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A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature by John W. Cousin

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Breath_ (1608), also of an allegorical masque, _The Parliament of Bees_.

DAY, THOMAS (1748-1789).--Miscellaneous writer, was _b._ in London, _ed._
at the Charterhouse and at Oxf., and called to the Bar 1775, but having
inherited in infancy an independence, he did not practise. He became a
disciple of Rousseau in his social views, and endeavoured to put them in
practice in combination with better morality. He was a benevolent
eccentric, and used his income, which was increased by his marriage with
an heiress, in schemes of social reform as he understood it. He is
chiefly remembered as the author of the once universally-read _History of
Sandford and Merton_.

DEFOE, DANIEL (1661?-1731).--Journalist and novelist, _s._ of a butcher
in St. Giles, where he was _b._ His _f._ being a Dissenter, he was _ed._
at a Dissenting coll. at Newington with the view of becoming a
Presbyterian minister. He joined the army of Monmouth, and on its defeat
was fortunate enough to escape punishment. In 1688 he joined William III.
Before settling down to his career as a political writer, D. had been
engaged in various enterprises as a hosier, a merchant-adventurer to
Spain and Portugal, and a brickmaker, all of which proved so unsuccessful
that he had to fly from his creditors. Having become known to the
government as an effective writer, and employed by them, he was appointed
Accountant in the Glass-Duty Office, 1659-1699. Among his more important
political writings are an _Essay on Projects_ (1698), and _The True-born
Englishman_ (1701), which had a remarkable success. In 1702 appeared _The
Shortest Way with the Dissenters_, written in a strain of grave irony
which was, unfortunately for the author, misunderstood, and led to his
being fined, imprisoned, and put in the pillory, which suggested his
_Hymns to the Pillory_ (1704). Notwithstanding the disfavour with the
government which these disasters implied, D.'s knowledge of commercial
affairs and practical ability were recognised by his being sent in 1706
to Scotland to aid in the Union negotiations. In the same year _Jure
Divino_, a satire, followed by a _History of the Union_ (1709), and _The
Wars of Charles XII._ (1715). Further misunderstandings and
disappointments in connection with political matters led to his giving up
this line of activity, and, fortunately for posterity, taking to fiction.
The first and greatest of his novels, _Robinson Crusoe_, appeared in
1719, and its sequel (of greatly inferior interest) in 1720. These were
followed by _Captain Singleton_ (1720), _Moll Flanders_, _Colonel
Jacque_, and _Journal of the Plague Year_ (1722), _Memoirs of a Cavalier_
(1724), _A New Voyage Round the World_ (1725), and _Captain Carlton_
(1728). Among his miscellaneous works are _Political History of the
Devil_ (1726), _System of Magic_ (1727), _The Complete English Tradesman_
(1727), and _The Review_, a paper which he ed. In all he _pub._,
including pamphlets, etc., about 250 works. All D.'s writings are
distinguished by a clear, nervous style, and his works of fiction by a
minute verisimilitude and naturalness of incident which has never been
equalled except perhaps by Swift, whose genius his, in some other
respects, resembled. The only description of his personal appearance is
given in an advertisement intended to lead to his apprehension, and runs,
"A middle-sized, spare man about forty years old, of a brown complexion,
and dark brown-coloured hair, but wears a wig; a hooked nose, a sharp
chin, grey eyes, and a large mole near his mouth." His mind was a
peculiar amalgam of imagination and matter-of-fact, seeing strongly and
clearly what he did see, but little conscious, apparently, of what lay
outside his purview.

_Lives_ by Chalmers (1786), H. Morley (1889), T. Wright (1894), and
others; shorter works by Lamb, Hazlitt, L. Stephens, and Prof. Minto,
Bohn's _British Classics_, etc.

DEKKER, THOMAS (1570?-1641?).--Dramatist and miscellaneous writer, was
_b._ in London. Few details of D.'s life have come down to us, though he
was a well-known writer in his day, and is believed to have written or
contributed to over 20 dramas. He collaborated at various times with
several of his fellow-dramatists, including Ben Jonson. Ultimately Jonson
quarrelled with Marston and D., satirising them in _The Poetaster_
(1601), to which D. replied in _Satiromastix_ (1602). D.'s best play is
_Old Fortunatus_ (1606), others are _The Shoemaker's Holiday_ (1600),
_Honest Whore_ (1604), _Roaring Girl_ (1611), _The Virgin Martyr_ (1622)
(with Massinger), and _The Witch of Edmonton_ (1658) (with Ford and
Rowley), _History of Sir Thomas Wyat_, _Westward Ho_, and _Northward Ho_,
all with Webster. His prose writings include _The Gull's Hornbook_
(1609), _The Seven Deadly Sins of London_, and _The Belman of London_
(1608), satirical works which give interesting glimpses of the life of
his time. His life appears to have been a somewhat chequered one,
alternating between revelry and want. He is one of the most poetical of
the older dramatists. Lamb said he "had poetry enough for anything."

DE LOLME, JOHN LOUIS (1740?-1807).--Political writer, _b._ at Geneva, has
a place in English literature for his well-known work, _The Constitution
of England_, written in French, and translated into English in 1775. He
also wrote a comparison of the English Government with that of Sweden, a
_History of the Flagellants_ (1777), and _The British Empire in Europe_
(1787). He came to England in 1769, lived in great poverty, and having
inherited a small fortune, returned to his native place in 1775.

DELONEY, THOMAS (1543-1600).--Novelist and balladist, appears to have
worked as a silk-weaver in Norwich, but was in London by 1586, and in the
course of the next 10 years is known to have written about 50 ballads,
some of which involved him in trouble, and caused him to lie _perdue_ for
a time. It is only recently that his more important work as a novelist,
in which he ranks with Greene and Nash, has received attention. He
appears to have turned to this new field of effort when his original one
was closed to him for the time. Less under the influence of Lyly and
other preceding writers than Greene, he is more natural, simple, and
direct, and writes of middle-class citizens and tradesmen with a light
and pleasant humour. Of his novels, _Thomas of Reading_ is in honour of
clothiers, _Jack of Newbury_ celebrates weaving, and _The Gentle Craft_
is dedicated to the praise of shoemakers. He "dy'd poorely," but was
"honestly buried."

DE MORGAN, AUGUSTUS (1806-1871).--Mathematician, _b._ in India, and _ed._
at Camb., was one of the most brilliant of English mathematicians. He is
mentioned here in virtue of his _Budget of Paradoxes_, a series of papers
originally _pub._ in _The Athenaeum_, in which mathematical fallacies are
discussed with sparkling wit, and the keenest logic.

DENHAM, SIR JOHN (1615-1669).--Poet, _s._ of the Chief Baron of Exchequer
in Ireland, was _b._ in Dublin, and _ed._ at Oxf. He began his literary
career with a tragedy, _The Sophy_ (1641), which seldom rises above
mediocrity. His poem, _Cooper's Hill_ (1642), is the work by which he is
remembered. It is the first example in English of a poem devoted to local
description. D. received extravagant praise from Johnson; but the place
now assigned him is a much more humble one. His verse is smooth, clear,
and agreeable, and occasionally a thought is expressed with remarkable
terseness and force. In his earlier years D. suffered for his Royalism;
but after the Restoration enjoyed prosperity. He, however, made an
unhappy marriage, and his last years were clouded by insanity. He was an
architect by profession, coming between Inigo Jones and Wren as King's
Surveyor.

DENNIS, JOHN (1657-1734).--Critic, etc., _s._ of a saddler, was _b._ in
London, and _ed._ at Harrow and Caius Coll., Camb., from the latter of
which he was expelled for stabbing a fellow-student, and transferred
himself to Trinity Hall. He attached himself to the Whigs, in whose
interest he wrote several bitter and vituperative pamphlets. His attempts
at play-writing were failures; and he then devoted himself chiefly to
criticising the works of his contemporaries. In this line, while showing
some acuteness, he aroused much enmity by his ill-temper and jealousy.
Unfortunately for him, some of those whom he attacked, such as Pope and
Swift, had the power of conferring upon him an unenviable immortality.
Embalmed in _The Dunciad_, his name has attained a fame which no work of
his own could have given it. Of Milton, however, he showed a true
appreciation. Among his works are _Rinaldo and Armida_ (1699), _Appius
and Virginia_ (1709), _Reflections Critical and Satirical_ (1711), and
_Three Letters on Shakespeare_. He _d._ in straitened circumstances.

DE QUINCEY, THOMAS (1785-1859).--Essayist and miscellaneous writer, _s._
of a merchant in Manchester, was _b._ there. The aristocratic "De" was
assumed by himself, his _f._, whom he lost while he was still a child,
having been known by the name of Quincey, and he claimed descent from a
Norman family. His _Autobiographic Sketches_ give a vivid picture of his
early years at the family residence of Greenheys, and show him as a
highly imaginative and over-sensitive child, suffering hard things at the
hands of a tyrannical elder brother. He was _ed._ first at home, then at
Bath Grammar School, next at a private school at Winkfield, Wilts, and
in 1801 he was sent to the Manchester Grammar School, from which he ran
away, and for some time rambled in Wales on a small allowance made to him
by his mother. Tiring of this, he went to London in the end of 1802,
where he led the strange Bohemian life related in _The Confessions_. His
friends, thinking it high time to interfere, sent him in 1803 to Oxf.,
which did not, however, preclude occasional brief interludes in London,
on one of which he made his first acquaintance with opium, which was to
play so prominent and disastrous a part in his future life. In 1807 he
became acquainted with Coleridge, Wordsworth, and Southey, and soon
afterwards with C. Lamb. During the years 1807-9 he paid various visits
to the Lakes, and in the latter year he settled at Townend, Grasmere,
where Wordsworth had previously lived. Here he pursued his studies,
becoming gradually more and more enslaved by opium, until in 1813 he was
taking from 8000 to 12,000 drops daily. John Wilson (Christopher North),
who was then living at Elleray, had become his friend, and brought him to
Edinburgh occasionally, which ended in his passing the latter part of his
life in that city. His marriage to Margaret Simpson, _dau._ of a farmer,
took place in 1816. Up to this time he had written nothing, but had been
steeping his mind in German metaphysics, and out-of-the-way learning of
various kinds; but in 1819 he sketched out _Prolegomena of all future
Systems of Political Economy_, which, however, was never finished. In the
same year he acted as ed. of the _Westmoreland Gazette_. His true
literary career began in 1821 with the publication in the _London
Magazine_ of _The Confessions of an English Opium-Eater_. Thereafter he
produced a long series of articles, some of them almost on the scale of
books, in _Blackwood's_ and _Tait's_ magazines, the _Edinburgh Literary
Gazette_, and _Hogg's Instructor_. These included _Murder considered as
one of the Fine Arts_ (1827), and in his later and more important period,
_Suspiria De Profundis_ (1845), _The Spanish Military Nun_ (1847), _The
English Mail-Coach_, and _Vision of Sudden Death_ (1849). In 1853 he
began a _coll._ ed. of his works, which was the main occupation of his
later years. He had in 1830 brought his family to Edinburgh, which,
except for two years, 1841-43, when he lived in Glasgow, was his home
till his death in 1859, and in 1837, on his wife's death, he placed them
in the neighbouring village of Lasswade, while he lived in solitude,
moving about from one dingy lodging to another.

De Q. stands among the great masters of style in the language. In his
greatest passages, as in the _Vision of Sudden Death_ and the _Dream
Fugue_, the cadence of his elaborately piled-up sentences falls like
cathedral music, or gives an abiding expression to the fleeting pictures
of his most gorgeous dreams. His character unfortunately bore no
correspondence to his intellectual endowments. His moral system had in
fact been shattered by indulgence in opium. His appearance and manners
have been thus described: "A short and fragile, but well-proportioned
frame; a shapely and compact head; a face beaming with intellectual
light, with rare, almost feminine beauty of feature and complexion; a
fascinating courtesy of manner, and a fulness, swiftness, and elegance of
silvery speech." His own works give very detailed information regarding
himself. _See_ also Page's _Thomas De Quincey: his Life and Writings_
(1879), Prof. Masson's _De Quincey_ (English Men of Letters). _Collected
Writings_ (14 vols. 1889-90).

DERMODY, THOMAS (1775-1802).--Poet, _b._ at Ennis, showed great capacity
for learning, but fell into idle and dissipated habits, and threw away
his opportunities. He _pub._ two books of poems, which after his death
were _coll._ as _The Harp of Erin_.

DE VERE, AUBREY THOMAS (1814-1902).--Poet, _s._ of Sir Aubrey de V.,
himself a poet, was _b._ in Co. Limerick, and _ed._ at Trinity Coll.,
Dublin. In early life he became acquainted with Wordsworth, by whom he
was greatly influenced. On the religious and ecclesiastical side he
passed under the influence of Newman and Manning, and in 1851 was
received into the Church of Rome. He was the author of many vols. of
poetry, including _The Waldenses_ (1842), _The Search for Proserpine_
(1843), etc. In 1861 he began a series of poems on Irish subjects,
_Inisfail_, _The Infant Bridal_, _Irish Odes_, etc. His interest in
Ireland and its people led him to write prose works, including _English
Misrule and Irish Misdeeds_ (1848); and to criticism he contributed
_Essays chiefly on Poetry_ (1887). His last work was his _Recollections_
(1897). His poetry is characterised by lofty ethical tone, imaginative
power, and grave stateliness of expression.

DIBDIN, CHARLES (1745-1814).--Dramatist and song writer, _b._ at
Southampton, began his literary career at 16 with a drama, _The
Shepherd's Artifice_. His fame, however, rests on his sea songs, which
are unrivalled, and include _Tom Bowling_, _Poor Jack_, and _Blow High
Blow Low_. He is said to have written over 1200 of these, besides many
dramatic pieces and two novels, _Hannah Hewitt_ (1792), and _The Younger
Brother_ (1793), and a _History of the Stage_ (1795).

