Part 8 out of 9
Mother, by his son he hath send me a letter,
Promising hereafter to be to us better,
And you, and I with my great club,
Must walk to him, and eat a sillabub;
And we shall make merry,
And sing _tyrl on the bery_,
With Simkin Sydn'am Sumn'nor
That killed a cat at Cumnor;
There the trifling taborer, troubler of Tunis,
Will pick Peter Pie-baker a pennyworth of prunes;
Nichol Nevergood a net and a nightcap
Knit will for Kit, whose knee caught a knap;
David Doughty, dighter of dates,
Grin with Godfrey Good-ale will greedy at the gates;
Tom Tumbler of Tewksbury, turning at a trice,
Will wipe William Waterman, if he be not wise:
Simon Sadler of Sudeley, that served the sow,
Hit will Henry Heartless, he heard not yet how.
Jenkin Jacon, that jobbed jolly Joan,
Griud will gromaly-seed, until he groan.
Proud Pierce Pick-thank, that picked Parnel's purse,
Cut will the cakes, though Kate do cry and curse.
Rough Robin Rover, ruffling in right rate,
Bald Bernard Brainless will beat, and Bennet bate;
Foolish Frederick Furberer of a fart
Ding Daniel Dainty to death will with a dart.
Marculph Merrylees, mourning for mad Mary,
Tink will the tables, though he there not tarry.
Andrew All-Knave, alderman of Antwerp,
Hop will with hollyhocks and harken Humphrey's harp.
It is too-too, mother, the pastime and good cheer
That we shall see and have, when that we come there;
Wherefore, gentle mother, I thee heartily pray,
That thou wilt charm for worms this pretty boy.
Well, son, seeing the case and matter standeth so,
I am content all thy request to do.
Come hither, pretty child,
I will thee charm from the worms wild;
But first do thou me thy name tell.
I am called Telemachus, there as I dwell.
Telemachus, lie down upright on the ground,
And stir not once for a thousand pound.
I am ready here prest
To do all your request.
[_Then he must lay him down with his belly upward, and she must bless him
from above to beneath, saying as followeth_:
The cowherd of Comerton with his crooked spade
Cause from thee the worms soon to vade!
And jolly Jack Tumbler, that juggleth with a horn,
Grant that thy worms soon be all-to torn!
Good grandsire Abraham, godmother to Eve,
Grant that this worms no longer this child grieve!
All the court of conscience in Cuckoldshire:
Tinkers and taborers, tipplers, taverners:
Tittifills, triflers, turners and trumpers:
Tempters, traitors, travellers and thumpers:
Thriftless, thievish, thick and thereto thin:
The malady of this worms cause for to blin!
The virtue of the tail of Isaac's cow,
That before Adam in paradise did low!
Also the joist of Moses' rod,
In the Mount of Calvary that spake with God:
_Facies ad faciem_, turning tail to tail,
Cause all these worms quickly to fail!
The bottom of the ship of Noe,
And also the leg of the horse of Troy:
The piece of the tongue of Balaam's ass,
The chawbone of the ox that at Christ's birth was,
The eye-tooth of the dog that went on pilgrimage
With young Tobias, these worms soon may suage!
The butterfly of Bromwicham that was born blind,
The blast of the bottle that blowed Aeolus' wind,
The buttock of the bitter bought at Buckingham,
The body of the bear that with Bevis came,
The backster of Bal[d]ockbury with her baking peel,
Child, fro thy worms, I pray, may soon thee heal
The tapper of Tavistock and the tapster's pot!
The tooth of the titmouse, the turd of the goat,
In the Tower of Tennis-balls toasted by the fire,
The table of Tantalus turned trim in the mire,
The tomb of Tom Threadbare that thrust Tib through the smoke,
Make all thy worms, child, to come forth at thy dock!
Shem, Cam, and Japhet, and Coll the miller's mare,
The five stones of David that made Goliath stare,
The wing with which St Michael did fly to his mount,
The counters wherewith Cherubim did cherry-stones count,
The hawk with which Asuerus killed the wild boar,
Help that these worms, my child, hurt thee no more!
The maw of the moor-cock that made Maud to mow,
When Martlemas at Morton mourned for the snow:
The spear of Spanish spilbery sprent with spiteful spots,
The lights of the laverock laid at London lots,
The shinbone of St Samuel shining so as the sun,
Grant, child, of the worms that soon thy pains be done!
Mother Brice of Oxford and great Gib of Hinksey,
Also Maud of Thrutton and Mabel of Chertsey,
And all other witches that walk in Dimmings Dale,
Clittering and clattering there your pots with ale,
Incline your ears, and hear this my petition,
And grant this child of health to have fruition!
The blessing that Jordan to his godson gave,
Light on my child, and from the worms him save!
Now stand up, little Telemachus, anon:
I warrant thee by to-morrow thy worms will be gone.
I thank you, mother, in my most hearty wise;
Will ye, sir, to my father command me any service?
No, pretty boy, but do thou us two commend
To thy father and mother; tell them that we intend,
Both my mother and I,
To see them shortly.
Ye shall be heartily welcome to them, I dare well say;
Fare ye well, by your leave: now I will depart away.
Son, give me thy hand. Farewell.
I pray God keep thee from peril.
[_Telemachus goeth out, and the mother sayeth_:
I-wis it is a proper child,
And in behaviour nothing wild;
Ye may see what is good education:
I would every man after this fashion
Had their children up brought.
Then many of them would not have been so nought:
A child is better unborn than untaught.
Ye say truth, mother; well, let all this go,
And make you ready Ulysses to go to
With me anon; be ye so content?
I am well pleased; to your will I assent,
For, although that I love him but very evil,
It is good to set a candle before the devil.
Of most part of great men, I swear by this fire,
Light is the thank, but heavy is the ire.
Farewell, son, I will go me to prepare.
Mother, God be with you and keep you from care.
[_The mother goeth out, and Thersites saiyeth forth_:
Whatsomever I say, sirs, I think ill might she fare;
I care not if the old witch were dead:
It were an almsdeed to knock her in the head,
And say on the worms that she did die;
For there be many that my lands would buy.
By God's blessed brother,
If I were not sick of the mother!
This toothless trot keepeth me hard,
And suffereth no money in my ward;
But, by the blessed Trinity,
If she will no sooner dead be,
I will with a cushion stop her breath,
Till she have forgot Newmarket heath.
Ill might I fare,
If that I care
Her to spare:
About the house she hoppeth,
And her nose oft droppeth,
When the worts she choppeth:
When that she doth brew,
I may say to you,
I am ready to spew,
The drops to see down renne,
By all Christian men,
From her nose to her knen
Fie, God's body, it maketh me to spit,
To remember how that she doth sit,
By the fire brawling,
Scratching and scrawling,
And in every place
Laying oysters apace.
She doth but lack shells:
The devil have they whit else.
At night, when to bed she goes,
And plucketh off her hose,
She knappeth me in the nose
With rip, rap,
That an ill-hap
Come to that tap,
That venteth so,
Wheresoever she go!
So much she daily drinketh,
That her breath at both ends stinketh;
That an horse-comb and an halter
Her soon up talter!
Till I say David's psalter
That shall be at Nevermass,
Which never shall be, nor never was.
By this ten bones,
She served me once
A touch for the nonce.
I was sick and lay in my bed;
She brought me a kerchief to wrap on my head,
And I pray God that I be dead,
If that I lie any whit,
When she was about the kerchief to knit,
Break did one of the forms' feet,
That she did stand on,
And down fell she anon,
And forth withal,
As she did fall,
She girdeth out a fart,
That me made to start:
I think her buttocks did smart:
Except it had be a mare in a cart,
I have not heard such a blast.
I cried and bid her hold fast:
With that she, nothing aghast,
Said to me, that no woman in this land
Could hold fast that which was not in her hand.
Now, sirs, in that whole pitch and fire-brand
Of that bag so fusty,
So stale and so musty,
So cankered and so rusty,
So stinking and so dusty,
God send her as much joy,
As my nose hath alway
Of her unsavory spice.
If that I be not wise,
And stop my nose quickly,
When she letteth go merrily.
But let all this go. I had almost forgot
The knave that here erewhile did jet,
Before that Telemachus did come in.
I will go seech him; I will not blin,
Until that I have him:
Then, so God save him,
I will so beknave him,
That I will make to rave him;
With this sword I will shave him,
And stripes when I have gave him,
Better I will deprave him,
That you shall know for a slave him.
[_Then Miles cometh in saying_:
Wilt thou so indeed?
Hie thee, make good speed!
I am at hand here prest,
Put away tongue-shaking
And this foolish craking.
