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A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature by John W. Cousin

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showed a recovery. _Kenilworth_ and _The Pirate_ followed in 1821, _The
Fortunes of Nigel_ in 1822; _Peveril of the Peak_, _Quentin Durward_, and
_St. Ronan's Well_ in 1823; _Redgauntlet_ in 1824, and _Tales of the
Crusaders_ (_The Betrothed_ and _The Talisman_) in 1825. By this time S.
had long reached a pinnacle of fame such as perhaps no British man of
letters has ever attained during his lifetime. He had for a time been the
most admired poet of his day, and though latterly somewhat eclipsed by
Byron, he still retained great fame as a poet. He also possessed a great
reputation as an antiquary, one of the chief revivers of interest in our
ancient literature, and as the biographer and ed. of several of our great
writers; while the incognito which he maintained in regard to his novels
was to many a very partial veil. The unprecedented profits of his
writings had made him, as he believed, a man of wealth; his social
prestige was immense; he had in 1820 been made a baronet, when that was
still a real distinction, and he had been the acknowledged representative
of his country when the King visited it in 1822. All this was now to
change, and the fabric of prosperity which he had raised by his genius
and labour, and which had never spoiled the simplicity and generosity of
his character, was suddenly to crumble into ruin with, however, the
result of revealing him as the possessor of qualities even greater and
nobler than any he had shown in his happier days. The publishing and
printing firms with which he had been connected fell in the commercial
crisis of 1826, and S. found himself at 55, and with failing health,
involved in liabilities amounting to L130,000. Never was adversity more
manfully and gallantly met. Notwithstanding the crushing magnitude of the
disaster and the concurrent sorrow of his wife's illness, which soon
issued in her death, he deliberately set himself to the herculean task of
working off his debts, asking only that time might be given him. The
secret of his authorship was now, of course, revealed, and his efforts
were crowned with a marvellous measure of success. _Woodstock_, his first
publication after the crash, appeared in the same year and brought L8000;
by 1828 he had earned L40,000. In 1827 _The Two Drovers_, _The Highland
Widow_, and _The Surgeon's Daughter_, forming the first series of
_Chronicles of the Canongate_, appeared together with _The Life of
Napoleon_ in 9 vols., and the first series of _Tales of a Grandfather_;
in 1828 _The Fair Maid of Perth_ and the second series of _Tales of a
Grandfather_, _Anne of Geierstein_, a third series of the _Tales_, and
the commencement of a complete ed. of the novels in 1829; a fourth and
last series of _Tales_, _History of Scotland_, and other work in 1830.
Then at last the overworked brain gave way, and during this year he had
more than one paralytic seizure. He was sent abroad for change and rest,
and a Government frigate was placed at his disposal. But all was in vain;
he never recovered, and though in temporary rallies he produced two more
novels, _Count Robert of Paris_ and _Castle Dangerous_, both in 1831,
which only showed that the spell was broken, he gradually sank, and _d._
at Abbotsford on September 21, 1832.

The work which S. accomplished, whether looked at as regards its mass or
its quality, is alike marvellous. In mere amount his output in each of
the four departments of poetry, prose fiction, history and biography, and
miscellaneous literature is sufficient to fill an ordinary literary life.
Indeed the quantity of his acknowledged work in other departments was
held to be the strongest argument against the possibility of his being
the author of the novels. The achievement of such a result demanded a
power of steady, methodical, and rapid work almost unparalleled in the
history of literature. When we turn to its quality we are struck by the
range of subject and the variableness of the treatment. In general there
is the same fulness of mind directed by strong practical sense and
judgment, but the style is often heavy, loose, and even slipshod, and in
most of his works there are "patches" in which he falls far below his
best. His poetry, though as a whole belonging to the second class, is
full of broad and bold effects, picturesqueness, and an irresistible rush
and freshness. As a lyrist, however, he stands much higher, and in such
gems as "Proud Maisie" and "A weary lot is thine, Fair Maid," he takes
his place among our greatest singers. His chief fame rests, of course,
upon the novels. Here also, however, there is the same inequality and
irregularity, but there is a singular command over his genius in virtue
of which the fusing, creating imagination responds to his call, and is at
its greatest just where it is most needed. For the variety, truth, and
aliveness of his characters he has probably no equal since Shakespeare,
and though, of course, coming far behind, he resembles him alike in his
range and in his insight. The most remarkable feature in his character is
the union of an imagination of the first order with practical sagacity
and manly sanity, in this also resembling his great predecessor.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1771, _ed._ Edin., called to Bar 1792, Sheriff of Selkirk
1799, Principal Clerk of Session 1812, first _pub._ translation of
_Lenore_, etc., wrote ballads and made translation from German, _pub.
Minstrelsy of Scottish Border_ 1802-3, _Lay of Last Minstrel_ 1805, began
_Waverley_ 1805, partner with Ballantynes 1806, _pub._ _Marmion_ 1808,
_Lady of Lake_ 1810, began to build Abbotsford 1812, Waverley novels
began and continued 1814-31, health began to fail 1817, made Baronet
1820, ruined by failure of Ballantynes 1826, devotes rest of his life to
clearing off debt by novels and historical works, _Tales of a
Grandfather_, _Life of Napoleon_, etc., health finally gave way 1830,
_d._ 1832.

The great authority is the _Life_ by Lockhart, but it has been
supplemented by the _Journal_ (1890) and _Letters_ (1893). Short _Lives_
by C. Gilfillan, R.H. Hutton, etc., etc.

SCOTT, WILLIAM BELL (1811-1890).--Poet and painter, _s._ of Robert S., an
engraver, and brother of David S., painter, _b._ in Edin., settled in
London, and painted chiefly historical subjects. He _pub._ five vols. of
poetry, including _Hades_ and _The Year of the World_, and many fine
sonnets, a form of poetry in which he excelled, and in prose _Half-hour
Lectures on Art_ and _The Little Masters_ in the Great Artists Series. He
also ed. a series of "English Poets," and wrote a Life of his brother and
one of Albrecht Duerer, etc.

SEDLEY, SIR CHARLES (1639?-1701).--Poet, _s._ and heir of a Kentish
baronet, was at Oxf. and, coming to the Court of Charles II., became one
of the most popular and brilliant members of its dissipated circles. He
was the author of two tragedies and three comedies, now forgotten, though
extravagantly lauded in their day, and of some poems and songs, of which
the best known are _Phyllis_ and _Chloris_. His only child was the witty
and profligate Catherine S., mistress of James II., who created her
Countess of Dorset. _Bellamira_ and _The Mulberry Garden_, founded
respectively on Terence and Moliere, are his best plays. His prose in
pamphlets and essays is better than his verse.

SEELEY, SIR JOHN ROBERT (1834-1895).--Historian and essayist, _s._ of a
publisher in London, _ed._ at City of London School and Camb. In 1863 he
became Prof. of Latin at Univ. Coll., London, and was Prof. of Modern
History at Camb. from 1869 until his death. In 1865 appeared anonymously
_Ecce Homo_, a work which created intense excitement and keen controversy
in the theological and religious world. Other works were _The Life and
Times of Stein_, the Prussian statesman (1879), _Natural Religion_
(1882), _The Expansion of England_ (1883), _Life of Napoleon_ (1885), and
a work on Goethe. _The Growth of British Policy_ (1895) was left finished
but unrevised at his death. In recognition of his services to the empire
in his political writings he was, in 1894, made K.C.M.G.

SELDEN, JOHN (1584-1654).--Jurist and scholar, _b._ near Worthing,
Sussex, the _s._ of a farmer who was also a musician, _ed._ at Chichester
and Oxf., and studied law at Clifford's Inn and the Inner Temple. His
learning soon attracted attention and, though practising little, he was
consulted on points involving legal erudition. His first work, _Analecton
Anglo-Britannicon_, a chronological collection of English records down to
the Norman invasion, was written in 1606, though not _pub._ till 1615. In
1610 appeared a treatise on the _Duello, or Single Combat_; and in 1614
his largest English work on _Titles of Honour_, full of profound
learning, and still a high authority. Three years later, 1617, he wrote
in Latin his treatise, _De Deis Syris_ (on the Gods of Syria), an inquiry
into polytheism, specially with reference to the false deities mentioned
in Scripture. His reputation as a scholar had now become European. In
1618 he incurred the indignation of the King and the clergy by his
_History of Tithes_, in which he denied their claim to be a divine
institution. Called before the High Commission he made a statement
regretting the publication of the book though not withdrawing any of its
statements. In 1621 he suffered a brief imprisonment for withstanding
some of James's doctrines as to the privileges of Parliament. Two years
later he was elected member for Lancaster. As a politician his views were
moderate, and all along he endeavoured to repress the zeal of the
extremists on both sides. He was imprisoned in the Tower for four years,
1630-34. During the final struggle of King and Parliament he was much
employed; but like most men of moderate views, was frequently under
suspicion, and after the execution of the King, to which he was strongly
opposed, he took little to do with public matters. He was a lay member of
the Westminster Assembly, 1643, where his profound knowledge of the
original tongues made him somewhat of a terror to certain extremists
among the divines. He had at an early age been appointed steward to the
Earl of Kent, and at the house of his widow, with whom he had long lived
in such close friendship as to give rise to the belief that they were
_m._, he _d._ Among other works may be mentioned a description of the
Arundel Marbles (1629), a treatise concerning the Jewish calendar (1646),
and, specially, his _Table Talk_, _pub._ 1689, of which Coleridge said
"there is more weighty bullion sense in this book than I can find in the
same number of pages of any uninspired writer." He was likewise the
author of various treatises on constitutional matters and the law of
nations, including _Mare Clausum_ (a Closed Sea), in defence of the
property of England in its circumfluent seas. Most of these were written
in Latin.

_Coll. Works_ with _Life_, Dr. Wilkins (3 vols., folio, 1726), Aikin's
_Lives_ of Selden and Ussher.

SELLAR, WILLIAM YOUNG (1825-1890).--Scholar, _b._ in Sutherlandshire, his
_f._ being factor to the Duke of Sutherland, _ed._ at Glasgow Univ. and
Oxf., became in 1859 Prof. of Greek at St. Andrews and, in 1863, of Latin
at Edin. He _pub._ a work on the _Roman Poets of the Republic_ (1863),
followed by _The Roman Poets of the Augustan Age_. Both of these hold a
high place among modern works of scholarship.

SEMPILL, ROBERT (1530?-1595), SEMPILL, ROBERT (1595?-1659?), SEMPILL,
FRANCIS (1616?-1682).--Scottish poets, all belonging to the same family,
the last two being _f._ and _s._ The first was mainly a satirist, was in
Paris at the massacre of St. Bartholomew, and belonged to the extremist
division of the Reforming party, _The Regente's Tragedy_ laments the
death of Murray, _Ane Complaint upon Fortoun_, the fall of Morton. The
second Robert wrote _The Life and Death of Habbie Simson, the Piper_, a
humorous description of old Scottish life. Francis wrote occasional
pieces. The song _She Rose and let me in_, formerly attributed to him, is
now known to be by Tom D'Urfey (_q.v._).

SENIOR, NASSAU WILLIAM (1790-1864).--Economist and essayist, _s._ of a
clergyman, was _b._ at Compton Beauchamp, Berks, _ed._ at Eton and Oxf.,
studied law, and was called to the Bar in 1819. He twice held the
Professorship of Political Economy at Oxf., 1825-30 and 1847-52, rendered
important service as a member of the Poor Law Commission of 1833, and
wrote its Report. S. holds a high position among English economists, and
made many contributions to the literature of the science, including
_Outline of the Science of Political Economy_ (1836). He was, moreover, a
writer of considerable versatility, his works in general literature
including _Essays on Fiction_ (1864), _Historical and Philosophical
Essays_ (1865), and specially his notes of conversations with many
eminent persons, chiefly political, _e.g._, De Tocqueville, Thiers, and
Guizot, which combine fulness of information with discretion; he also
_pub._ journals of his travels in Turkey, Greece, Egypt, etc.

SETTLE, ELKANAH (1648-1724).--Poet and dramatist, _ed._ at Oxf., was the
author of a number of turgid dramas, now unreadable and unread, but which
in their day were held to rival Dryden, who pilloried S. as Doeg in the
second part of _Absalom and Achitophel_. S. essayed a reply in _Absalom
Senior_. He wrote against the Papists, but recanted, and made amends by a
_Narrative of the Popish Plot_, in which he exposed the perjuries of
Titus Oates. He was appointed City Poet. Latterly he had a booth in
Bartholomew Fair. He _d._ in the Charterhouse. His plays include
_Cambyses_ (1666), _Empress of Morocco_ (1671), _Love and Revenge_
(1675), _The Female Prelate_, _Distressed Innocence_ (1691), and the
_Ladies' Triumph_ (1718).

SHADWELL, THOMAS (1640 or 1642-1692).--Dramatist and poet, belonged to a
good Staffordshire family, was _b._ in Norfolk, _ed._ at Camb., and after
studying law travelled, and on his return became a popular dramatist.
Among his comedies, in which he displayed considerable comic power and
truth to nature, may be mentioned _The Sullen Lovers_ (1668), _Royal
Shepherdess_ (1668), _The Humourists_ (1671), and _The Miser_ (1672). He
attached himself to the Whigs, and when Dryden attacked them in _Absalom
and Achitophel_ and _The Medal_, had the temerity to assail him
scurrilously in _The Medal of John Bayes_ (1682). The castigation which
this evoked in _MacFlecknoe_ and in the second part of _Absalom and
Achitophel_, in which S. figures as "Og," has conferred upon him an
unenviable immortality. He may have found some consolation in his
succession to Dryden as Poet Laureate when, at the Revolution, the latter
was deprived of the office.

Other plays are _Epsom Wells_ (1673), _The Virtuoso_ (1676), _Lancashire
Witches_ (1681), _The Volunteers_ (1693), etc.

(1671-1713).--Philosopher, _b._ in London, grandson of the 1st Earl, the
eminent statesman, the "Achitophel" of Dryden. After a private education
under the supervision of Locke, and a short experience of Winchester
School, he travelled much on the Continent. On succeeding to the earldom
in 1699 he took a prominent part in the debates of the House of Lords,
but devoted himself mainly to philosophical and literary pursuits. His
_coll._ writings were _pub._ in 1711 under the title of _Characteristics
of Men, Manners, Opinions, and Times_. In his philosophy he maintains, as
against Hobbes, the existence of a moral sense, a view subsequently
developed by the Scottish school of philosophy. The style of S. is
stately and sonorous but laboured. He _d._ at Naples, whither he had gone
in search of health, at the early age of 42. Though his writings are
directed strongly against Atheism, they have been held to be hostile to a
belief in revelation.

