal merit, indeed, but containing many striking and
beautiful passages, and which unquestionably contributed to break up the
tyranny of the classical school and thus prepare the way for the romantic
revival.

MAGINN, WILLIAM (1793-1842).--Journalist and miscellaneous writer, _b._
at Cork, became a contributor to _Blackwood's Magazine_, and afterwards
foreign correspondent to _The Representative_, a paper started by J.
Murray, the publisher, and when its short career was run, one of the
leading supporters of _Fraser's Magazine_. One of the most brilliant
periodical writers of his time, he has left no permanent work behind him.
In his later years he fell into intemperate habits, and _d._ in poverty.

MAHONY, FRANCIS SYLVESTER (FATHER PROUT) (1804-1866).--Humorist, _b._ at
Cork, and _ed._ at the Jesuit Coll. at Clongoweswood, Co. Kildare, at
Amiens, and at Rome, becoming a member of the society, was Prof. of
Rhetoric at Clongoweswood, but was soon after expelled from the order. He
then came to London, and became a leading contributor to _Fraser's
Magazine_, under the signature of "Father Prout." He was witty and
learned in many languages. One form which his humour took was the
professed discovery of the originals in Latin, Greek, or mediaeval French
of popular modern poems and songs. Many of these _jeux d'esprit_ were
_coll._ as _Reliques of Father Prout_. He wittily described himself as
"an Irish potato seasoned with Attic salt." Latterly he acted as foreign
correspondent to various newspapers, and _d._ at Paris reconciled to the
Church.

MAINE, SIR HENRY JAMES SUMNER (1822-1888).--Jurist, _ed._ at Christ's
Hospital and at Camb., where he became Regius Prof. of Civil Law 1847-54.
Called to the Bar in 1850, he went in 1862 to India as legal member of
the Government. On his return he was in 1870 appointed Prof. of
Comparative Jurisprudence at Oxf., which office he held until his
election in 1878 as Master of Trinity Hall. He became Whewell Prof. of
International Law at Camb. in 1887, and was the author of many valuable
works on law and the history of political institutions, and profoundly
influenced the study of jurisprudence. Among his writings are _Ancient
Law_ (1861), _Village Communities_ (1871), _Early History of
Institutions_ (1875), and _Dissertations on Early Law and Customs_
(1883).

MAIR, or MAJOR, JOHN (1469?-1550).--Historian, studied at Camb. and
Paris, was the teacher of John Knox and George Buchanan. In 1506 he was a
Doctor of the Sorbonne, and in 1519 became Prof. of Divinity at St.
Andrews. He wrote, in Latin, treatises on divinity and morals, and a
_History of Greater Britain_, in which the separate histories of England
and Scotland were brought together, _pub._ at Paris (1521). In his
writings, while upholding the doctrinal teaching of Rome, he was
outspoken in condemning the corruptions of the clergy.

MAITLAND, SIR RICHARD (1496-1586).--Poet, _f._ of M. of Lethington, Sec.
of State to Mary Queen of Scots. In his later years he was blind, and
occupied himself in composing a _History of the House of Seaton_, and by
writing poems, _e.g._ _On the New Year_, _On the Queene's Maryage_, etc.
He held various offices, chiefly legal, but appears to have kept as far
as possible out of the fierce political struggles of his time, and to
have been a genially satirical humorist.

MALCOLM, SIR JOHN (1769-1833).--Indian soldier, statesman, and historian,
_b._ at Burnfoot, Dumfriesshire, went to India in 1782, studied Persian,
was employed in many important negotiations and held various
distinguished posts, being Ambassador to Persia and Governor of Bombay
1826-30. He was the author of several valuable works regarded as
authorities, viz., _A History of Persia_ (1815), _Memoir of Central
India_ (1823), _Political History of India from 1784 to 1823_ (1826), and
_Life of Lord Clive_ (1836).

MALLET, originally MALLOCH, DAVID (1705-1765).--Poet and miscellaneous
writer, _ed._ at Crieff parish school and the Univ. of Edin., where he
became acquainted with James Thomson, and in 1723 went to London as tutor
in the family of the Duke of Montrose. In the following year appeared his
ballad of _William and Margaret_, by which he is chiefly remembered, and
which made him known to Pope, Young, and others. In 1726 he changed his
name to Mallet to make it more pronounceable by Southern tongues. His
_Excursion_, an imitation of Thomson, was _pub._ in 1728. At the request
of the Prince of Wales, whose sec. he had become, he wrote with Thomson a
masque, _Alfred_ (1740), in which _Rule Britannia_ first appeared, which,
although he claimed the authorship, is now generally attributed to
Thomson. He also wrote a _Life of Bacon_; and on Bolingbroke bequeathing
to him his manuscripts and library, he _pub._ an ed. of his works (1754).
On the accession of George III., M. became a zealous supporter of Lord
Bute, and was rewarded with a sinecure. In addition to the works above
named M. wrote some indifferent dramas, including _Eurydice_, _Mustapha_,
and _Elvira_. Dr. Johnson said of him that he was "the only Scotsman whom
Scotsmen did not commend."