Let us try for the best:
Cowards make speech apace;
Stripes prove the man:
Have now at thy face!
Keep off, if thou can.
[_And then he must strike at him, and Thersites must run away, and leave
his club and sword behind_.
Why, thou lubber, runnest thou away,
And leavest thy sword and club thee behind?
Now this is a sure card: now I may well say,
That a coward craking here I did find.
Masters, ye may see by this play in sight,
That great barking dogs do not most bite.
And oft it is seen that the best men in the host
Be not such that use to brag most.
If ye will avoid the danger of confusion,
Print my words in heart, and mark this conclusion:
Such gifts of God, that ye excel in most,
Use them with soberness, and yourself never boast;
Seek the laud of God in all that ye do:
So shall virtue and honour come you to.
But if you give your minds to the sin of pride,
Vanish shall your virtue, your honour away will slide.
For pride is hated of God above,
And meekness soonest obtaineth his love.
To your rulers and parents be you obedient,
Never transgressing their lawful commandment.
Be ye merry and joyful at board and at bed:
Imagine no traitory against your prince and head.
Love God, and fear him, and after him your king,
Which is as victorious as any is living.
Pray for his grace, with hearts that doth not feign,
That long he may rule us without grief or pain.
Beseech ye also that God may save his queen.
Lovely Lady Jane, and the prince that he hath sent them between,
To augment their joy and the Commons' felicity!
Fare ye well, sweet audience, God grant you all prosperity.
1. A Select Collection of Old Plays. A new edition, with Additional Notes
and Corrections, by the late Isaac Reed, Octavius Gilchrist, and the
Editor (J.P. Collier. London, 1825-27-28. 13 vols. post 8vo, including a
2. Not only has the editor brought together, and arranged in their proper
sequence, certain dramas of great curiosity hitherto not reprinted at
all, but he has incorporated with the old series of Dodsley all the
pieces in the collections of Dilke, Hawkins, &c., which still remained
uncollected. Of course, of those writers of whom we possess valuable
texts by Gifford, Dyce, and other scholars, no specimens were necessary.
To the library editions of Jonson, Shirley, Greene, Peele, &c., these new
volumes, from which they have been intentionally excluded, ought to be
3. Origin of the English Drama. 1773. 8vo, 3 vols.
4. Old English Plays, being a selection from the early dramatic writers.
1816. 8vo, 6 vols.
5. For many of the notes contributed by Dodsley and his followers, the
present editor should not be held answerable; nor would he have retained
them, had he not apprehended a complaint that the work was by their
omission impaired in value. In certain cases, nevertheless, where a
remark or explanation was absolutely erroneous, it seemed to be an
imperative duty to suppress it, and if necessary to substitute another
for it. A large proportion of the extracts at the foot of the pages have
been collated, by which process a variety of mistakes has been removed.
6. The tone of this inscription almost renders it allowable to infer that
Sir Clement Dormer had communicated to Dodsley some of the plays which
appear in his collection as originally published. Sir Clement Cotterel,
who was probably related to Sir Clement Cotterel Dormer, was master of
the ceremonies during the early Georgian era, and curious old books with
his book-plate occasionally occur.
7. "Interlude of the Four Elements: An Early Moral Play." Edited by James
Orchard Halliwell, F.R.S. London: Percy Society, 1848.
8. But see Mr Collier's reason for assigning it to 1517. "History of
English Dramatic Poetry," ii. 321.
9. See Hazlitt's "Handbook," p. 463.
10. That is, a fool. "Good faith, I am no wiser than a daw."--"I Henry
VI." ii. 4; Malone's Shakespeare, xviii. 61.--_Halliwell_.
11. Everlasting. It occurs twice in Shakespeare: see "Macbeth," iii. 2,
_apud_ Malone, xi. l54.--_Halliwell_.
12. That is, animal. This word is not always used by early writers in a
bad sense. "By bestial oblivion" Hamlet refers to the want of
intellectual reflection in animals, there applied to human beings. Still
more clearly in "Othello"--"I have lost the immortal part, sir, of
myself, and what remains is bestial." Even "bestial appetite," in change
of lust, in "Richard III.," may be similarly interpreted.--_Halliwell_.
13. Establish or fix firmly in thy mind.
"Why doth not every earthly thing
Cry shame upon her? Could she here deny
The story that is printed in her blood!"
--_Halliwell. --Much Ado about Nothing_, iv. 1.
14. Wondrously; and so "wonders" for "wondrous," elsewhere in this
interlude. In "Adam Bel," 1536, we have "wonderly"--
"These gates be shut so wonderly well."
15. Similar to the phrase, "Let the world slide," in the "Taming of the
Shrew."--_Halliwell_. But the latter saying occurs in the "Towneley
Mysteries," p. 101.
16. Compare "A.C. Mery Talys," No. 7. If the edition of that work, dated
1526, was the first, of which we have no proof, we might almost be
tempted to infer that this interlude was not printed till after that
time, since it is more likely that a passage in a play would be borrowed
from a prose jest-book than the reverse.
17. Old copy, _they venteres_.
18. See "Merie Tales of Skelton," No. 4. Old English Jest-Books, 1864,
19. Perhaps this may be one of the earliest passages, in which this
afterwards rather favourite phrase occurs. The meaning is clear.
20. The work of Copernicus appeared in 1543, but the author's silence on
the new theories of that astronomer can scarcely be considered an
argument one way or the other in the question that has been raised
respecting the date of the interlude. Even Recorde, in 1556, who appears
to have been one of the earliest Copernicans in this country, dared only
to allude to it, and thus prefaces his observations on the subject:--"But
as for the quietnes of the earth, I neede not to spende anye tyme in
prooving of it, syth that opinion is so firmelye fixed in moste mennes
headdes, that they accompt it mere madnes to bring the question in doubt;
and therefore it is as muche follye to travaile to prove that which no
man denieth, as it were with great study to diswade that thinge which no
man doth covette, nother anye manne alloweth; or to blame that which no
manne praiseth, nother anye manne lyketh."--_Castle of Knowledge_, 1556.
There is no scientific advance in the play on what we find in the very
curious poem of the time of Edward I., printed in Wright's Popular
Treatises on Science, 8vo. 1841.--_Halliwell_.
21. That is, with great exactness, complete in every respect. "You are
rather 'point-device' in your accoutrements," _As you Like it_, iii. 2.
"The wenche she was full proper and nyce,
Amonge all other she bare great price,
For sche coude tricke it _point-device_,
But fewe like her in that countree."
_The Miller of Abingdon_, n.d.
--_Halliwell_. But see Hazlitt's _Popular Poetry_, iii. 117.
22. This passage is not so licentious as might be supposed, for night
linen had not then become in general use.
"A dolefulle syght the knyghte gane see
Of his wyfe and his childir three,
That fro the fyre were flede;
Alle als nakede als thay were borne
Stode togedir undir a thorne,
Braydede owte of thaire bedd."
_Romance of Sir Isumbras_, 102.
--_Halliwell_. The illustration itself is not very apt, but still more
remarkable examples are in Hazlitt's _Popular Poetry_, ii. 48, iii. 51,
24. Here follows some blank music in the original. The song on the next
page is set to music.--_Halliwell_.
25. A very old MS. note here says, "Sensuall Appetite must syng thys
song, and hys cumpany must answere hym lykewyse."
26. A common proverbial expression, occurring in Shakespeare, and other
"O, the body of a gorge,
I wold I had them heare;
In faith, I wold chope them.
They ware not so hack this seven yeer!"
_Mariage of Witt and Wisdome_, p. 33.
27. The songs here quoted are very curious. Mr Gutch does not seem to
have been able to obtain a copy of the one relating to Robin Hood.--
_Halliwell_. See Hazlitt's "Handbook," p. 513.
28. This is a very early example of a string of nonsensical
incongruities, possessing, however, no further value, except perhaps as
affording an insight into what was regarded at that time as _comic
29. i.e., Beyond his reach or interference.
30. Old copy, "report."
31. Gift. Properly or usually said of a new year's gift. Fr. _Etrenne_.
32. Old copy, "the."
33. See Hazlitt's "Popular Poetry," iii. 63. Compare also Breton's
"Fantasticks," 1626, reprinted in Halliwell's "Books of Characters," p.
34. Old copy, "tapaya."
35. In the old copy, "keepeth" is erroneously repeated.
36. Enamelling or tincturing of the face to produce artificial beauty.
39. Moderate, middle. i.e., No fancy or hypothesis, but a fact.
42. Probably, the rushes, with which the room was laid.
44. The rest of this line has been cut out.
45. Are you the party that has long been ruining my master?
46. Part of this line has been cut out.
47. Original has _see_.
48. The person (for _merchant_ was used colloquially, as we now say
_chap_, abbreviated from _chapman_, for a man or fellow) that must hold
his head up.