SHAIRP, JOHN CAMPBELL (1819-1885).--Poet and critic, _ed._ at Glasgow and
Oxf., became Prof. of Latin at St. Andrews 1861. Principal of the United
Coll. there 1868, and Prof. of Poetry at Oxf. 1877-87. Among his
writings are _Kilmahoe and other Poems_ (1864), _Studies in Poetry and
Philosophy_ (1868), _Culture and Religion_ (1870), and a Life of Burns in
the English Men of Letters Series. He also collaborated with Prof. Tait
in writing the Life of Principal Forbes (_q.v._), and ed. the Journal of
Dorothy Wordsworth.

SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM (1564-1616).--Dramatist and poet, _b._ at
Stratford-on-Avon, Warwickshire, on 22nd or 23rd, and baptised on 26th
April, 1564. On his father's side he belonged to a good yeoman stock,
though his descent cannot be certainly traced beyond his grandfather, a
Richard S., settled at Snitterfield, near Stratford. His _f._, John S.,
appears to have been a man of intelligence and energy, who set up in
Stratford as a dealer in all kinds of agricultural produce, to which he
added the trade of a glover. He became prosperous, and gained the respect
of his neighbours, as is evidenced by his election in succession to all
the municipal honours of his community, including those of chief alderman
and high bailiff. He _m._ Mary, youngest _dau._ of Robert Arden, a
wealthy farmer at Wilmcote, and a younger branch of a family of
considerable distinction, and whose tenant Richard S. had been. On her
father's death Mary inherited Asbies, a house with 50 acres of land
attached to it. The first children of the marriage were two _dau._, who
_d._ in infancy. William was the third, and others followed, of whom
three sons, Gilbert, Richard, and Edmund, and a _dau._ Joan, reached
maturity. He was _ed._ with his brother Gilbert at Stratford Grammar
School, where he learned Latin from Lilly's Grammar, English, writing,
and arithmetic. He probably read some of the Latin classics and may have
got a little Greek, and though his learned friend Ben Jonson credits him
with "little Latin and less Greek," Aubrey says he "knew Latin pretty
well." This happy state of matters continued until he was about 13, when
his _f._ fell into misfortune, which appears to have gone on deepening
until the success and prosperity of the poet in later years enabled him
to reinstate the family in its former position. Meanwhile, however, he
was taken from school, and appears to have been made to assist his _f._
in his business. The next certain fact in his history is his marriage in
November, 1582, when he was 18, to Ann Hathaway, _dau._ of a yeoman at
the neighbouring hamlet of Shottery, and 8 years his senior. Various
circumstances point to the marriage having been against the wishes of his
own family, and pressed on by that of his wife, and that it was so urged
in defence of the reputation of the lady, and as perhaps might be
expected, they indicate, though not conclusively, that it did not prove
altogether happy. The birth, in May, 1583, of his eldest child Susannah
(who is said to have inherited something of his wit and practical
ability, and who _m._ a Dr. John Hall), followed in the next year by that
of twins, Hamnet and Judith, and the necessity of increased means, led to
his departure from Stratford, whence he travelled on foot to London,
where the next 23 years of his life were mainly spent. The tradition that
his departure was also caused by trouble into which he had got by killing
the deer of Sir Thomas Lucy, of Charlcote, is credible. Leaving Stratford
in 1585 or the beginning of 1586, he seems at once to have turned to the
theatres, where he soon found work, although, as Rowe, his first
biographer, says, "in a very mean rank." It was not long, however,
before he had opportunities of showing his capacities as an actor, with
the result that he shortly became a member of one of the chief acting
companies of the day, which was then under the patronage of the Earl of
Leicester, and after being associated with the names of various other
noblemen, at last on the accession of James I. became known as the King's
Company. It played originally in "The Theatre" in Shoreditch, the first
playhouse to be erected in England, and afterwards in the "Rose" on the
Bankside, Southwark, the scene of the earliest successes of S. as an
actor and playwright. Subsequently to 1594, he acted occasionally in a
playhouse in Newington Butts, and between 1595 and 1599 in the "Curtain."
In the latter year the "Globe" was built on the Bankside, and 10 years
later the "Blackfriars:" and with these two, but especially with the
former, the remainder of his professional life was associated. It is not
unlikely that he visited various provincial towns; but that he was ever
in Scotland or on the Continent is improbable. Among the plays in which
he appeared were Jonson's _Every Man in his Humour_ and _Sejanus_, and in
_Hamlet_ he played "The Ghost;" and it is said that his brother Gilbert
as an old man remembered his appearing as "Adam" in _As You Like It_. By
1595 S. was famous and prosperous; his earlier plays had been written and
acted, and his poems _Venus and Adonis_, and _Lucrece_, and probably most
of the sonnets, had been _pub._ and received with extraordinary favour.
He had also powerful friends and patrons, including the Earl of
Southampton, and was known at Court. By the end of the century he is
mentioned by Francis Meres (_q.v._) as the greatest man of letters of the
day, and his name had become so valuable that it was affixed by
unscrupulous publishers to works, _e.g._ _Locrine_, _Oldcastle_, and _The
Yorkshire Tragedy_, by other and often very inferior hands. He had also
resumed a close connection with Stratford, and was making the restoration
of the family position there the object of his ambition. In accordance
with this he induced his _f._ to apply for a grant of arms, which was
given, and he purchased New Place, the largest house in the village. With
the income derived from his profession as an actor and dramatist, and his
share of the profits of the Globe and Blackfriars theatres, and in view
of the business capacity with which he managed his affairs, he may be
regarded as almost a wealthy man, and he went on adding to his influence
in Stratford by buying land. He had enjoyed the favour of Elizabeth, and
her death in 1603 did nothing to disturb his fortunes, as he stood quite
as well with her successor. His company received the title of the "King's
Servants," and his plays were frequently performed before the Court. But
notwithstanding this, the clouds had gathered over his life. The
conspiracy of Essex in 1601 had involved several of his friends and
patrons in disaster; he had himself been entangled in the unhappy love
affair which is supposed to be referred to in some of his sonnets, and he
had suffered unkindness at the hands of a friend. For a few years his
dramas breathe the darkness and bitterness of a heart which has been
sounding the depths of sad experience. He soon, however, emerged from
this and, passing through the period of the great tragedies, reached the
serene triumph and peace of his later dramas. In 1611 S. severed his long
connection with the stage, and retired to Stratford, where the remaining
five years of his life were spent in honour and prosperity. Early in 1616
his health began to give way, and he made his will. In the spring he
received a visit from his friends, Jonson and Drayton, and the festivity
with which it was celebrated seems to have brought on a fever, of which
he _d._ on April 23. He was survived by his wife and his two _dau._, both
of whom were married. His descendants _d._ out with his grand-daughter,
Elizabeth Hall.

Immense research has been spent upon the writings of S., with the result
of substantial agreement as to the order of their production and the
sources from which their subjects were drawn; for S. rarely troubled
himself with the construction of a story, but adopting one already
existing reared upon it as a foundation one of those marvellous
superstructures which make him the greatest painter and interpreter of
human character the world has ever seen. His period of literary
production extends from about 1588 to 1613, and falls naturally into four
divisions, which Prof. Dowden has named, "In the Workshop" ending in
1596; "In the World" 1596-1601; "Out of the Depths" 1601-1608; and "On
the Heights" 1608-1613. Of the 37 plays usually attributed to him, 16
only were _pub._ during his lifetime, so that the exact order in which
they were produced cannot always be determined with certainty. Recent
authorities are agreed to the extent that while they do not invariably
place the individual plays in the same order, they are almost entirely at
one as to which belong to the four periods respectively. The following
list shows in a condensed form the order according to Mr. Sidney Lee
(_Dictionary of National Biography_) with the most probable dates and the
original sources on which the plays are founded.


FIRST PERIOD--1588?-1596
LOVE'S LABOUR LOST (1591)--Plot probably original.
TWO GENTLEMEN OF VERONA (1591)--_The Shepherdess Felismena_ in
George of Montmayor's _Diana_.
COMEDY OF ERRORS (1591)--_Menaechmi_ of Plautus and earlier play.
ROMEO AND JULIET (1591)--Italian romance in Painter's _Palace of
Pleasure_ and Broke's _Romeus and Juliet_.
HENRY VI. 1, 2, and 3 (1592)--Retouched old plays, probably with Marlowe.
RICHARD III. (1592-3)--Holinshed's _Chronicle_.
RICHARD II. (1593-4?)-- do.
TITUS ANDRONICUS (1594)--Probably chiefly by Kyd, retouched.
KING JOHN (1594)--Old play retouched.

SECOND PERIOD--1596-1601-2
MERCHANT OF VENICE (1594)--Italian novels, _Gesta Romanorum_, and
earlier plays.
MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM (1595)--North's _Plutarch_, Chaucer, Ovid.
ALL'S WELL THAT ENDS WELL (1595)--Painter's _Palace of Pleasure_.
TAMING OF THE SHREW (1596?)--Old play retouched, and _Supposes_ of
G. Gascoigne, Shakespeare's in part only.
HENRY IV. 1 and 2 (1597?)--Holinshed and earlier play.
MERRY WIVES OF WINDSOR (1597-8)--Italian novels (?).
HENRY V. (1599).
MUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING (1599)--Partly from Italian.
AS YOU LIKE IT (1599)--Lodge's _Rosalynde, Euphues' Golden Legacie_.
TWELFTH NIGHT (1599)--B. Riche's _Apolonius and Silla_.

THIRD PERIOD--1602-1608
JULIUS CAESAR (1601)--North's _Plutarch_.
HAMLET (1601-2)--Belleforest's _Histoires Tragiques_.
TROILUS AND CRESSIDA (1603?)--Probably Chaucer's _Troilus and
Cresseide_ and Chapman's _Homer_.
OTHELLO (1604)--Cinthio's _Hecatommithi_.
MEASURE FOR MEASURE (1604?)--Cinthio's _Epithia_.
MACBETH (1605-6?)--Holinshed.
LEAR (1606)-- do.
TIMON OF ATHENS (1607?)--_Palace of Pleasure_ and Plutarch written
with G. Wilkins (?) and W. Rowley (?).
PERICLES (1607-8)--Gower's _Confessio Amantis_, with G. Wilkins (?).
ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA (1608)--North's _Plutarch_.
CORIOLANUS (1608)-- do.

FOURTH PERIOD--1608-1613
CYMBELINE (1610-11?)--Holinshed and _Ginevra_ in Boccaccio's
WINTER'S TALE (1610-11)--Green's _Dorastus and Fawnia_.
TEMPEST (1611?)--S. Jourdain's _Discovery of the Bermudas_.
HENRY VIII. (1612-13)--Draft by S. completed by Fletcher and
perhaps Massinger.

SONNETS (1591-94?).

The evidence as to chronology is three-fold--(1) External, such as
entries in registers of Stationers' Company, contemporary references, or
details as to the companies of actors; (2) External and internal
combined, such as references in the plays to events or books, etc.; (3)
Internal, content and treatment, progressive changes in versification,
presence of frequency of rhyme, etc. The genius of S. was so intensely
dramatic that it is impossible to say confidently when he speaks in his
own character. The sonnets, written probably 1591-94 have, however, been
thought to be of a more personal nature, and to contain indications as to
his character and history, and much labour and ingenuity have been
expended to make them yield their secrets. It is generally agreed that
they fall into two sections, the first consisting of sonnets 1 to 126
addressed to a young man, probably Henry Wriothesley, Earl of
Southampton, the friend and patron of S., and 9 years his junior; and the
second from 127 to 154 addressed or referring to a woman in whose snares
the writer had become entangled, and by whom he was betrayed. Some,
however, have held that they are allegorical, or partly written on behalf
of others, or that the emotion they express is dramatic and not personal.

There are contemporary references to S. which show him to have been
generally held in high regard. Thus Ben Jonson says, "I loved the man,
and do honour to his memory, on this side idolatry, as much as any," and
Chettle refers to "His demeanour no lesse civil than exelent in the
qualities he professes." The only exception is a reference to him in
Greene's _Groat's-worth of Wit_, as "an upstart crow beautified with our
feathers, that with his tyger's heart wrapt in a player's hide supposes
he is as well able to bumbast out a blanke verse as the best of you ...
and is in his own conceit the only Shake-scene in a countrie." He is said
to have written rapidly and with facility, rarely requiring to alter what
he had set down. In addition to his generally received works, others have
been attributed to him, some of which have been already mentioned: the
only two which appear to have serious claims to consideration are _The
Two Noble Kinsmen_, partly by Fletcher, and _Edward III._, of which part
of Act I. and the whole of Act II. have been thought to be Shakespeare's.
On the other hand a theory has been propounded that none of the plays
bearing his name were really his, but that they were written by Bacon
(_q.v._). This extraordinary view has been widely supported, chiefly in
America, and has been sometimes maintained; with considerable ability and
misplaced ingenuity.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1564, _ed._ at Stratford School, _f._ falls into
difficulties _c._ 1577, _m._ Ann Hathaway 1582, goes to London end of
1585, finds employment in theatres and acts in chief companies of the
time, first in "The Theatre" afterwards the "Rose," the "Curtain," the
"Globe" and "Blackfriars," appearing in Jonson's _Every Man in his
Humour_ and _Sejanus_. _Venus and Adonis_, _Lucrece_, earlier plays, and
perhaps most of sonnets _pub._ by 1595, when he was friend of Southampton
and known at Court, purchases New Place at Stratford, falls into trouble
_c._ 1600, having lost friends in Essex's conspiracy, and has unfortunate
love affair; emerges from this into honour and peace, retires to
Stratford and _d._ 1616. Productive period _c._ 1588-1613, 4 divisions,
first (1588-96), second (1596-1601), third (1601-1608), fourth
(1608-1613). Of 37 plays usually attributed, only 16 _pub._ in his life.

