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A Practical Physiology by Albert F. Blaisdell

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1. The _occipital protuberance_ can be distinctly felt at the back of
the head. This is always the thickest part (often three-quarters of an
inch or more) of the skull-cap, and is more prominent in some than in
others. The thinnest part is over the temples, where it may be almost as
thin as parchment.

2. The working of the _condyle of the lower jaw_ vertically and from
side to side can be distinctly felt and seen in front of the ear. When the
mouth is opened wide, the condyle advances out of the glenoid cavity, and
returns to its socket when the mouth is shut. In front of the ear, lies
the zygoma, one of the most marked and important landmarks to the touch,
and in lean persons to the eye.

3. The sliding movement of the _scapula_ on the chest can be properly
understood only on the living subject. It can move not only upwards and
downwards, as in shrugging the shoulders, backwards and forwards, as in
throwing back the shoulders, but it has a rotary movement round a movable
center. This rotation is seen while the arm is being raised from the
horizontal to the vertical position, and is effected by the cooperation of
the trapezius with the serratus magnus muscles.

4. The _patella_, or knee-pan, the _two condyles of the tibia_, the
_tubercle on the tibia_ for the attachment of the ligament of the patella,
and the _head of the fibula_ are the chief bony landmarks of the knee. The
head of the fibula lies at the outer and back part of the tibia. In
extension of the knee, the patella is nearly all above the condyles. The
inner border of the patella is thicker and more prominent than the outer,
which slopes down toward its condyle.

5. The short, front edge of the _tibia_, called the "shin," and the
broad, flat, subcutaneous surface of the bone can be felt all the way
down. The inner edge can be felt, but not so plainly.

6. The head of the _fibula_ is a good landmark on the outer side of
the leg, about one inch below the top of the tibia. Note that it is placed
well back, and that it forms no part of the knee joint, and takes no share
in supporting the weight. The shaft of the fibula arches backwards and is
buried deep among the muscles, except at the lower fourth, which can be
distinctly felt.

7. The _malleoli_ form the great landmarks of the ankle. The outer
malleolus descends lower than the inner. The inner malleolus advances more
to the front and does not descend so low as the outer.

8. The line of the _clavicle_, or collar bone, and the projection of
the joint at either end of it can always be felt. Its direction is not
perfectly horizontal, but slightly inclined downwards. We can distinctly
feel the _spine_ of the scapula and its highest point, the _acromion_.

9. Projecting beyond the acromion (the arm hanging by the side), we
can feel, through the fibers of the _deltoid_, the upper part of the
humerus. It distinctly moves under the hand when the arm is rotated. It is
not the head of the bone which is felt, but its prominences (the
tuberosities). The greater, externally; the lesser in front.

10. The _tuberosities of the humerus_ form the convexity of the
shoulder. When the arm is raised, the convexity disappears,--there is a
slight depression in its place. The head of the bone can be felt by
pressing the fingers high up in the axilla.

11. The _humerus_ ends at the elbow in two bony prominences (internal
and external condyles). The internal is more prominent. We can always feel
the _olecranon_. Between this bony projection of the ulna and the internal
condyle is a deep depression along which runs the ulna nerve (commonly
called the "funny" or "crazy" bone).

12. Turn the hand over with the palm upwards, and the edge of the
_ulna_ can be felt from the olecranon to the prominent knob (styloid
process) at the wrist. Turn the forearm over with the palm down, and the
head of the ulna can be plainly felt and seen projecting at the back of
the wrist.

13. The upper half of the _radius_ cannot be felt because it is so
covered by muscles; the lower half is more accessible to the touch.

14. The three rows of projections called the "knuckles" are formed by
the proximal bones of the several joints. Thus the first row is formed by
the ends of the metacarpals, the second by the ends of the first
phalanges, and the third by the ends of the second phalanges. That is, in
all cases the line of the joints is a little in advance of the knuckles
and nearer the ends of the fingers.

II. Muscular Landmarks.

1. The position of the _sterno-mastoid_ muscle as an important and
interesting landmark of the neck has already been described (p. 70).

2. If the left arm be raised to a vertical position and dropped to a
horizontal, somewhat vigorously, the tapering ends of the _pectoralis
major_ and the tendons of the _biceps_ and _deltoid_ may be felt by
pressing the parts in the axilla between the fingers and thumb of the
right hand.