49. Old copy, _Or_.
50. Rather read _undeserving_, in allusion to what Parmeno has said
against Celestina above.
51. Fool is here employed as a term of endearment. It will occur again
below, similarly employed.
52. "To call over the notes of a tune."--_Halliwell's Dictionary v.
54. Here used contemptuously.
55. Old copy, _karych_.
57. Query, the supports.
59. Query, a misprint, as there seems to be no sense in _escheved_ or
_eschewed_, i.e, _avoided_.
60. The old proverb. Perhaps this is the earliest occurrence of it in
this form in print.
61. Disfigured, spoiled.
65. _See_ "Popular Antiquities of Great Britain," 1870, iii. 319, 320.
67. Old copy, _Then_. Perhaps we should read, _Then when_ a common
68. So the old copy, but perhaps we ought to read _pining_.
69. Patient, invalid.
70. A proverbial expression.
71. The colophon is: "Johes rastell me imprimi fecit. Cum privilegio
regali." Beneath is the printer's device.
72. It is now known that at least four editions of this moral play were
printed, two by Richard Pynson, and two by John Skot. See Hazlitt's
"Handbook," p. 463-4, where all will be found described.
73. Afterwards sold with others to Dibdin for 500 guineas, and advertised
in the _Lincoln Nosegay_, 1814.
74. For the present edition the two impressions by Pynson, unknown to
Hawkins, and one of those issued by Skot about 1530, have been collated.
Hawkins was not aware that Skot printed the piece more than once. The
imperfect copy by Pynson, in the British Museum, restores not only words,
but portions of lines dropped in Skot's two issues, and has been of the
greatest value on this occasion. But, on the other hand, both Pynson's
editions, so far as they respectively go, exhibit misreadings, which are
set right in Skot's.
75. Skot's other edition, _wonderous_.
76. The Second Person of the Trinity seems here to be meant.--Percy. [In
this opinion it is hardly easy to concur. It appears to have been the
Godhead whom the writer intended to personify, and although he makes the
speaker refer to his Passion and Redemption, it is evidently only in a
delegated sense; for Death refers to him spiritually as the Almighty.]
77. _Appaireth_ the same as _impaireth_, grows worse, degenerate, &c.
78. Skot's other edition, used by Hawkins, reads, _Have I do we_.
80. Been begotten.
81. _Adonai_, one of the names of God; it is the plural of _Adoni_, which
82. The copy of Pynson's edition in the British Museum begins abruptly at
this line, sign. B. _recto_, and is complete thenceforward to the end.
83. The old proverb. This is perhaps the earliest instance of its use in
84. So Skot's other edition, and Pynson's in British Museum. Hawkins
printed _For wete you well will_.
85. The other edition by Skot reads _will not_, according to Hawkins.
87. The earliest instance in print, perhaps, of this proverb being used.
88. i.e. Weened.
89. Hawkins printed _what_.
90. i.e., Thanked be God my Creator.
91. Information, knowledge.
92. Hawkins printed _voice voider_.
93. Skot's other edition, _from hell and from the fire_.
95. Are called.
96. Five Wits, i.e., the Five Senses. These are frequently exhibited as
five distinct personages upon the Spanish stage. See Riccoboni, p. 98;
but our moralist has represented them all by one character. In
Shakespeare's "King Lear," the Madman says, "Bless thy Five Wits!"
meaning the Five Senses.--_Percy_.
98. This portion has been collated with the Douce fragment printed by
Pynson ("Shakespeare Society's Papers," iii. 149), as well as with the
other impression by Pynson in the British Museum.
99. Clear, free.
100. Out of the peril or danger of anything, equal to out of its control
103. Edits, _Those_.
104. Older, chief. Hawkins omitted the word _Christ_.
105. The proverb. This is the earliest use of it which has occurred.
107. Every each one.
108. The colophon in one of Skot's editions is at the end; in his other
there is only his mark. But see Hazlitt's "Handbook," p. 463-4.
109. The only one known. There is a later edition in the Bodleian,
printed by John Waley, and also apparently unique.
110. [This is an odd remark, the woodcuts being all common cuts of the
time, turned to an extraordinary variety of uses. They are very
ineffectively given by Hawkins, whoever his _masterly hand_ may have
111. Holt sometimes signifies a wood, grove, or forest: so Chaucer:--
"When Zephyrus eke, with his sweet breath
Inspired hath, in every holt and heath
The tender croppis;"
it sometimes signifies a hill: so in the old Scotish song of "Robin and
"Makyne went home blyth anneuche,
Attour the holttis hair."
--_Henryson's Works_, by Laing, p. 7.
113. Property or money.
115. Apparently the prison cell, divided into two parts, so as to hold
116. Prisoners in chains.
117. An allusion I do not understand.
118. i.e., steal. So Shakespeare:--
[_Nim_. The good humour is to steal at a minim's rest.
_Pist_. Convey, the wise it call: steal? foh; a fico for the phrase.
--_Merry Wives of Windsor_.
i. 3, Dyce's second edition, i. 353.]
119. [A proverb. See Hazlitt's "English Proverbs," 1869, p. 395.]
120. Lying or falsehood.
124. The Cape of Good Hope.
127. See "Halliwell'a Dictionary," in v. The exact origin and meaning of
the word, which seems to be a mere fantastic phrase, is apparently
129. Shaped, contrived.
130. Original reads _said_.
131. Favour or favouritism.
133. _At nale_, at the alehouse. So Chaucer in the "Frere's Tale":--
"And thay were glad to fille wel his purs,
And make him grete festis atte nale."
--_Bell's Chaucer_, ii. 91.
134. i.e., The dagger.
135. Old copy, _hyz_.
136. Original, _away_.
137. Compare "A Treatise of a Galaunt," printed about this time, and
reprinted in "Hazlitt's Popular Poetry," iii. 151 et seq.; also the
ballad called "The Manner of the World Now-a-days," in Collier's "Old
138. Original reads _with_.
141. Perhaps Freewill was intended to speak incorrect French.
143. A proverb.
144. A medicinal gum.
145. _Quick brimstone_, gunpowder.
151. A play on the similarity of the words _Latin_ and _Latten_.
153. A celebrated place for foot-pads.
154. This word, in its present sense, _shoals_, seems to be unglossed.
155. i.e., Haunt Shooter's Hill in the chance of meeting with prey.
158. Error, misdoings.
159. According to your bidding.
160. Sobriety of conduct.
161. i.e., How light my heart is.
163. Comrade, friend.
164. _Ale-stake_, a maypole, a sign before an alehouse. Chaucer, in "The
Pardoner's Prologue," calls it ale-stake--
"But first, quod he, here at this ale-stake
I wil both drynke and byten on a cake."
--_Bell's Chaucer_, iii. 68.
165. Query, an euphemism for _theft_.
167. The colophon is: Enprynted by me Wynken de Worde.
168. Mr Child, in "Four Old Plays," Cambridge, U.S., 1848.
169. Old copy reads _shepe_.
172. Guerdon, recompense.
173. _Health_, in a spiritual sense.
174. These were what were called friars-limiters.
175. At the charge of the place.
176. By Jesus, I'll pull thee by the sweet ears.
177. The pardoner quotes a proverb.
178. See a long note in Nare's, edition 1859, in v. The sense is really
equivalent to our modern _rigmarolle_.
179. Original has _eyoteles_.
181. Always, continually.
182. The colophon is: Imprinted by Wyllyam Rastell the v. day of Apryll
the yere of our lorde M.CCCCC.XXXIII. Cum priuilegio. The only copy
known, formerly Heber's, is now in the library of the Duke of Devonshire.
183. Another work must in future be added to the list of Wynkyn de
Worde's pieces, although only a fragment of it was very recently
discovered by Mr Rodd, of Newport Street. It is the last leaf of a tract,
the running title of which is "Ragmannes Rolle," and it purports to be a
collection of the names and qualities of good and bad women in alternate
stanzas. The meaning of "Ragman's Roll" may be seen in Todd's "Johnson's
Dictionary," _vide_ "Rigmarolle;" but in the following Envoy, Wynkyn de
Worde speaks of "King Ragman," a new personage in history. It is inserted
only as a literary curiosity.
"Explicit Ragmannes rolle.
"Lenvoy of the prynter.