DICKENS, CHARLES (1812-1870).--Novelist, _b._ at Landport, near
Portsmouth, where his _f._ was a clerk in the Navy Pay-Office. The
hardships and mortifications of his early life, his want of regular
schooling, and his miserable time in the blacking factory, which form the
basis of the early chapters of _David Copperfield_, are largely accounted
for by the fact that his _f._ was to a considerable extent the prototype
of the immortal Mr. Micawber; but partly by his being a delicate and
sensitive child, unusually susceptible to suffering both in body and
mind. He had, however, much time for reading, and had access to the older
novelists, Fielding, Smollett, and others. A kindly relation also took
him frequently to the theatre, where he acquired his life-long interest
in, and love of, the stage. After a few years' residence in Chatham, the
family removed to London, and soon thereafter his _f._ became an inmate
of the Marshalsea, in which by-and-by the whole family joined him, a
passage in his life which furnishes the material for parts of _Little
Dorrit_. This period of family obscuration happily lasted but a short
time: the elder D. managed to satisfy his creditors, and soon after
retired from his official duties on a pension. About the same time D. had
two years of continuous schooling, and shortly afterwards he entered a
law office. His leisure he devoted to reading and learning shorthand, in
which he became very expert. He then acted as parliamentary reporter,
first for _The True Sun_, and from 1835 for the _Morning Chronicle_.
Meanwhile he had been contributing to the _Monthly Magazine_ and the
_Evening Chronicle_ the papers which, in 1836, appeared in a _coll._ form
as _Sketches by Boz_; and he had also produced one or two comic
burlettas. In the same year he _m._ Miss Ann Hogarth; and in the
following year occurred the opportunity of his life. He was asked by
Chapman and Hall to write the letterpress for a series of sporting plates
to be done by Robert Seymour who, however, _d._ shortly after, and was
succeeded by Hablot Browne (Phiz), who became the illustrator of most of
D.'s novels. In the hands of D. the original plan was entirely altered,
and became the _Pickwick Papers_ which, appearing in monthly parts during
1837-39, took the country by storm. Simultaneously _Oliver Twist_ was
coming out in _Bentley's Miscellany_. Thenceforward D.'s literary career
was a continued success, and the almost yearly publication of his works
constituted the main events of his life. _Nicholas Nickleby_ appeared in
serial form 1838-39. Next year he projected _Master Humphrey's Clock_,
intended to be a series of miscellaneous stories and sketches. It was,
however, soon abandoned, _The Old Curiosity Shop_ and _Barnaby Rudge_
taking its place. The latter, dealing with the Gordon Riots, is, with the
partial exception of the _Tale of Two Cities_, the author's only
excursion into the historical novel. In 1841 D. went to America, and was
received with great enthusiasm, which, however, the publication of
_American Notes_ considerably damped, and the appearance of _Martin
Chuzzlewit_ in 1843, with its caustic criticisms of certain features of
American life, converted into extreme, though temporary, unpopularity.
The first of the Christmas books--the _Christmas Carol_--appeared in
1843, and in the following year D. went to Italy, where at Genoa he wrote
_The Chimes_, followed by _The Cricket on the Hearth_, _The Battle of
Life_, and _The Haunted Man_. In January, 1846, he was appointed first
ed. of _The Daily News_, but resigned in a few weeks. The same year he
went to Switzerland, and while there wrote _Dombey and Son_, which was
_pub._ in 1848, and was immediately followed by his masterpiece, _David
Copperfield_ (1849-50). Shortly before this he had become manager of a
theatrical company, which performed in the provinces, and he had in 1849
started his magazine, _Household Words_. _Bleak House_ appeared in
1852-53, _Hard Times_ in 1854, and _Little Dorrit_ 1856-57. In 1856 he
bought Gadshill Place, which, in 1860, became his permanent home. In 1858
he began his public readings from his works, which, while eminently
successful from a financial point of view, from the nervous strain which
they entailed, gradually broke down his constitution, and hastened his
death. In the same year he separated from his wife, and consequent upon
the controversy which arose thereupon he brought _Household Words_ to an
end, and started _All the Year Round_, in which appeared _A Tale of Two
Cities_ (1859), and _Great Expectations_ (1860-61). _Our Mutual Friend_
came out in numbers (1864-65). D. was now in the full tide of his
readings, and decided to give a course of them in America. Thither
accordingly he went in the end of 1867, returning in the following May.
He had a magnificent reception, and his profits amounted to L20,000; but
the effect on his health was such that he was obliged, on medical advice,
finally to abandon all appearances of the kind. In 1869 he began his last
work, _The Mystery of Edwin Drood_, which was interrupted by his death
from an apoplectic seizure on June 8, 1870.

One of D.'s most marked characteristics is the extraordinary wealth of
his invention as exhibited in the number and variety of the characters
introduced into his novels. Another, especially, of course, in his entire
works, is his boundless flow of animal spirits. Others are his marvellous
keenness of observation and his descriptive power. And the English race
may well, with Thackeray, be "grateful for the innocent laughter, and the
sweet and unsullied pages which the author of _David Copperfield_ gives
to [its] children." On the other hand, his faults are obvious, a tendency
to caricature, a mannerism that often tires, and almost disgusts, fun
often forced, and pathos not seldom degenerating into mawkishness. But at
his best how rich and genial is the humour, how tender often the pathos.
And when all deductions are made, he had the laughter and tears of the
English-speaking world at command for a full generation while he lived,
and that his spell still works is proved by a continuous succession of
new editions.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1812, parliamentary reporter _c._ 1835, _pub._ _Sketches
by Boz_ 1836, _Pickwick_ 1837-39, and his other novels almost
continuously until his death, visited America 1841, started _Household
Words_ 1849, and _All the Year Round_ 1858, when also he began his public
readings, visiting America again in 1867, _d._ 1870.

_Life_ by John Foster (1872), _Letters_ ed. by Miss Hogarth (1880-82).
Numerous Lives and Monographs by Sala, F.T. Marzials (Great Writers
Series), A.W. Ward (Men of Letters Series), F.G. Kitton, G.K. Chesterton,
etc.

DIGBY, SIR KENELM (1603-1665).--Miscellaneous writer, _b._ near Newport
Pagnell, _s._ of Sir Everard D., one of the Gunpowder Plot conspirators,
was _ed._ at Oxf., travelled much, and was engaged in sea-fighting.
Brought up first as a Romanist, then as a Protestant, he in 1636 joined
the Church of Rome. During the Civil War he was active on the side of the
King, and on the fall of his cause was for a time banished. He was the
author of several books on religious and quasi-scientific subjects,
including one on the _Choice of a Religion_, on the _Immortality of the
Soul_, _Observations on Spenser's Faery Queen_, and a criticism on Sir T.
Browne's _Religio Medici_. He also wrote a _Discourse on Vegetation_, and
one _On the Cure of Wounds_ by means of a sympathetic powder which he
imagined he had discovered.

DILKE, CHARLES WENTWORTH (1789-1864).--Critic and writer on literature,
served for many years in the Navy Pay-Office, on retiring from which he
devoted himself to literary pursuits. He had in 1814-16 made a
continuation of Dodsley's _Collection of English Plays_, and in 1829 he
became part proprietor and ed. of _The Athenaeum_, the influence of which
he greatly extended. In 1846 he resigned the editorship, and assumed that
of _The Daily News_, but contributed to _The Athenaeum_ his famous papers
on _Pope_, _Burke_, _Junius_, etc., and shed much new light on his
subjects. His grandson, the present Sir C.W. Dilke, _pub._ these
writings in 1875 under the title, _Papers of a Critic_.

DISRAELI, B., (_see_ BEACONSFIELD).

D'ISRAELI, ISAAC (1766-1848).--Miscellaneous writer, was descended from a
Jewish family which had been settled first in Spain, and afterwards at
Venice. _Ed._ at Amsterdam and Leyden, he devoted himself to literature,
producing a number of interesting works of considerable value, including
_Curiosities of Literature_, in 3 series (1791-1823), _Dissertation on
Anecdotes_ (1793), _Calamities of Authors_ (1812), _Amenities of
Literature_ (1841); also works dealing with the lives of James I. and
Charles I.D. was latterly blind. He was the _f._ of Benjamin D., Earl of
Beaconsfield (_q.v._).

DIXON, RICHARD WATSON (1833-1900).--Historian and poet, _s._ of Dr. James
D., a well-known Wesleyan minister and historian of Methodism, _ed._ at
King Edward's School, Birmingham, and Oxf., took Anglican orders, was
Second Master at Carlisle School, Vicar of Hayton and Warkworth, and
Canon of Carlisle. He _pub._ 7 vols. of poetry, but is best known for his
_History of the Church of England from the Abolition of Roman
Jurisdiction_ (1877-1900).

DIXON, WILLIAM HEPWORTH (1821-1879).--Historian and traveller, _b._ near
Manchester, went to London in 1846, and became connected with _The Daily
News_, for which he wrote articles on social and prison reform. In 1850
he _pub._ _John Howard and the Prison World of Europe_, which had a wide
circulation, and about the same time he wrote a _Life of Peace_ (1851),
in answer to Macaulay's onslaught. Lives of _Admiral Blake_ and _Lord
Bacon_ followed, which received somewhat severe criticisms at the hands
of competent authorities. D. was ed. of _The Athenaeum_, 1853-69, and
wrote many books of travel, including _The Holy Land_ (1865), _New
America_ (1867), and _Free Russia_ (1870). His later historical works
include _Her Majesty's Tower_, and _The History of Two Queens_ (Catherine
of Arragon and Anne Boleyn). Though a diligent student of original
authorities, and sometimes successful in throwing fresh light on his
subjects, D. was not always accurate, and thus laid himself open to
criticism; and his book, _Spiritual Wives_, treating of Mormonism, was so
adversely criticised as to lead to an action. He wrote, however, in a
fresh and interesting style. He was one of the founders of the Palestine
Exploration Fund, and was a member of the first School Board for London
(1870). He was called to the Bar in 1854, but never practised.

DOBELL, SYDNEY THOMPSON (1824-1874).--Poet, _b._ at Cranbrook, Kent, _s._
of a wine-merchant, who removed to Cheltenham, where most of the poet's
life was passed. His youth was precocious (he was engaged at 15 and _m._
at 20). In 1850 his first work, _The Roman_, appeared, and had great
popularity. _Balder, Part I._ (1854), _Sonnets on the War_, jointly with
Alexander Smith (_q.v._) (1855), and _England in Time of War_ (1856)
followed. His later years were passed in Scotland and abroad in search of
health, which, however, was damaged by a fall while exploring some ruins
at Pozzuoli. D.'s poems exhibit fancy and brilliancy of diction, but
want simplicity, and sometimes run into grandiloquence and other faults
of the so-called spasmodic school to which he belonged.

DODD, WILLIAM (1729-1777).--Divine and forger, _ed._ at Camb., became a
popular preacher in London, and a Royal Chaplain, but, acquiring
expensive habits, got involved in hopeless difficulties, from which he
endeavoured to escape first by an attempted simoniacal transaction, for
which he was disgraced, and then by forging a bond for L4200, for which,
according to the then existing law, he was hanged. Great efforts were
made to obtain a commutation of the sentence, and Dr. Johnson wrote one
of the petitions, but on D.'s book, _Thoughts in Prison_, appearing
posthumously, he remarked that "a man who has been canting all his days
may cant to the last." D. was the author of a collection of _Beauties of
Shakespeare_, _Reflections on Death_, and a translation of the _Hymns of
Callimachus_.

DODDRIDGE, PHILIP (1702-1751).--Nonconformist divine and writer of
religious books and hymns, _b._ in London, and _ed._ for the ministry at
a theological institution at Kibworth, became minister first at Market
Harborough, and afterwards at Northampton, where he also acted as head of
a theological academy. D., who was a man of amiable and joyous character,
as well as an accomplished scholar, composed many standard books of
religion, of which the best known is _The Rise and Progress of Religion
in the Soul_ (1745). In 1736 he received the degree of D.D. from
Aberdeen. He _d._ at Lisbon, whither he had gone in search of health.
Several of his hymns, _e.g._, _Ye Servants of the Lord_, _O Happy Day_,
and _O God of Bethel_, are universally used by English-speaking
Christians, and have been translated into various languages.

DODGSON, CHARLES LUTWIDGE ("LEWIS CARROLL") (1832-1898).--Mathematician
and writer of books for children, _s._ of a clergyman at Daresbury,
Cheshire, was _ed._ at Rugby and Oxf. After taking orders he was
appointed lecturer on mathematics, on which subject he _pub._ several
valuable treatises. His fame rests, however, on his books for children,
full of ingenuity and delightful humour, of which _Alice's Adventures in
Wonderland_, and its sequel, _Through the Looking-glass_, are the best.

DODSLEY, ROBERT (1703-1764).--Poet, dramatist, and bookseller, _b._ near
Mansfield, and apprenticed to a stocking-weaver, but not liking this
employment, he ran away and became a footman. While thus engaged he
produced _The Muse in Livery_ (1732). This was followed by _The Toy
Shop_, a drama, which brought him under the notice of Pope, who
befriended him, and assisted him in starting business as a bookseller. In
this he became eminently successful, and acted as publisher for Pope,
Johnson, and Akenside. He projected and _pub._ _The Annual Register_, and
made a collection of _Old English Plays_, also of _Poems by Several
Hands_ in 6 vols. In addition to the original works above mentioned he
wrote various plays and poems, including _The Blind Beggar of Bethnal
Green_ (1741), and _Cleone_ (1758).

DONNE, JOHN (1573-1631).--Poet and divine, _s._ of a wealthy ironmonger
in London, where he was _b._ Brought up as a Roman Catholic, he was sent
to Oxf. and Camb., and afterwards entered Lincoln's Inn with a view to
the law. Here he studied the points of controversy between Romanists and
Protestants, with the result that he joined the Church of England. The
next two years were somewhat changeful, including travels on the
Continent, service as a private sec., and a clandestine marriage with the
niece of his patron, which led to dismissal and imprisonment, followed by
reconciliation. On the suggestion of James I., who approved of
_Pseudo-Martyr_ (1610), a book against Rome which he had written, he took
orders, and after executing a mission to Bohemia, he was, in 1621, made
Dean of St. Paul's. D. had great popularity as a preacher. His works
consist of elegies, satires, epigrams, and religious pieces, in which,
amid many conceits and much that is artificial, frigid, and worse, there
is likewise much poetry and imagination of a high order. Perhaps the best
of his works is _An Anatomy of the World_ (1611), an elegy. Others are
_Epithalamium_ (1613), _Progress of the Soul_ (1601), and _Divine Poems_.
Collections of his poems appeared in 1633 and 1649. He exercised a strong
influence on literature for over half a century after his death; to him
we owe the unnatural style of conceits and overstrained efforts after
originality of the succeeding age.