As might have been expected, there is a copious literature devoted to
Shakespeare and his works. Among those dealing with biography may be
mentioned Halliwell Phillipps's _Outline of the Life of Shakespeare_ (7th
ed., 1887), Fleay's _Shakespeare Manual_ (1876), and _Life of
Shakespeare_ (1886). _Life_ by S. Lee (1898), Dowden's _Shakespeare, his
Mind and Art_ (1875), Drake's _Shakespeare and his Times_ (1817),
Thornberry's _Shakespeare's England_ (1856), Knight's _Shakespeare_
(1843). _See_ also Works by Guizot, De Quincey, Fullom, Elze, and others.
Criticisms by Coleridge, Hazlitt, Swinburne, T.S. Baynes, and others.
Concordance by Mrs. Cowden Clarke. Ed., Rowe (1709), Pope (1725),
Theobald (1733), Johnson (1765), Capell (1768), Steevens's improved
re-issue of Johnson (1773), Malone (1790), Reed's _1st Variorum_ (1803),
_2nd Variorum_ (1813), _3rd Variorum_ by Jas. Boswell the younger (1821),
Dyce (1857), Staunton (1868-70), Camb. by W.G. Clark and Dr. Aldis Wright
(1863-66), Temple (ed. I. Gollancz, 1894-96), _Eversley Shakespeare_ (ed.
Herford, 1899).

SHARP, WILLIAM ("FIONA MACLEOD") (1856-1905).--Wrote under this pseudonym
a remarkable series of Celtic tales, novels, and poems, including
_Pharais, a Romance of the Isles_, _The Mountain Lovers_, _The Sin-Eater_
(1895), _The Washer of the Ford_, and _Green Fire_ (1896), _The Laughter
of Peterkin_ (1897), _The Dominion of Dreams_ (1899), _The Divine
Adventure_ (1900), _Drostan and Iseult_ (1902). He was one of the
earliest and most gifted promoters of the Celtic revival. In verse are
_From the Hills of Dream_, _Through the Ivory Gate_, and _The Immortal
Hour_ (drama). Under his own name he wrote _Earth's Voices_, _Sospiri di
Roma_, _Sospiri d'Italia_, poems, and books on Rossetti, Shelley,
Browning, and Heine; also a few novels.

SHAW, HENRY WHEELER ("JOSH BILLINGS") (1818-1885).--Humorist, _b._ in
Massachusetts. After working on steam-boats and farming, he became an
auctioneer, and settled at Poughkeepsie. Stripped of the fantastic
spelling by which he first succeeded in catching the public attention,
the shrewd and droll maxims of his _Farmers' Allminax_ have something in
common with Franklin's _Poor Richard_. Other books with the same features
are _Josh Billings' Sayings_, _Everybody's Friend_, _Josh Billings' Trump
Kards_, etc.

SHELLEY, MRS. MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT (GODWIN) (1797-1851).--Novelist, _b._
in London, the only child of William Godwin (_q.v._) and Mary
Wollstonecraft, his wife (_q.v._). In 1814 she went to the Continent with
P.B. Shelley (_q.v._), and _m._ him two years later. When abroad she saw
much of Byron, and it was at his villa on the Lake of Geneva that she
conceived the idea of her famous novel of _Frankenstein_ (1818), a
ghastly but powerful work. None of her other novels, including _The Last
Man_ and _Lodore_, had the same success. She contributed biographies of
foreign artists and authors to Lardner's _Cabinet Cyclopaedia_, and ed.
her husband's poems.

SHELLEY, PERCY BYSSHE (1792-1822).--Poet, _s._ of Sir Timothy S., was
_b._ at Field Place, near Horsham, Sussex, and _ed._ at Brentford, Eton,
and Univ. Coll., Oxf., whence for writing and circulating a pamphlet,
_The Necessity of Atheism_, he was expelled. One immediate result of this
was a difference with his _f._, which was deepened into a permanent
breach by his marriage in the following year to Harriet Westbrook, the
pretty and lively _dau._ of a retired innkeeper. The next three years
were passed in wandering about from place to place in Ireland, Wales, the
Lake District, and other parts of the kingdom, and in the composition of
_Queen Mab_ (1813), the poet's first serious work. Before the end of that
period he had separated from his wife, for which various reasons have
been assigned, one being her previous desertion of him, and the discovery
on his part of imperfect sympathy between them; the principal one,
however, being that he had conceived a violent passion for Mary
Wollstonecraft Godwin (_see_ Shelley, Mrs. M.W.), _dau._ of William
Godwin (_q.v._), with whom he eloped to Italy in 1814, and whom he _m._
in 1816, his first wife having drowned herself. The custody of his two
children, whom he had left with their mother, was refused him by the
Court of Chancery. In Switzerland he had made the acquaintance of Byron,
with whom he afterwards lived in intimacy in Italy. Returning to England
in 1815 he wrote his first really great poem, _Alastor_ (1816), followed
by the _Hymn to Intellectual Beauty_, _Prince Athanase_, _Rosalind and
Helen_, and _Laon and Cythna_, afterwards called the _Revolt of Islam_
(1817). In 1818 he left England never to return, and went to Italy, and
in the next two years--while at Rome--produced his two greatest works,
the tragedy of _The Cenci_ (1819) and _Prometheus Unbound_ (1820). He
removed to Venice in 1820 in the company of Byron, and there wrote
_Julian and Maddalo_, a poetic record of discussions between them.
_Epipsychidion_, _Hellas_, and _Adonais_, a lament for Keats, were all
produced in 1821. After a short residence at Pisa he went to Lerici on
the Gulf of Spezzia, where he indulged in his favourite recreation of
boating, and here on July 8, 1823, he went, in company with a friend, Mr.
Williams, on that fatal expedition which cost him his life. His body was
cast ashore about a fortnight later, and burnt, in accordance with the
quarantine law of the country, on a pyre in the presence of Byron, Leigh
Hunt, and Trelawny. His ashes were carefully preserved and buried in the
Protestant cemetery at Rome near those of Keats. The character of S. is a
singularly compounded one. By the unanimous testimony of his friends, it
was remarkable for gentleness, purity, generosity, and strong affection:
on the other hand he appears to have had very inadequate conceptions of
duty and responsibility, and from his childhood seems to have been in
revolt against authority of every kind. The charge of Atheism rests
chiefly on _Mab_, the work of a boy, printed by him for private
circulation, and to some extent repudiated as personal opinion. As a poet
he stands in the front rank: in lyrical gift, shown in _Prometheus_,
_Hellas_, and some of his shorter poems, such as "The Skylark," he is
probably unsurpassed, and in his _Cenci_ he exhibits dramatic power of a
high order. Among his shorter poems are some which reach perfection, such
as the sonnet on "Ozymandias," "Music when soft voices die," "I arise
from dreams of thee," "When the lamp is shattered," the "Ode to the West
Wind," and "O world! O life! O time!" During his short life of 30 years
he was, not unnaturally, the object of much severe judgment, and his
poetic power even was recognised by only a few. Posterity has taken a
more lenient view of his serious errors of conduct, while according to
his genius a shining place among the immortals.

The best ed. of the _Works_ is that of Buxton Forman (4 vols.). There are
ed. of the Poems by W.M. Rossetti (1894), Dowden (1891), etc. _Lives_ by
Medwin (1847), J.A. Symonds (1887), W.M. Rossetti, Prof. Dowden, T.
Jefferson Hogg, and others.

SHENSTONE, WILLIAM (1714-1763).--Poet, _s._ of Thomas S., owner of a
small estate at Hales Owen, Shropshire. At this place, called the
Leasowes, the poet was _b._ In 1732 he went to Oxf. On his father's death
he retired to the Leasowes where he passed his time, and ran through his
means in transforming it into a marvel of landscape gardening, visited by
strangers from all parts of the kingdom. The works of S. consist of poems
and prose essays. Of the former two, _The Schoolmistress_, a humorous
imitation of Spenser, with many quaint and tender touches, and the
_Pastoral Ballad_ in four parts, perhaps the best of its kind in the
language, survive. The essays also display good sense and a pointed and
graceful style. The last years of S. were clouded by financial
embarrassments and perhaps also by disappointed affections. After his
death his works, were _coll._ and _pub._ by Dodsley.

SHERIDAN, RICHARD BRINSLEY (1751-1816).--Dramatist and orator, _b._ in
Dublin, the _s._ of an actor, was _ed._ at Harrow. In 1772 he eloped with
Miss Linley, a famous singer, went with her to France, fought two duels,
and _m._ her in 1773. S. has a reputation of the highest in two distinct
walks, those of the dramatist and the Parliamentary orator. By his three
great comedies, _The Rivals_ (1775), _The School for Scandal_ (1777), and
_The Critic_ (1779), he raised himself to the first place among the
writers of the comedy of manners; and by his speeches, specially those in
support of the impeachment of Warren Hastings, he has a position among
the greatest of Parliamentary orators. Unfortunately he had little turn
for business, and too great a love of pleasure and conviviality, which
led to lifelong pecuniary embarrassment, completed by the destruction by
fire of Drury Lane Theatre, of which he had become proprietor. As a
politician S. supported the Whig party, and held the offices of
Under-Sec. for Foreign Affairs, Sec. to the Treasury, and Treasurer of
the Navy. He was also confidential adviser to George IV. when Prince of
Wales, but like everybody else who had to do with him suffered from the
ingratitude of "the first gentleman in Europe." The accounts long
prevalent of the poverty and misery of his last years have been shown to
be greatly exaggerated, though he was in reduced circumstances. As a
dramatist S. shines in the construction of amusing situations, and in a
sparkling flow of witty dialogue which never flags. His only other play
was _Pizarro_ (1799), a patriotic melodrama.

_Lives_ by Walkins (1817), T. Moore (1825), and Mrs. Oliphant (1883).

SHERLOCK, WILLIAM (1641?-1707).--Divine and controversialist, _b._ at
Southwark, _ed._ at Eton and Camb., took orders, and became in 1684
Master of the Temple, and in 1691 Dean of St. Paul's. He exercised a
powerful influence in the Church. His most popular work was his
_Discourse concerning Death_, and his principal controversial effort was
his _Vindication of the Doctrine of the Trinity_. Other works were on
_Future Judgment_ and on _The Divine Providence_. His son, THOMAS
SHERLOCK (1678-1761), who was also Master of the Temple, became Bishop
successively of Bangor, Salisbury, and London, and was, like his _f._, a
noted controversialist. His best known work is his _Tryal of the
Witnesses of the Resurrection of Jesus_ (1729).

SHERWOOD, MRS. MARY MARTHA (BUTT) (1775-1851).--Writer of children's
books, _m._ in 1803 Captain H. Sherwood, and went to India, where she
took much interest in soldiers' children. Among her books, many of which
attained great popularity, are _Susan Gray_, _Little Henry and his
Bearer_, and _The Fairchild Family_.

SHIRLEY, JAMES (1596-1666).--Dramatist, _b._ in London, _ed._ at Merchant
Taylor's School, London, and at Oxf. and Camb., became a master of St.
Alban's Grammar School, and afterwards joined the Roman Catholic Church,
and going to London wrote for the stage, producing 39 plays. His talents
and his religion recommended him to Queen Henrietta Maria, and he appears
to have led a fairly prosperous life until the interdict of plays by
Parliament in 1642. In the Civil War he bore arms on the Royalist side,
and during the Commonwealth he returned to his occupation of
schoolmaster. The Restoration does not appear to have improved his
fortunes much; he was burnt out in the great fire of 1666, and very soon
afterwards he and his wife _d._ on the same day. The plays of S. include
_The Traitor_ (1631), _The Cardinal_ (1641), _The Gamester_ (1633), _Hyde
Park_ (1632), and _The Lady of Pleasure_ (1635). He also wrote poems,
including the well-known lines beginning "The Glories of our mortal
State." S. has fancy, liveliness, and the style of a gentleman, but he
lacks depth and interest. He is less gross than most of his

Other plays are _The Ball_ (1632), _The Maid's Revenge_ (1626), _The
Grateful Servant_ (1629), _Bird in a Cage_ (1633), _The Example_ (1634).
_The Constant Maid_ (_c._ 1640), _Doubtful Heir, or Rosania_ (1640),
_Court Secret_ (1653), _Contention of Ajax and Ulysses_ (1659), etc.

SHORTHOUSE, JOSEPH HENRY (1834-1903).--Novelist, _b._ at Birmingham,
where he was a chemical manufacturer. Originally a Quaker, he joined the
Church of England. His first, and by far his best book, _John Inglesant_,
appeared in 1881, and at once made him famous. Though deficient in its
structure as a story, and not appealing to the populace, it fascinates by
the charm of its style and the "dim religious light" by which it is
suffused, as well as by the striking scenes occasionally depicted. His
other novels, _The Little Schoolmaster Mark_, _Sir Percival_, _The
Countess Eve_, and _A Teacher of the Violin_, though with some of the
same characteristics, had no success comparable to his first. S. also
wrote an essay, _The Platonism of Wordsworth_.

SIBBES, RICHARD (1577-1635).--Divine, was at Camb., where he held various
academic posts, of which he was deprived by the High Commission on
account of his Puritanism. He was the author of several devotional works
expressing intense religious feeling--_The Saint's Cordial_ (1629), _The
Bruised Reed and Smoking Flax_, etc. He was a man of great learning.

SIDNEY, or SYDNEY, ALGERNON (1622-1683).--Political writer, _s._ of the
2nd Earl of Leicester, and grand-nephew of Sir Philip S., in his youth
travelled on the Continent, served against the Irish Rebels, and on the
outbreak of the Civil War, on the side of the Parliament. He was one of
the judges on the trial of Charles I., and though he did not attend, he
thoroughly approved of the sentence. He opposed the assumption of the
supreme power by Cromwell. After the Restoration he lived on the
Continent, but receiving a pardon, returned in 1677 to England. He,
however, retained the republican principles which he had all his life
advocated, fell under the suspicion of the Court, and was in 1683, on the
discovery of the Rye House Plot, condemned to death on entirely
insufficient evidence, and beheaded on Tower Hill, December 7, 1683.
Though no charge of personal venality has been substantiated, yet it
appears to be certain that he received money from the French King for
using his influence against war between the two countries, his object
being to prevent Charles II. from obtaining command of the war supplies.
S. was deeply versed in political theory, and wrote _Discourses
concerning Government_, _pub._ in 1698.