"Go lytyl rolle, where thou arte bought or solde,
Amonge fayre women behaue the manerly:
Without rewarde of any fee or golde,
Saye as it is, touchynge trouthe hardely:
And yf that they do blame thee wrongfully,
Excuse thy prynter, and thy selfe also,
Layenge the faute on kynge Ragman holly
Whiche dyde the make many yeres ago.
--nprynted at London, in the Fletestrete, at the
----e of the Sonne, by Wynkyn de Worde."
The words "Enprynted" and "Signe," have been partly torn away, with the
corner of the leaf. See the poem printed from a MS. in Hazlitt's "Popular
Poetry," i. 68-78, and compare "Towneley Mysteries," p. 311.
184. This interlude has now been again collated with the Dublin copy, and
a certain number of inaccuracies removed.
185. Bonerly or bonairely, i.q., _debonaire_.
186. See Halliwell's Dictionary, in v. This word is very common, yet its
precise meaning rather obscure. It is used where its import is equivalent
187. _Storlde_ in old copy.
188. See Halliwell in v.
190. Seat, throne.
192. Kept, supported.
193. Divide in two.
194. Vague, loose.
196. By an error of the press this word is printed "wyghtly" in the
197. In a row.
198. Make mouths.
199. Tell a falsehood.
200. See "Popular Antiquities of Great Britain," ii. 305.
201. Air or bar.
203. To take hire.
204. Hence it is evident that the audience was to suppose seven years to
elapse during the speaking of this soliloquy. The progress of time is
elsewhere sufficiently marked.
205. Fellow; here, of course, a mate or mistress.
206. Promised, pret. of _Behete_.
208. Hold thee ready; be forward.
210. Wait on.
214. Time, occasion.
215. i.e., St. Thomas a. Becket, at Canterbury.
216. Original reads _right of_.
217. _Hende_, Sax.: civil, courteous.
218. _Do_ in the original.
219. Original has _ladies brightest_.
220. Countenance, more literally, colour, complexion; the more correct
orthography seems to _blea_--yellow. Some have _rudde_ in the same
222. Original has _Ynde the loys_.
223. _Tene_, Sax,: grieve.
224. See Nares, edit. 1859, p. 111.
226. Mated, matched.
227. Made lame.
228. Dream or muse under the branch of a tree.
229. For _necessary_.
230. This term used to be applied indifferently to both sexes.
233. i.e., _Lout_, or bow.
234. See Hazlitt's "Popular Poetry," i. 264, et seq.
236. Lend, lean.
237. _King_ seems a misprint here; perhaps _kind_ or _mind_ ought to be
242. i.e., _Thrive_.
243. _Fonge_, Sax, take. It is here used in the sense of _depart_.
245. Orig. reads _all_.
246. Certainly, _securely_.
248. i.e., _Out_ or _off_.
249. _Blessed_, in a bad sense.
251. Or _meinie_, alluding to the audience.
254. A proverbial expression of contempt.
256. i.e., Covenant or agreement.
257. Probably the earliest mention of this proverb.
258. Generally bankers, but perhaps here merely city-men.
259. A game at dice.
260. _Infere_, i.e., in company.
261. List, like.
263. Original has _creature_.
264. i.e., Together.
265. _Borwe_, Sax., is pledge or security, and _to borrow_ is to secure.
267. A symbol of submission or agreement.
268. Usually spelt _route_, from the Fr., to roar or snore.
271. The word _fro_ or _from_ in original is too much, and has been
inserted by error: the sense is, "And to all folks he called me shame."
272. Orig. has _So_.
273. Or creed.
274. Was called.
275. The colophon is: Here endeth the Interlude of Mundus & Infans.
Imprynted at London in Fletestrete at the sygne of ye Sonne by me Wynkin
de worde. The yere of our Lorde M.CCCCC. and xxij. The xvij. daye of
276. The greater part of this quotation is torn off in the only copy
known with certainty to exist, as well as the date and printer's name, if
any were ever appended.--_Collier_.
277. It is said by Mr Wallis, in "The Natural History and Antiquities of
Northumberland," 4to, vol. ii. p. 390, that John Bale lived and studied
at the Abbey of Hulme in that county, of which society he was a member.
[See Cooper's "Athenae," i. 225.]
278. Mr A. Chalmers, in his "Biographical Dictionary," says that Bale was
of Jesus College, Cambridge.--_Collier_.
279. The writer of art. _Bale_ in the "Biographia Britannica" hath fallen
into a mistake, asserting him to have been of St John's College, Oxford.
Bale's own words are these: "In omni literarum barbarie ac mentis
coecitate illic et _Cantabrigiae_ pervagabar, nullum habens tutorem aut
Mecaenatem; donec, lucente Dei verbo, ecclesiae revocari coepissent ad
verae theologiae purissimos fontes." Dr. Berkenhout hath adopted the same
280. See his "Vocacyon."
281. Mr A. Chalmers gives the date of Bale's consecration, February 2,
1553, and not the 20th of March. The former is correct.--_Collier_.
282. Five centuries of writers seem to have been printed at Wesel in
1549, under the following title: "_Illustrium Majoris Britaniae
Scriptorum, hoc est Angliae, Cambriae, et Scotiae, Summarium_." The most
complete and enlarged edition was printed at Basil by Oporinus in 1559.--
283. Not including his "King Johan," printed by Collier, 1838. Of these
and his other works, see a very copious list in Cooper's "Athenae," i.
227-30. See also Hazlitt's "Handbook," v. Bale. The list given in the
former edition of Dodsley was so imperfect and unsatisfactory as not to
appear worth retention.
284. But in Dodsley's own edition, 1744, occurs the following interesting
notice omitted in that of 1825: "This antient piece I found in the
Harleian Collection of Old Plays, consisting of between 600 and 700,
which are now in my possession." Very probably, Garrick was partly
indebted to Dodsley for his dramatic rarities.
285. It will be seen that the design of the author necessarily divided
itself into seven ages or periods, for the seven promises by the Creator
to Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, Esaias, and John the Baptist.--
286. This list of characters is not in the old copy, but was made out
from the mention of persons in the progress of the piece.--_Collier_.
287. The old copy from which this dramatic piece was first reprinted by
Dodsley, and subsequently by Mr Reed, having been damaged, and a part of
the leaf lost, it was not possible to ascertain exactly the last word of
this line: it was therefore supplied by conjecture, and not very happily:
the line has till now stood--
"Without whose knowledge no man to the truth can _come_."
But the form of the stanza, and the rhyme in the next line, shows
decidedly that this is wrong. In Davenport's "City Night Cap," Act 3, we
meet with a not very dissimilar use of the word _fall_.
"I have made a modest choice of you, grave sir,
To be my ghostly father; and to you I _fall_ for absolution."
288. The commencement of this Act is not marked in the original, although
notice is given of its conclusion.--_Collier_.
289. This scriptural expression occurs very frequently in our ancient
"Never this heart shall have the thoughtful dread
_To die the death_ that, by your grace's doom,
By just desert shall be pronounc'd to me."
--_Ferrex and Porrex_, A. 4, S. 2.
"Either _to die the death_, or to abjure
For ever the society of men."
--_Midsummer Night's Dream_, A. 1, S. 1.
"Or else he must not only _die the death_,
But thy unkindness shall his death draw out
To lingering sufferance."
--_Measure for Measure_, A. 2, S. 4.
See Dr Johnson and Mr Steevens's notes on the two latter passages.
"Wert thou my bosom-love, _thou dyst the death_;
Best ease for madness is the loss of breath."
--Machin's _Dumb Knight_, A. 2.
290. Stir. Glossary to Mandevile's _Voyage_, 1725. It is a very common
292. Original has _trade_.
293. Chaucer, in his "Canterbury Tales," l. 509, describing the Parson,
"He set not his benefice to hire,
And laft his sheep _accombred_ in the mire," &c.
Dr Morrell spells the word _accumbrit_, and explains it in this manner--
"_Accumbrit_ may be interpreted _to wallow, to lie down_, qu.
_accumbere_." But Chaucer sometimes uses it in another sense--
"That they were _acombrit_ in their own distreyt."
--_Merchant's Second Tale_, 2910.
_i.e_., They were encumbered, brought into great straights.
A vet. Gall. _Combre_ or _Comble_.
"Trough wine and women there was both _accombred_."
--Pierce Plowman's _Vision_.
None of these explanations exactly agrees with the text. Bishop Bale
certainly means, agreeably to the passage in the Bible to which he
alludes, _to destroy_ or _overwhelm_.
294. _Achab_ in original, and Latimer in his First Sermon before King
Edward VI., calls him _Hachab_.