DORAN, JOHN (1807-1878).--Miscellaneous writer, of Irish parentage, wrote
a number of works dealing with the lighter phases of manners,
antiquities, and social history, often bearing punning titles, _e.g._,
_Table Traits with Something on Them_ (1854), and _Knights and their
Days_. He also wrote _Lives of the Queens of England of the House of
Hanover_ (1855), and _A History of Court Fools_ (1858), and ed. Horace
Walpole's _Journal of the Reign of George III._ His books contain much
curious and out-of-the-way information. D. was for a short time ed. of
_The Athenaeum_.

DORSET, CHARLES SACKVILLE, 6TH EARL of (1638-1706).--Poet, was one of the
dissolute and witty courtiers of Charles II., and a friend of Sir C.
Sedley (_q.v._), in whose orgies he participated. He was, however, a
patron of literature, and a benefactor of Dryden in his later and less
prosperous years. He wrote a few satires and songs, among the latter
being the well-known, _To all you Ladies now on Land_. As might be
expected, his writings are characterised by the prevailing indelicacy of
the time.

DORSET, THOMAS SACKVILLE, 1ST EARL of, AND LORD BUCKHURST
(1536-1608).--Poet and statesman, was _b._ at Buckhurst, Sussex, the only
_s._ of Sir Richard S., and _ed._ at Oxf. and Camb. He studied law at the
Inner Temple, and while there wrote, in conjunction with Thomas Norton,
_Ferren and Porrex_ or _Gerboduc_ (1561-2), the first regular English
tragedy. A little later he planned _The Mirror for Magistrates_, which
was to have been a series of narratives of distinguished Englishmen,
somewhat on the model of Boccaccio's _Falls of Princes_. Finding the plan
too large, he handed it over to others--seven poets in all being engaged
upon it--and himself contributed two poems only, one on _Buckingham_, the
confederate, and afterwards the victim, of Richard III., and an
_Induction_ or introduction, which constitute nearly the whole value of
the work. In these poems S. becomes the connecting link between Chaucer
and Spenser. They are distinguished by strong invention and imaginative
power, and a stately and sombre grandeur of style. S. played a prominent
part in the history of his time, and held many high offices, including
those of Lord Steward and Lord Treasurer, the latter of which he held
from 1599 till his death. It fell to him to announce to Mary Queen of
Scots the sentence of death.

DOUCE, FRANCIS (1757-1834).--Antiquary, _b._ in London, was for some time
in the British Museum. He _pub._ _Illustrations of Shakespeare_ (1807),
and a dissertation on _The Dance of Death_ (1833).

DOUGLAS, GAVIN (1474?-1522).--Poet, 3rd _s._ of the 5th Earl of Angus,
was _b._ about 1474, and _ed._ at St. Andrews for the Church. Promotion
came early, and he was in 1501 made Provost of St. Giles, Edin., and in
1514 Abbot of Aberbrothock, and Archbishop of St. Andrews. But the times
were troublous, and he had hardly received these latter preferments when
he was deprived of them. He was, however, named Bishop of Dunkeld in 1514
and, after some difficulty, and undergoing imprisonment, was confirmed in
the see. In 1520 he was again driven forth, and two years later _d._ of
the plague in London. His principal poems are _The Palace of Honour_
(1501), and _King Hart_, both allegorical; but his great achievement was
his translation of the _AEneid_ in ten-syllabled metre, the first
translation into English of a classical work. D.'s language is more
archaic than that of some of his predecessors, his rhythm is rough and
unequal, but he had fire, and a power of vivid description, and his
allegories are ingenious and felicitous.

_Coll._ ed. of works by John Small, LL.D., 4 vols., 1874.

DOYLE, SIR FRANCIS HASTINGS (1810-1888).--Poet, belonged to a military
family which produced several distinguished officers, including his _f._,
who bore the same name. He was _b._ near Tadcaster, Yorkshire, and _ed._
at Eton and Oxf. Studying law he was called to the Bar in 1837, and
afterwards held various high fiscal appointments, becoming in 1869
Commissioner of Customs. In 1834 he _pub._ _Miscellaneous Verses_,
followed by _Two Destinies_ (1844), _Oedipus, King of Thebes_ (1849), and
_Return of the Guards_ (1866). He was elected in 1867 Prof. of Poetry at
Oxf. D.'s best work is his ballads, which include _The Red Thread of
Honour_, _The Private of the Buffs_, and _The Loss of the Birkenhead_. In
his longer poems his genuine poetical feeling was not equalled by his
power of expression, and much of his poetry is commonplace.

DRAKE, JOSEPH RODMAN (1795-1820).--Poet, _b._ at New York, studied
medicine, _d._ of consumption. He collaborated with F. Halleck in the
_Croaker Papers_, and wrote "The Culprit Fay" and "The American Flag."

DRAPER, JOHN WILLIAM (1811-1882).--Historian, _b._ at St. Helen's,
Lancashire, emigrated to Virginia, and was a prof. in the Univ. of New
York. He wrote _History of the American Civil War_ (1867-70), _History of
the Intellectual Development of Europe_ (1863), and _History of the
Conflict between Science and Religion_ (1874), besides treatises on
various branches of science.

DRAYTON, MICHAEL (1563-1631).--Poet, _b._ in Warwickshire, was in early
life page to a gentleman, and was possibly at Camb. or Oxf. His earliest
poem, _The Harmonie of the Church_, was destroyed. His next was _The
Shepherd's Garland_ (1593), afterwards reprinted as _Eclogues_. Three
historical poems, _Gaveston_ (1593), _Matilda_ (1594), and _Robert, Duke
of Normandie_ (1596) followed, and he then appears to have collaborated
with Dekker, Webster, and others in dramatic work. His _magnum opus_,
however, was _Polyolbion_ (1613?), a topographical description of England
in twelve-syllabled verse, full of antiquarian and historical details, so
accurate as to make the work an authority on such matters. The rushing
verse is full of vigour and gusto. Other poems of D. are _The Wars of the
Barons_ (1603), _England's Heroical Epistles_ (1598) (being imaginary
letters between Royal lovers such as Henry II. and Rosamund), _Poems,
Lyric and Heroic_ (1606) (including the fine ballad of "Agincourt"),
_Nymphidia_, his most graceful work, _Muses Elizium_, and _Idea's
Mirrour_, a collection of sonnets, Idea being the name of the lady to
whom they were addressed. Though often heavy, D. had the true poetic
gift, had passages of grandeur, and sang the praises of England with the
heart of a patriot.

DRUMMOND, HENRY (1851-1897).--Theological and scientific writer, _b._ at
Stirling, and _ed._ at Edin., he studied for the ministry of the Free
Church. Having a decided scientific bent he gave himself specially to the
study of geology, and made a scientific tour in the Rocky Mountains with
Sir A. Geikie. Some years later he undertook a geological exploration of
Lake Nyassa and the neighbouring country for the African Lakes
Corporation, and brought home a valuable Report. He also _pub._ _Tropical
Africa_, a vivid account of his travels. He became much associated with
the American evangelist, D.L. Moody, and became an extremely effective
speaker on religious subjects, devoting himself specially to young men.
His chief contribution to literature was his _Natural Law in the
Spiritual World_, which had extraordinary popularity. _The Ascent of Man_
was less successful. D. was a man of great personal fascination, and
wrote in an interesting and suggestive manner, but his reasoning in his
scientific works was by no means unassailable.

DRUMMOND, WILLIAM (1585-1649).--Poet, was descended from a very ancient
family, and through Annabella D., Queen of Robert III., related to the
Royal House. _Ed._ at Edin. Univ., he studied law on the Continent, but
succeeding in 1610 to his paternal estate of Hawthornden, he devoted
himself to poetry. _Tears on the Death of Meliades_ (Prince Henry)
appeared in 1613, and in 1616 _Poems, Amorous, Funerall, Divine, etc._
His finest poem, _Forth Feasting_ (1617), is addressed to James VI. on
his revisiting Scotland. D. was also a prose-writer, and composed a
_History of the Five Jameses, Kings of Scotland from 1423-1524_, and _The
Cypress Grove_, a meditation on death. He was also a mechanical genius,
and patented 16 inventions. D., though a Scotsman, wrote in the classical
English of the day, and was the friend of his principal literary
contemporaries, notably of Ben Jonson, who visited him at Hawthornden, on
which occasion D. preserved notes of his conversations, not always
flattering. For this he has received much blame, but it must be
remembered that he did not _pub._ them. As a poet he belonged to the
school of Spenser. His verse is sweet, flowing, and harmonious. He
excelled as a writer of sonnets, one of which, on _John the Baptist_, has
a suggestion of Milton.

_Life_ by Prof. Masson (1873), _Three Centuries of Scottish Literature_,
Walker, 1893. _Maitland Club_ ed. of _Poems_ (1832).

DRYDEN, JOHN (1631-1700).--Poet, dramatist, and satirist, was _b._ at
Aldwincle Rectory, Northamptonshire. His _f._, from whom he inherited a
small estate, was Erasmus, 3rd _s._ of Sir Erasmus Driden; his mother was
Mary Pickering, also of good family; both families belonged to the
Puritan side in politics and religion. He was _ed._ at Westminster School
and Trinity Coll., Camb., and thereafter, in 1657, came to London. While
at coll. he had written some not very successful verse. His _Heroic
Stanzas on the Death of Oliver Cromwell_ (1658) was his first
considerable poem. It was followed, in 1660, by _Astraea Redux_, in honour
of the Restoration. The interval of 18 months had been crowded with
events, and though much has been written against his apparent change of
opinion, it is fair to remember that the whole cast of his mind led him
to be a supporter of _de facto_ authority. In 1663 he _m._ Lady Elizabeth
Howard, _dau._ of the Earl of Berkshire. The Restoration introduced a
revival of the drama in its most debased form, and for many years D. was
a prolific playwright, but though his vigorous powers enabled him to work
effectively in this department, as in every other in which he engaged, it
was not his natural line, and happily his fame does not rest upon his
plays, which are deeply stained with the immorality of the age. His first
effort, _The Wild Gallant_ (1663), was a failure; his next, _The Rival
Ladies_, a tragi-comedy, established his reputation, and among his other
dramas may be mentioned _The Indian Queene_, _Amboyna_ (1673), _Tyrannic
Love_ (1669), _Almanzar and Almahide_ (ridiculed in Buckingham's
_Rehearsal_) (1670), _Arungzebe_ (1675), _All for Love_ (an adaptation of
Shakespeare's _Antony and Cleopatra_) (1678). During the great plague,
1665, D. left London, and lived with his father-in-law at Charleton. On
his return he _pub._ his first poem of real power, _Annus Mirabilis_, of
which the subjects were the great fire, and the Dutch War. In 1668
appeared his _Essay on Dramatic Poetry_ in the form of a dialogue, fine
alike as criticism and as prose. Two years later (1670) he became Poet
Laureate and Historiographer Royal with a pension of L300 a year. D. was
now in prosperous circumstances, having received a portion with his wife,
and besides the salaries of his appointments, and his profits from
literature, holding a valuable share in the King's play-house. In 1671 G.
Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, produced his _Rehearsal_, in ridicule of
the overdone heroics of the prevailing drama, and satirising D. as Mr.
Bayes. To this D. made no immediate reply, but bided his time. The next
years were devoted to the drama. But by this time public affairs were
assuming a critical aspect. A large section of the nation was becoming
alarmed at the prospect of the succession of the Duke of York, and a
restoration of popery, and Shaftesbury was supposed to be promoting the
claims of the Duke of Monmouth. And now D. showed; his full powers. The
first part of _Absalom and Achitophel_ appeared in 1681, in which Charles
figures as "David," Shaftesbury as "Achitophel," Monmouth as "Absalom,"
Buckingham as "Zimri," in the short but crushing delineation of whom the
attack of the _Rehearsal_ was requited in the most ample measure. The
effect; of the poem was tremendous. Nevertheless the indictment against
Shaftesbury for high treason was ignored by the Grand Jury at the Old
Bailey, and in honour of the event a medal was struck, which gave a title
to D.'s next stroke. His _Medal_ was issued in 1682. The success of these
wonderful poems raised a storm round D. Replies were forthcoming in
Elkanah Settle's _Absalom and Achitophel Transposed_, and Pordage's
_Azaria and Hushai_. These compositions, especially Pordage's, were
comparatively moderate. Far otherwise was Shadwell's _Medal of John
Bayes_, one of the most brutal and indecent pieces in the language. D.'s
revenge--and an ample one--was the publication of _MacFlecknoe_, a satire
in which all his opponents, but especially Shadwell, were held up to the
loathing and ridicule of succeeding ages, and others had conferred, upon
them an immortality which, however unenviable, no efforts of their own
could have secured for them. Its immediate effect was to crush and
silence all his assailants. The following year, 1683, saw the publication
of _Religio Laici_ (the religion of a layman). In 1686 D. joined the
Church of Rome, for which he has by some been blamed for time-serving of
the basest kind. On the other hand his consistency and conscientiousness
have by others been as strongly maintained. The change, which was
announced by the publication, in 1687 of _The Hind and the Panther, a
Defence of the Roman Church_, at all events did not bring with it any
worldly advantages. It was parodied by C. Montague and Prior in the _Town
and Country Mouse_. At the Revolution D. was deprived of all his pensions
and appointments, including the Laureateship, in which he was succeeded
by his old enemy Shadwell. His latter years were passed in comparative
poverty, although the Earl of Dorset and other old friends contributed by
their liberality to lighten his cares. In these circumstances he turned
again to the drama, which, however, was no longer what it had been as a
source of income. To this period belong _Don Sebastian_, and his last
play, _Love Triumphant_. A new mine, however, was beginning to be opened
up in the demand for translations which had arisen. This gave D. a new
opportunity, and he produced, in addition to translations from Juvenal
and Perseus, his famous "Virgil" (1697). About the same time appeared
_The Ode for St. Cecilia's Day_, and _Alexander's Feast_, and in 1700,
the year of his death, the _Fables_, largely adaptations from Chaucer and
Boccaccio. In his own line, that of argument, satire, and declamation, D.
is without a rival in our literature: he had little creative imagination
and no pathos. His dramas, which in bulk are the greatest part of his
work, add almost nothing to his fame; in them he was meeting a public
demand, not following the native bent of his genius. In his satires, and
in such poems as _Alexander's Feast_, he rises to the highest point of
his powers in a verse swift and heart-stirring. In prose his style is
clear, strong, and nervous. He seems to have been almost insensible to
the beauty of Nature.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1631, _ed._ Westminster and Camb., became prolific
playwright, _pub._ _Annus Mirabilis_ _c._ 1666, Poet Laureate 1667,
_pub._ _Absalom and Achitophel_ (part 1) 1681, _Medal_ 1682,
_MacFlecknoe_ 1682, _Religio Laici_ 1683, joined Church of Rome 1686,
_pub._ _Hind and Panther_ 1687, deprived of offices and pensions at
Revolution 1688, _pub._ translations including "Virgil" 1697, _St.
Cecilia's Day_ and _Alexander's Feast_ _c._ 1697, and _Fables_ 1700, when
he _d._

Sir W. Scott's ed. with _Life_ 1808, re-edited in 18 vols. by Prof.
Saintsbury (1883-93); Aldine ed. (5 vols., 1892), Johnson's _Lives of the
Poets_, etc.