MALONE, EDMUND (1741-1812).--Critic, _s._ of an Irish judge, _b._ in
Dublin, and _ed._ at Trinity Coll. there, studied for the law, but coming
into a fortune, decided to follow a literary career. Acute, careful, and
sensible, he was a useful contributor to the study of Shakespeare, of
whose works he _pub._ a valuable ed. in 1790. He also aided in the
detection of the Rowley forgeries of Chatterton, and the much less
respectable Shakespeare ones of Ireland. At his death he was engaged upon
another ed. of Shakespeare, which was brought out under the editorship of
James Boswell (_q.v._). M. also wrote Lives of Dryden and others, and was
the friend of Johnson, Goldsmith, Reynolds, and Burke.

MALORY, SIR THOMAS (_fl._ 1470).--Translator of _Morte d'Arthur_. Very
little is known of him. An endeavour has been made to identify him with a
Sir Thomas Malory of Warwickshire, who fought successively on both sides
in the Wars of the Roses, sat in Parliament 1444-45, and _d._ 1471. In
his book he strove to make a continuous story of the Arthurian legends,
and showed judgment alike in what he included and omitted.

MALTHUS, THOMAS ROBERT (1766-1834).--Economist, _s._ of a landed
proprietor, was _b._ near Dorking, and _ed._. at Jesus Coll., Camb., of
which he became a Fellow. Taking orders he became incumbent of Albury,
Essex. He travelled much on the continent, collecting information as to
the means of livelihood and mode of life of various peoples. In 1798 the
first ed. of his famous _Essay on Population_ appeared, and in 1803 a
second greatly enlarged. Its leading proposition, supported by much
learning, is that while population increases approximately in a
geometrical ratio, the means of subsistence do so in an arithmetical
ratio only, which, of course, opened up an appalling prospect for the
race. It necessarily failed to take into account the then undreamed-of
developments whereby the produce of the whole world has been made
available for all nations. The work gave rise to a great deal of
controversy, much of it based on misunderstanding. M. was Prof. of
Political Economy at Haileybury.

MANDEVILLE, BERNARD DE (1670-1733).--Satirist, a native of Dort in
Holland, who having studied medicine at Leyden, came over to England to
practise his profession. In 1705 he _pub._ a short poem, _The Grumbling
Hive_, which in 1714 reappeared with a prose commentary, and various
dissertations on the origin of moral virtue, etc., as _The Fable of the
Bees, or Private Vices Public Benefits_, and in 1729 was made the subject
of a persecution for its immoral tendency. It was also vigorously
combated by, among others, Bishop Berkeley and William Law, author of
_The Serious Call_. While the author probably had no intention of
subverting morality, his views of human nature were assuredly cynical and
degrading in a high degree. Another of his works, _A Search into the
Nature of Society_ (1723), appended to the later versions of the _Fable_,
also startled the public mind, which his last works, _Free Thoughts on
Religion_ and _An Enquiry into the Origin of Honour and the Usefulness of
Christianity_ did little to reassure.

MANDEVILLE, SIR JOHN.--Was the ostensible author only of a book of
travels bearing his name, written about the middle of the 14th century,
giving an account of journeys in the East, including India and the Holy
Land. It appears to have been compiled from the writings of William of
Boldensele, Oderic of Pordenone, and Vincent de Beauvais. The name of
Mandeville was probably fictitious.

MANGAN, JAMES CLARENCE (1803-1849).--Poet, _b._ at Dublin, _s._ of a
small grocer, was brought up in poverty, and received most of his
education from a priest who instructed him in several modern languages.
He then became a lawyer's clerk, and was later an assistant in the
library of Trinity College, Dublin. He contributed verses of very
various merit to a number of Irish newspapers, and translations from the
German to _The Dublin University Magazine_. By some critics his poetical
powers were considered to be such as to have gained for him the first
place among Irish poets; but his irregular and intemperate habits
prevented him from attaining any sure excellence. His best work,
generally inspired by the miseries of his country, often rises to a high
level of tragic power, and had his strength of character been equal to
his poetic gift it is difficult to say to what heights he might have
attained. He _d._ of cholera.

MANLEY, MRS. MARY DE LA RIVIERE (1663 or 1672-1724).--Novelist,
dramatist, and political writer, _dau._ of Sir Roger Manley, was decoyed
into a bigamous connection with her cousin, John M. Her subsequent career
was one of highly dubious morality, but considerable literary success.
Her principal works are _The New Atalantis_ (_sic_) (1709), a satire in
which great liberties were taken with Whig notabilities, _Memoirs of
Europe_ (1710), and _Court Intrigues_ (1711). She also wrote three plays,
_The Royal Mischief_, _The Lost Lover_, and _Lucius_, and conducted the
_Examiner_. In her writings she makes great havoc with classical names
and even with spelling. She was a vivacious and effective political
writer.

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