SIDNEY, SIR PHILIP (1554-1586).--Poet and romancist, _s._ of Sir Henry
S., Deputy of Ireland, and Pres. of Wales, _b._ at the family seat of
Penshurst, and _ed._ at Shrewsbury School and Oxf. He was at the French
Court on the fateful August 24, 1572--the massacre of St.
Bartholomew--but left Paris soon thereafter and went to Germany and
Italy. In 1576 he was with his _f._ in Ireland, and the next year went on
missions to the Elector Palatine and the Emperor Rudolf II. When his
father's Irish policy was called in question, he wrote an able defence of
it. He became the friend of Spenser, who dedicated to him his _Shepherd's
Calendar_. In 1580 he lost the favour of the Queen by remonstrating
against her proposed marriage with the Duke of Anjou. His own marriage
with a _dau._ of Sir Francis Walsingham took place in 1583. In 1585 he
was engaged in the war in the Low Countries, and met his death at Zutphen
from a wound in the thigh. His death was commemorated by Spenser in his
_Astrophel_. S. has always been considered as the type of English
chivalry; and his extraordinary contemporary reputation rested on his
personal qualities of nobility and generosity. His writings consist of
his famous pastoral romance of _Arcadia_, his sonnets _Astrophel and
Stella_, and his _Apologie for Poetrie_, afterwards called _Defence of
Poesie_. The _Arcadia_ was originally written for the amusement of his
sister, afterwards Countess of Pembroke, the "Sidney's sister, Pembroke's
mother," of Ben Jonson. Though its interest now is chiefly historical, it
enjoyed an extraordinary popularity for a century after its appearance,
and had a marked influence on the immediately succeeding literature. It
was written in 1580-81 but not _pub._ until 1590, and is a medley of
poetical prose, full of conceits, with occasional verse interspersed. His
_Defence of Poesie_, written in reply to Gosson (_q.v._), is in simple
and vigorous English. S. also made a translation of the Psalms.

_Poems_ ed. by Grosart, _Apologie_ by Arber and others, _Astrophel_ by
Gray, Arber, and others. _Life_ by Fulke Greville (1652), ed. by Sir E.
Brydges (1816). _Arcadia_ (_facsimile_), by Somner. Lives by J.A.
Symonds, Fox Bourne, and others.

SIGOURNEY, MRS. LYDIA (HUNTLEY) (1791-1865).--American verse writer, was
an extraordinarily copious writer of smooth, sentimental verse, which had
great popularity in its day. Her most ambitious effort was a blank verse
poem, _Traits of the Aborigines of America_ (1822). Other books were
_Connecticut Forty Years Since_, _Pocahontas_, etc.

SIMMS, WILLIAM GILMORE (1806-1870).--Novelist, etc., _b._ at Charleston,
South Carolina, began his literary life with journalism. He then for some
time tried poetry, but without any distinct success except occasionally
in _Southern Passages and Pictures_ (1839). But in fiction, which he
began in 1833 with _Martin Faber_, he was more successful, though rather
an imitator of Cooper. _The Yemassee_ (1835) is generally considered his
best novel. He was less happy in his attempts at historical romance, such
as _Count Julian_ and _The Damsel of Darien_. During the war, in which he
was naturally a strong partisan of the South, he was ruined, and his
library was burned; and from these disasters he never recovered. He had
a high repute as a journalist, orator, and lecturer. He was the first
Southerner to achieve any name in literature.

SKELTON, JOHN (1460?-1529).--Poet, _b._ in Norfolk, and _ed._ at Oxf. and
Camb., of both of which he was _cr._ Poet Laureate, and perhaps held the
same office under the King. He was appointed tutor to Henry VIII., and
notwithstanding his sharp tongue, enjoyed some favour at Court. In 1498
he entered the Church, and became Rector of Diss in his native county.
Hitherto he seems to have produced some translations only, but about this
time he appears to have struck upon the vein which he was to work with
such vigour and popularity. He turned his attention to abuses in Church
and State, which he lashed with caustic satire, conveyed in short
doggerel rhyming lines peculiar to himself, in which jokes, slang,
invectives, and Latin quotations rush out pell-mell. His best works in
this line are _Why come ye not to Court?_ and _Colin Clout_, both
directed against the clergy, and the former against Wolsey in particular.
Piqued at his inconstancy (for S. had previously courted him) the
Cardinal would have imprisoned him, had he not taken sanctuary in
Westminster, where he remained until his death. Other works of his are
_The Tunning_ (brewing) _of Elynor Rummynge_, a coarsely humorous picture
of low life, and the tender and fanciful _Death of Philip Sparrow_, the
lament of a young lady over her pet bird killed by a cat.

SKELTON, SIR JOHN (1831-1897).--Miscellaneous writer. _B._ in Edinburgh,
_ed._ at the Univ. there, and called to the Scottish Bar 1854, he was
Sec. and ultimately Chairman of the Local Government Board for Scotland.
He wrote _Maitland of Lethington and the Scotland of Mary Stuart_ (1887),
_The Crookit Meg_ (1880), and _The Table Talk of Shirley_. He contributed
to _Fraser's_ and _Blackwood's Magazines_. He received the degree of
LL.D. from Edin. 1878, and was made K.C.B. 1897.

SKENE, WILLIAM FORBES (1807-1892).--Historian, 2nd _s._ of James S. of
Rubislaw, friend of Sir Walter Scott, was a Writer to the Signet in
Edinburgh, and Clerk of the Bills in the Court of Session. He wrote and
ed. historical works of considerable authority, _The Highlanders of
Scotland_ (1837), and his most important work, _Celtic Scotland_
(1876-80), and ed. of _The Four Ancient Books of Wales_ (1868), and other
Celtic writings.

SKINNER, JOHN (1721-1807).--Historian and song-writer, _s._ of a
schoolmaster at Birse, Aberdeenshire, was _ed._ at Marischal Coll.
Brought up as a Presbyterian, he became an Episcopalian and ministered to
a congregation at Longside, near Peterhead, for 65 years. He wrote _The
Ecclesiastical History of Scotland_ from the Episcopalian point of view,
and several songs of which _The Reel of Tullochgorum_ and _The Ewie wi'
the Crookit Horn_ are the best known, and he also rendered some of the
Psalms into Latin. He kept up a rhyming correspondence with Burns.

SKIPSEY, JOSEPH (1832-1903).--Poet, _b._ near North Shields, and from
childhood worked in the mines. He _pub._ a few pieces of poetry in 1859,
and soon after left working underground and became caretaker of
Shakespeare's house at Stratford-on-Avon. During the last 30 years of his
life he _pub._ several vols. of poetry, including _The Collier Lad_ and
_Carols from the Coal Fields_; and he ed. some vols. for the "Canterbury
Poets." _Memoir_ by R.S. Watson (1908).

SMART, CHRISTOPHER (1722-1771).--Poet, _s._ of the steward to Lord Vane,
was _b._ at Shipbourne, Kent, and by the bounty of the Duchess of
Cleveland sent to Camb. Here his ill-balanced mind showed itself in wild
folly. Leaving the Univ. he came to London and maintained himself by
conducting and writing for periodicals. His _Poems on Several Occasions_,
which contained "The Hop Garden," was issued in 1752, and _The Hilliad_
in 1753 against "Sir" John Hill, a notoriety of the day who had attacked
him. His mind ultimately gave way, and it was in confinement that he
produced by far his most remarkable work, the _Song to David_, a most
original and powerful poem. Unfortunate to the last, he _d._ in the
King's Bench prison, to which he had been committed for debt. He also
translated Horace.

SMEDLEY, FRANK (1818-1864).--Novelist, was the author of several novels
which had considerable popularity, including _Frank Fairleigh_ (1850),
_Lewis Arundel_ (1852), and _Harry Coverdale's Courtship_ (1855). S. was
a life-long cripple.

SMILES, SAMUEL (1812-1904).--Biographer and miscellaneous writer, _b._ at
Haddington, _ed._ at the Grammar School there, studied medicine at Edin.,
and settled in practice in his native town. Subsequently he betook
himself to journalism, and ed. a paper in Leeds. Afterwards he was sec.
to various railways. His leisure was devoted to reading and writing, and
his first publication was _The Life of George Stephenson_ (1857).
_Self-Help_, his most popular work, followed in 1859; it had an immense
circulation, and was translated into 17 languages. It was followed up by
_Character_ (1871), _Thrift_ (1875), and _Duty_ (1880). _The Lives of the
Engineers_ and _Industrial Biography_ appeared in 1863, _The Huguenots,
their Settlements, Churches, and Industries in England and Ireland_
(1867), and _The Huguenots in France_ a little later. He also wrote
biographies of Telford and James Watt, and of the Scottish naturalists,
Edwards the shoemaker and Dick the baker. He received the degree of LL.D.
from Edin. in 1878.

SMITH, ADAM (1723-1790).--Philosopher and economist, _b._ at Kirkcaldy,
Fife, the _s._ of the Controller of Customs there. His _f._ _d._ shortly
before his birth. The first and only adventure in his tranquil life was
his being kidnapped by gipsies. After being at the Grammar School of
Kirkcaldy, he went to the Univ. of Glasgow, whence he proceeded to Oxf.
On the conclusion of his Univ. course he returned to Kirkcaldy, going
subsequently to Edinburgh, where he was soon recognised as a man of
unusual intellect. In 1751 he was appointed to the Chair of Logic at
Glasgow, which he next year exchanged for that of Moral Philosophy, and
in 1759 he _pub._ his _Theory of the Moral Sentiments_. He received in
1762 the degree of LL.D. from his Univ., and two years later resigned his
chair and became travelling tutor to the young Duke of Buccleuch,
accompanying him to the Continent. He remained for nearly a year in
Paris, and made the acquaintance of the brilliant circle of _savans_ in
that city. Returning to Kirkcaldy in 1766 he lived there with his mother
for nearly ten years in retirement and close study, the results of which
were given to the world in 1776 in the publication of his epoch-making
work, _Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations_
(1776). This book may be said to have founded the science of political
economy, and to have created a new department of literature; and very few
works have, to the same extent, influenced the practical history of the
world. In 1778 S. was made a Commissioner of Customs, and settled in
Edinburgh; and in 1787 he was elected Lord Rector of the Univ. of
Glasgow. In addition to the works above mentioned, he wrote various
essays on philosophical subjects, and an account of the last days of
David Hume. The style of his works was plain and lucid, and he had a
remarkable faculty of apt illustration.

SMITH, ALBERT (1816-1860).--Humorous writer, studied medicine, and for a
short time assisted his _f._ in practice. He was one of the original
contributors to _Punch_, and among his books are _The Adventures of Mr.
Ledbury_ and _The Scattergood Family_. He also lectured and gave
entertainments, including _The Ascent of Mont Blanc_, which were highly

SMITH, ALEXANDER (1830-1867).--Poet and essayist, _s._ of a Paisley
pattern-designer, at first followed the same occupation in Glasgow, but
having become known as a poet of promise was, in 1854, appointed Sec. of
Edin. Univ. After contributing to the _Glasgow Citizen_ he _pub._ _A Life
Drama_ (1853), which received much admiration. Thereafter appeared _War
Sonnets_ (in conjunction, with S. Dobell, _q.v._), _City Poems_ (1857),
and _Edwin of Deira_ (1861). In prose he wrote _Dreamthorpe_ (essays), _A
Summer in Skye_, and two novels, _Alfred Hagart's Household_ and _Miss
Dona M'Quarrie_. His poems were in a rich and glowing style, but by some
good judges were held to show fancy rather than imagination. He belonged
to what was called the "spasmodic" school of poetry.

SMITH, MRS. CHARLOTTE (TURNER) (1749-1806).--Was _m._ at 15 to a West
Indian merchant, who by a series of misfortunes and imprudences was
reduced from affluence to poverty. She had in her youth shown
considerable promise as a poetess, and in her misfortunes she was able to
maintain herself and her family by her pen. In addition to a poem,
_Beachy Head_, and sonnets, she wrote several novels of more than usual
merit, including _Emmeline_ (1788), and, her best work, _The Old English
Manor House_.

SMITH, HORACE (1779-1849), SMITH, JAMES (1775-1839).--Humorists, _s._ of
a London lawyer who was solicitor to the Board of Ordnance. James
succeeded his _f._; Horace became a successful stockbroker. Both brothers
were distinguished for brilliant wit and humour. Their first great hit
was _Rejected Addresses_ (1812), extremely clever parodies on leading
contemporary poets. To this _jeu d'esprit_ James contributed among others
imitations of Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Crabbe, while Horace's share
included Scott and Moore. James _pub._ little more, but anonymously gave
Charles Matthews assistance in his entertainments. Horace _pub._ several
novels which, with perhaps the exception of _Brambletye House_, are now
forgotten. He also wrote _The Address to a Mummy_, a remarkable poem in
which wit and true sentiment are admirably combined. Both brothers were
highly esteemed not only for their social qualities, but for their
benevolence and goodness of heart.

SMITH, SYDNEY (1771-1845).--Miscellaneous writer, _b._ at Woodford,
Essex, the _s._ of a gentleman of independent means, and _ed._ at
Winchester and Oxf., took orders 1794, becoming curate of Amesbury. He
came to Edinburgh as tutor to a gentleman's _s._, was introduced to the
circle of brilliant young Whigs there, and assisted in founding the
_Edinburgh Review_. He then went to London, where he was for a time
preacher at the Foundling Hospital, and lectured on moral philosophy at
the Royal Institution. His brilliant wit and general ability made him a
favourite in society, while by his power of clear and cogent argument he
exercised a strong influence on the course of politics. His _Plymley
Letters_ did much to advance the cause of Catholic emancipation. He
received various preferments, and became a canon of St. Paul's. In
politics he was a Whig, in his Church views an Erastian; and in the
defence of his principles he was honest and courageous. Though not
remarkable for religious devotion he was a hard-working and, according to
his lights, useful country parson. By the death of a younger brother he
in his later years came into a considerable fortune.

SMITH, WALTER CHALMERS (1824-1908).--_B._ in Aberdeen and _ed._ there and
at Edin., was a minister of the Free Church of Scotland at Orwell,
Glasgow, and Edinburgh successively, a distinguished preacher and a man
of kindly nature and catholic sympathies. He attained considerable
reputation as a poet. Among his works are _The Bishop's Walk_ (1861),
_Olrig Grange_ (1872), _Hilda among the Broken Gods_ (1878), _Raban_
(1880), _Kildrostan_ (1884), and _A Heretic_ (1890). Some of these were
written under the names of "Orwell" and Hermann Kunst. He received the
degrees of D.D. and LL.D.