DUFF, SIR MOUNTSTUART E. GRANT (1829-1906).--Miscellaneous writer, was
M.P. for the Elgin Burghs, and Lieut.-Governor of Madras. He _pub._
_Studies of European Politics_, books on Sir H. Maine, Lord de Tabley,
and Renan, and a series of _Notes from a Diary_, perhaps his most
interesting work.

DUFFERIN, HELEN SELENA (SHERIDAN), COUNTESS OF (1807-1867).--Eldest
_dau._ of Tom S., grand-daughter of Richard Brinsley S. (_q.v._), and
sister of Mrs. Norton (_q.v._). She and her two sisters were known as
"the three Graces," the third being the Duchess of Somerset. She shared
in the family talent, and wrote a good deal of verse, her best known
piece being perhaps _The Lament of the Irish Emigrant_, beginning "I'm
sittin' on the stile, Mary." She also wrote _Lispings from Low Latitudes,
or Extracts from the Journal of the Hon. Impulsia Gushington_, _Finesse,
or a Busy Day at Messina_, etc.

DUFFY, SIR CHARLES GAVAN (1816-1903).--Poet, _b._ in Monaghan, early took
to journalism, and became one of the founders of the _Nature_ newspaper,
and one of the leaders of the Young Ireland movement. Thereafter he went
to Australia, where he became a leading politician, and rose to be
Premier of Victoria. His later years were spent chiefly on the Continent.
He did much to stimulate in Ireland a taste for the national history and
literature, started _The Library of Ireland_, and made a collection, _The
Ballad Poetry of Ireland_, which was a great success. He also _pub._ an
autobiography, _My Life in Two Hemispheres_.

DUGDALE, SIR WILLIAM (1605-1686).--Herald and antiquary, was _b._ at
Coleshill, Warwickshire, and _ed._ at Coventry School. From early youth
he showed a strong bent towards heraldic and antiquarian studies, which
led to his appointment, in 1638, as a Pursuivant-extraordinary, from
which he rose to be Garter-King-at-Arms. In 1655, jointly with Roger
Dodsworth, he brought out the first vol. of _Monasticon Anglicanum_ (the
second following in 1661, and the third in 1673), containing the charters
of the ancient monasteries. In 1656 he _pub._ the _Antiquities of
Warwickshire_, which maintains a high place among county histories, and
in 1666 _Origines Judiciales_. His great work, _The Baronage of England_,
appeared in 1675-6. Other works were a _History of Imbanking and
Drayning_, and a _History of St. Paul's Cathedral_. All D.'s writings are
monuments of learning and patient investigation.

DU MAURIER, GEORGE LOUIS PALMELLA BUSSON (1834-1896).--Artist and
novelist, _b._ and _ed._ in Paris, in 1864 succeeded John Leech on the
staff of _Punch_. His three novels, _Peter Ibbetson_ (1891), _Trilby_
(1894), and _The Martian_ (1896), originally appeared in _Harper's
Magazine_.

DUNBAR, WILLIAM (1465?-1530?).--Poet, is believed to have been _b._ in
Lothian, and _ed._ at St. Andrews, and in his earlier days he was a
Franciscan friar. Thereafter he appears to have been employed by James
IV. in some Court and political matters. His chief poems are _The
Thrissil and the Rois (The Thistle and the Rose_) (1503), _The Dance of
the Seven Deadly Sins_, a powerful satire, _The Golden Targe_, an
allegory, and _The Lament for the Makaris_ (poets) (_c._ 1507). In all
these there is a vein of true poetry. In his allegorical poems he follows
Chaucer in his setting, and is thus more or less imitative and
conventional: in his satirical pieces, and in the _Lament_, he takes a
bolder flight and shows his native power. His comic poems are somewhat
gross. The date and circumstances of his death are uncertain, some
holding that he fell at Flodden, others that he was alive so late as
1530. Other works are _The Merle_ and _The Nightingale_, and the
_Flyting_ (scolding) of Dunbar and Kennedy. Mr. Gosse calls D. "the
largest figure in English literature between Chaucer and Spenser." He has
bright strength, swiftness, humour, and pathos, and his descriptive touch
is vivid and full of colour.

DUNLOP, JOHN COLIN (_c._ 1785-1842).--Historian, _s._ of a Lord Provost
of Glasgow, where and at Edin. he was _ed._, was called to the Bar in
1807, and became Sheriff of Renfrewshire. He wrote a _History of Fiction_
(1814), a _History of Roman Literature to the Augustan Age_ (1823-28),
and _Memoirs of Spain during the Reigns of Philip IV. and Charles II._
(1834). He also made translations from the Latin Anthology.

DUNS, SCOTUS JOHANNES (1265?-1308?).--Schoolman. The dates of his birth
and death and the place of his birth are alike doubtful. He may have been
at Oxf., is said to have been a regent or prof. at Paris, and was a
Franciscan. He was a man of extraordinary learning, and received the
sobriquet of Doctor Subtilis. Among his many works on logic and theology
are a philosophic grammar, and a work on metaphysics, _De Rerum
Principio_ (of the beginning of things). His great opponent was Thomas
Aquinas, and schoolmen of the day were divided into Scotists and
Thomists, or realists and nominalists.

D'URFEY, THOMAS (1653-1723).--Dramatist and song-writer, was a well-known
man-about-town, a companion of Charles II., and lived on to the reign of
George I. His plays are now forgotten, and he is best known in connection
with a collection of songs entitled, _Pills to Purge Melancholy_. Addison
describes him as a "diverting companion," and "a cheerful, honest,
good-natured man." His writings are nevertheless extremely gross. His
plays include _Siege of Memphis_ (1676), _Madame Fickle_ (1677),
_Virtuous Wife_ (1680), and _The Campaigners_ (1698).

DWIGHT, TIMOTHY (1752-1817).--Theologian and poet, _b._ at Northampton,
Mass., was a grandson of Jonathan Edwards, became a Congregationalist
minister, Prof. of Divinity, and latterly Pres. of Yale. His works
include, besides theological treatises and sermons, the following poems,
_America_ (1772), _The Conquest of Canaan_ (1785), and _The Triumph of
Infidelity_, a satire, admired in their day, but now unreadable.

DYCE, ALEXANDER (1798-1869).--Scholar and critic, _s._ of Lieut.-General
Alexander D., was _b._ in Edin., and _ed._ there and at Oxf. He took
orders, and for a short time served in two country curacies. Then,
leaving the Church and settling in London, he betook himself to his
life-work of ed. the English dramatists. His first work, _Specimens of
British Poetesses_, appeared in 1825; and thereafter at various intervals
ed. of Collins's _Poems_, and the dramatic works of _Peele, Middleton,
Beaumont and Fletcher, Marlowe, Greene, Webster_, and others. His great
ed. of _Shakespeare_ in 9 vols. appeared in 1857. He also ed. various
works for the Camden Society, and _pub._ _Table Talk of Samuel Rogers_.
All D.'s work is marked by varied and accurate learning, minute research,
and solid judgment.

DYER, SIR EDWARD (1545?-1607).--Poet, _b._ at Sharpham Park, Somerset,
and _ed._ at Oxf., was introduced to the Court by the Earl of Leicester,
and sent on a mission to Denmark, 1589. He was in 1596 made Chancellor of
the Order of the Garter, and knighted. In his own day he had a reputation
for his elegies among such judges as Sidney and Puttenham. For a long
time there was doubt as to what poems were to be attributed to him, but
about a dozen pieces have now been apparently identified as his. The best
known is that on contentment beginning, "My mind to me a kingdom is."

DYER, JOHN (1700-1758).--Poet, was _b._ in Caermarthenshire. In his early
years he studied painting, but finding that he was not likely to attain a
satisfactory measure of success, entered the Church. He has a definite,
if a modest, place in literature as the author of three poems, _Grongar
Hill_ (1727), _The Ruins of Rome_ (1740), and _The Fleece_ (1757). The
first of these is the best, and the best known, and contains much true
natural description; but all have passages of considerable poetical
merit, delicacy and precision of phrase being their most noticeable
characteristic. Wordsworth had a high opinion of D. as a poet, and
addressed a sonnet to him.

EARLE, JOHN (1601-1665).--Divine and miscellaneous writer, _b._ at York,
and _ed._ at Oxf., where he was a Fellow of Merton. He took orders, was
tutor to Charles II., a member of the Assembly of Divines at Westminster,
1643, Chaplain and Clerk of the Closet to Charles when in exile. On the
Restoration he was made Dean of Westminster, in 1662 Bishop of Worcester,
and the next year Bishop of Salisbury. He was learned and eloquent, witty
and agreeable in society, and was opposed to the "Conventicle" and "Five
Mile" Acts, and to all forms of persecution. He wrote _Hortus
Mertonensis_ (the Garden of Merton) in Latin, but his chief work was
_Microcosmographie, or a Piece of the World discovered in Essays and
Characters_ (1628), the best and most interesting of all the "character"
books.

EASTLAKE, ELIZABETH, LADY (RIGBY) (1809-1893).--_dau._ of Dr. Edward
Rigby of Norwich, a writer on medical and agricultural subjects, spent
her earlier life on the Continent and in Edin. In 1849 she _m._ Sir
Charles L. Eastlake, the famous painter, and Pres. of the Royal Academy.
Her first work was _Letters from the Shores of the Baltic_ (1841). From
1842 she was a frequent contributor to the _Quarterly Review_, in which
she wrote a very bitter criticism of _Jane Eyre_. She also wrote various
books on art, and Lives of her husband, of Mrs. Grote, and of Gibson the
sculptor, and was a leader in society.

ECHARD, LAURENCE (_c._ 1670-1730).--Historian, _b._ at Barsham, Suffolk,
and _ed._ at Camb., took orders and became Archdeacon of Stow. He
translated Terence, part of Plautus, D'Orleans' _History of the
Revolutions in England_, and made numerous compilations on history,
geography, and the classics. His chief work, however, is his _History of
England_ (1707-1720). It covers the period from the Roman occupation to
his own times, and continued to be the standard work on the subject until
it was superseded by translations of Rapin's French _History of England_.

EDGEWORTH, MARIA (1767-1849).--Novelist, only child of Richard E., of
Edgeworthstown, Co. Longford, was _b._ near Reading. Her _f._, who was
himself a writer on education and mechanics, bestowed much attention on
her education. She showed early promise of distinction, and assisted her
_f._ in his literary labours, especially in _Practical Education_ and
_Essay on Irish Bulls_ (1802). She soon discovered that her strength lay
in fiction, and from 1800, when her first novel, _Castle Rackrent_,
appeared, until 1834, when her last, _Helen_, was _pub._, she continued
to produce a series of novels and tales characterised by ingenuity of
invention, humour, and acute delineation of character. Notwithstanding a
tendency to be didactic, and the presence of a "purpose" in most of her
writings, their genuine talent and interest secured for them a wide
popularity. It was the success of Miss E. in delineating Irish character
that suggested to Sir W. Scott the idea of rendering a similar service to
Scotland. Miss E., who had great practical ability, was able to render
much aid during the Irish famine. In addition to the works above
mentioned, she wrote _Moral Tales_ and _Belinda_ (1801), _Leonora_
(1806), _Tales of Fashionable Life_ (1809 and 1812), and a Memoir of her
_f._

EDWARDS, JONATHAN (1702?-1758).--Theologian, _s._ of a minister, was _b._
at East Windsor, Connecticut, _ed._ at Yale Coll., and licensed as a
preacher in 1722. The following year he was appointed as tutor at Yale, a
position in which he showed exceptional capacity. In 1726 he went to
Northampton, Conn., as minister of a church there, and remained for 24
years, exercising his ministry with unusual earnestness and diligence. At
the end of that time, however, he was in 1750 dismissed by his
congregation, a disagreement having arisen on certain questions of
discipline. Thereafter he acted as a missionary to the Indians of
Massachusetts. While thus engaged he composed his famous treatises, _On
the Freedom of the Will_ (1754), and _On Original Sin_ (1758).
Previously, in 1746, he had produced his treatise, _On the Religious
Affections_. In 1757 he was appointed Pres. of Princeton Coll., New
Jersey, but was almost immediately thereafter stricken with small-pox, of
which he _d._ on March 22, 1757. E. possessed an intellect of
extraordinary strength and clearness, and was capable of sustaining very
lengthened chains of profound argument. He is one of the ablest defenders
of the Calvinistic system of theology, which he developed to its most
extreme positions. He was a man of fervent piety, and of the loftiest and
most disinterested character.