3. The appearance of the _biceps_ as a landmark of the arm has
already been described (p. 70). The action of its antagonist, the
_triceps_, may be studied in the same manner.

4. The _sartorius_ is one of the fleshy landmarks of the thigh, as
the biceps is of the arm, and the sterno-cleido-mastoid of the neck. Its
direction and borders may be easily traced by raising the leg,--a movement
which puts the muscle in action.

5. If the model be directed to stand on tiptoe, both of the large
muscles of the calf, the _gastrocnemius_ and _soleus_, can be
distinguished.

6. Direct the model, while sitting upright, to cross one leg over the
other, using his utmost strength. The great muscles of the inner thigh are
fully contracted. Note the force required to pull the legs to the ordinary
position.

7. With the model lying in a horizontal position with both legs
firmly held together, note the force required to pull the feet apart while
the great muscles of the thigh are fully contracted.

8. In forcible and resisted flexion of the wrist two tendons come up
in relief. On the outer side of one we feel the pulse at the wrist, the
radial artery here lying close to the radius.

9. On the outer side of the wrist we can distinctly see and feel when
in action, the three extensor tendons of the thumbs. Between two of them
is a deep depression at the base of the thumb, which the French call the
"anatomical tobacco box."

10. The relative position of the several extensor tendons on the back
of the wrist and fingers as they play in their grooves over the back of
the radius and ulna can be distinctly traced when the several muscles are
put in action.

11. There are several strong tendons to be seen and felt about the
ankle. Behind is the _tendo Achillis_. It forms a high relief with a
shallow depression on each side of it. Behind both the inner and outer
ankle several tendons can be felt. Over the front of the ankle, when the
muscles are in action, we can see and feel several tendons. They start up
like cords when the action is resisted. They are kept in their proper
relative position by strong pulleys formed by the annular ligament. Most
of these tendons can be best seen by stand a model on one foot, _i.e._ in
unstable equilibrium.

III. Landmarks of the Heart.

To have a general idea of the form and position of the _heart_, map its
outline with colored pencils or crayon on the chest wall itself, or on
some piece of clean, white cloth, tightly pinned over the clothing. A
pattern of the heart may be cut out of pasteboard, painted red, or papered
with red paper, and pinned in position outside the clothing. The apex of
the heart is at a point about two inches below the left nipple and one
inch to its sternal side. This point will be between the fifth and sixth
ribs, and can generally be determined by feeling the apex beat.

IV. Landmarks of a Few Arteries.

The pulsation of the _temporal_ artery can be felt in front of the ear,
between the zygoma and the ear. The _facial_ artery can be distinctly felt
as it passes over the upper jaw at the front edge of the masseter muscle.
The pulse of a sleeping child can often be counted at the anterior
fontanelle by the eye alone.

About one inch above the clavicle, near the outer border of the
sterno-mastoid, we can feel the pulsation of the great _subclavian_
artery. At the back of the knee the _popliteal_ artery can be felt
beating. The _dorsal_ artery of the foot can be felt beating on a line
from the middle of the ankle to the interval between the first and second
metatarsal bones.

When the arm is raised to a right angle with the body, the _axillary_
artery can be plainly felt beating in the axilla. Extend the arm with palm
upwards and the _brachial_ artery can be felt close to the inner side of
the biceps. The position of the _radial_ artery is described in Experiment
102.

Glossary.

Abdomen (Lat. _abdo_, _abdere_, to conceal). The largest cavity of
the body, containing the liver, stomach, intestines, and other organs.

Abductor (Lat. _abduco_, to draw from). A muscle which draws a limb
from the middle line of the body, or a finger or toe from the middle line
of the foot or hand.

Absorbents (Lat. _absorbere_, to suck up). The vessels which take
part in the process of absorption.

Absorption. The process of sucking up nutritive or waste matters by
the blood-vessels or lymphatics.

Accommodation of the Eye. The alteration in the shape of the
crystalline lens, which accommodates, or adjusts, the eye for near or
remote vision.

Acetabulum (Lat. _acetabulum_, a small vinegar-cup). The cup-shaped
cavity of the innominate bone for receiving the head of the femur.

Acid (Lat. _acidus_, from _acere_, to be sour). A substance usually
sour, sharp, or biting to the taste.

Acromion (Gr. ἀκρον the tip, and ᾧμος, the shoulder). The part of the scapula
forming the tip of the shoulder.