SMITH, SIR WILLIAM (1813-1893).--Lexicographer, _ed._ at Univ. Coll.,
London, was a contributor to the _Penny Magazine_ and compiled or ed.
many useful works of reference, including _Dictionary of Greek and Roman
Antiquities_ (1842), and dictionaries of the Bible, of Christian
Antiquities, and Christian Biography, etc., also various school series
and educational handbooks, including _The Classical Dictionary_. He held
various academical degrees, including Ph.D. of Leipsic, and was knighted
in 1892.

SMITH, WILLIAM ROBERTSON (1846-1894).--Theologian and Semitic scholar,
_s._ of the Free Church minister of Keig, Aberdeenshire, studied for the
ministry of that Church. In 1870 he was appointed Prof. of Hebrew, etc.,
in its coll. at Aberdeen, a position which he had to resign on account of
his advanced critical views. He became joint ed. of _The Encyclopaedia
Britannica_, and in 1883 Prof. of Arabic at Camb. S. was a man of
brilliant and versatile talents, a mathematician as well as a scholar,
somewhat uncompromising and aggressive in the exposition and defence of
his views. His works include _The Old Testament in the Jewish Church_
(1881), and _The Religion of the Semites_ (1889).

SMOLLETT, TOBIAS GEORGE (1721-1771).--Novelist, 2nd _s._ of Archibald S.,
of Dalquhurn, Dumbartonshire, and _ed._ at Glasgow, proceeded to London
in 1739 with the view of having a tragedy, _The Regicide_, put on the
stage, in which, however, he failed. In this disappointment he took
service as surgeon's mate on one of the vessels of the Carthagena
expedition, 1741, an experience which he turned to account in his novels.
On his return he settled in London, and endeavoured to acquire practice
as a physician, but was not very successful, and having discovered where
his talent lay, he thenceforth devoted himself to literature. _Roderick
Random_ appeared in 1748, _The History of an Atom_ (1749), _Peregrine
Pickle_ in 1751, _Ferdinand, Count Fathom_ in 1753, _Sir Lancelot
Greaves_ in 1766, and _Humphrey Clinker_, generally considered his best
novel, in 1770. Besides these works, however, he translated Voltaire,
wrote a _History of England_ in continuation of Hume's, an _Ode to
Independence_, travels and satires, and contributed to various
periodicals. He was repeatedly involved in acrimonious controversy, and
on one occasion fined and imprisoned for a libel, which, with various
private misfortunes, embittered his life, and he _d._ disappointed and
worn out near Leghorn. Had he lived four years longer he would have
succeeded to his grandfather's estate of Bonhill. The novels of S.
display great narrative power, and he has a remarkable comic vein of a
broad type, which enables him to present ludicrous scenes and
circumstances with great effect. There is, however, a strong infusion of
coarseness in his treatment of his subjects.

SOMERVILLE, MRS. MARY (FAIRFAX) (1780-1872).--Mathematician and writer on
science, _dau._ of Admiral Sir William G. Fairfax, _b._ at Jedburgh, was
twice _m._, first to Mr. Greig, an officer in the Russian Navy, and
second to her cousin Dr. William S. Although she had early manifested a
taste for study, and specially for science, she had, until after the
death of her first husband, little opportunity of following out her
favourite subjects. With Dr. S., who was in full sympathy with her
scientific tastes, she went to reside in London, and there her talents
made her known in scientific circles. In 1823 she was requested by Lord
Brougham to popularise the _Mechanique Celeste_ of La Place. This she did
with great success, publishing her work as _The Celestial Mechanism of
the Heavens_ (1830). She also _pub._ _The Connection of the Physical
Sciences_ (1834), and other works. She received a pension from
Government, and _d._ aged 92 at Naples, where she had resided for the
last ten or twelve years of her life.

SOMERVILLE, WILLIAM (1675-1742).--Poet, a Warwickshire squire of literary
tastes, wrote among others a poem, _The Chase_, in 4 books, which has
some passages of considerable descriptive power.

SOTHEBY, WILLIAM (1757-1833).--Poet and translator, belonged to a good
family, and was _ed._ at Harrow. In early life he was in the army. He
_pub._ a few dramas and books of poems, which had no great popularity,
and are now forgotten; his reputation rests upon his admirable
translations of the _Oberon_ of Wieland, the _Georgics_ of Virgil, and
the _Iliad_ and _Odyssey_. The last two were begun when he was upwards of
70, but he lived to complete them. His _Georgics_ is considered one of
the best translations from the classics in the language.

SOUTH, ROBERT (1634-1716).--Divine, _s._ of a London merchant, was _b._
at Hackney, and _ed._ at Westminster School and Oxf., where in 1660 he
was appointed Univ. Orator. He became domestic chaplain to the Lord
Chancellor Clarendon, and in 1663 the degree of D.D. was conferred upon
him. After accompanying an embassy to Poland he became Rector of Islip,
and a chaplain to Charles II. Thereafter he steadily declined higher
preferment, including the bishopric of Rochester. He was opposed to the
Romanising measures of James II., but owing to his views as to the duty
of passive obedience he declined to associate himself in any way with the
Revolution, to which nevertheless he submitted. He was an expert
controversialist, but it is chiefly by his sermons, which are among the
classics of English divinity, that he is remembered. He has the
reputation of being the wittiest of English preachers, and this
characteristic is sometimes present to a degree not quite suitable to the
subjects treated.

SOUTHERNE, THOMAS (1660-1746).--Dramatist, _b._ in Dublin, and _ed._ at
Trinity Coll. there, came to London and studied law at the Middle Temple.
Afterwards he entered the army and saw service. He wrote ten plays, of
which two were long acted and are still remembered, _The Fatal Marriage_
(1694) and _Oroonoko_ (1696), in the latter of which he appeals
passionately against the slave-trade. Unlike most preceding dramatists he
was a practical man, succeeded in his theatrical management, and retired
on a fortune. Other plays are _The Loyal Brother_ (1682), _The
Disappointment_ (1684), _The Wives' Excuse_ (1692), _The Spartan Dame_
(1719), etc.

SOUTHEY, MRS. CAROLINE ANNE (BOWLES) (1786-1854).--Poetess, _dau._ of a
captain in the navy, submitted a poem, _Ellen Fitzarthur_ to Southey
(_q.v._), which led to a friendship, and to a proposed joint poem on
Robin Hood, not, however, carried out, and eventually to her becoming the
poet's second wife. She wrote various other works, including _Chapters on
Churchyards_ and _Tales of the Factories_.

SOUTHEY, ROBERT (1774-1843).--Poet, biographer, etc., _s._ of an
unsuccessful linen-draper in Bristol, where he was _b._, was sent to
Westminster School, and in 1792 went to Oxf. His friendship with
Coleridge began in 1794, and with him he joined in the scheme of a
"pantisocracy" (_see_ Coleridge). In 1795 he _m._ his first wife, Edith
Fricker, and thus became the brother-in-law of Coleridge. Shortly
afterwards he visited Spain, and in 1800 Portugal, and laid the
foundations of his thorough knowledge of the history and literature of
the Peninsula. Between these two periods of foreign travel he had
attempted the study of law, which proved entirely uncongenial; and in
1803 he settled at Greta Hall, Keswick, to which neighbourhood the
Coleridges had also come. Here he set himself to a course of
indefatigable literary toil which only ended with his life. _Thalaba_
had appeared in 1801, and there followed _Madoc_ (1805), _The Curse of
Kehama_ (1810), _Roderic, the Last of the Goths_ (1814), and _A Vision of
Judgment_ (1821); and in prose a _History of Brazil_, Lives of Nelson
(1813), Wesley (1820), and Bunyan (1830), _The Book of the Church_
(1824), _History of the Peninsular War_ (1823-32), _Naval History_, and
_The Doctor_ (1834-37). In addition to this vast amount of work he had
been from 1808 a constant contributor to the _Quarterly Review_. In 1839
when he was failing both in body and mind he _m._, as his second wife,
Miss Caroline Ann Bowles, who had for 20 years been his intimate friend,
and by whom his few remaining years were soothed. Though the name of S.
still bulks somewhat largely in the history of our literature, his works,
with a few exceptions, are now little read, and those of them (his longer
poems, _Thalaba_ and _Kehama_) on which he himself based his hopes of
lasting fame, least of all. To this result their length, remoteness from
living interests, and the impression that their often splendid diction is
rather eloquence than true poetry, have contributed. Some of his shorter
poems, _e.g._, "The Holly Tree," and "The Battle of Blenheim" still live,
but his fame now rests on his vigorous prose and especially on his
classic _Life of Nelson_. Like Wordsworth and Coleridge, S. began life as
a democratic visionary, and was strongly influenced by the French
Revolution, but gradually cooled down into a pronounced Tory. He was
himself greater and better than any of his works, his life being a noble
record of devotion to duty and unselfish benevolence. He held the office
of Poet Laureate from 1813, and had a pension from Government. He
declined a baronetcy.

_Life and Correspondence_ (6 vols., 1849-50) by his younger son, Rev. C.
Southey. _Life_ by Dowden in Men of Letters (1880).

SOUTHWELL, ROBERT (1561?-1595).--Poet, _b._ at Horsham St. Faith's,
Norfolk, of good Roman Catholic family, and _ed._ at Douay, Paris, and
Rome, he became a Jesuit, and showed such learning and ability as to be
appointed Prefect of the English Coll. In 1586 he came to England with
Garnett, the superior of the English province, and became chaplain to the
Countess of Arundel. His being in England for more than 40 days then
rendered him liable to the punishment of death and disembowelment, and in
1592 he was apprehended and imprisoned in the Tower for three years,
during which he was tortured 13 times. He was then put on trial and
executed, February 22, 1595. He was the author of _St. Peter's Complaint_
and _The Burning Babe_, a short poem of great imaginative power, and of
several prose religious works, including _St. Mary Magdalene's Teares_,
_A Short Rule of Good Life_, _The Triumphs over Death_, etc.

SPEDDING, JAMES (1808-1881).--Editor of Bacon's works, _s._ of a
Cumberland squire, and _ed._ at Bury St. Edmunds and Camb., was for some
years in the Colonial Office. He devoted himself to the ed. of Bacon's
works, and the endeavour to clear his character against the aspersions of
Macaulay and others. The former was done in conjunction with Ellis and
Heath, his own being much the largest share in their great ed. (1861-74);
and the latter, so far as possible, in _The Life and Letters_, entirely
his own. In 1878 he brought out an abridged _Life and Times of Francis
Bacon_. He strongly combated the theory that B. was the author of
Shakespeare's plays. His death was caused by his being run over by a cab.
He enjoyed the friendship of many of his greatest contemporaries,
including Carlyle, Tennyson, and Fitzgerald.

SPEED, JOHN (1552?-1629).--Historian, _b._ at Farington, Cheshire, and
brought up to the trade of a tailor, had a strong taste for history and
antiquities, and wrote a _History of Great Britain_ (1611), which was
long the best in existence, in collecting material for which he had
assistance from Cotton, Spelman, and other investigators. He also _pub._
useful maps of Great Britain and Ireland, and of various counties, etc.
In 1616 appeared his _Cloud of Witnesses confirming ... the truth of
God's most holie Word_. His maps were _coll._ and with descriptions
_pub._ in 1611 as _Theatre of the Empire of Great Britain_.

SPEKE, J.H., (_see under_ GRANT, J.A.)

SPELMAN, SIR HENRY (1564?-1641).--Historian and antiquary, _b._ at
Congham, Norfolk, studied at Camb., and entered Lincoln's Inn. He wrote
valuable works on legal and ecclesiastical antiquities, including
_History of Sacrilege_ (_pub._ 1698), _Glossarium Archaeologicum_ (1626
and 1664), a glossary of obsolete law-terms, _A History of the English
Councils_ (1639), and _Tenures by Knight-service_ (1641). His writings
have furnished valuable material for subsequent historians. He sat in
Parliament and on various commissions, and in recompense of his labours
was voted a grant of L300.

SPENCE, JOSEPH (1699-1768).--Anecdotist, _b._ at Kingsclere, Hants, and
_ed._ at Winchester and Oxf., he entered the Church, and held various
preferments, including a prebend at Durham, and was Prof. of Poetry at
Oxf. He wrote an _Essay on Pope's Odyssey_, which gained for him the
friendship of the poet, of whose conversation he made notes, collecting
likewise anecdotes of him and of other celebrities which were _pub._ in
1820, and are of great value, inasmuch as they preserve much matter
illustrative of the literary history of the 18th century which would
otherwise have been lost.

SPENCER, HERBERT (1820-1903).--Philosopher, _b._ at Derby, the _s._ of a
teacher, from whom, and from his uncle, mentioned below, he received most
of his education. His immediate family circle was strongly Dissenting in
its theological atmosphere, his _f._, originally a Methodist, having
become a Quaker, while his mother remained a Wesleyan. At 13 he was sent
to the care of his uncle, Thomas S., a clergyman, near Bath, but a
Radical and anti-corn-law agitator. Declining a Univ. career he became a
school assistant, but shortly after accepted a situation under the
engineer of the London and Birmingham railway, in which he remained until
the great railway crisis of 1846 threw him out of employment. Previous to
this he had begun to write political articles in the _Nonconformist_; he
now resolved to devote himself to journalism, and in 1848 was appointed
sub-ed. of the _Economist_. Thereafter he became more and more absorbed
in the consideration of the problems of sociology and the development of
the doctrine of evolution as applied thereto, gradually leading up to
the completion of a system of philosophy which was the work of his life.
His fundamental proposition is that society, like the individual, is an
organism subject to evolution, and the scope of this idea is gradually
expanded so as to embrace in its sweep the whole range of cognisible
phenomena. Among the books which he _pub._ in exposition of his views may
be mentioned _Social Statics_ (1850), _Principles of Psychology_ (1855),
_First Principles_ (1862), _Principles of Biology_ (1867), _Data of
Ethics_ (1879), _Principles of Sociology_ (1877), _Political
Institutions_ (1882), and _Man versus the State_ (1884). His works have
been translated into most European languages--some of them into Chinese
and Japanese. The most characteristic qualities of S. as a thinker are
his powers of generalisation and analysis. He left an autobiography, in
which he subjects his own personality to analysis with singular
detachment of mind.

_Life_ by David Duncan, LL.D., _Life_ by A.J. Thompson. _See_ also
_Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy_, Fishe (1874), and books on S. and his
philosophy by Hudson (1894), White (1897), and Macpherson (1890).