EDWARDS, RICHARD (1523?-1566).--Poet, was at Oxf., and went to Court,
where he was made a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, and master of the
singing boys. He had a high reputation for his comedies and interludes.
His _Palaman and Arcite_ was acted before Elizabeth at Oxf. in 1566, when
the stage fell and three persons were killed and five hurt, the play
nevertheless proceeding. _Damon and Pythias_ (1577), a comedy, is his
only extant play.

EGAN, PIERCE (1772-1849).--Humorist, _b._ in London, he satirised the
Prince Regent in _The Lives of Florizel and Perdita_ (1814), but is best
remembered by _Life in London: or the Day and Night Scenes of Jerry
Hawthorn and his elegant friend, Corinthian Tom_, a collection of
sketches which had great success at the time, and which gives a picture
of the sports and amusements of London in the days of the Regency. It was
illustrated by George Cruikshank.

EGGLESTON, EDWARD (1837-1902).--Novelist, _b._ at Vevay, Indiana, was a
Methodist minister. He wrote a number of tales, some of which, specially
the "Hoosier" series, attracted much attention, among which are _The
Hoosier Schoolmaster_, _The Hoosier Schoolboy_, _The End of the World_,
_The Faith Doctor_, _Queer Stories for Boys and Girls_, etc.

"ELIOT, GEORGE," _see_ EVANS.

ELIZABETH, QUEEN (1533-1603).--Was one of the scholar-women of her time,
being versed in Latin, Greek, French, and Italian. Her translation of
Boethius shows her exceptional art and skill. In the classics Roger
Ascham was her tutor. She wrote various short poems, some of which were
called by her contemporaries "sonnets," though not in the true sonnet
form. Her original letters and despatches show an idiomatic force of
expression beyond that of any other English monarch.

ELLIOT, MISS JEAN (1727-1805).--Poetess, _dau._ of Sir Gilbert Elliot of
Minto, has a small niche in literature as the authoress of the beautiful
ballad, _The Flowers of the Forest_, beginning, "I've heard the lilting
at our yowe-milking." Another ballad with the same title beginning, "I've
seen the smiling of fortune beguiling" was written by Alicia Rutherford,
afterwards Mrs. Cockburn.

ELLIOT, EBENEZER (1781-1849).--Poet, _b._ at Masborough, Yorkshire, in
his youth worked in an iron-foundry, and in 1821 took up the same
business on his own account with success. He is best known by his poems
on behalf of the poor and oppressed, and especially for his denunciations
of the Corn Laws, which gained for him the title of the Corn Law Rhymer.
Though now little read, he had considerable poetic gift. His principal
poems are _Corn Law Rhymes_ (1831), _The Ranter_, and _The Village
Patriarch_ (1829).

ELLIS, GEORGE (1753-1815).--Miscellaneous writer, _s._ of a West Indian
planter, gained some fame by _Poetical Tales by Sir Gregory Gander_
(1778). He also had a hand in the _Rolliad_, a series of Whig satires
which appeared about 1785. Changing sides he afterwards contributed to
the _Anti-Jacobin_. He accompanied Sir J. Harris on his mission to the
Netherlands, and there _coll._ materials for his _History of the Dutch
Revolution_ (1789). He ed. _Specimens of the Early English Poets_ (1790),
and _Specimens of the Early English Romances_, both works of scholarship.
He was a friend of Scott, who dedicated the fifth canto of _Marmion_ to
him.

ELLWOOD, THOMAS (1639-1713).--A young Quaker who was introduced to Milton
in 1662, and devoted much of his time to reading to him. It is to a
question asked by him that we owe the writing of _Paradise Regained_. He
was a simple, good man, ready to suffer for his religious opinions, and
has left an autobiography of singular interest alike for the details of
Milton's later life, which it gives, and for the light it casts on the
times of the writer. He also wrote _Davideis_ (1712), a sacred poem, and
some controversial works.

ELPHINSTONE, MOUNTSTUART (1779-1859).--Fourth _s._ of the 11th Lord E.,
was _ed._ at Edin., and entered the Bengal Civil Service in 1795. He had
a very distinguished career as an Indian statesman, and did much to
establish the present system of government and to extend education. He
was Governor of Bombay (1819-1827), and prepared a code of laws for that
Presidency. In 1829 he was offered, but declined, the position of
Governor-General of India. He wrote a _History of India_ (1841), and _The
Rise of the British Power in the East_, _pub._ in 1887.

ELWIN, WHITWELL (1816-1900).--Critic and editor, _s._ of a country
gentleman of Norfolk, studied at Camb., and took orders. He was an
important contributor to the _Quarterly Review_, of which he became
editor in 1853. He undertook to complete Croker's ed. of Pope, and
brought out 5 vols., when he dropped it, leaving it to be finished by Mr.
Courthope. As an ed. he was extremely autocratic, and on all subjects had
pronounced opinions, and often singular likes and dislikes.

ELYOT, SIR THOMAS (1490-1546).--Diplomatist, physician, and writer, held
many diplomatic appointments. He wrote _The Governor_ (1531), a treatise
on education, in which he advocated gentler treatment of schoolboys, _The
Castle of Health_ (1534), a medical work, and _A Defence of Good Women_
(1545). He also in 1538 _pub._ the first _Latin and English Dictionary_,
and made various translations.

EMERSON, RALPH WALDO (1803-1882).--Philosopher, was _b._ at Boston,
Massachusetts. His _f._ was a minister there, who had become a Unitarian,
and who _d._ in 1811, leaving a widow with six children, of whom Ralph,
then aged 8, was the second. Mrs. E. was, however, a woman of energy, and
by means of taking boarders managed to give all her sons a good
education. E. entered Harvard in 1817 and, after passing through the
usual course there, studied for the ministry, to which he was ordained in
1827, and settled over a congregation in his native city. There he
remained until 1832, when he resigned, ostensibly on a difference of
opinion with his brethren on the permanent nature of the Lord's Supper as
a rite, but really on a radical change of view in regard to religion in
general, expressed in the maxim that "the day of formal religion is
past." About the same time he lost his young wife, and his health, which
had never been robust, showed signs of failing. In search of recovery he
visited Europe, where he met many eminent men and formed a life-long
friendship with Carlyle. On his return in 1834 he settled at Concord, and
took up lecturing. In 1836 he _pub._ _Nature_, a somewhat transcendental
little book which, though containing much fine thought, did not appeal to
a wide circle. _The American Scholar_ followed in 1837. Two years
previously he had entered into a second marriage. His influence as a
thinker rapidly extended, he was regarded as the leader of the
transcendentalists, and was one of the chief contributors to their organ,
_The Dial_. The remainder of his life, though happy, busy, and
influential, was singularly uneventful. In 1847 he paid a second visit to
England, when he spent a week with Carlyle, and delivered a course of
lectures in England and Scotland on "Representative Men," which he
subsequently _pub._ _English Traits_ appeared in 1856. In 1857 _The
Atlantic Monthly_ was started, and to it he became a frequent
contributor. In 1874 he was nominated for the Lord Rectorship of the
Univ. of Glasgow, but was defeated by Disraeli. He, however, regarded his
nomination as the greatest honour of his life. After 1867 he wrote
little. He _d._ on April 27, 1882. His works were _coll._ in 11 vols.,
and in addition to those above mentioned include _Essays_ (two series),
_Conduct of Life_, _Society and Solitude_, _Natural History of
Intellect_, and _Poems_. The intellect of E. was subtle rather than
robust, and suggestive rather than systematic. He wrote down the
intuitions and suggestions of the moment, and was entirely careless as to
whether these harmonised with previous statements. He was an original and
stimulating thinker and writer, and wielded a style of much beauty and
fascination. His religious views approached more nearly to Pantheism than
to any other known system of belief. He was a man of singular elevation
and purity of character.

ERCILDOUN, THOMAS of, or "THOMAS THE RHYMER" (_fl._ 1220-1297).--A
minstrel to whom is ascribed _Sir Tristrem_, a rhyme or story for
recitation. He had a reputation for prophecy, and is reported to have
foretold the death of Alexander III., and various other events.

ERIGENA, or SCOTUS, JOHN (_fl._ 850).--Philosopher, _b._ in Scotland or
Ireland, was employed at the Court of Charles the Bald, King of France.
He was a pantheistic mystic, and made translations from the Alexandrian
philosophers. He was bold in the exposition of his principles, and had
both strength and subtlety of intellect. His chief work is _De Divisione
Naturae_, a dialogue in which he places reason above authority.

ERSKINE, RALPH (1685-1752).--Scottish Divine and poet, was _b._ near
Cornhill, Northumberland, where his _f._, a man of ancient Scottish
family, was, for the time, a nonconforming minister. He became minister
of Dunfermline, and, with his brother Ebenezer, was involved in the
controversies in the Church of Scotland, which led to the founding of the
Secession Church in 1736. He has a place in literature as the writer of
devotional works, especially for his _Gospel Sonnets_ (of which 25 ed.
had appeared by 1797), and _Scripture Songs_ (1754).

ERSKINE, THOMAS (1788-1870).--Theologian, _s._ of David E., of Linlathen,
to which property he succeeded, his elder brother having _d._ He was
called to the Bar in 1810, but never practised. Having come under
unusually deep religious impressions he devoted himself largely to the
study of theology, and _pub._ various works, including _The Internal
Evidence for the Truth of Revealed Religion_ (1820), _Unconditional
Freeness of the Gospel_, and _The Spiritual Order_. He was a man of
singular charm of character, and wielded a great influence on the
religious thought of his day. He enjoyed the friendship of men of such
different types as Carlyle, Chalmers, Dean Stanley, and Prevost Paradol.
His _Letters_ were ed. by Dr. W. Hanna (1877-78).

ETHEREGE, SIR GEORGE (1635?-1691).--Dramatist, was at Camb., travelled,
read a little law, became a man-about-town, the companion of Sedley,
Rochester, and their set. He achieved some note as the writer of three
lively comedies, _Love in a Tub_ (1664), _She would if she Could_ (1668),
and _The Man of Mode_ (1676), all characterised by the grossness of the
period. He was sent on a mission to Ratisbon, where he broke his neck
when lighting his guests downstairs after a drinking bout.

EVANS, MARY ANN or MARIAN ("GEORGE ELIOT") (1819-1880).--Novelist, was
_b._ near Nuneaton, Warwickshire, _dau._ of Robert E., land agent, a man
of strong individuality. Her education was completed at a school in
Coventry, and after the death of her mother in 1836, and the marriage of
her elder sister, she kept house for her _f._ until his death in 1849. In
1841 they gave up their house in the country, and went to live in
Coventry. Here she made the acquaintance of Charles Bray, a writer on
phrenology, and his brother-in-law Charles Hennell, a rationalistic
writer on the origin of Christianity, whose influence led her to renounce
the evangelical views in which she had been brought up. In 1846 she
engaged in her first literary work, the completion of a translation begun
by Mrs. Hennell of Strauss's _Life of Jesus_. On her _f.'s_ death she
went abroad with the Brays, and, on her return in 1850, began to write
for the _Westminster Review_, of which from 1851-53 she was
assistant-editor. In this capacity she was much thrown into the society
of Herbert Spencer and George Henry Lewes (_q.v._), with the latter of
whom she in 1854 entered into an irregular connection which lasted until
his death. In the same year she translated Feuerbach's _Essence of
Christianity_, the only one of her writings to which she attached her
real name. It was not until she was nearly 40 that she appears to have
discovered the true nature of her genius; for it was not until 1857 that
_The Sad Fortunes of the Rev. Amos Barton_ appeared in _Blackwood's
Magazine_, and announced that a new writer of singular power had arisen.
It was followed by _Mr. Gilfil's Love Story_ and _Janet's Repentance_,
all three being reprinted as _Scenes from Clerical Life_ (1857); _Adam
Bede_ was _pub._ in 1859, _The Mill on the Floss_, in its earlier
chapters largely autobiographical, in 1860, _Silas Marner_, perhaps the
most artistically constructed of her books, in 1861. In 1860 and 1861 she
visited Florence with the view of preparing herself for her next work,
_Romola_, a tale of the times of Savonarola, which appeared in 1863 in
the _Cornhill Magazine_. _Felix Holt the Radical_ followed in 1866. Miss
E. now for a time abandoned novel-writing and took to poetry, and between
1868 and 1871 produced _The Spanish Gipsy_, _Agatha_, _The Legend of
Jubal_, and _Armgart_. These poems, though containing much fine work, did
not add to her reputation, and in fact in writing them she had departed
from her true vocation. Accordingly, she returned to fiction, and in
_Middlemarch_, which appeared in parts in 1871-72, she was by many
considered to have produced her greatest work. _Daniel Deronda_, which
came out in 1874-76, was greatly inferior, and it was her last novel. In
1878 she _pub._ _The Impressions of Theophrastus Such_, a collection of
miscellaneous essays. In the same year Mr. Lewes _d._, an event which
plunged her into melancholy, which was, however, alleviated by the
kindness of Mr. John Cross, who had been the intimate friend of both L.
and herself, and whom she _m._ in March, 1880. The union was a short one,
being terminated by her death on December 22 in the same year.

George Eliot will probably always retain a high place among writers of
fiction. Her great power lies in the minute painting of character,
chiefly among the lower middle classes, shopkeepers, tradesmen, and
country folk of the Midlands, into whose thoughts and feelings she had an
insight almost like divination, and of whose modes of expression she was
complete mistress. Her general view of life is pessimistic, relieved by a
power of seizing the humorous elements in human stupidity and ill-doing.
There is also, however, much seriousness in her treatment of the phases
of life upon which she touches, and few writers have brought out with
greater power the hardening and degrading effects of continuance in evil
courses, or the inevitable and irretrievable consequences of a wrong act.
Her descriptions of rural scenes have a singular charm.