Adam's Apple. An angular projection of cartilage in the front of the
neck. It may be particularly prominent in men.

Adductor (Lat. _adduco_, to draw to). A muscle which draws towards
the middle line of the body, or of the hand or foot.

Adenoid (Gr. ἀδήν, a gland). Tissue resembling gland tissue.

Afferent (Lat. _ad_, to, and _fero_, to convey). Vessels or nerves
carrying the contents or impulses from the periphery to the center.

Albumen, or Albumin (Lat. _albus_, white). An animal substance
resembling the white of an egg.

Albuminuria. A combination of the words "albumin" and "urine."
Presence of _albumen_ in the _urine_.

Aliment (Lat. _alo_, to nourish). That which affords nourishment;
food.

Alimentary (Lat. _alimentum_, food). Pertaining to _aliment_, or
food.

Alimentary Canal (Lat. _alimentum_). The tube in which the food is
digested or prepared for reception into the blood.

Alkali (Arabic _al kali_, the soda plant). A name given to certain
substances, such as soda, potash, and the like, which have the power of
combining with acids.

Alveolar (Lat. _alveolus_, a little hollow). Pertaining to the
alveoli, the _cavities_ for the reception of the teeth.

Amœba (Gr. ἀμείβω, to change). A single-celled, protoplasmic organism,
which is constantly changing its form by protrusions and withdrawals of
its substance.

Amœboid. Like an _amœba_.

Ampulla (Lat. _ampulla_, a wine-flask). The dilated part of the
semicircular canals of the internal ear.

Anabolism (Gr. ἀναβάλλω to throw or build up). The process by means of
which simpler elements are _built up_ into more complex.

Anæsthetics (Gr. ἀν, without, and αἰσθησία, feeling). Those medicinal
agents which prevent the feeling of pain, such as chloroform, ether,
laughing-gas, etc.

Anastomosis (Gr. ἀνά, by, and στόμα, a mouth). The intercommunication of
vessels.

Anatomy (Gr. ἀνατέμνω, to cut up). The science which describes the
structure of living things. The word literally means dissection.

Antiseptic (Lat. _anti_, against, and _sepsis_, poison). Opposing or
counter-acting putrefaction.

Antrum (Lat. _antrum_, a cave). The cavity in the upper jaw.

Aorta (Gr. ἀορτή, from ἀείρο, to raise up). The great artery that _rises
up_ from the left ventricle of the heart.

Aponeurosis (Gr. ἀπό, from, and νεῦρον, a nerve). A fibrous membranous
expansion of a tendon; the nerves and tendons were formerly thought to be
identical structures, both appearing as white cords.

Apoplexy (Gr. ἀποπληξία, a sudden stroke). The escape of blood from a
ruptured blood-vessel into the substance of the brain.

Apparatus. A number of organs of various sizes and structures working
together for some special object.

Appendages (Lat. _ad_ and _pendeo_, to hang from). Something
connected with a part.

Aqueous Humor (Lat. _aqua_, water). The watery fluid occupying the
space between the cornea and crystalline lens of the eye.

Arachnoid Membrane (Gr. ἀράχνη, a spider, and εἰδώς, like). The thin
covering of the brain and spinal cord, between the dura mater and the pia
mater.

Arbor Vitæ. Literally, "the tree of life"; a name given to the
peculiar appearance presented by a section of the cerebellum.

Areolar (Lat. _areola_, a small space, dim. of _area_). A term
applied to a connective tissue containing _small spaces_.

Artery (Gr. ἀήρ, air, and τερέω, to contain). A vessel by which blood is
carried away from the heart. It was supposed by the ancients to contain
only air, hence the name.

Articulation (Lat. _articulo_, to form a joint). The more or less
movable union of bones, etc.; a joint.

Arytenoid Cartilages (Gr. ἀρύταινα, a ladle). Two small cartilages of the
larynx, resembling the mouth of a pitcher.

Asphyxia (Gr. ἀ, without, and σφίξις, the pulse). Literally, "without
pulse." Condition caused by non-oxygenation of the blood.

Assimilation (Lat. _ad_, to, and _similis_, like). The conversion of
food into living tissue.

Asthma (Gr. ἆσθμα, a gasping). Spasmodic affection of the bronchial tubes
in which free respiration is interfered with, owing to their diminished
caliber.