SPENCER, WILLIAM ROBERT (1769-1834).--Poet, _ed._ at Harrow and Oxf.,
belonged to the Whig set of Fox and Sheridan. He wrote graceful _vers de
societe_, made translations from Buerger, and is best remembered by his
well-known ballad of _Gelert_. After a life of extravagance he _d._ in
poverty in Paris.

SPENSER, EDMUND (1552?-1599).--Poet, was _b._ in East Smithfield, London,
the _s._ of John S., described as gentleman and journeyman in the art of
cloth-making, who had come to London from Lancashire. In 1561 the poet
was sent to Merchant Taylor's School, then newly opened, and in 1569 he
proceeded to Pembroke Hall, Camb., as a sizar, taking his degree in 1576.
Among his friends there were Edward Kirke, who ed. the _Shepheard's
Calendar_, and Gabriel Harvey, the critic. While still at school he had
contributed 14 sonnet-visions to Van de Noot's _Theatre for Worldlings_
(1569). On leaving the Univ. S. went to the north, probably to visit his
relations in Lancashire, and in 1578, through his friend Harvey, he
became known to Leicester and his brother-in-law, Philip Sidney. The next
year, 1579, saw the publication of _The Shepheard's Calendar_ in 12
eclogues. It was dedicated to Sidney, who had become his friend and
patron, and was received with acclamation, all who had ears for poetry
perceiving that a new and great singer had arisen. The following year S.
was appointed sec. to Lord Grey of Wilton, Deputy for Ireland, a strict
Puritan, and accompanied him to Ireland. At the same time he appears to
have begun the _Faerie Queen_. In 1581 he was appointed Registrar of
Chancery, and received a grant of the Abbey and Castle of Enniscorthy,
which was followed in 1586 by a grant of the Castle of Kilcolman in
County Cork, a former possession of the Earls of Desmond with 3000 acres
attached. Simultaneously, however, a heavy blow fell upon him in the
death of Sidney at the Battle of Zutphen. The loss of this dear friend he
commemorated in his lament of _Astrophel_. In 1590 he was visited by Sir
Walter Raleigh, who persuaded him to come to England, and presented him
to the Queen, from whom he received a pension of L50, which does not,
however, appear to have been regularly paid, and on the whole his
experiences of the Court did not yield him much satisfaction. In the same
year his reputation as a poet was vastly augmented by the publication of
the first three books of the _Faerie Queen_, dedicated to Elizabeth. The
enthusiasm with which they were received led the publisher to bring out a
collection of other writings of S. under the general title of
_Complaints_, and including _Mother Hubbard's Tale_ (a satire on the
Court and on the conflict then being waged between the old faith and the
new), _Teares of the Muses_, and _The Ruins of Time_. Having seen these
ventures launched, S. returned to Kilcolman and wrote _Colin Clout's come
Home Again_, one of the brightest and most vigorous of his poems, not,
however, _pub._ until 1595. In the following year appeared his _Four
Hymns_, two on _Love and Beauty_ and two on _Heavenly Love and Beauty_,
and the _Prothalamion_ on the marriage of two daughters of the Earl of
Worcester. He also _pub._ in prose his _View of Ireland_, a work full of
shrewd observation and practical statesmanship. In 1594 he was _m._ to
Elizabeth Boyle, whom he had courted in _Amoretti_, and his union with
whom he now celebrated in the magnificent _Epithalamion_, by many
regarded as his most perfect poem. In 1595 he returned to England, taking
with him the second part of the _Faerie Queen_, _pub._ in 1596. In 1598
he was made Sheriff of Cork, and in the same year his fortunes suffered a
final eclipse. The rebellion of Tyrone broke out, his castle was burned,
and in the conflagration his youngest child, an infant, perished, he
himself with his wife and remaining children escaping with difficulty. He
joined the President, Sir T. Norris, who sent him with despatches to
London, where he suddenly _d._ on January 16, 1599, as was long believed
in extreme destitution. This, however, happily appears to be at least
doubtful. He was buried in Westminster Abbey near Chaucer, and a monument
was erected to his memory in 1620 by the Countess of Dorset.

The position of S. in English poetry is below Chaucer, Shakespeare, and
Milton only. The first far excels him in narrative and constructive power
and in humour, and the last in austere grandeur of conception; but for
richness and beauty of imagination and exquisite sweetness of music he is
unsurpassed except by Shakespeare. He has been called the poets' poet, a
title which he well merits, not only by virtue of the homage which all
the more imaginative poets have yielded him, but because of the almost
unequalled influence he has exercised upon the whole subsequent course
and expression of English poetry, which he enriched with the stanza which
bears his name, and which none since him have used with more perfect
mastery. His faults are prolixity, indirectness, and want of constructive
power, and consequently the sustained sweetness and sumptuousness of his
verse are apt to cloy. His great work, the _Faerie Queen_, is but a
gorgeous fragment, six books out of a projected twelve; but probably few
or none of its readers have regretted its incompleteness. In it
Protestantism and Puritanism receive their most poetic and imaginative
presentation and vindication.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1552, _ed._ Merchant Taylor's School and Camb., became
known to Leicester and Sir P. Sidney 1578, _pub._ _Shepheard's Calendar_
1579, appointed sec. to Lord Deputy of Ireland 1580, and began _Faerie
Queen_, receives various appointments and grants 1581-6, _pub._
_Astrophel_ in memory of Sidney 1586, visited by Raleigh and by him
presented to Queen Elizabeth, who pensioned him 1590, and in same year
_pub._ first three books of _Faerie Queen_, _Teares of Muses_, etc., writes
_Colin Clout_, _pub._ 1595, and in 1596 _pub._ _Four Hymns_ and
_Prothalamion_, _m._ E. Boyle 1594, whom he had courted in _Amoretti_,
and now celebrated in the _Epithalamion_, returned to England 1595,
Sheriff of Cork 1598, in which year the rebellion broke out and ruined
his fortunes, returned to London and _d._ 1599.

There have been very numerous ed. of the works, among which may be
mentioned the Globe (1899), and Dr. Grosart's (10 vols., 1882-84). There
is an excellent biography by Dean Church (1879).

SPOTTISWOOD, JOHN (1565-1639).--Historian, _s._ of John S., minister of
Midcalder and Superintendent of Lothian. Entering the Church he gained
the favour of James VI., and was his chief instrument in his endeavours
to restore Episcopal church-government in Scotland. He became Archbishop
successively of Glasgow and St. Andrews, and in 1635 Lord Chancellor of
Scotland. On the rising caused by the introduction of the service-book,
he had to flee from Scotland, and was excommunicated by the General
Assembly (1638). He wrote a _History of the Church and State of
Scotland_, _pub._ 1655. It is, of course, written from the Episcopalian
standpoint, as Calderwood's is from the Presbyterian.

SPRAGUE, CHARLES (1791-1875).--Poet, _b._ at Boston, Mass., had some
reputation as a writer of prize poems, odes, and domestic poems. To the
first class belong _Curiosity_ and _Shakespeare Ode_, and to the latter,
_The Family Meeting_ and _I see Thee Still_, an elegy on his sister.

SPRAT, THOMAS (1635-1713).--Divine and writer of memoirs, _b._ at
Beaminster, Dorset, _ed._ at Oxf., was a mathematician, and one of the
group of scientific men among whom the Royal Society, of which he was one
of the first members and the historian, had its origin. He wrote a Life
of his friend Cowley the poet, and an account of Young's plot for the
restoration of James II. His _History of the Royal Society_ is his
principal work, but he also wrote poems, and had a high reputation as a
preacher. His literary style gives him a distinguished place among
English writers. He held various, high preferments, and _d._ Bishop of

SPURGEON, CHARLES HADDON (1834-1892).--_B._ at Kelvedon, Essex, left the
Independents and joined the Baptist communion and became, at the age of
20, pastor of New Park Street Chapel, London, where he attained an
unprecedented popularity. In 1859 the Metropolitan Tabernacle was erected
for him. He was a decided Calvinist in his theological views, and was
strongly opposed to modern critical movements. He possessed in an eminent
degree two of the great requisites of effective oratory, a magnificent
voice and a command of pure idiomatic Saxon English. His sermons,
composed and _pub._ weekly, had an enormous circulation, and were
regularly translated into several languages. In addition to his pastoral
labours he superintended an almshouse, a pastor's coll., and an
orphanage; and he was likewise a voluminous author, publishing, in
addition to his sermons, numerous works, including _The Treasury of
David_ (a commentary on the Psalms).

STANHOPE, PHILIP HENRY, 5TH EARL STANHOPE (1805-1875).--Historian, was
_b._ at Walmer, and _ed._ at Oxf. He sat in the House of Commons for
Wootton Bassett and Hertford, held some minor official appointments under
Peel, and identified himself with many useful measures, specially in
regard to literature and art. His writings, which are all remarkable for
industrious collection of facts, careful and impartial sifting and
weighing of evidence, and a clear, sober, and agreeable style, include
_History of England from the Peace of Utrecht to the Peace of Versailles_
(1836-63), and histories of the _War of the Spanish Succession_ (1832),
and of the _Reign of Queen Anne_ (1870), besides Lives of the younger
Pitt (1861) and of Lord 'Chesterfield. As an author he is best known as
Viscount Mahon.

STANLEY, ARTHUR PENRHYN (1815-1881).--Historian, biographer, and
theologian, _s._ of Edward S., Bishop of Norwich, _b._ at Alderley,
Cheshire, of which his _f._ was then rector, _ed._ at Rugby and Oxf.,
became a Fellow of Univ. Coll. Taking orders in 1839 he became Canon of
Canterbury 1851, and of Christ Church 1858, and Dean of Westminster 1864.
He was also Prof. of Ecclesiastical History at Oxf. 1856. His
ecclesiastical position was Erastian and latitudinarian, and his
practical aim in Church politics comprehension. He gave great offence to
the High Church party by his championing of Colenso, W.G. Ward, Jowett,
and others, by his preaching in the pulpits of the Church of Scotland and
in other ways, and his latitudinarianism made him equally obnoxious to
many others. On the other hand, his singular personal charm and the
fascination of his literary style secured for him a very wide popularity.
He was a prolific author, his works including _Life of Dr. Arnold_ (of
Rugby) (1844), whose favourite pupil he was, and _Memorials of
Canterbury_ (1854), _Sinai and Palestine_ (1855), _Lectures on the
Eastern Church_ (1861), _History of the Jewish Church_ (1863, etc.),
_Historical Memorials of Westminster Abbey_ (1867), _Lectures on the
History of the Church of Scotland_ (1872), besides various commentaries.
In his historical writings he aimed rather at conveying a vivid and
picturesque general effect than at minute accuracy of detail or
philosophical views. His masterpiece is his _Life of Dr. Arnold_, which
is one of the great biographies in the language. His wife was Lady
Augusta Bruce, to whom he was _m._ in 1868.

STANLEY, SIR HENRY MORTON (1841-1904).--Traveller in Africa, _b._ in
America, went to find, and found, Livingstone, and wrote an account of
his adventures in the quest, _How I found Livingstone_. Other works were
_In Darkest Africa_ and _Through the Dark Continent_.

STANLEY, THOMAS (1625-1678).--Philosopher and scholar, connected with the
Derby family, _ed._ at Camb., was the author of some poems and of a
biographical _History of Philosophy_ (4 vols., 1655-62). He was learned
in the classics, and translated from the Latin and late Greek as well as
from the Italian and Portuguese, and ed. AEschylus. His poetry is
thoughtful and gracefully expressed.

STANYHURST, RICHARD (1547-1618).--Translator, was at Oxf., and studied
law at Furnivall's Inn and Lincoln's Inn. He collaborated with Holinshed
(_q.v._). His principal literary achievement was a grotesquely stiff,
clumsy, and prosaic translation of the first four books of the _AEneid_
into English hexameters. He also translated some of the Psalms.

STEDMAN, EDMUND CLARENCE, L.H.D., LL.D., (1833-1908).--American poet and
critic. _Poems Lyric and Idyllic_ (1860), _Alice of Monmouth_ (1864),
_The Blameless Prince_ (1869), _Victorian Poets_ (1875-87), _Lyrics and
Idylls_ (1879), _Poets of America_ (1885), _Victorian Anthology_ (1896),
_American Anthology_ (1896), etc.

STEELE, SIR RICHARD (1672-1729).--Essayist and dramatist, _s._ of a
Dublin attorney, who _d._ when his _s._ was 5 years old, was on the
nomination of the Duke of Ormond, sent to the Charterhouse School, where
his friendship with Addison began, and thence went to Oxf., but left
without taking a degree, and enlisted in the Horse Guards, for which he
was disinherited by a rich relation. He, however, gained the favour of
his colonel, Lord Cutts, himself a poet, and rose to the rank of captain.
With the view of setting before himself a high ideal of conduct (to which
unhappily he was never able to attain), he at this time wrote a treatise
on morals entitled _The Christian Hero_ (1701). Abandoning this vein, he
next produced three comedies, _The Funeral, or Grief a la Mode_ (1702),
_The Tender Husband_ (1703), and _The Lying Lover_ (1704). Two years
later he was appointed Gentleman Waiter to Prince George of Denmark, and
in 1707 he was made Gazetteer; and in the same year he _m._ as his second
wife Mary Scurlock, his "dear Prue," who seems, however, to have been
something of a termagant. She had considerable means, but the
incorrigible extravagance of S. soon brought on embarrassment. In 1709 he
laid the foundations of his fame by starting the _Tatler_, the first of
those periodicals which are so characteristic a literary feature of that
age. In this he had the invaluable assistance of Addison, who contributed
42 papers out of a total of 271, and helped with others. The _Tatler_ was
followed by the _Spectator_, in which Addison co-operated to a still
greater extent. It was even a greater success, and ran to 555 numbers,
exclusive of a brief revival by Addison in which S. had no part, and in
its turn was followed by the _Guardian_. It is on his essays in these
that the literary fame of S. rests. With less refinement and delicacy of
wit than Addison, he had perhaps more knowledge of life, and a wider
sympathy, and like him he had a sincere desire for the reformation of
morals and manners. In the keen political strife of the times he fought
stoutly and honestly on the Whig side, one result of which was that he
lost his office of Gazetteer, and was in 1714 expelled from the House of
Commons to which he had just been elected. The next year gave a
favourable turn to his fortunes. The accession of George I. brought back
the Whigs, and S. was appointed to various offices, including a
commissionership on forfeited estates in Scotland, which took him to
Edinburgh, where he was welcomed by all the _literati_ there. Nothing,
however, could keep him out of financial embarrassments, and other
troubles followed: his wife _d._; differences, arose with Addison, who
_d._ before a reconciliation could be effected. The remaining years were
clouded by financial troubles and ill-health. His last work was a play,
_The Conscious Lovers_ (1722). He left London and lived at Hereford and
at Carmarthen, where he _d._ after a partial loss of his faculties from

_Lives_ by Austin Dobson (1886) and G.A. Aitken (1889). Ed., _Plays_ by
Aitken (1893), Essays (selected) Clarendon Press (1885), _Tatler_, Aitken
(1898), _Spectator_, H. Morley (1868), Gregory Smith (1897-8), Aitken

STEEVENS, GEORGE (1736-1800).--Shakespearian commentator, _ed._ at Eton
and Camb. He issued various reprints of quarto ed. of Shakespeare, and
assisted Dr. Johnson in his ed., and also in his _Lives of the Poets_. In
1793 he himself brought out a new ed. of Shakespeare, in which he dealt
somewhat freely with the text. He was in constant controversy with Ritson
and other literary antiquaries, and was also an acute detector of
literary forgeries, including those of Chatterton and Ireland.