_Life_, ed. by J.W. Cross (1885-6). Books on her by Oscar Browning, 1890,
and Sir Leslie Stephen (Men of Letters), 1902.

EVELYN, JOHN (1620-1706).--Diarist, and miscellaneous writer, was of an
old Surrey family, and was _ed._ at a school at Lewes and at Oxf. He
travelled much on the Continent, seeing all that was best worth seeing in
the way of galleries and collections, both public and private, of which
he has given an interesting account in his _Diary_. He was all his life
a staunch Royalist, and joined the King as a volunteer in 1642, but soon
after repaired again to the Continent. After 1652 he was at home, settled
at Sayes Court, near Deptford, where his gardens were famous. After the
Restoration he was employed in various matters by the Government, but his
lofty and pure character was constantly offended by the manners of the
Court. In addition to his _Diary_, kept up from 1624-1706, and which is
full of interesting details of public and private events, he wrote upon
such subjects as plantations, _Sylva_ (1664), gardening, _Elysium
Britannicum_ (_unpub._), architecture, prevention of smoke in London,
engraving, _Sculptura_ (1662), and he was one of the founders of the
Royal Society, of which he was for a time sec. The dignity and purity of
E'.s character stand forth in strong relief against the laxity of his
times.

EWING, MRS. JULIANA HORATIA (GATTY) (1842-1885).--Writer of children's
stories, _dau._ of Mrs. Alfred Gatty (_q.v._), also a writer for
children. Among her tales, which have hardly been excelled in sympathetic
insight into child-life, and still enjoy undiminished popularity, are: _A
Flat Iron for a Farthing_, _Jackanapes_, _Jan of the Windmill_, _Mrs.
Overtheway's Remembrances_, and _The Story of a Short Life_.

FABER, FREDERICK WILLIAM (1814-1863).--Theologian and hymn-writer, was
_b._ at Calverley, Yorkshire, and _ed._ at Harrow and Oxf., where he came
under the influence of Newman, whom he followed into the Church of Rome.
He wrote various theological treatises, but has a place in literature for
his hymns, which include _The Pilgrims of the Night_, _My God how
wonderful thou art_, and _Sweet Saviour, bless us ere we go_.

FABYAN, ROBERT (_d._ 1513).--Chronicler, was _b._ in London, of which he
became an Alderman and Sheriff. He kept a diary of notable events, which
he expanded into a chronicle, which he entitled, _The Concordance of
Histories_. It covers the period from the arrival of Brutus in England to
the death of Henry VII., and deals mainly with the affairs of London. It
was not printed until 1515, when it appeared under the title of _The New
Chronicles of England and France_.

FAIRFAX, EDWARD (1580?-1635).--Translator, natural _s._ of Sir Thomas F.,
lived at Fuystone, near Knaresborough, in peace and prosperity. His
translation of Tasso's _Jerusalem Delivered_, on which his fame is
founded, is a masterpiece, one of the comparatively few translations
which in themselves are literature. It was highly praised by Dryden and
Waller. The first ed. appeared in 1600, and was dedicated to Queen
Elizabeth. F. also wrote a treatise on _Demonology_, in which he was a
devout believer.

FALCONER, WILLIAM (1732-1769).--Poet, _s._ of a barber in Edin., where he
was _b._, became a sailor, and was thus thoroughly competent to describe
the management of the storm-tossed vessel, the career and fate of which
are described in his poem, _The Shipwreck_ (1762), a work of genuine,
though unequal, talent. The efforts which F. made to improve the poem in
the successive ed. which followed the first were not entirely
successful. The work gained for him the patronage of the Duke of York,
through whose influence he obtained the position of purser on various
warships. Strangely enough, his own death occurred by shipwreck. F. wrote
other poems, now forgotten, besides a useful _Nautical Dictionary_.

FANSHAWE, CATHERINE MARIA (1765-1834).--Poetess, _dau._ of a Surrey
squire, wrote clever occasional verse. Her best known production is the
famous _Riddle on the Letter H_, beginning "'Twas whispered in heaven,
'twas muttered in hell" often attributed to Lord Byron.

FANSHAWE, SIR RICHARD (1608-1666).--Diplomatist, translator, and poet,
_b._ at Ware Park, Herts, and _ed._ at Camb., travelled on the Continent,
and when the Civil War broke out sided with the King and was sent to
Spain to obtain money for the cause. He acted as Latin Sec. to Charles
II. when in Holland. After the Restoration he held various appointments,
and was Ambassador to Portugal and Spain successively. He translated
Guarini's _Pastor Fido_, _Selected Parts of Horace_, and _The Lusiad_ of
Camoens. His wife, _nee_ Anne Harrison, wrote memoirs of her own life.

FARADAY, MICHAEL (1791-1867).--Natural philosopher, _s._ of a blacksmith,
was _b._ in London, and apprenticed to a book-binder. He early showed a
taste for chemistry, and attended the lectures of Sir H. Davy (_q.v._),
by whom he was, in 1813, appointed his chemical assistant in the Royal
Institution. He became one of the greatest of British discoverers and
popularisers of science, his discoveries being chiefly in the department
of electro-magnetism. He had an unusual power of making difficult
subjects clearly understood. Among his writings are _History of the
Progress of Electro-Magnetism_ (1821), _The Non-metallic Elements_, _The
Chemical History of a Candle_, and _The Various Forces in Nature_. F. was
a man of remarkable simplicity and benevolence of character, and deeply
religious.

FARMER, RICHARD (1735-1797).--Shakespearian scholar, _b._ at Leicester,
and _ed._ at Camb., where he ultimately became Master of Emanuel Coll. He
wrote an _Essay on the Learning of Shakespeare_ (1767), in which he
maintained that Shakespeare's knowledge of the classics was through
translations, the errors of which he reproduced. It is a production of
great ability. F. was a clergyman, and held a prebend in St. Paul's.

FARQUHAR, GEORGE (1678-1707).--Dramatist, _b._ at Londonderry, _s._ of a
clergyman, and _ed._ at Trinity Coll., Dublin, on leaving which he took
to the stage, but had no great success as an actor. This, together with
an accident in which he wounded a fellow-actor with a sword, led to his
relinquishing it, and giving himself to writing plays instead of acting
them. Thereafter he joined the army. _Love and a Bottle_ (1698) was his
first venture, and others were _The Constant Couple_ (1700), _Sir Harry
Wildair_ (1701), _The Inconstant_ (1703), _The Recruiting Officer_
(1706), and _The Beau's Stratagem_ (1707). F.'s plays are full of wit and
sparkle and, though often coarse, have not the malignant pruriency of
some of his predecessors. He made an unfortunate marriage, and _d._ in
poverty.

FARRAR, FREDERIC WILLIAM (1831-1903).--Theological writer, _b._ in
Bombay, and _ed._ at London Univ. and Camb., was for some years a master
at Harrow, and from 1871-76 Head Master of Marlborough School. He became
successively Canon of Westminster and Rector of St. Margaret's,
Archdeacon of Westminster and Dean of Canterbury. He was an eloquent
preacher and a voluminous author, his writings including stories of
school life, such as _Eric_ and _St. Winifred's_, a _Life of Christ_,
which had great popularity, a _Life of St. Paul_, and two historical
romances.

FAWCETT, HENRY (1833-1884).--Statesman and economist, _b._ at Salisbury,
and _ed._ at Camb., where he became Fellow of Trinity Hall. In 1858 he
was blinded by a shooting accident, in spite of which he continued to
prosecute his studies, especially in economics, and in 1863 _pub._ his
_Manual of Political Economy_, becoming in the same year Prof. of
Political Economy in Camb. Having strong political views he desired to
enter upon a political career, and after repeated defeats was elected
M.P. for Brighton. He soon attained a recognised position, devoting
himself specially to parliamentary reform and Indian questions, and was
in 1880 appointed Postmaster-General, in which office he approved himself
a capable administrator. His career was, however, cut short by his
premature death, but not before he had made himself a recognised
authority on economics, his works on which include _The Economic Position
of the British Labourer_ (1871), _Labour and Wages_, etc. In 1867 he _m._
Miss Millicent Garrett, a lady highly qualified to share in all his
intellectual interests, and who collaborated with him in some of his
publications. There is a life of him by Sir L. Stephen.

FAWKES, FRANCIS (1721-1777).--Poet and translator, _b._ near Doncaster,
and _ed._ at Camb., after which he took orders. He translated Anacreon,
Sappho, and other classics, modernised parts of the poems of Gavin
Douglas, and was the author of the well-known song, _The Brown Jug_, and
of two poems, _Bramham Park_ and _Partridge Shooting_.

FELTHAM, OWEN (1602?-1668).--Religious writer, author of a book entitled
_Resolves, Divine, Moral, and Political_ (_c._ 1620), containing 146
short essays. It had great popularity in its day. Though sometimes stiff
and affected in style, it contains many sound, if not original or
brilliant, reflections, and occasional felicities of expression. F. was
for a time in the household of the Earl of Thomond as chaplain or sec.,
and _pub._ (1652), _Brief Character of the Low Countries_.

FENTON, ELIJAH (1683-1730).--Poet and translator, _ed._ at Camb., for a
time acted as sec. to the Earl of Orrery in Flanders, and was then Master
of Sevenoaks Grammar School. In 1707 he _pub._ a book of poems. He is
best known, however, as the assistant of Pope in his translation of the
_Odyssey_, of which he Englished the first, fourth, nineteenth, and
twentieth books, catching the manner of his master so completely that it
is hardly possible to distinguish between their work; while thus engaged
he _pub._ (1723) a successful tragedy, _Marianne_. His latest
contributions to literature were a _Life of Milton_, and an ed. of
_Waller's Poems_ (1729).

FERGUSON, ADAM (1723-1816).--Philosopher and historian, _s._ of the
parish minister of Logierait, Perthshire, studied at St. Andrews and
Edin. Univ., in the latter of which he was successively Professor of
Mathematics, and Moral Philosophy (1764-1785). As a young man he was
chaplain to the 42nd Regiment, and was present at the Battle of Fontenoy.
In 1757 he was made Keeper of the Advocates' Library. As a Prof. of
Philosophy he was highly successful, his class being attended by many
distinguished men no longer students at the Univ. In 1778-9 he acted as
sec. to a commission sent out by Lord North to endeavour to reach an
accommodation with the American colonists. F.'s principal works are
_Essay on the History of Civil Society_ (1765), _Institutes of Moral
Philosophy_ (1769), _History of the Progress and Termination of the Roman
Republic_ (1782), and _Principles of Moral and Political Science_ (1792),
all of which have been translated into French and German. F. spent his
later years at St. Andrews, where he _d._ in 1816 at the age of 92. He
was an intimate friend of Sir Walter Scott. The French philosopher Cousin
gave F. a place above all his predecessors in the Scottish school of
philosophy.

FERGUSON, SIR SAMUEL (1810-1886).--Poet and antiquary, _b._ at Belfast,
the _s._ of parents of Scottish extraction, he was _ed._ at Trinity
Coll., Dublin, from which he received in 1865 the honorary degree of
LL.D. He practised with success as a barrister, became Q.C. in 1859, and
Deputy Keeper of the Irish Records 1867, an appointment in which he
rendered valuable service, and was knighted in 1878. He was a contributor
to _Blackwood's Magazine_, in which appeared his best known poem, _The
Forging of the Anchor_, and was one of the chief promoters of the Gaelic
revival in Irish literature. His _coll._ poems appeared under the title
of _Lays of the Western Gael_ (1865), _Congal, an epic poem_ (1872), and
his prose tales posthumously (1887), as _Hibernian Nights'
Entertainments_. His principal antiquarian work was _Ogham Inscriptions
in Ireland, Wales, and Scotland_.

FERGUSSON, JAMES (1808-1886).--Writer on architecture, _b._ at Ayr, was
engaged in commercial pursuits in India, where he became interested in
the architecture of the country, and _pub._ his first work, _Picturesque
Illustrations of Ancient Architecture in Hindustan_ (1840), which was
followed by _An Historical Inquiry into the True Principles of Beauty in
Art_ (1849), and _A History of Architecture in all Countries from the
Earliest Times to the Present Day_ (1865-67). He also wrote _Fire and
Serpent Worship_, etc., and a book on the use of earthworks in
fortification.

FERGUSSON, ROBERT (1750-1774).--Scottish poet, _s._ of a bank clerk, was
_ed._ at the Univ. of St. Andrews. His _f._ dying, he became a copying
clerk in an Edin. lawyer's office. Early displaying a talent for humorous
descriptive verse, he contributed to _Ruddiman's Weekly Magazine_, then
the principal Scottish receptacle for fugitive poetry. His verses,
however, attracted attention by their merit, and he _pub._ some of them
in a _coll._ form. Unfortunately he fell into dissipated habits, under
which his delicate constitution gave way, and he _d._ insane in his 24th
year. His poems influenced Burns, who greatly admired them.

FERRIER, JAMES FREDERICK (1808-1864).--Metaphysician, _b._ in Edin., and
_ed._ there and at Oxf., he was called to the Scottish Bar in 1832, but
devoted himself to literature and philosophy. In 1842 he was appointed
Prof. of History in Edin., and in 1845 translated to the Chair of Moral
Philosophy and Political Economy at St. Andrews. He _pub._ in 1854
_Institutes of Metaphysics_, and ed. the _coll._ works of his
father-in-law, Prof. Wilson ("Christopher North.")

FERRIER, SUSAN EDMONSTOUNE (1782-1854).--Novelist, _dau._ of James F.,
one of the principal clerks of the Court of Session, in which office he
was the colleague of Sir Walter Scott. Miss F. wrote three excellent
novels, _Marriage_ (1818), _The Inheritance_ (1824), and _Destiny_
(1831), all characterised by racy humour and acute character-painting.
Her cheerful and tactful friendship helped to soothe the last days of Sir
W. Scott.