295. In the former edition this and the next five lines were given to
297. i.e., Asketh, inquireth. So, in Henryson's "Testament of Creside"--
"Quha had bene thair, and lyking for to heir
His facound toung and termis exquisite,
Of Rhetorick the prettick he micht leir,
In breif sermone are pregnant sentence wryte,
Befoir Cupide veiling his cap alyte,
Speiris the caus of that vocatioun?
And he anone schew his intentioun."
--_Laing's Edit_., 1865, p. 84.
Again, Douglas's "Virgil," B. iii. p. 72--
"The seik ground deny is frute and fudis,
My fader exhortis us turn againe our studis
To Delos, and Apollois ansure _spere_,
Be seiking him of succours us to lere."
Again, B. v. p. 140--
"Ane uthir mache to him was socht and _sperit_."
298. The colophon is: Thus endeth thys Tragedy or enterlude, manyfestynge
the chefe promyses of God unto Man by all ages in the olde lawe, from the
fall of Adam to the incarnacyon of the Lorde Jesus Christ. Compyled by
Johan Bayle, Anno Domini 1538.
299. Wood, in his "Athenae Oxonienses," vol. 1, p. 149, positively fixes
his birth at this place. Other writers have made him a native of North
Mims in Hertfordshire, but apparently without any authority. [See
Warton's "H.E.P.," edit. 1871, i. 80.] Bale, who lived nearest to the
author's time, calls him _Civis Londinensis_; which words, though they do
not absolutely prove that he was born in London, yet surely are
sufficient in a matter of this uncertainty to warrant any one to conclude
that he was a native of that city, as no circumstance appears to induce a
belief that he acquired the title of Citizen of London otherwise than by
300. Peacham's "Compleat Gentleman," 4to, 1627, p. 95.
301. Gabriel Harvey's "MS. Note to Speght's Chaucer," as quoted in Mr
Steevens's "Shakspeare," vol. 5.
302. T. Bastard, in his "Chrestoleros, Seven Bookes of Epigrams," 1598,
has the following, addressed _Ad Johannem Dauis_, in which he speaks of
Heywood and his reputation in this department--
"Yf witt may make a Poet, as I gesse,
_Heywood_ with auncient Poets may I compare.
But thou in word and deed hast made him lesse
In his owne witt, hauing yet learning spare
The goate doth hunt the grasse, the wolfe the goat
The lyon hunts the wolfe by proofe we see;
_Heywood_ sang others downe, but thy sweete note,
Dauis, hath sang him downe, and I would thee.
Then be not mou'de, nor count it such a sinn,
To will in thee what thou hast done in him."
The subsequent _Ad Lectorem_ is to the same effect--
"Reader, if Heywood liued now againe,
Whome time of life, hath not of praise bereaued;
If he would write, I could expresse his vaine:
Thus would he write, or else I am deceiued."
Sir J. Harington quotes one of Heywood's Epigrams in the Notes to B. 38
of his Translation of "Orlando Furioso;" and Thomas Wilson, in his
"Rhetorique," 1553, speaks of Heywood's "Proverbs," adding that his
"paynes in that behalfe are worthye of immortall prayse." In Barnaby
Googe's "Husbandry," "our English Martiall, John Heywood," is quoted
regarding Essex Cheese. It would not be difficult to add several other
authors who quote or applaud him.--_Collier_.
303. "Athen. Oxon.," vol. 1, p. 149.
304. "But to step backe to my teske (though everie place I step to,
yeeldes me sweeter discourse) what thinke you by Haywood, that scaped
hanging with his mirth; the king being graciously and (as I thinke) truly
perswaded, that a man that wrate so pleasant and harmlesse verses, could
not have any harm full conceit against his proceedings, and so by the
honest motion of a gentleman of his chamber saved him from the jerke of
the six-string'd whip." (Harington's "Metamorphosis of Ajax," 1596, p.
305. "Athen. Oxon.," vol. 1, p. 149.
306. The subsequent anecdote is given by Puttenham in his "Arte of
English Poesie," 1589, p. 230:--
"The like hapned on a time at the Duke of Northumberlandes bourd, where
merry _John Heywood_ was allowed to sit at the tables end. The Duke had a
very noble and honorable mynde alwayes to pay his debts well, and when he
lacked money would not stick to sell the greatest part of his plate; so
had he done few dayes before. Heywood being loth to call for his drinke
so oft as he was dry, turned his eye toward the cupbord and sayd, 'I
finde great misse of your graces standing cups.' The Duke thinking he had
spoken it of some knowledge that his plate was lately sold, said somewhat
sharply, 'Why, sir, will not those cuppes serve as good a man as your
selfe?' Heywood readily replied, 'Yes, if it please your grace; but I
would haue one of them stand still at myne elbow, full of drinke, that I
might not be driven to trouble your men so often to call for it.' This
pleasant and speedy reuers of the former wordes holpe all the matter
againe, whereupon the Duke became very pleasaunt, and dranke a bolle of
wine to Heywood, and bid a cup should alwayes be standing by him."
This story, in itself of very little worth, serves to show the sort of
terms Heywood was upon with the nobility of his time.--_Collier_.
307. The editor of the last edition of the "Biographical Dictionary"
asserts, but without citing his particular authority for the fact, that
"after many peregrinations, he died at Naples, January the 9th, 1598."--
308. [In the former edition of this work there was a note stating that
he had been preceded by Palsgrave in his "Acolastus." But "Acolastus" was
merely a translation by Palsgrave from the Latin of Fullonius, performed
in 1529 in Holland. The English was not printed till 1540.]
309. _MSS. Notes on Langbaine_.
310. [Here followed, in the former editions, an elaborate list, full of
errors, of Heywood's writings, for which see Hazlitt's "Handbook," in v.
Dyce (Middleton's Works, ii., 277) thought there was no ground for
assigning to him No. 4 of Hazlitt.]
311. [They appear to have been first published in 1546.]
312. "Worthies," p. 221.
313. [Hazlitt's "Handbook," 1867, p. 269.]
314. Although more pains than usual were bestowed on the collation of
this piece, yet, as it was printed originally by Dodsley from the most
corrupt of the old copies, many of the errors and a few interpolations
were allowed by the subsequent editor to remain. The orthography also,
professed to be observed, was very frequently abandoned.--_Collier_.
315. "The difference between a pilgrim and a palmer was thus: The pilgrim
had some home or dwelling-place; but the palmer had none. The pilgrim
travelled to some certain designed place or places; but the palmer to
all. The pilgrim went at his own charges; but the palmer professed wilful
poverty, and went upon alms. The pilgrim might give over his profession
and return home; but the palmer must be constant till he had obtained the
palm, that is, victory over all spiritual enemies, and life by death, and
thence his name _Palmer_, or else from a staff, or boughs of palm, which
he always carried along with him" (Staveley's "Romish Horseleech," 1769,
316. The first edition gives this line:
"My rewdnes sheweth me _no_ so homely,"
and that of 1569 has it:
"My rudenes sheweth me _not_ so homely."
The negative certainly seems to have been inserted by mistake.--
317. _Sue now_, edition 1569.
318. _You_, edit. 1569.
319. _Hath_, 1st edit.
320. _Far and faire_, edit. 1569.
321. _Jerusalem_, edit. 1569.
322. _I have_, edit. 1569.
323. Mandevile thus mentions these places:--"And toward the Est syde,
with oute the walles of the cytee (i.e., Jerusalem) is the vale of
Josaphathe, that touchethe to the walles, as thoughe it were a large
Dyche. And anen that vale of Josaphathe out of the cytee, is the Chirche
of Seynt Stevene, where he was stoned to dethe" ["Voiage and Travaile,"
8vo, 1839, p. 80.] "And above the Vale is the Mount of _Olyvete_, and it
is cleped so; for the plentee of Olyves, that growen there. That mount is
more highe than the Cytee of Jerusalem is; and therfore may men upon that
mount, see manye of the Stretes of the Cytee. And betwene that Mount and
the Cytee, is not but the vale of _Josaphathe_, that is not fulle large.
And fro that Mount, steighe oure Lord Jesu Crist to Hevene, upon
Ascencioun-day: and it there schewethe the schapp of his left Foot in the
Ston" (_Ibid_. p. 96).