Astigmatism (Gr. ἀ, without, and στίγμα, a point). Irregular refraction
of the eye, producing a blurred image.

Atrophy (Gr. ἀ, without, and τροφή, nourishment). Wasting of a part from
lack of nutrition.

Auditory Nerve (Lat. _audio_, to hear). The special nerve of hearing.

Auricle (Lat. _auricula_, a little ear). A cavity of the heart.

Azygos (Gr. ἀ, without, and ζυγός, a yoke). Without fellow; not paired.

Bacteria (βακτήριον, a staff). A microscopic, vegetable organism; certain
species are active agents in fermentation, while others appear to be the
cause of infectious diseases.

Bactericide (_Bacterium_ and Lat. _caedere_, to kill). Same as
_germicide_.

Bile. The gall, or peculiar secretion of the liver; a viscid, yellowish
fluid, and very bitter to the taste.

Biology (Gr. βίος, life, and λόγος, discourse). The science which treats
of living bodies.

Bladder (Saxon _bleddra_, a bladder, a goblet). A bag, or sac,
serving as a receptacle of some secreted fluid, as the _gall bladder_,
etc. The receptacle of the urine in man and other animals.

Bright's Disease. A group of diseases of the kidney, first described
by Dr. Bright, an English physician.

Bronchi (Gr. βρόγχος, windpipe). The first two divisions, or branches, of
the trachea; one enters each lung.

Bronchial Tubes. The smaller branches of the trachea within the
substance of the lungs terminating in the air cells.

Bronchitis. Inflammation of the larger bronchial tubes; a "cold"
affecting the air passages.

Bunion. An enlargement and inflammation of the first joint of the
great toe.

Bursa. A pouch; a membranous sac interposed between parts which are
subject to movement, one on the other, to allow them to glide smoothly.

Callus (Lat. _calleo_, to be thick-skinned). Any excessive hardness
of the skin caused by friction or pressure.

Canal (Lat. _canalis_, a canal). A tube or passage.

Capillary (Lat. _capillus_, hair). The smallest blood-vessels, so
called because they are so minute.

Capsule (Lat. _capsula_, a little chest). A membranous bag enclosing
a part.

Carbon Dioxid, often called _carbonic acid_. The gas which is present
in the air breathed out from the lungs; a waste product of the animal
kingdom and a food of the vegetable kingdom.

Cardiac (Gr. καρδία, the heart). The cardiac orifice of the stomach is
the upper one, and is near the heart; hence its name.

Carnivorous (Lat. _caro_, flesh, and _voro_, to devour). Subsisting
upon flesh.

Carron Oil. A mixture of equal parts of linseed oil and lime-water,
so called because first used at the Carron Iron Works in Scotland.

Cartilage. A tough but flexible material forming a part of the
joints, air passages, nostrils, ear; gristle, etc.

Caruncle (Lat. _caro_, flesh). The small, red, conical-shaped body at
the inner angle of the eye, consisting of a cluster of follicles.

Casein (Lat. _caseus_, cheese). The albuminoid substance of milk; it
forms the basis of cheese.

Catarrh. An inflammation of a mucous membrane, usually attended with
an increased secretion of mucus. The word is often limited to _nasal_
catarrh.

Cauda Equina (Lat., horse's tail). The collection of large nerves
descending from the lower end of the spinal cord.

Cell (Lat. _cella_, a storeroom). The name of the tiny miscroscopic
elements, which, with slender threads or fibers, make up most of the body;
they were once believed to be little hollow chambers; hence the name.

Cement. The substance which forms the outer part of the fang of a
tooth.

Cerebellum (dim. for _cerebrum_, the brain). The little brain,
situated beneath the posterior third of the cerebrum.

Cerebrum. The brain proper, occupying the upper portion of the skull.

Ceruminous (Lat. _cerumen_, ear wax). A term applied to the glands
secreting cerumen, or _ear wax_.

Chloral. A powerful drug and narcotic poison used to produce sleep.

Chloroform. A narcotic poison generally used by inhalation; of
extensive use in surgical operations. It produces anæsthesia.

Chondrin (Gr. χονδρός, cartilage). A kind of gelatine obtained by boiling
_cartilage_.

Chordæ Tendineæ. Tendinous cords.

Choroid (Gr. χορίον, skin, and εἶδος, form). The middle coat of the
eyeball.