FIELD, NATHANIEL (1587-1633).--Dramatist and actor, was one of "the
children of the Queen's Revels," who performed in Ben Jonson's _Cynthia's
Revels_ in 1600. He wrote _A Woman's a Weathercock_ (1612), _Amends for
Ladies_ (1618), and (with Massinger) _The Fatal Dowry_ (1632).

FIELDING, HENRY (1707-1754).--Novelist, was _b._ at Sharpham Park, near
Glastonbury. His father was General Edmund F., descended from the Earls
of Denbigh and Desmond, and his mother was the _dau._ of Sir Henry Gould
of Sharpham Park. His childhood was spent at East Stour, Dorset, and his
education was received at first from a tutor, after which he was sent to
Eton. Following a love affair with a young heiress at Lyme Regis he was
sent to Leyden to study law, where he remained until his _f._, who had
entered into a second marriage, and who was an extravagant man, ceased to
send his allowance. Thrown upon his own resources, he came to London and
began to write light comedies and farces, of which during the next few
years he threw off nearly a score. The drama, however, was not his true
vein, and none of his pieces in this kind have survived, unless _Tom
Thumb_, a burlesque upon his contemporary playwrights, be excepted. About
1735 he _m._ Miss Charlotte Cradock, a beautiful and amiable girl to
whom, though he gave her sufficient cause for forbearance, he was
devotedly attached. She is the prototype of his "Amelia" and "Sophia."
She brought him L1500, and the young couple retired to East Stour, where
he had a small house inherited from his mother. The little fortune was,
however, soon dissipated; and in a year he was back in London, where he
formed a company of comedians, and managed a small theatre in the
Haymarket. Here he produced successfully _Pasquin, a Dramatic Satire on
the Times_, and _The Historical Register for 1736_, in which Walpole was
satirised. This enterprise was brought to an end by the passing of the
Licensing Act, 1737, making the _imprimatur_ of the Lord Chamberlain
necessary to the production of any play. F. thereupon read law at the
Middle Temple, was called to the Bar in 1740, and went the Western
Circuit. The same year saw the publication of Richardson's _Pamela_,
which inspired F. with the idea of a parody, thus giving rise to his
first novel, _Joseph Andrews_. As, however, the characters, especially
Parson Adams, developed in his hands, the original idea was laid aside,
and the work assumed the form of a regular novel. It was _pub._ in 1742,
and though sharing largely in the same qualities as its great successor,
_Tom Jones_, its reception, though encouraging, was not phenomenally
cordial. Immediately after this a heavy blow fell on F. in the death of
his wife. The next few years were occupied with writing his
_Miscellanies_, which contained, along with some essays and poems, two
important works, _A Journey from this World to the Next_, and _The
History of Jonathan Wild the Great_, a grave satire; and he also
conducted two papers in support of the Government, _The True Patriot_ and
_The Jacobite Journal_, in consideration of which he was appointed
Justice of the Peace for Middlesex and Westminster, and had a pension
conferred upon him. In 1746 he set convention at defiance by marrying
Mary MacDaniel, who had been his first wife's maid, and the nurse of his
children, and who proved a faithful and affectionate companion. F. showed
himself an upright, diligent, and efficient magistrate, and his _Inquiry
into the Increase of Robbers_ (1751), with suggested remedies, led to
beneficial results. By this time, however, the publication of his great
masterpiece, _The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling_ (1749), had given
him a place among the immortals. All critics are agreed that this book
contains passages offensive to delicacy, and some say to morality. This
is often excused on the plea of the coarser manners of the age; but a
much stronger defence is advanced on the ground that, while other
novelists of the time made immorality an incentive to merriment, F.'s
treatment of such subjects, as Lowell has said, "shocks rather than
corrupts," and that in his pages evil is evil. On the other hand, there
is universal agreement as to the permanent interest of the types of
character presented, the profound knowledge of life and insight into
human nature, the genial humour, the wide humanity, the wisdom, and the
noble and masculine English of the book. His only other novel, _Amelia_,
which some, but these a small minority, have regarded as his best, was
_pub._ in 1751. His health was now thoroughly broken, and in 1753, as a
forlorn hope, he went in search of restoration to Lisbon, where he _d._
on October 8, and was buried in the English cemetery. His last work was a
_Journal_ of his voyage. Though with many weaknesses and serious faults,
F. was fundamentally a man of honest and masculine character, and though
improvident and reckless in his habits, especially in earlier life, he
was affectionate in his domestic relations, and faithful and efficient in
the performance of such public duties as he was called to discharge.
Thackeray thus describes his appearance, "His figure was tall and
stalwart, his face handsome, manly, and noble-looking; to the last days
of his life he retained a grandeur of air and, though worn down by
disease, his aspect and presence imposed respect upon people round about
him."

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1707, _ed._ Eton, studied law at Leyden, came to London
and wrote dramas, called to Bar 1740, _pub._ _Joseph Andrews_ 1742,
became journalist, appointed a magistrate for Middlesex, etc., and _pub._
_Inquiry into Increase of Robbers_ 1751, _pub._ _Tom Jones_ 1749,
_Amelia_ 1751, _d._ at Lisbon 1754.

His works are included in Ballantyne's Novelists' Library with a
biography by Scott (1821). An ed. in 10 vols. with a study by L. Stephen
was _pub._ by Smith, Elder and Co. (1882); another in 12 vols. by Prof.
Saintsbury, Dent and Co. (1893), and various others. There are various
Lives by Watson (1807). Lawrence (1855), and A. Dobson (Men of Letters,
1883).

FIELDING, SARAH (1710-1768).--Novelist, was the sister of the above, who
had a high opinion of her talents. She wrote several novels, including
_David Simple_ (1744), _The Governess_, and _The Countess_ of _Dellwyn_.
She also translated Xenophon's _Memorabilia_ and _Apologia_ (1762).

FILMER, SIR ROBERT (_d._ 1653?).--Political writer, _s._ of Sir Edward
F., of East Sutton, Kent, was _ed._ at Camb. He was an enthusiastic
Royalist, was knighted by Charles I. and, in 1671, was imprisoned in
Leeds Castle, Kent. He is notable as the defender, in its most extreme
form, of the doctrine of the divine right of kings, which he expounded in
a succession of works, of which the latest and best known, _Patriarcha_,
appeared in 1679. His theory is founded on the idea that the government
of a family by the father is the original and method of all government.
His doctrines were afterwards attacked by Locke in his _Treatise on
Government_. He was opposed to the persecution of old women for supposed
witchcraft.

FINLAY, GEORGE (1799-1875).--Historian, of Scottish descent, was _b._ at
Faversham, Kent, where his _f._, an officer in the army, was inspector of
government powder mills. Intended for the law, he was _ed._ at Glasgow,
Goettingen, and Edin., but becoming an enthusiast in the cause of Greece,
he joined Byron in the war of independence, and thereafter bought a
property near Athens, where he settled and busied himself with schemes
for the improvement of the country, which had little success. His
_History of Greece_, produced in sections between 1843 and 1861, did not
at first receive the recognition which its merits deserved, but it has
since been given by students in all countries, and specially in Germany,
a place among works of permanent value, alike for its literary style and
the depth and insight of its historical views. It was re-issued in 1877
as _A History of Greece from the Roman Conquest to the Present Time_ (146
B.C. _to_ 1864).

FISHER, JOHN (_c._ 1469-1535).--Controversialist and scholar, _b._ at
Beverley, and _ed._ at Camb., entered the Church, and became in 1504
Bishop of Rochester. He wrote in Latin against the doctrines of the
Reformation, but was a supporter of the New Learning, and endeavoured to
get Erasmus to teach Greek at Camb. Through his influence the Lady
Margaret Professorship of Divinity were founded at both the Univ. by
Margaret Countess of Richmond, and in 1502 he became first prof. at
Camb., where he was also (1505-8) Head of Queen's Coll. He was also
instrumental in founding Christ's and St. John's Coll. For opposing the
divorce proceedings of Henry VIII. he was burned. Made a cardinal in
1535, he was beatified in 1886.

FISKE, JOHN (1842-1901).--Miscellaneous writer, was _b._ at Hartford,
Connecticut. The family name was Green; but this he dropped, and adopted
that of his mother's family. After being at Harvard he studied for, and
was admitted to, the Bar, but did not practise. He wrote on a variety of
subjects, including mythology, history, and evolution. Among his books on
these subjects are, _Myths and Mythmakers_ (1872), _Cosmic Philosophy_,
_Darwinism_, _The Idea of God_, _Origin of Evil_. He was also the author
of many works on America. These include _Old Virginia_, _New France and
New England_, _The American Revolution_, and _Discovery of America_
(1892).

FITZGERALD, EDWARD (1809-1883).--Translator and letter-writer, was _b._
near Woodbridge, Suffolk, _s._ of John Purcell, who took his wife's
surname on the death of her _f._. in 1818. He was _ed._ at Bury St.
Edmunds and Camb. Thereafter he lived in retirement and study with his
parents until 1838, when he took a neighbouring cottage. In 1856 he _m._
a _dau._ of Bernard Barton, the poet, from whom, however, he soon
separated. Afterwards he lived at various places in the East of England,
continuing his studies, with yachting for his chief recreation. By this
time, however, he had become an author, having written a life of his
father-in-law prefixed to his _coll._ poems (1849), _Euphranor_, a
dialogue on youth (1851), and _Polonius, a Collection of Wise Saws and
Modern Instances_ (1852). Becoming interested in Spanish literature, he
_pub._ translations of _Six Dramas of Calderon_. Thereafter turning his
attention to Persian, he produced (1859), anonymously, his famous
translation of the _Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam_. He also _pub._
translations of the _Agamemnon_ of AEschylus, and the _Oedipus Tyrannus_
and _Oedipus Coloneus_ of Sophocles. In his translations F. aimed not so
much at a mere literal reproduction of the sense of the original, as at
reproducing its effect on the reader, and in this he was extraordinarily
successful. In the department of letter-writing also he attained an
excellence perhaps unequalled in his day.

FITZSTEPHEN, WILLIAM (_d._ 1190).--Was a servant of Thomas a Becket,
witnessed his murder, and wrote his biography, which contains an
interesting account of London in the 12th century.

FLAVEL, JOHN (1627-1691).--Divine, _b._ at Bromsgrove, studied at Oxf.,
was a Presbyterian, and was settled at Dartmouth, but ejected from his
living in 1662, continuing, however, to preach there secretly. He was a
voluminous and popular author. Among his works are _Husbandry
Spiritualised_ and _Navigation Spiritualised_, titles which suggest some
of his characteristics as an expositor.

FLECKNOE, RICHARD (_d._ 1678).--Poet, said to have been an Irish priest.
He wrote several plays, now forgotten, also miscellaneous poems, some of
them sacred, and a book of travels. His name has been preserved in
Dryden's satire, _MacFlecknoe_, as "throughout the realms of nonsense
absolute;" but according to some authorities his slighter pieces were not
wanting in grace and fancy.

FLETCHER, ANDREW (1655-1716).--Scottish statesman and political writer,
_s._ of Sir Robert F. of Saltoun, East Lothian, to which estate he
succeeded at an early age. He was _ed._ under the care of Bishop Burnet,
who was then minister of Saltoun. Being firmly opposed to the arbitrary
measures of the Duke of York, afterwards James II., he went to Holland,
where he joined Monmouth, whom he accompanied on his ill-starred
expedition. Happening to kill, in a quarrel, one Dare, another of the
Duke's followers, he fled to the Continent, travelled in Spain and
Hungary, and fought against the Turks. After the Revolution he returned
to Scotland, and took an active part in political affairs. He opposed the
Union, fearing the loss of Scottish independence, and advocated
federation rather than incorporation. He introduced various improvements
in agriculture. His principal writings are _Discourse of Government_
(1698), _Two Discourses concerning the Affairs of Scotland_ (1698),
_Conversation concerning a right Regulation of Government for the Common
Good of Mankind_ (1703), in which occurs his well-known saying, "Give me
the making of the songs of a nation, and I care not who makes its laws."

FLETCHER, GILES, AND PHINEAS (1588?-1623) (1582-1650).--Poets, were the
sons of Giles F., himself a minor poet, and Envoy to Russia. Phineas, the
elder, was _ed._ at Eton and Camb., and entered the Church, becoming
Rector of Hilgay, Norfolk. He wrote _The Purple Island_ (1633), a poem in
10 books, giving an elaborate allegorical description of the body and
mind of man, which, though tedious and fanciful, contains some fine
passages, recalling the harmonious sweetness of Spenser, whose disciple
the poet was. He was also the author of _Piscatory Dialogues_. GILES, the
younger, was also _ed._ at Camb., and, like his brother, became a country
parson, being Rector of Alderton. His poem, _Christ's Victory and
Triumph_ (1610), which, though it contains passages rising to sublimity,
is now almost unknown except to students of English literature, is said
to have influenced Milton.

Both brothers, but especially Giles, had a genuine poetic gift, but alike
in the allegorical treatment of their subjects and the metre they
adopted, they followed a style which was passing away, and thus missed
popularity. They were cousins of John F., the dramatist.

FLORENCE of WORCESTER (_d._ 1118).--Chronicler, was a monk of Worcester.
His work is founded upon that of Marianus, an Irish chronicler,
supplemented by additions taken from the _Anglo-Saxon Chronicle_, Bede's
_Lives of the Saints_, and Asser's _Life of Alfred_. After his death it
was brought down to 1295.

FLORIO, JOHN (1553?-1625).--Translator, _s._ of an Italian preacher,
exiled for his Protestantism, but who appears to have lost credit owing
to misconduct, _b._ in London, was, about 1576, a private tutor of
languages at Oxf. In 1581 he was admitted a member of Magdalen Coll.,
and teacher of French and Italian. Patronised by various noblemen, he
became in 1603 reader in Italian to Anne of Denmark, Queen of James I. He
_pub._ _First Fruites_ (1578). _Second Fruites_ (1591), consisting of
Italian and English Dialogues, and his great Italian dictionary entitled
_A World of Wonder_, in 1598. His chief contribution to pure literature
is his famous translation of _The Essays of Montaigne_, in stately if
somewhat stiff Elizabethan English.