STEEVENS, GEORGE WARRINGTON (1869-1900).--Journalist and miscellaneous
writer, _b._ at Sydenham, and _ed._ at City of London School and Oxf.,
took to journalism, in which he distinguished himself by his clearness of
vision and vivid style. Connected successively with the _National
Observer_, the _Pall Mall Gazette_, and the _Daily Mail_, he utilised the
articles which appeared in these and other publications in various books,
such as _The Land of the Dollar_ (America) (1897), _With Kitchener to
Kartoum_, and _The Tragedy of Dreyfus_. His most striking work, however,
was _Monologues of the Dead_ (1895). He went as war correspondent to
South Africa in 1900, and _d._ of enteric fever at Ladysmith.

STEPHEN, SIR JAMES (1789-1859).--Statesman and historical writer, _s._ of
James S., Master in Chancery, _ed._ at Camb., and called to the Bar at
Lincoln's Inn 1811. After practising with success, accepted appointment
of permanent counsel to Colonial Office and Board of Trade 1825, and was
subsequently, 1826-47, permanent Under-Sec. for the Colonies, in which
capacity he exercised an immense influence on the colonial policy of the
empire, and did much to bring about the abolition of the slave trade.
Impaired health led to his resignation, when he was made K.C.B. and a
Privy Councillor. He was afterwards Prof. of Modern History at Camb.
1849-59, and of the same subject at the East India Coll. at Haileybury
1855-57. He wrote _Essays in Ecclesiastical Biography_ (1849) and
_Lectures on the History of France_ (1852).

STEPHEN, SIR LESLIE (1832-1904).--Biographer and critic, _s._ of the
above, was _b._ in London, and _ed._ at Eton, King's Coll., London, and
Camb., where he obtained a tutorial Fellowship, and took orders. He came
under the influence of Mill, Darwin, and H. Spencer, and devoted himself
largely to the study of economics. His religious views having undergone a
change, he gave up the clerical character and his Fellowship, and became
a pronounced Agnostic. In 1865 he definitely adopted a literary career,
and contributed to the _Saturday Review_, _Fraser's Magazine_, and other
periodicals. In 1873 he _pub._ a collection of his essays as _Free
Thinking and Plain Speaking_, which he followed up with _An Agnostic's
Apology_ (1893). He became ed. in 1871 of the _Cornhill Magazine_, in
which appeared the essays afterwards _coll._ as _Hours in a Library_ (3
series, 1874-79). His chief work was _The History of English Thought in
the Eighteenth Century_ (1876-81). He also wrote _Science of Ethics_
(1882), and biographies of _Dr. Johnson_ (1878), _Pope_ (1880). _Swift_
(1882), and _George Eliot_ (English Men of Letters Series). In 1882 he
became ed. of the _Dictionary of National Biography_, to which he devoted
much labour, besides contributing many of the principal articles. _The
English Utilitarians_ appeared in 1900. As a biographical and critical
writer he holds a very high place. His first wife was a _dau._ of
Thackeray. In recognition of his literary eminence he was made a K.C.B.

_Life and Letters_ by F.W. Maitland (1906).

STEPHENS, THOMAS (1821-1875).--Welsh historian and critic, _b._ at Pont
Nedd Fechan, Glamorganshire, _s._ of a shoemaker. His works include _The
Literature of the Kymry_ (1849), _The History of Trial by Jury in Wales_,
and an essay in which he demolished the claim of the Welsh under Madoc to
the discovery of America. He also wrote on the life and works of the bard
Aneurin. The critical methods which he adopted in his works often made
him unpopular with the less discriminating enthusiasts for the glory of
Wales, but he earned the respect of serious scholars.

STERLING, JOHN (1806-1844).--Essayist and miscellaneous writer, _s._ of
Edward S., a well-known writer in the _Times_, was _b._ in Bute, and
_ed._ at Glasgow and Camb. At the latter he became acquainted with a
group of brilliant men, including F.D. Maurice, Trench, and Monckton
Milnes. He took orders and became curate to Julius Hare (_q.v._); but
intellectual difficulties and indifferent health led to his resignation
within a year, and the rest of his life was passed in alternating between
England and warmer climes. He wrote for _Blackwood's Magazine_, the
_London and Westminster_, and _Quarterly Reviews_, and _pub._ _Essays and
Tales_, _The Election_, a humorous poem, _Strafford_, a tragedy, and
_Richard Coeur de Lion_, a serio-comic poem of which three books out of
eight were _pub._ His memory, perpetuated in a remarkable memoir by
Carlyle, lives rather by what he was than by anything he did. His
character and intellect appear to have exercised a singular influence on
the eminent men he numbered among his friends.

STERNE, LAURENCE (1713-1768).--Novelist, _s._ of an officer in the army,
and the great-grandson of an Archbishop of York, was _b._ at Clonmel,
where his father's regiment happened to be stationed, and passed part of
his boyhood in Ireland. At the age of 10 he was handed over to a
relation, Mr. Sterne of Elvington in Yorkshire, who put him to school at
Halifax, and thereafter sent him to Camb. He entered the Church, a
profession for which he was very indifferently fitted, and through family
influence procured the living of Sutton, Yorkshire. In 1741 he _m._ a
lady--Miss Lumley--whose influence obtained for him in addition an
adjacent benefice, and he also became a prebendary of York. It was not
until 1760 that the first two vols. of his famous novel, _Tristram
Shandy_, appeared. Its peculiar and original style of humour, its
whimsicality, and perhaps also its defiance of conventionality, and even
its frequent lapses into indecorum, achieved for it an immediate and
immense popularity. S. went up to London and became the lion of the day.
The third and fourth vols. appeared in 1761, the fifth and sixth in 1762,
the seventh and eighth in 1765, and the last in 1767. Meanwhile he had
_pub._ the _Sermons of Mr. Yorick_ (1760), and his remaining work, _The
Sentimental Journey_ appeared in 1768. From the time of his finding
himself a celebrity his parishioners saw but little of him, his time
being passed either in the gaieties of London or in travelling on the
Continent. Latterly he was practically separated from his wife and only
_dau._, to the former of whom his behaviour had been anything but
exemplary. His health, which had begun to give way soon after his
literary career had commenced, finally broke down, and he fell into a
consumption, of which he _d._ in London on March 18, 1768, utterly alone
and unattended. His body was followed to the grave by one coach
containing his publisher and another gentleman; and it was exhumed and
appeared in a few days upon the table of the anatomical professor at
Camb. He _d._ in debt, but a subscription was raised for his wife and
_dau._, the latter of whom _m._ a Frenchman, and is said to have perished
under the guillotine. Worthless as a man, S. possessed undoubted genius.
He had wit, originality, and pathos, though the last not seldom runs into
mawkishness, and an exquisitely delicate and glancing style. He has
contributed some immortal characters to English fiction, including Uncle
Toby and Corporal Trim. His great faults as a writer are affectation and
a peculiarly deliberate kind of indecency, which his profession renders
all the more offensive; and he was by no means scrupulous in adopting,
without acknowledgment, the good things of previous writers.

_Works_ ed. by Prof. Saintsbury (6 vols., 1894). _See_ also Macmillan's
Library of English classics. _Lives_ by P. Fitzgerald (1896); and H.D.
Traill in English Men of Letters Series.

STERNHOLD, THOMAS (1500-1549), HOPKINS JOHN (_d._ 1570).--Were associated
in making the metrical version of the Psalms, which was attached to the
Prayer-book, and was for 200 years the chief hymn-book of the Church of
England. It is a commonplace and tame rendering. The collection was not
completed until 1562. It was gradually superseded by the version of Tate
and Brady.

STEVENSON, ROBERT LOUIS (1850-1894).--Novelist and essayist, was _b._ at
Edin., the _s._ of Thomas S., a distinguished civil engineer. His health
was extremely delicate. He was destined for the engineering profession,
in which his family had for two generations been eminent, but having
neither inclination nor physical strength for it, he in 1871 exchanged it
for law, and was called to the Bar in 1875, but never practised. From
childhood his interests had been literary, and in 1871 he began to
contribute to the _Edinburgh University Magazine_ and the _Portfolio_. A
tour in a canoe in 1876 led to the publication in 1878 of his first book,
_An Inland Voyage_. In the same year, _The New Arabian Nights_,
afterwards separately _pub._ appeared in magazines, and in 1879 he
brought out _Travels with a Donkey in the Cevennes_. In that year he went
to California and _m._ Mrs. Osbourne. Returning to Europe in 1880 he
entered upon a period of productiveness which, in view of his wretched
health, was, both as regards quantity and worth, highly remarkable. The
year 1881 was marked by his unsuccessful candidature for the Chair of
Constitutional Law and History at Edin., and by the publication of
_Virginibus Puerisque_. Other works followed in rapid succession.
_Treasure Island_ (1882), _Prince Otto_ and _The Child's Garden of Verse_
(1885), _Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde_ and _Kidnapped_ (1886), _Underwoods_
(poetry), _Memories and Portraits_ (essays), and _The Merry Men_, a
collection of short stories (1887), and in 1888 _The Black Arrow_. In
1887 he went to America, and in the following year visited the South Sea
Islands where, in Samoa, he settled in 1890, and where he _d._ and is
buried. In 1889 _The Master of Ballantrae_ appeared, in 1892 _Across the
Plains_ and _The Wrecker_, in 1893 _Island Nights Entertainments_ and
_Catriona_, and in 1894 _The Ebb Tide_ in collaboration with his
step-son, Mr. Lloyd Osbourne. By this time his health was completely
broken, but to the last he continued the struggle, and left the fragments
_St. Ives_ and _Weir of Hermiston_, the latter containing some of his
best work. They were _pub._ in 1897. Though the originality and power of
S.'s writings was recognised from the first by a select few, it was only
slowly that he caught the ear of the general public. The tide may be said
to have turned with the publication of _Treasure Island_ in 1882, which
at once gave him an assured place among the foremost imaginative writers
of the day. His greatest power is, however, shown in those works which
deal with Scotland in the 18th century, such as _Kidnapped_, _Catriona_,
and _Weir of Hermiston_, and in those, _e.g._, _The Child's Garden of
Verse_, which exhibit his extraordinary insight into the psychology of
child-life; _Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde_ is a marvellously powerful and
subtle psychological story, and some of his short tales also are
masterpieces. Of these _Thrawn Janet_ and _Will of the Mill_ may be
mentioned as examples in widely different kinds. His excursions into the
drama in collaboration with W.E. Henley--_Deacon Brodie_, _Macaire_,
_Admiral Guinea_, _Beau Austin_,--added nothing to his reputation. His
style is singularly fascinating, graceful, various, subtle, and with a
charm all its own.

_Works_, Edinburgh ed. (28 vols., 1894-98). _Life_ by Grahame Balfour
(1901), _Letters_, S. Colvin (1899).

STEWART, DUGALD (1753-1828).--Philosopher, _s._ of Matthew S., Prof. of
Mathematics at Edin., was _b._ in the Coll. buildings, and at the age of
19 began to assist his _f._ in his classes, receiving the appointment of
regular assistant two years later. In 1785 he became Prof. of Moral
Philosophy, and rendered the chair illustrious by his learning and
eloquence, his pupils including Lords Palmerston, Russell, and Lansdowne.
S. was, however, rather a brilliant expositor than an original thinker,
and in the main followed Reid (_q.v._). His works include _Philosophy of
the Human Mind_, in three vols., _pub._ respectively in 1792, 1813, and
1827, _Outlines of Moral Philosophy_ (1793), _Philosophical Essays_
(1810), _Dissertation on the Progress of Metaphysical and Ethical
Philosophy_ (1815, part II. 1821), and _View of the Active and Moral
Powers of Man_. He also wrote memoirs of Robertson the historian, Adam
Smith, and Reid. The Whig party, which he had always supported, on their
accession to power, created for him the office of Gazette-writer for
Scotland, in recognition of his services to philosophy. His later years
were passed in retirement at Kinneil House on the Forth. His works were
ed. by Sir William Hamilton.

STILLINGFLEET, EDWARD (1635-1699).--Theologian, _b._ at Cranbourne,
Dorsetshire, _ed._ at Camb., entered the Church, and held many
preferments, including a Royal Chaplaincy, the Deanery of St. Paul's
(1678), and the Bishopric of Worcester (1689). He was a frequent speaker
in the House of Lords, and had considerable influence as a Churchman. A
keen controversialist, he wrote many treatises, including _The Irenicum_
(advocating compromise with the Presbyterians), _Antiquities of the
British Churches_, and _The Unreasonableness of Separation_. S. was a
good and honest man and had the respect of his strongest opponents.

STIRLING, JAMES HUTCHISON (1820-1909).--Philosopher, _b._ in Glasgow, and
_ed._ there and at Edin., where he studied medicine, which he practised
until the death of his _f._ in 1851, after which he devoted himself to
philosophy. His _Secret of Hegel_ (1865) gave a great impulse to the
study and understanding of the Hegelian philosophy both at home and in
America, and was also accepted as a work of authority in Germany and
Italy. Other works, all characterised: by keen philosophical insight and
masterly power of exposition are _Complete Text-book to Kant_ (1881),
_Philosophy and Theology_ (1890), _What is Thought? or the Problem of
Philosophy_ (1900), and _The Categories_ (1903). Less abstruse are
_Jerrold, Tennyson, and Macaulay_ (1868), _Burns in Drama_ (1878), and
_Philosophy in the Poets_ (1885).