Chyle (Gr. χυλός, juice). The milk-like fluid formed by the digestion of
fatty articles of food in the intestines.

Chyme (Gr. χυμός, juice). The pulpy
liquid formed by digestion in the stomach.

Cilia (pl. of _cilium_, an eyelash). Minute hair-like processes found
upon the cells of the air passages and other parts.

Ciliary Muscle. A small muscle of the eye which assists in
accommodation.

Circumvallate (Lat. _circum_, around, and _vallum_, a rampart).
Surrounded by a rampart, as are certain papillæ of the tongue.

Coagulation (Lat. _coagulo_, to curdle). Applied to the process by
which the blood clots or solidifies.

Cochlea (Lat. _cochlea_, a snail shell). The spiral cavity of the
internal ear.

Columnæ Carneæ. Fleshy projections in the ventricles of the heart.

Commissure (Lat. _con_, together, and _mitto_, _missum_, to put). A
joining or uniting together.

Compress. A pad or bandage applied directly to an injury to compress it.

Concha (Gr. κόγχη, a mussel shell). The shell-shaped portion of the
external ear.

Congestion (Lat. _con_, together, and _gero_, to bring). Abnormal
gathering of blood in any part of the body.

Conjunctiva (Lat. _con_, together, and _jungo_, to join). A thin
layer of mucous membrane which lines the eyelids and covers the front of
the eyeball, thus joining the latter to the lids.

Connective Tissue. The network which connects the minute parts of
most of the structures of the body.

Constipation (Lat. _con_, together, and _stipo_, to crowd close).
Costiveness.

Consumption (Lat. _consumo_, to consume). A disease of the lungs,
attended with fever and cough, and causing a decay of the bodily powers.
The medical name is _phthisis_.

Contagion (Lat. _con_, with, and _tango_ or _tago_, to touch). The
communication of disease by contact, or by the inhalation of the effluvia
of a sick person.

Contractility (Lat. _con_, together, and _traho_, to draw). The
property of a muscle which enables it to contract, or draw its extremities
closer together.

Convolutions (Lat. _con_, together, and _volvo_, to roll). The
tortuous foldings of the external surface of the brain.

Convulsion (Lat. _convello_, to pull together). A more or less
violent agitation of the limbs or body.

Coördination. The manner in which several different organs of the
body are brought into such relations with one another that their functions
are performed in harmony.

Coracoid (Gr. κόραξ, a crow, εἶδος, form). Shaped like a crow's beak.

Cornea (Lat. _cornu_, a horn). The transparent horn-like substance
which covers a part of the front of the eyeball.

Coronary (Lat. _corona_, a crown). A term applied to vessels and
nerves which encircle parts, as the _coronary_ arteries of the heart.

Coronoid (Gr. κορώνη;, a crow). Like a crow's beak; thus the _coronoid_
process of the ulna.

Cricoid (Gr. κρίκος, a ring, and εἶδος, form). A cartilage of the larynx
resembling a seal ring in shape.

Crystalline Lens (Lat. _crystallum_, a crystal). One of the humors of
the eye; a double-convex body situated in the front part of the eyeball.

Cumulative. A term applied to the violent action from drugs which
supervenes after the taking of several doses with little or no effect.

Cuticle (Lat. dim. of _cutis_, the skin). Scarf skin; the epidermis.

Cutis (Gr. σκῦτος, a skin or hide). The true skin, also called the
_dermis_.

Decussation (Lat. _decusso_, _decussatum_, to cross). The _crossing_
or running of one portion athwart another.

Degeneration (Lat. _degenerare_, to grow worse, to deteriorate). A
change in the structure of any organ which makes it less fit to perform
its duty.

Deglutition (Lat. _deglutire_, to swallow). The process of
swallowing.

Deltoid. Having a triangular shape; resembling the Greek letter
Δ (_delta_).

Dentine (Lat. _dens_, _dentis_, a tooth). The hard substance which
forms the greater part of a tooth; ivory.

Deodorizer. An agent which corrects any foul or unwholesome odor.

Dextrin. A soluble substance obtained from starch.

Diabetes Mellitus (Gr. διά, through, βαίνω, to go, and μέλι, honey).
Excessive flow of sugar-containing urine.

Diaphragm (Gr. διαφράσσω, to divide by a partition). A large, thin muscle
which separates the cavity of the chest from the abdomen.