In Borde's "Introduction of Knowledge," 1542, Sign. N 3, that writer, who
had been on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, says:--"And that there is a great
confluence of pylgrims to the holy Sepulchre, and to many holy places, I
will _wyshe_ somewhat that I doo know, and haue sene in the place. Who so
ever that dothe pretende to go to Jerusalem, let him prepare himselfe to
set forth of England after Ester vii. or viii. dayes," &c. He then
directs the route a traveller ought to take, and adds, "when you come to
Ierusalem, the friers which be called cordaline, they be of saynct
Fraunces order, they wyl receaue you with devocion & brynge you to the
sepulcre: the holy sepulcre is wythin the church, and so is the mount of
Calvery, where Iesu Chryst did suffer his passions. The churche is round
lyke a temple, it is more larger than anye temple that I haue sene
amonges the Iues. The sepulcre is grated rounde about wyth yrone, that no
man shall graet or pycke out any stones. The sepulcre is lyke a lytle
house, the which by masons was dydged out of a rocke of stone. There maye
stonde wythin the sepulcre a x. or a xii. parsons, but few or none dothe
go into the sepulcre, except they be singulerly beloued, & than they go
in by night wyth great feare and reuerence." [Furnivall's edit. pp. 219,
324. _Would_, edit. 1569.
325. Answered to the stages between London and Rome, or Holy Land, of
which there is a map in a MS. of Math. Paris Roy. Libr. 14 C. VII. and
Benet. Coll. c. ix. and PI. VII. "Brit. Topog." vol. i. p. 85. G. [A
poem, called "Stacyons of Rome," has been printed in the Early English
Text, Society's Series, by Mr Furnivall.]
In Borde's "Introduction" (before quoted) it is said, "And forasmuch as
ther be many that hath wrytten of the Holy Lande of the _stacyons_ & of
the _Iurney_ or way, I doo passe ouer to speake forther of this matter,"
&c. [Edit, _ut supra_.]
326. _Rhodes_, an island to which the Knights Hospitallers, now Knights
of Malta, retired, on being driven out of Jerusalem.
327. Probably Emaus, near Jerusalem.
328. [Respecting St Uncumber, see "Popular Antiquities of
Great Britain," ii., 136.]
Mr Steevens, in a letter to the printer of the _Saint James's Chronicle_,
points out the following mention of Saint Tronion, in Geffrey Fenton's
"Tragical Discourses," 4to, 1567, fo. 114 b: "He returned in haste to his
lodgynge, where he attended the approche of his hower of appointment wyth
no lesse devocion than the Papistes in France performe their ydolatrous
pilgrimage to the ydoll, _Saynt Tronyon_, upon the mount _Avyon_, besides
This worthy is also noticed in the following terms in "Apius and
Virginia," 1575, Sign. E 2:--
"Nay, softe, my maisters, by saincte _Thomas of Trunions_,
I am not disposed to buy of your onions."--_Collier_.
329. Saint Botulph is said to have been born in Cornwall, and was eminent
for working miracles about the time of Lucius. He was buried at Boston,
330. "Within the parish of Bacwell, in Derbyshyre, is _a Chappel (somtyme
dedicated to St Anne)_, in a place called _Bucston_, wheare is a hoate
Bathe, of suche like Qualitie as those mentioned in Bathe be. _Hyther
they weare wont to run on pilgrimage_, ascribinge to St Anne
miraculously, that Thinge which is in that and sondrye other Waters
naturrally" ("Lambarde's Dictionarium," p. 48). Drayton says--
"I can again produce those wondrous wells
Of _Bucston_, as I have, that most delicious fount
Which men the second Bath of England do account,
Which in the primer reigns, when first this well began
To have her virtues known, unto the blest St Anne,
Was consecrated then."
--_Poly-Olbion_, Song xxvi.
331. Saw, 2d edition.
332. "And so passe men be this _Ermonie_, and entren the see of _Persie_.
Fro that Cytee of _Artyroun_ go men to an Hille _Sabissocolle_. And there
besyde is another Hille, that men clepen _Ararathe_: but the Jewes clepen
it _Taneez_; where _Noes_ Schipp rested, and it is upon that Montayne:
and men may seen it a ferr in cleer Wedre; and that montayne is wel a 7
Myle highe. And sum men seyn, that thei han seen and touched the Schipp;
and put here fyngres in the parties, where the Feend went out, whan that
_Noe_ seyde _Benedicite_. But they that seyn suche wordes, seyn here
wille: fora man may not gon up the Montayne, for great plentee of Snow,
that is alle weys on that Montayne: nouther Somer ne Wynter; so that no
man may gon up there, ne nevere man dide, sithe the tyme of _Noe_, saf
a Monk that, be the grace of God broughte on of the plankes doun; that it
is in the Mynstre, at the foot of the Montayne" [Maundevile's "Voiage and
Travaile," 1839, p. 148.]
333. Formerly belonging to the priory of Bermondsey. See Stow's "Survey."
334. The famous holy Cross of Waltham, which tradition says was
discovered in the following manner: A carpenter, in the reign of Canute,
living at Lutegaresbyry, had a vision in the night of Christ crucified,
by whom he was commanded to go to the parish priest and direct him to
walk, accompanied with his parishioners, in solemn procession to the top
of an adjoining hill, where on digging they would find a cross, the very
sign of Christ's passion. The man neglecting to perform the orders of the
image was visited by it a second time, and his hands were then griped in
such a manner that the marks remained some time after. He then acquainted
the priest, and, as they were ordered, they proceeded to the place
pointed out, where they discovered a great marble, having in it of black
flint the image of the crucifix. They then informed the lord of the manor
of the transaction, and he immediately resolved to send the cross first
to Canterbury, and afterwards to Reading; but on attempting to draw it to
these places, although with the force of twelve red oxen, and as many
white kine, it was found impracticable, and he was obliged to desist. He
then determined to fix it at Waltham, and immediately the wain began to
move thither of itself. In the way many persons were healed of disorders,
and the relick soon became much resorted to by the pilgrims on account of
the miracles performed by it (Lambarde's "Dictionarium," 1730, p. 431).
335. "Walsingham, in Norfolk, where was anciently an image of the Virgin
Mary, famous over all Europe for the numerous pilgrimages made to it, and
the great riches it possessed. Erasmus has given a very exact and
humorous description of the superstitions practised there in his time.
See his Account of the VIRGO PARATHALASSIA, in his Colloquy entitled,
'PEREGRINATIO RELIGIONIS ERGO.' He tells us the rich offerings in silver,
gold, and precious stones, that were there shown him, were incredible:
there being scarce a person of any note in England, but what some time or
other paid a visit, or sent a present, to our LADY OF WALSINGHAM. At
the dissolution of the monasteries, in 1538, this splendid image, with
another from Ipswich, was carried to Chelsea, and there burnt in the
presence of commissioners." See Percy's "Relics of Ancient Poetry," vol.
ii. p. 79.
In his ["Vision concerning Pierce Plowman," W. Langland] says--
"Heremites on an heep, wyth hoked staues,
Wenten to _Walsyngham_, and here wenches after.
Grete lobyes and longe, that loth were to swynke,
Clotheden hem in copis to ben knowen from othere,
And shopen hem heremites; here ese to haue."
Edit. [Skeat, 1869, p. 3.] See also Weever's "Funeral Monuments," p. 131.
336. Hearne, in his Glossary to "Peter Langtoft," p. 544, under the word
_cross_ observes that, although _the cross_ and _the rood_ are commonly
taken for the same, yet _the rood_ properly signified formerly the image
of Christ on the cross, so as to represent both the cross and the figure
of our blessed Saviour as he suffered upon it. The _roods_ that were
in churches and chapels were placed in shrines, that were styled
_Rood-lofts_. "_Rood-loft_ (saith Blount), a shrine, whereon was placed
the cross of Christ. The _rood_ was an image of Christ on the cross,
made generally of wood, and erected in a loft for that purpose, just
over the passage out of the church into the chancel." But _rood-loft_
sometimes also signifies a shrine, on which was placed the image or
relics of a saint, because generally a crucifix, or a cross, used
likewise to attend such image or relics.
337. Dagenham, in Essex.
338. Saint Cornelys, according to the "Legenda Aurea," succeeded Fabyan
in the Papacy, and was beheaded in the reign of Decian, for refusing to
sacrifice in the Temple of Mars. There was a fraternity in his honour at
Westminster. See their pardon, "Brit. Top.," I. 772.
339. Weever, in his "Funeral Monuments," p. 172, observes that "the
Italians, yea, those that dwell neare Rome, will mocke and scoffe at our
English (and other) pilgrims that go to Rome to see the Pope's holinesse
and St Peter's chaire, and yet they themselves will runne to _see the
reliques of Saint Iames of Compostella in the kingdom of Galicia_ in
Spaine, which is above twelve hundred English miles." See also Dr
340. Saint Wenefrid's well, near Holywell, in the county of Flint, is a
spring which rises at the foot of a steep hill out of a rock, and is
formed into a beautiful polygonal well, covered with a rich arch
supported by pillars; the roof exquisitely carved in stone; over the
fountain is the legend of St Wenefrid on a pendent projection, with the
arms of England at the bottom. Numbers of fine ribs secure the arch,
whose intersections are coupled with some sculpture. To this place the
resort of pilgrims was formerly very great; and, though considerably
diminished, there are still to be seen in the summer a few in the water,
in deep devotion, up to their chins for hours, sending up their prayers,
or performing a number of evolutions round the polygonal well; or
threading the arch between well and well a prescribed number of times.