STIRLING, WILLIAM ALEXANDER, EARL of (1567-1640).--Poet, _s._ of A. of
Menstrie, and _cr._ Earl of S. by Charles I., 1633, was a courtier, and
held many offices of state. He studied at Glasgow and Leyden, and wrote
among other poems, partly in Latin, sonnets and four _Monarchicke
Tragedies_, _Darius_, _Croesus_, _The Alexandraean Tragedy_, and _Julius
Caesar_ (1603-7), the motive of which is the fall of ambition, and which,
though dignified, have little inspiration. He also assisted James I. in
his metrical version of the Psalms. He _d._ insolvent in London. The
grant of Nova Scotia which he had received became valueless owing to the
French conquests in that region.

STIRLING-MAXWELL, SIR WILLIAM (1818-1878).--Historian and writer on art,
_s._ of Archibald Stirling of Keir, succeeded to the estates and title of
his uncle, Sir John Maxwell of Pollok, as well as to Keir, _ed._ at
Camb., afterwards travelled much. He sat in the House of Commons for
Perthshire, which he twice represented, 1852-68 and 1874-80, served on
various commissions and public bodies, and was Lord Rector successively
of the Univ. of St. Andrews and Edin. and Chancellor of that of Glasgow.
His works include _Annals of the Artists of Spain_ (1848), _The Cloister
Life of the Emperor Charles V._ (1852), and _Don John of Austria_, _pub._
posthumously in 1885. They were all distinguished by research and full
information, and the last two are standard authorities He _m._ as his
second wife the Hon. Mrs. Norton (_q.v._).

STOCKTON, FRANCIS RICHARD (1834-1902).--_B._ at Philadelphia, was an
engraver and journalist. He became well known as a writer of stories for
children, and of amusing books of which _Rudder Grange_ (1879) is the
best known. _The Lady and the Tiger_ was also highly popular. Others are
_Adventures of Captain Horne_, _Mrs. Null_, _Casting Away of Mrs. Leeks
and Mrs. Aleshine_, _The Hundredth Man_, _Great Stone of Sardis_,
_Captain's Toll-gate_, etc. His work was very unequal in interest.

STODDARD, RICHARD HENRY (1825-1903).--Poet, _b._ at Hingham, Mass.,
worked in a foundry, and afterwards in New York Custom House, wrote a
Life of Washington, but is chiefly known as a poet, his poetical works
including _Songs in Summer_ (1857), _The King's Bell_, _The Lions Cub_,

STORER, THOMAS (1571-1604).--Poet, _b._ in London, and _ed._ at Oxf.,
wrote a long poem, _The Life and Death of Thomas Wolsey, Cardinal_.

STORY, WILLIAM WETMORE (1819-1895).--Sculptor, poet, etc., _b._ at Salem,
Mass., was intended for the law, but became a sculptor and an eminent man
of letters. His writings include _Roba di Roma_ (1862), _The Tragedy of
Nero_ (1875), _The Castle of St. Angelo_ (1877), _He and She_ (1883),
_Conversations in a Studio_, _A Poet's Portfolio_ (1894), etc.

STOW, JOHN (1525-1605).--Historian and antiquary, _b._ in London, _s._ of
a tailor, and brought up to the same trade. He had, however, an
irresistible taste for transcribing and collecting ancient documents, and
pursuing antiquarian and historical researches, to which he ultimately
entirely devoted himself. This he was enabled to do partly through the
munificence of Archbishop Parker. He made large collections of old books
and manuscripts, and wrote and ed. several works of importance and
authority, including _The Woorkes of Geoffrey Chaucer_, _Summarie of
Englyshe Chronicles_ (1561), afterwards called _Annales of England_, ed.
of the chronicles of Matthew Paris and others, of Holinshed's
_Chronicle_, and _A Survey of London_ (1598). It is sad to think that the
only reward of his sacrifices and labours in the public interest was a
patent from James I. to collect "among our loving subjects their
voluntary contributions and kind gratuities."

STOWE, MRS. HARRIET BEECHER (1811?-1896).--Novelist and miscellaneous
writer, _dau._ of Dr. Lyman Beecher, a well-known American clergyman, and
sister of Henry Ward B., one of the most popular preachers whom America
has produced, was _b._ at Litchfield, Connecticut, in 1811 or 1812. After
spending some years as a teacher, she _m._ the Rev. Calvin E. Stowe. Up
till 1852 all she had written was a little vol. of stories which failed
to attract attention. In that year, at the suggestion of a sister-in-law,
she decided to write something against slavery, and produced _Uncle Tom's
Cabin_, which originally appeared in serial form in a magazine, _The
National Era_. It did not at the time receive much attention, but on its
appearance in a separate form it took the world by storm. Its sale soon
reached 400,000 copies, and the reprints have probably reached a far
greater number. It was translated into numerous foreign languages, and
had a powerful effect in hurrying on the events which ultimately resulted
in emancipation. Her later works include _Dred_, _The Minister's Wooing_,
_Agnes of Sorrento_, _The Pearl of Orr's Island_, and _Old Town Folks_.
Some of these, especially the last, are in a literary sense much superior
to _Uncle Tom's Cabin_, but none of them had more than an ordinary
success. In 1869 an article on Lord Byron involved her in a somewhat
unfortunate controversy.

STRICKLAND, AGNES (1796 or 1806-1874).--Historical writer, _dau._ of
Thomas S., of Royden Hall, Suffolk, was _ed._ by her _f._, and began her
literary career with a poem, _Worcester Field_, followed by _The Seven
Ages of Woman_ and _Demetrius_. Abandoning poetry she next produced among
others _Historical Tales of Illustrious British Children_ (1833), _The
Pilgrims of Walsingham_ (1835), _Tales and Stories from History_ (1836).
Her chief works, however, are _Lives of the Queens of England from the
Norman Conquest_, and _Lives of the Queens of Scotland_, and _English
Princesses, etc._ (8 vols., 1850-59), _Lives of the Bachelor Kings of
England_ (1861), and _Letters of Mary Queen of Scots_, in some of which
she was assisted by her sister Elizabeth. Though laborious and
conscientious she lacked the judicial faculty, and her style does not
rise above mediocrity.

STRODE, WILLIAM (1600-1645).--Poet, only _s._ of Philip S., who belonged
to an old Devonshire family, he was _b._ at Plympton, Devonshire, and
showing studious tendencies, was sent to Westminster School and Oxf.
While at the Univ. he began to manifest his poetic talents, and generally
distinguished himself, being elected in 1629 Public Orator. He took
orders and, on Richard Corbet (_q.v._) becoming Bishop of Oxf., became
his chaplain. Later he was Rector of E. Bredenham, Norfolk, and of
Badley, Northants, and Canon of Christ Church. On the outbreak of the
Civil War he attached himself warmly to the cause of the King. He was a
High Churchman, and had a reputation as "a witty and sententious
preacher, an exquisite orator, and an eminent poet." It is therefore
singular that, until the recovery of his poems by Mr. B. Dobell, he had
fallen into absolute oblivion. As a poet he shines most in lyrics and
elegies. With much of the artificiality of his age he shows gracefulness,
a feeling for the country, and occasional gleams of tenderness. His play,
_The Floating Island_, a political allegory, was produced in 1633 and
played before the Court then on a visit to Oxf., where it was a subject
of complaint that it had more moralising than amusement. Mr. Dobell, who
ed. his poems in 1907, claims for S. the poem on "Melancholy" ("Hence all
you vain delights"), hitherto attributed to Fletcher.

STRYPE, JOHN (1643-1737).--Ecclesiastical historian, _b._ at Hackney, and
_ed._ at St. Paul's School and Camb., took orders and, among other
livings, held the Rectory of Low Leyton, Essex, for upwards of 60 years.
He made a large collection of original documents, chiefly relating to the
Tudor period, and was a voluminous author. Among his works are _Memorials
of Archbishop Cranmer_ (1694), _Life of Sir Thomas Smith_, _Secretary of
State to Edward VI. and Elizabeth_ (1698), _Annals of the Reformation_
(1709-31), and _Ecclesiastical Memorials_ (1721); besides Lives of Bishop
Aylmer and Archbishops Grindal, Parker, and Whitgift. S., who was a
painstaking and honest, but dull and unmethodical, writer, remains an

STUART, GILBERT (1742-1786).--Historical writer, _s._ of George S., Prof.
of Humanity (Latin) at Edin. Among his publications were _An Historical
Dissertation on the English Constitution_ (1768), _Discourse on the
Government and Laws of England_ (1772), _A View of Society in Europe_
(1778), and a _History of Scotland_ (1782). He was a man of extremely
jealous and implacable temper, and made venomous attacks on the
historical works of Robertson and Henry. His own writings, though
well-written, are inaccurate.

STUBBS, WILLIAM (1825-1901).--Historian, _s._ of a solicitor, _b._ at
Knaresborough, Yorkshire, and _ed._ there and at the Grammar School of
Ripon, and Oxf. In 1848 he became a Fellow of Trinity Coll., and in the
same year took orders and was appointed to the coll. living of Navestock
in Essex, where he remained for 16 years, during which he began his
historical researches, and _pub._ his earlier works. His first
publication was _Hymnale Secundum Usum Sarum_. In 1858 appeared
_Registrum Sacrum Anglicanum_, a calendar of English bishops from
Augustine; and then followed ed. of several Chronicles in the Rolls
Series. The learning and critical insight displayed in these works
commanded the attention and admiration of historical scholars both at
home and on the Continent. In 1862 he was appointed librarian of Lambeth
Palace, and in 1866 Prof. of Modern History at Oxf. There he _pub._ in
1870 his _Select Charters_, and his chief work, _The Constitutional
History of England_ (3 vols., 1874-78), which at once became the standard
authority on its subject. It deals with the period preceding that with
which the great work of Hallam begins. In 1879 he was appointed a Canon
of St. Paul's, and in 1884 Bishop of Chester, whence he was translated
five years later to Oxf. As an active prelate he was necessarily largely
withdrawn from his historical researches; but at Chester he ed. two vols.
of William of Malmesbury. S. was greater as a historian than as a writer,
but he brought to his work sound judgment, insight, accuracy, and
impartiality. He was a member of the French and Prussian Academies, and
had the Prussian Order "Pour le Merite" conferred upon him. Since his
death his prefaces to the Rolls Series have been _pub._ separately.

STUKELEY, WILLIAM (1687-1765).--Antiquary, _ed._ at Camb., and after
practising as a physician took orders in 1729 and held benefices at
Stamford and in London. He made antiquarian tours through England, and
was one of the founders of the Society of Antiquaries, to which he acted
as sec. He _pub._ _Itinerarium Curiosum_ (1724) and _Stonehenge_ (1740).
He made a special study of Druidism, and was called "the Arch-Druid."

SUCKLING, SIR JOHN (1609-1642).--Poet, _s._ of a knight who had held
office as Sec. of State and Comptroller of the Household to James I., was
_b._ at Whitton, Middlesex, _ed._ at Camb., and thereafter went to Gray's
Inn. On the death of his _f._ in 1627, he inherited large estates. After
travelling in France and Italy, he is said to have served for a short
time under Gustavus Adolphus. On his return he was knighted, and went to
Court, where his wealth, generosity, and wit made him a general
favourite. When Charles I. was moving against the Scots S. fitted out a
gorgeously appointed troop for his service which, however, were said to
have fled at first sight of the Scots army at Duns, an exploit which is
ridiculed in the ballad of _Sir John Suckling's Campaign_. He got into
trouble in connection with a plot to rescue Strafford from the Tower, and
fled to the Continent. He _d._ at Paris, it is now believed by his own
hand. He was a noted gambler, and has the distinction of being the
inventor of the game of cribbage. He wrote four plays, _Aglaura_ (1637),
_Brennoralt_ (1646), _The Goblins_, and _The Sad One_ (unfinished), now
forgotten; his fame rests on his songs and ballads, including _The
Wedding_, distinguished by a gay and sparkling wit, and a singular grace
of expression.

SURREY, HENRY HOWARD, EARL of (1517?-1547).--Poet, _s._ of Thomas H., 3rd
Duke of Norfolk, was _ed._ by John Clerke, a learned and travelled
scholar, and sec. to his _f._ He became attached to the Court, was
cup-bearer to the King (Henry VIII.), ewerer at the Coronation, and Earl
Marshall at the trial of Anne Boleyn. In 1542 he was made a Knight of the
Garter a few weeks after the execution of his cousin, Queen Catherine
Howard. He suffered imprisonment more than once for being implicated in
quarrels and brawls, did a good deal of fighting in Scotland and France,
and was the last victim of Henry's insensate jealousy, being beheaded on
a frivolous charge of conspiring against the succession of Edward VI. The
death of Henry saved Norfolk from the same fate. S. shares with Sir
Thomas Wyatt (_q.v._) the honour of being the true successor of Chaucer
in English poetry, and he has the distinction of being, in his
translation of the _AEneid_, the first to introduce blank verse, and, with
Wyatt, the sonnet. The poems of S., though well known in courtly circles,
were not _pub._ during his life; 40 of them appeared in _Tottel's
Miscellany_ in 1557. He also paraphrased part of Ecclesiastes and a few
of the Psalms. The Geraldine of his sonnets was Elizabeth Fitzgerald,
_dau._ of the Earl of Kildare, then a lonely child at Court, her _f._
being imprisoned in the Tower.

SURTEES, ROBERT SMITH (1802-1864).--Sporting novelist, a country
gentleman of Durham, who was in business as a solicitor, but not
succeeding, started in 1831 the _Sporting Magazine_. Subsequently he took
to writing sporting novels, which were illustrated by John Leech. Among
them are _Mr. Sponge's Sporting Tour_, _Ask Mamma_, _Plain or Ringlets_,
and _Mr. Facey Romford's Hounds_.

SWIFT, JONATHAN (1667-1745).--Satirist, was _b._ at Dublin of English
parents. Dryden was his cousin, and he also claimed kin with Herrick. He
was a posthumous child, and was brought up in circumstances of extreme
poverty. He was sent to school at Kilkenny, and afterwards went to
Trinity Coll., Dublin, where he gave no evidence of ability, but

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