Diastole (Gr. διαστέλλω, to dilate). The _dilatation_ of the heart.

Dietetics. That part of medicine which relates to diet, or food.

Diffusion of Gases. The power of gases to become intimately mingled.

Diplöe (Gr. διπλόω, to double, to fold). The osseous tissue between the
tables of the skull.

Dipsomania (Gr. δίψα, thirst, and μανία, madness). An insatiable desire
for intoxicants.

Disinfectants. Agents used to destroy the germs or particles of
living matter that are believed to be the causes of infection.

Dislocation (Lat. _dislocare_, to put out of place). An injury to a
joint in which the bones are displaced or forced out of their sockets.

Dissection (Lat. _dis_, apart, and _seco_, to cut). The cutting up of
an animal in order to learn its structure.

Distal (Lat. _dis_, apart, and _sto_, to stand). Away from the
center.

Duct (Lat. _duco_, to lead). A narrow tube.

Duodenum (Lat. _duodeni_, twelve). The first division of the small
intestines, about twelve fingers' breadth long.

Dyspepsia (Gr. -δύς, ill, and πέπτειν, to digest). A condition of the
alimentary canal in which it digests imperfectly. Indigestion.

Dyspnœa (Gr. δύς, difficult, and πνέω, to breathe). Difficult breathing.

Efferent (Lat. _effero_, to carry out). _Bearing_ or _carrying
outwards_, as from the center to the periphery.

Effluvia (Lat. _effluo_, to flow out). Exhalations or vapors coming
from the body, and from decaying animal or vegetable substances.

Element. One of the simplest parts of which anything consists.

Elimination (Lat. _e_, out of, and _limen, liminis_, a threshold).
The act of _expelling_ waste matters. Signifies, literally, "to throw out
of doors."

Emetic (Gr. ἐμέω, to vomit). A medicine which causes vomiting.

Emulsion (Lat. _emulgere_, to milk). Oil in a finely divided state,
suspended in water.

Enamel (Fr. _émail_). Dense material covering the crown of a tooth.

Endolymph (Gr. ἔνδον, within, and Lat. _lympha_, water). The fluid in
the membranous labyrinth of the ear.

Endosmosis (Gr. ἔνδον, within, and ὠθέω, to push). The current from
without _inwards_ when diffusion of fluids takes place through a membrane.

Epidemic (Gr. ἐπί, upon, and δέμος, the people). An extensively prevalent
disease.

Epiglottis (Gr. ἐπί, upon, and γλόττις, the entrance to the windpipe). A
leaf-shaped piece of cartilage which covers the top of the larynx during
the act of swallowing.

Epilepsy (Gr. ἐπίληψις, a seizure). A nervous disease accompanied by fits
in which consciousness is lost; the falling sickness.

Ether (Gr. αἰθήρ, the pure, upper air). A narcotic poison. Used as an
anæsthetic in surgical operations.

Eustachian (from an Italian anatomist named Eustachi). The tube which
leads from the throat to the middle ear, or tympanum.

Excretion (Lat. _excerno_, to separate). The separation from the
blood of the waste matters of the body; also the materials excreted.

Exosmosis (Gr. ἔξω, without, and ᾀθέω, to push). The current from within
_outwards_ when diffusion of fluids takes place through a membrane.

Expiration (Lat. _expiro_, to breathe out). The act of forcing air
out of the lungs.

Extension (Lat. _ex_, out, and _tendo_, to stretch). The act of
restoring a limb, etc., to its natural position after it has been flexed
or bent; the opposite of _flexion_.

Fauces. The part of the mouth which opens into the pharynx.

Fenestra (Lat.). Literally, "a window." Fenestra ovalis and
fenestra rotunda, the oval and the round window; two apertures in the
bone between the tympanic cavity and the labyrinth of the ear.

Ferment. That which causes fermentation, as yeast.

Fermentation (Lat. _fermentum_, boiling). The process of undergoing
an effervescent change, as by the action of yeast; in a wider sense, the
change of organized substances into new compounds by the action of a
ferment. It differs in kind according to the nature of the ferment.

Fiber (Lat. _fibra_, a filament). One of the tiny threads of which
many parts of the body are composed.

Fibrilla. A little fiber; one of the longitudinal threads into which
a striped muscular fiber can be divided.

Fibrin (Lat. _fibra_, a fiber). An albuminoid substance contained in
the flesh of animals, and also produced by the coagulation of blood.