The legend of St Wenefrid is well known. Those who desire more
information on this subject may be referred to "The Legenda Aurea,"
Bishop Fleetwood's Works, or Mr Pennant's "Tour in Wales," p. 28.
341. Or Botolph's town, in Lincolnshire, where St Botolph was buried--
"Delicious Wytham leads to _holy Botolph's_ town."
--_Poly-Olbion_, Song xxv.
342. "Is named of Kinge Edmunde, whom the comon Chronicles call St
Edmund, or Edmund the Martyr; for Bury is but to say a Court or Palace.
It was first a Colledge of Priests, founded by Athelstane the kinge of
Ingland, to the Honour and Memorye of Edmund that was slayne at Hoxton
(then called Eylesdund [or Eglesdon], as Leland thinketh), whose Bones he
removed thyther. The hole hystorie of this matter is so enterlaced with
miracles, that Polydor himselfe (who beleaved them better then I) began
to delye with it; sayinge, _that Monkes weare much delighted with them_"
(Lambarde's "Dictionarium," p. 35).
343. This place, which was much frequented by pilgrims, was situate on a
lake called Logh Derg, in the Southern part of the county of Donegal,
near the borders of Tyrone and Fermanagh. It was surrounded with wild and
barren mountains, and was almost inaccessible by horsemen even in summer
time, on account of great bogs, rocks, and precipices which environed it.
The popular tradition concerning it is as ridiculous as is to be found in
any legend of the Romish Martyrology. After continuing in great credit
many years, it began to decline; and in the 13th of Henry the Seventh was
demolished with great solemnity, on St Patrick's Day, by the Pope's
express order. It, however, afterwards came into reputation again,
insomuch that, by an order of the Privy Council, dated 13th of September
1632, it was a second time destroyed. From this period, as pilgrimages
grew less in fashion, it will appear extraordinary that the place should
be a third time restored to its original state, and as much visited as in
any former period. In this condition it continued until the second year
of Queen Anne, when an Act of the Irish Parliament declared, that all
meetings and assemblies there should be adjudged riots and unlawful
assemblies, and inflicted a penalty upon every person meeting or
assembling contrary to the Statute. The ceremonies to be performed by the
pilgrims are very exactly set forth in Richardson's "Great Folly,
Superstition, and Idolatry of Pilgrimages in Ireland, especially of that
to St Patrick's Purgatory," Dublin, 8vo. 1727.
Enough hath been already said on the subject of "Saint Patrick's
Purgatory," I shall therefore only add, that it is often mentioned in
Froissard's "Chronicle," and that Sir James Melvil, who visited it in
1545, describes it as looking "like an old coal-pit, which had taken
fire, by reason of the smoke that came out of the hole" (Melvil's
"Memoirs," p. 9., edit. 1683).
It is mentioned in Erasmus's "Praise of Folie," 1549, Sign. A: "Whereas
before ye satte all heavie and glommyng, as if ye had come lately from
Troponius cave, or _Saint Pattrickes purgatorie_."
344. Within three miles of St Alban's. "At this place," says Norden,
"were founde the reliques of Amphiball, who is saide to be the
instructour and convertour of Alban from Paganisme, of whose reliques
such was the regard that the abbottes of the monasterie of Alban had,
that they should be devoutly preserved, that a decree was made by Thomas
then abbott, that a pryor and three munckes should be appointed to this
holie function, whose allowance in those dayes amounted yearely to 20
pound, or upwardes, as much as three hundred pound in this age"
("Description of Hartfordshire." p. 22).
See also Weever's "Funeral Monuments," p. 585. Dr Middleton, in his
"Letter from Home," says: "Bishop Usher has proved that this saint
never existed, and that we owe the honour of his saintship to a mistaken
passage in the Legend of St Alban, where the _Amphibolus_ there mentioned
is nothing more than a _cloak_."
345. The abbey of Hales, in Gloucestershire, was founded by Richard, King
of the Romans, brother to Henry the Third. This precious relic, which was
commonly called _the blood of Hailes_, was brought out of Germany by
Richard's son Edmund, who bestowed a third part of it upon his father's
abbey of Hales, and some time after gave the other two parts to an abbey
of his own foundation at Ashridge, near Berkamstead. It was given out,
and believed to have this property, that, if a man was in mortal sin, and
not absolved, he could not see it; otherwise, he might see it very well:
therefore, every man that came to see this miracle, this most precious
blood, confessed himself first to one of the priests there; and then,
offering something at the altar, was directed to a chapel, where the
miracle was shown; the priest who confessed him, in the meantime,
retiring to the back part of the said chapel, and putting forth a little
cabinet or vessel of crystal, which being thick on the one side, that
nothing could be seen through it, but on the other side thin and
transparent, they used diversely, as their interests required. On the
dissolution of the abbey, it was discovered to be nothing more than honey
clarified and coloured with saffron, "an unctowse gumme coloured, which
in the glasse apperyd to be a glisterynge red resemblyng partlie the
color of blood, and owte of the glasse apparaunte glystering yelow colour
like amber or basse gold" (Certificate of visitors, printed at end of
Hearne's Benedictus Abbas, II. 751).
346. i.e., Saint David. Drayton, in his "Poly-Olbion," Song xxiv., says--
"Whose Cambro Britons so their saints as duly brought,
T' advance the Christian faith, effectually that wrought;
Their _David_ (one deriv'd of th' royal British blood),
Who 'against Pelagius' false and damn'd opinions stood;
And turn'd Menenia's name to _David's_ sacred see.
The patron of the Welsh deserving well to be."
See an account of him in an extract from Bale, in Godwin "de Praesulibus
Angliae," p. 573, edit. 1743. He is said to have been bishop 65 years,
and to have lived 146. He died, according to some accounts, in the year
546, according to others, in the year 542. His shrine, I am informed,
remains in the wall of his cathedral in Pembrokeshire.
347. St Denis, the patron of France, is said to have been the disciple of
St Paul, and the first who preached the gospel to the French. The legend
concerning him affirms that, after he was beheaded near Paris, he walked
four miles with his head in his hands. His body was said to be entombed
very magnificently at the abbey of St Denis, to which the pilgrims used
348. At the Church of St Mark, in Venice, they pretend to have the body
of that evangelist, which was brought thither by certain merchants from
Alexandria, in Egypt, in the year 810. Coryat says, that the treasure of
this church was of that inestimable value, that it was thought no
treasure whatsoever in any other place in Christendom might compare with
it, neither that of St Denis in France, nor St Peter's in Rome, nor that
of Madonna de Loretto in Italy, nor that of Toledo in Spain, nor any
other. See Coryat's "Crudities," p. 214, and "The Commonwealth and
Government of Venice," by Contareno, translated by Lewes Lewkenor, Esq.,
1599, p. 165.
349. Who this John Shorn was, I can give no account. In the preface to
"The Accedence of Armorie," 4to, 1562, a story is told of one who had
been called to worship in a city within Middlesex, and who being desired
by a herald to show his coat (i.e., of arms), "called unto his mayd,
commanding her to fetch his coat, which, being brought, was of cloth
garded with a burgunian gard of bare velvet, well bawdefied on the halfe
placard, and squallotted in the fore quarters. Lo, quoth the man to the
heraught, here it is, if ye will buy it, ye shall have time of payment,
as first to pay halfe in hand, and the rest by and by. And with much
boste he said, he ware not the same since he came last from Sir John
350. Catwade Bridge is in Samford Hundred, in the county of Suffolk,
where there may have been a famous chapel and rood.--G.
351. _Herry_ edit. 1569.
352. "In September, the same yeare (says Weever), viz., an. 30 Hen. 8, by
the speciall motion of great Cromwell, all the notable images, vnto the
which were made any especiall pilgrimages and offerings, as the images of
our Lady of Walsingham, Ipswich, Worcester, the Lady of Wilsdon, the rood
of grace of our Ladie of Boxley, and the image of the rood of Saint
Saviour at Bermondsey, with all the rest, were brought vp to London, and
burnt at Chelsey, at the commandement of the foresaid Cromwell, all the
Iewels and other rich offerings to these, and to the shrines (which were
all likewise taken away, or beaten to peeces) of other Saints throughout
both England and Wales were brought into the King's Treasurie" (Edit.