FONBLANQUE, ALBANY WILLIAM (1793-1872).--Journalist and political writer,
was of Huguenot descent, the _s._ of a Commissioner in Bankruptcy. He was
bred to the law, but deserted it for journalism, in which he took a high
place. He wrote much for _The Times_, and _Westminster Review_, and
subsequently became ed. and proprietor of the _Examiner_. His best
articles were republished as _England under Seven Administrations_
(1837). He also wrote _How we are Governed_. In 1847 he was appointed
Statistical Sec. to the Board of Trade.

FOOTE, SAMUEL (1720-1777).--Actor and dramatist, _b._ at Truro of a good
family, and _ed._ at Oxf., succeeded by his extravagance and folly in
running through two fortunes. To repair his finances he turned to the
stage, and began with tragedy, in which he failed. He then took to
comedy, and the mimetic representation of living characters, for which
his extraordinary comic powers highly qualified him. He also became a
prolific author of dramatic pieces. He wrote 20 plays, and claimed to
have added 16 original characters to the stage. Several of his pieces,
owing to the offence they gave to persons of importance, were suppressed,
but were usually revived in a slightly modified form. His conversation
was agreeable and entertaining in the highest degree. Among his best
works are _An Auction of Pictures_, _The Liar_, and _The Mayor of
Garratt_ (1763), _The Lame Lover_ (1770), _The Knights_ (1749), _Author_
(suppressed) 1757, _Devil upon Two Sticks_ (1768), _The Nabob_ (1779),
_The Capuchin_ (1776).

FORBES, JAMES DAVID (1809-1868).--Natural Philosopher, _s._ of Sir
William F., of Pitsligo, was _b._ and _ed._ at Edin. He studied law, and
was called to the Bar, but devoted himself to science, in which he gained
a great reputation both as a discoverer and teacher. He was Prof. of
Natural Philosophy at Edin., 1833-1859, when he succeeded Sir D.
Brewster, as Principal of the United Coll. at St. Andrews. He was one of
the founders of the British Association in 1831. His scientific
investigations and discoveries embraced the subjects of heat, light,
polarisation, and specially glaciers. In connection with the last of
these he wrote _Travels through the Alps_ (1843), _Norway and its
Glaciers_ (1853), _Tour of Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa_ (1855), and _Papers
on the Theory of Glaciers_.

FORD, JOHN (_c._ 1586?).--Dramatist, _b._ probably at Ilsington,
Devonshire, was admitted to the Middle Temple in 1602, and appears to
have practised as a lawyer. His chief plays are _The Lover's Melancholy_
(1629), _'Tis Pity_, _The Broken Heart_, and _Love's Sacrifice_ (1633),
_Perkin Warbeck_ (1634), _The Lady's Trial_ (1639), and _Fancies Chaste
and Noble_ (1638). He also collaborated with Dekker and Rowley in _The
Witch of Edmonton_ (1624). F. has a high position as a dramatist, though
rather for general intellectual power and austere beauty of thought than
for strictly dramatic qualities. C. Lamb says, "F. was of the first order
of poets." He had little humour; his plays, though the subjects are
painful, and sometimes horrible, are full of pensive tenderness expressed
in gently flowing verse. The date of his death is uncertain.

FORD, PAUL LEICESTER (1865-1902).--Novelist and biographer, was _b._ in
Brooklyn. He wrote Lives of Washington, Franklin, and others, ed. the
works of Jefferson, and wrote a number of novels, which had considerable
success, including _Peter Sterling_ (1894), _Story of an Untold Love_,
_Janice Meredith_, _Wanted a Matchmaker_, and _Wanted a Chaperone_. He
_d._ by his own hand.

FORD, RICHARD (1796-1858).--Writer on art and travel, _ed._ at Winchester
and Camb., and travelled for several years in Spain, becoming intimately
acquainted with the country and people. He wrote a _Handbook for
Travellers in Spain_ (1845), which is much more than a mere guide-book,
and _Gatherings from Spain_ (1846). An accomplished artist and art
critic, he was the first to make the great Spanish painter, Velasquez,
generally known in England.

FORDUN, JOHN (_d._ 1384?).--Chronicler, said to have been a chantry
priest and Canon of Aberdeen. He began the _Scotichronicon_, for which he
prepared himself, it is said, by travelling on foot through Britain and
Ireland in search of materials. He also compiled _Gesta Annalia_, a
continuation. He brought the history down to 1153, leaving, however,
material to the time of his own death, which was subsequently worked up
by Walter Bower (_q.v._).

FORSTER, JOHN (1812-1876).--Historian and biographer, _b._ at Newcastle,
_ed._ at the Grammar School there, and at Univ. Coll., London, became a
barrister of the Inner Temple, but soon relinquished law for literature.
In 1834 he accepted the post of assistant ed. of the _Examiner_, and was
ed. 1847-55. In this position F. exercised a marked influence on public
opinion. He also ed. the _Foreign Quarterly Review_ 1842-3, the _Daily
News_ in 1846, and was Sec. to the Lunacy Commission and a Commissioner
1861-72. His historical writings were chiefly biographies, among which
are _Statesmen of the Commonwealth of England_ (1836-9), _Life of
Goldsmith_ (1854), _Biographical and Historical Essays_ (1859), _Sir John
Eliot_ (1864), _Lives of Walter S. Landor_ (1868), and _Charles Dickens_
(1871-4). He also left the first vol. of a Life of Swift. F., who was a
man of great decision and force of character, concealed an unusually
tender heart under a somewhat overbearing manner.

FORTESCUE, SIR JOHN (1394?-1476?).--Political writer, was descended from
a Devonshire family. He was an eminent lawyer, and held the office of
Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench (1442). During the Wars of the
Roses he was a staunch Lancastrian. On the triumph of Edward IV. at
Towton he was attainted, and followed the fortunes of the fallen
Lancastrians, accompanying Queen Margaret to Scotland and Flanders. He
fought at Tewkesbury, was captured, but pardoned on condition of writing
in support of the Yorkish claims, which he did, considering that his own
party appeared to be hopelessly ruined. He is said to have been at one
time Lord Chancellor; but it is probable that this was only a titular
appointment given him by the exiled family. His works are various
defences of the Lancastrian title to the crown, and two treatises, _De
Laudibus Legum Angliae_ (1537) (in praise of the laws of England), and _On
the Governance of the Kingdom of England_, not printed till 1714, the
former for the instruction of Edward, Prince of Wales.

FORSTER, JOHN (1770-1843).--Essayist, was _b._ at Halifax, and _ed._ at
Bristol for the Baptist ministry. Though a man of powerful and original
mind he did not prove popular as a preacher, and devoted himself mainly
to literature, his chief contribution to which is his four Essays (1) _On
a Man's Writing Memoirs of Himself_, (2) _On Decision of Character_, (3)
_On the Epithet "Romantic_," (4) _On Evangelical Religion, etc._, all of
which attracted much attention among the more thoughtful part of the
community, and still hold their place. These Essays were _pub._ in 1805,
and in 1819. F. added another on the _Evils of Popular Ignorance_, in
which he advocated a national system of education.

FOSTER, STEPHEN COLLINS (1826-1864).--Song-writer, was _b._ in
Pittsburgh. He wrote over 100 songs, many of which had extraordinary
popularity, among which may be mentioned _The Old Folks at Home_, _Nelly
Bly_, _Old Dog Tray_, _Camp Town Races_, _Massa's in de cold, cold
Ground_, and _Come where my Love lies Dreaming_. He composed the music to
his songs.

FOX, CHARLES JAMES (1749-1806).--Statesman and historian, _s._ of Henry
F., 1st Lord Holland, was one of the greatest orators who have ever sat
in the House of Commons. His only serious literary work was a fragment of
a proposed _History of the Reign of James the Second_. An introductory
chapter sketching the development of the constitution from the time of
Henry VII., and a few chapters conducting the history up to the execution
of Monmouth are all which he completed.

FOX, GEORGE (1624-1691).--Religious enthusiast, and founder of the
Society of Friends, _b._ at Drayton, Leicestershire, was in youth the
subject of peculiar religious impressions and trances, and adopted a
wandering life. The protests which he conceived himself bound to make
against the prevailing beliefs and manners, and which sometimes took the
form of interrupting Divine service, and the use of uncomplimentary forms
of address to the clergy, involved him in frequent trouble. The clergy,
the magistrates, and the mob alike treated him with harshness amounting
to persecution. None of these things, however, moved him, and friends,
many of them influential, among them Oliver Cromwell, extended favour
towards him. From 1659 onwards he made various missionary journeys in
Scotland, Ireland, America, and Holland. Later he was repeatedly
imprisoned, again visited the Continent, and _d._ in 1691. F.'s literary
works are his _Journal_, _Epistles_, and _Doctrinal Pieces_. He was not a
man of strong intellect, and the defence of his doctrines was undertaken
by the far more competent hand of his follower, Barclay (_q.v._). The
_Journal_, however, is full of interest as a sincere transcript of the
singular experiences, religious and others, of a spiritual enthusiast and
mystic.

The best Life is that by Hodgkin, 1896. _Journal_ (reprint, 1885).

FOXE, JOHN (1516-1587).--Martyrologist, was _b._ at Boston, Lincolnshire,
and _ed._ at Oxf., where he became a Fellow of Magdalen Coll. While there
he gave himself to the study of the theological questions then in debate,
and ended by becoming a Protestant, in consequence of which he in 1545
left his coll. He then became tutor in the family of Sir T. Lucy of
Charlecote, and afterwards to the children of the recently executed Earl
of Surrey. During the reign of Mary he retired to the Continent, and
_pub._, at Strasburg, his _Commentarii_ (the first draft of the _Acts and
Monuments_). Removing to Basel he was employed as a reader for the press
by the famous printer Oporinus, who _pub._ some of his writings. On the
accession of Elizabeth, F. returned to England, was received with
kindness by the Duke of Norfolk, one of his former pupils, and soon
afterwards (1563) _pub._ the work on which his fame rests, the English
version of the _Acts and Monuments_, better known as _The Book Martyrs_.
Received with great favour by the Protestants, it was, and has always
been, charged by the Roman Catholics with gross and wilful perversion of
facts. The truth of the matter appears to be that while Foxe was not, as
in the circumstances he could hardly have been, free from party spirit or
from some degree of error as to facts, he did not intentionally try to
mislead; and comparison of his citations from authorities with the
originals has shown him to have been careful and accurate in that matter.
F., who had been ordained a priest in 1560, became Canon of Salisbury in
1563. He wrote sundry other theological works, and _d._ in 1587. There is
a memoir of him attributed to his _s._, but of doubtful authenticity.
Some of his papers, used by Strype (_q.v._), are now in the British
Museum.

FRANCIS, SIR PHILIP (1740-1818).--Reputed author of _The Letters of
Junius_, _s._ of the Rev. Philip F., a scholar of some note, was _b._ in
Dublin. On the recommendation of Lord Holland he received an appointment
in the office of the Sec. of State, and was thereafter private sec. to
Lord Kinnoull in Portugal, and to Pitt in 1761-2. He was then transferred
to the War Office, where he remained from 1762-72, during which period he
contributed to the press under various pseudonyms. His next appointment
was that of a member of Council of Bengal, which he held from 1773-80.
While in India he was in continual conflict with the Governor-General,
Warren Hastings, by whom he was wounded in a duel in 1779. He returned to
England in 1780 with a large fortune, and entered Parliament as a Whig.
In 1787 he was associated with Burke in the impeachment of Hastings,
against whom he showed extraordinary vindictiveness. Later he was a
sympathiser with the French Revolution, and a member of the association
of the Friends of the People. He retired from public life in 1807, and
_d._ in 1818. He was the author of about 20 political pamphlets, but the
great interest attaching to him is his reputed authorship of the _Letters
of Junius_. These letters which, partly on account of the boldness and
implacability of their attacks and the brilliance of their literary
style, and partly because of the mystery in which their author wrapped
himself, created an extraordinary impression, and have ever since
retained their place as masterpieces of condensed sarcasm. They appeared
in _The Public Advertiser_, a paper _pub._ by Woodfall, the first on
January 21, 1769, and the last on the corresponding day of 1772, and were
chiefly directed against the Dukes of Grafton and Bedford, and Lord
Mansfield; but even the king himself did not escape. Not only were the
public actions of those attacked held up to execration, but every
circumstance in their private lives which could excite odium was dragged
into the light. Their authorship was attributed to many distinguished
men, _e.g._ Burke, Lord Shelburne, J. Wilkes, Horne Tooke, and Barre, and
recently to Gibbon; but the evidence appears to point strongly to F.,
and, in the opinion of Macaulay, would "support a verdict in a civil,
nay, in a criminal trial." It rests upon such circumstances as the
similarity of the MS. to what is known to be the disguised writing of F.,
the acquaintance of the writer with the working of the Sec. of State's
Office and the War Office, his denunciation of the promotion of a Mr.
Chamier in the War Office, which was a well-known grievance of F., his
acquaintance with Pitt, and the existence of a strong tie to Lord
Holland, the silence of Junius when F. was absent, and resemblances in
the style and the moral character of the writer to those of F.

FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN (1706-1790).--American statesman, philosopher, and
writer, was one of a numerous family. His _f._ was a soap-boiler at
Boston, where F. was _b._ He was apprenticed at the age of 13 to his
brother, a printer, who treated him harshly. After various changes,
during which he lived in New York, London, and Philadelphia, he at last
succeeded in founding a successful business as a printer. He also started
a newspaper, _The Gazette_, which was highly popular, _Poor Richard's
Almanac_, and the _Busybody Papers_, in imitation of the _Spectator_.
After holding various minor appointments, he was made deputy
Postmaster-General for the American Colonies. In 1757 he went to London
on some public business in which he was so successful that various
colonies appointed him their English agent. In the midst of his varied
avocations he found time for scientific investigation, especially with
regard to electricity. For these he became known over the civilised
world, and was loaded with honours. In 1762 he returned to America, and
took a prominent part in the controversies which led to the Revolutionary

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