Flexion (Lat. _flecto_, to bend). The act of bending a limb, etc.

Follicle (Lat. dim. of _follis_, a money bag). A little pouch or
depression.

Fomentation (Lat. _foveo_, to keep warm). The application of any
warm, medicinal substance to the body, by which the vessels are relaxed.

Foramen. A hole, or aperture.

Frontal Sinus. A blind or closed cavity in the bones of the skull
just over the eyebrows.

Fumigation (Lat. _fumigo_, to perfume a place). The use of certain
fumes to counteract contagious effluvia.

Function (Lat. _functio_, a doing). The special duty of any organ.

Ganglion (Gr. γάγγλιν, a knot). A knot-like swelling in a nerve; a
smaller nerve center.

Gastric (Gr. γαστήρ, stomach). Pertaining to the stomach.

Gelatine (Lat. _gelo_, to congeal). An animal substance which
dissolves in hot water and forms a jelly on cooling.

Germ (Lat. _germen_, a sprout, bud). Disease germ; a name applied to
certain tiny bacterial organisms which have been demonstrated to be the
cause of disease.

Germicide (_Germ_, and Lat. _caedere_, to kill). Any agent which has
a destructive action upon living germs, especially _bacteria_.

Gland (Lat. _glans_, an acorn). An organ consisting of follicles and
ducts, with numerous blood-vessels interwoven.

Glottis (Gr. γλόττα, the tongue).
The narrow opening between the vocal cords.

Glucose. A kind of sugar found in fruits, also known as grape sugar.

Gluten. The glutinous albuminoid ingredient of cereals.

Glycogen. Literally, "producing glucose." Animal starch found in
liver, which may be changed into glucose.

Gram. Unit of metric system, 15.43 grains troy.

Groin. The lower part of the abdomen, just above each thigh.

Gustatory (Lat. _gusto_, _gustatum_, to taste). Belonging to the
sense of _taste_.

Gymnastics (Gr. γυμνάξω, to exercise). The practice of athletic exercises.

Hæmoglobin (Gr. αἷμα, blood, and Lat. _globus_, a globe or globule).
A complex substance which forms the principal coloring constituent of the
red corpuscles of the blood.

Hemispheres (Gr. ἡμί, half, and σφαῖρα, a sphere). Half a sphere, the
lateral halves of the cerebrum, or brain proper.

Hemorrhage (Gr. αἷμα, blood, and ῥήγνυμι, to burst). Bleeding, or the
loss of blood.

Hepatic (Gr. ἧπαρ, the liver). Pertaining to the liver.

Herbivorous (Lat. _herba_, an herb, and _voro_, to devour). Applied
to animals that subsist upon vegetable food.

Heredity. The predisposition or tendency derived from one's ancestors
to definite physiological actions.

Hiccough. A convulsive motion of some of the muscles used in
breathing, accompanied by a shutting of the glottis.

Hilum, sometimes written Hilus. A small fissure, notch, or
depression. A term applied to the concave part of the kidney.

Homogeneous (Gr. ὁμός, the same, and γένος, kind). Of the _same kind_
or quality throughout; uniform in nature,--the reverse of heterogeneous.

Humor. The transparent contents of the eyeball.

Hyaline (Gr. ὕαλος, glass). Glass-like, resembling glass in transparency.

Hydrogen. An elementary gaseous substance, which, in combination with
oxygen, produces water.

Hydrophobia (Gr. ὕδωρ, water, and φοβέομαι, to fear). A disease caused by
the bite of a rabid dog or other animal.

Hygiene (Gr. ὑγἰεια health). The art of preserving health and preventing
disease.

Hyoid (Gr. letter υ, and εἰδος, form, resemblance). The bone at the root
of the tongue, shaped like the Greek letter υ.

Hypermetropia (Gr. ὑπέρ over, beyond, μέτρον, measure, and ώ̓ψ, the
eye). Far-sightedness.

Hypertrophy (Gr. ὑπέρ, over, and τροφή, nourishment). Excessive growth;
thickening or enlargement of any part or organ.

Incisor (Lat. _incido_, to cut). Applied to the four front teeth of
both jaws, which have sharp, cutting edges.

Incus. An anvil; the name of one of the bones of the middle ear.

Indian Hemp. The common name of _Cannabis Indica_, an intoxicating
drug known as _hasheesh_ and by other names in Eastern countries.