1631, p. 111).
353. The church dedicated to Saint Mary at Southwell, in Nottinghamshire.
354. In the county of Kent, near Greenwich.
355. In Finsbury Hundred, Middlesex, the chapel dedicated to St Mary. See
above, note 1.
356. "Muswell Hill, called also Pinsenall Hill: there was a chapple
sometime bearing the name of our ladie of Muswell: where now Alderman Roe
hath erected a proper house, the place taketh name of the well and of the
hill, Mousewellhill; for there is on the hill a spring of faire water,
which is now within the compass of the house. There was sometime an image
of the ladie of Muswell, whereunto was a continuall resort, in the way of
pylgrimage, growing, as is (though as I take it fabulouslie) reported in
regard of a great cure which was performed by this water, upon a king of
Scots, who being strangely diseased was, by some devine intelligence,
advised to take the water of a well in England, called Muswell, which
after long scrutation and inquisition, this well was found and performed
the cure" (Norden's "Speculum Britanniae," p. 36, edit. 1723). I am
informed that the mosaic pavement and other ruins of this well and its
chapel were to be seen about twenty-five years ago [Edit. 1780].
357. This was probably Richard Fitz[-Neale,] bishop of London, and
treasurer of England, in the time of Henry the Second. His shrine was, as
Weever observes, p. 714, in St Paul's Church; and as he contributed
largely to the building of the church, he conjectures it to have been
erected there on that account. Drayton, however, in his "Poly-Olbion,"
Song xxiv., speaks of others of that name, as
"Richard, the dear son to Lothar king of Kent,
When he his happy days religiously had spent;
And feeling the approach of his declining age,
Desirous to see Rome in holy pilgrimage;
Into thy country come, at Lucca left his life,
Whose miracles there done, yet to this day are rife."
"So countries more remote with ours we aid acquaint,
As Richard for the fame his holiness had won,
And for the wondrous things that through his prayers were done;
From this his native home into Calabria call'd,
And of St Andrew's there the bishop was installed;
For whom she hath profess'd much reverence to this land."
"So other southern sees, here either less or more.
Have likewise had their saints--
--we have of Chichester
Saint Richard, and with him St Gilbert, which do stand
Inroll'd amongst the rest of this our mitred band."
358. Saint Roke, or Roch, was born at Montpelier, in France; and died in
prison at Angleria, in the province of Lombardy, where a large church was
built in honour of him. See "Legenda Aurea," p. 238.
359. Stephanus' "World of Wonders," 1607, translated by R.C., p. 316.--
360. _Obtaye_, 1st edit.
361. _Assuredly_, 2d edit.
362. _Thy_, 1st edit.
363. _Pardoner_. "Pardoners were certaine fellowes that caried about the
Pope's Indulgences, and sold them to such as would buy them; against whom
Luther, by Sleydans report, incensed the people of Germany in his time,
exhorting them _ne merces tam viles tanti emerent_" (Cowell's
"Interpreter," 1607, Sign. A A A 2).
364. _You_, edit. 1569.
365. _Yet welcome_, 1st edit.
366. _For_, 1st edit.
367. _Paynes_, 2d edit.
368. _Ere_, edit. 1569.
369. _My_, edit. 1569.
370. _You_, edit. 1569.
371. _Nother_, 1st edit.
372 _Running_, 1st edit.--_Dodsley_. This is a mistake, the first edition
reading _ronnying_, which is the old spelling of _running_. Another error
was committed in printing it hitherto "running to Rome," the correct
reading being "ronnying at Rome."--_Collier_.
373. _Scofte_, 1st. edit.
374. _Kepe_, 1st edit.
375. _This_, edit 1569.
376. _You come late_, 1st edit.
377. _Sonyng_, 1st edit.
378. _Ye_, 1st edit.
379. _Ye_, 1st edit.
380. _Ye_, 1st edit.
381. _Hath_, 1st edit.
382. _Ye_, 1st edit.
383. _Be_, 1st edit.
384. _Cheap_, as Dr Johnson observes, is _market, and good cheap_
therefore is _bon marche_. The expression is very frequent in ancient
writers, as in Churchyard's "Worthiness of Wales," Evans's edition, 1776,
"Victuals _good cheap_ in most part of Wales."
Lyly's "Euphues," 1579, p. 8, "Seeing thou wilt not buy counsel at the
first hande _good cheape_, thou shalt buye repentaunce at second-hande at
such an vnreasonable rate that thou wilt cursse thy hard penyworth, and
ban thy harde heart." Decker's "Lanthorne and Candlelight," H 4, "He
buyes other men's cunning _good cheap_ in London, and sels it deare in
the countrey." See other instances in Mr Steevens's note on "First Part
of King Henry IV.," A. 3, S. 3.
385. _Leste_, 1st edit.; _least_, edit. 1569. And as _least_ is probably
the reading the author intended, and is supported by both the old copies,
it is restored; the Pardoner means in the _smallest_ quarter of the
386. _As, 1st edit.
387. _Bryngeth_, 1st edit.
388. _Dyd_, 1st edit.
389. _We will_, edit. 1569.
390. _Or_, 1st edit.
392. _They rob_, edit. 1569.
393. _Hostely_, 1st edit.
394. Master, achieve.
395. _To be woe_ is often used by old writers to signify _to be sorry_.
So Shakspeare's "Tempest," A. 5, S. 1--
"_I am woe for't, Sir."
Chaucer's "Court of Love"--
"_I wolde be wo_,
That I presume to her is writin so."
See Mr Steevens's note on Shakspeare, vol. 1, p. 106.
396. _That_, edit. 1569.
397 _From state of grace_, 1st edit.
398. _Then_. Mr Dodsley read _and_.
399. _You_, edit. 1569.
400. _Every tryfull_, 1st edit.
401. _Chefe_, 1st edit.
402. _Thinks_, edit. 1569.
403. _There_, edit. 1569.
404. _Where_, 1st edit.
405. _Unknotted_, edit. 1569.
406. _Lace_, 1st edit. Lasses = _leshes_, or _laces_.
407. _Needles, thread, thimbles, and such other knacks_, edit. 1569.
408. i.e., _Cyprus_; thin stuff of which women's veils were made. So in
Shakspeare's "Winter's Tale," A. 4, S. 3--
"Lawn as white as driven snow,
_Cyprus_ black as any crow."
Again, in "Twelfth Night"--
"A _cyprus_, not a bosom
Hides my poor heart."--_S_.
409. i.e., Rollers in which infants were _swathed_. So, in "Timon of
"Had thou, like us, from thy first _swath_," &c.--_S_.
410 _Uprising_, edit. 1569.
411. _Frontal_, Fr., a _frontlet_, or _forehead band_.--_Cotgrave_. A
_frontlet_ is mentioned as part of a woman's dress in Lyly's "Midas,"
1592: "Hoods, _frontlets_, wires, cauls, curling-irons, periwigs,
bodkins, fillets, hair laces, ribbons, rolls, knotstrings, glasses," &c.
See also Mr Steevens's note on "King Lear," A. 1, S. 4.
412. Ruffs or bands for women. See Glossary to Douglas's "Translation of
413. Little bodkins or puncheons.--_Cotgrave_, voce _pinconnet_.
414. _It_, edit. 1569.
415. _Prycke_, 1st edit.
416. _They be_, edit. 1569.
417. _Wood_ signifies _mad, furious_, or _violent_. So, in Aseham's
"Toxophilus" [1545, repr. Arber, p. 56], "Howe will you thinke that such
furiousness, with _woode_ countenaunce and brenning eyes, with staringe
and bragging, with heart redie to leape out of the belly for swelling,
can be expressed ye tenth part to the vttermost" (Churchyard's
"Worthiness of Wales," p. 103, Evans's edit., 1776).
"It flowes with winde, although no rayne there bee.
And swelles like sea, with waves and foming flood:
A wonder sure to see this river Dee,
With winde alone, to wax so wild and _wood_,
Make such a sturre, as water would be mad,
And shewe such life, as though some spreete it had."
418. _Swere_, edit. 1569.
419. _Wyl_, edit. 1569. Neither edition reads _wyl_, nor _wil_, but
420. The oldest copy has it "as _nyche_ as ye wyll," and the edition of
1569, "as nie as ye wilt;" perhaps the meaning is "as _much_ as you
will."--Collier. [More probably _nice_, which word seems to have borne a
somewhat different pronunciation formerly. Compare a passage in
Ingelend's "Disobedient Child"--