Inferior Vena Cava. The chief vein of the lower part of the body.

Inflammation (Lat. prefix _in_ and _flammo_, to flame). A redness or
swelling of any part of the body with heat and pain.

Insalivation (Lat. _in_ and _saliva_, the fluid of the mouth). The
mingling of the saliva with the food during the act of chewing.

Inspiration (Lat. _inspiro, spiratum_, to breathe in). The act of
drawing in the breath.

Intestine (Lat. _intus_, within). The part of the alimentary canal
which is continuous with the lower end of the stomach; also called the
bowels.

Iris (Lat. _iris_, the rainbow). The thin, muscular ring which lies
between the cornea and crystalline lens, giving the eye its special color.

Jaundice (Fr. _jaunisse_, yellow). A disorder in which the skin and
eyes assume a yellowish tint.

Katabolism (Gr. καταβάλλω, to throw down). The process by means of which
the more complex elements are rendered more simple and less complex. The
opposite of _anabolism_.

Labyrinth. The internal ear, so named from its many windings.

Lacrymal Apparatus (Lat. _lacryma_, a tear). The organs for forming
and carrying away the tears.

Lacteals (Lat. _lac, lactis_, milk). The absorbent vessels of the
small intestines.

Laryngoscope (Gr. λάρυγξ, larynx, and σκοπέω, to behold). An instrument
consisting of a mirror held in the throat, and a reflector to throw light
on it, by which the interior of the larynx is brought into view.

Larynx. The cartilaginous tube situated at the top of the windpipe.

Lens. Literally, a lentil; a piece of transparent glass or other
substance so shaped as either to converge or disperse the rays of light.

Ligament (Lat. _ligo_, to bind). A strong, fibrous material binding
bones or other solid parts together.

Ligature (Lat. _ligo_, to bind). A thread of some material used in
tying a cut or injured artery.

Lobe. A round, projecting part of an organ, as of the liver, lungs,
or brain.

Lymph (Lat. _lympha_, pure water). The watery fluid conveyed by the
lymphatic vessels.

Lymphatic Vessels. A system of absorbent vessels.

Malleus. Literally, the mallet; one of the small bones of the middle
ear.

Marrow. The soft, fatty substance contained in the cavities of bones.

Mastication (Lat. _mastico_, to chew). The act of cutting and
grinding the food to pieces by means of the teeth.

Meatus (Lat. _meo_, _meatum_, to pass). A _passage_ or canal.

Medulla Oblongata. The "oblong marrow"; that portion of the brain
which lies upon the basilar process of the occipital bone.

Meibomian. A term applied to the small glands between the conjunctiva
and tarsal cartilages, discovered by _Meibomius_.

Membrana Tympani. Literally, the membrane of the drum; a delicate
partition separating the outer from the middle ear; it is sometimes
popularly called "the drum of the ear."

Membrane. A thin layer of tissue serving to cover some part of the
body.

Mesentery (Gr. μέσος, middle, and ἔντερον, the intestine). A duplicature
of the peritoneum covering the small _intestine_, which occupies the
_middle_ or center of the abdominal cavity.

Metabolism (Gr. μεταβολή, change). The _changes_ taking place in cells,
whereby they become more complex and contain more force, or less complex
and contain less force. The former is constructive metabolism, or
_anabolism_; the latter, destructive metabolism, or _katabolism_.

Microbe (Gr. μικρός, little, and βίος, life). A microscopic organism,
particularly applied to bacteria.

Microscope (Gr. μικρός, small, and σκοπέω;, to look at). An optical
instrument which assists in the examination of minute objects.

Molar (Lat. _mola_, a mill). The name applied to the three back
teeth at each side of the jaw; the grinders, or mill-like teeth.

Molecule (dim. of Lat. _moles_, a mass). The smallest quantity into
which the mass of any substance can physically be divided. A molecule may
be chemically separated into two or more atoms.

Morphology (Gr. μόρφη, form, and λόγος, discourse). The study of the laws
of form or structure in living beings.

Motor (Lat. _moveo_, _motum_, to move). The name of the nerves which
conduct to the muscles the stimulus which causes them to contract.

Mucous Membrane. The thin layer of tissue which covers those internal
cavities or passages which communicate with the external air.

Mucus. The glairy fluid secreted by mucous membranes.

Myopia (Gr. μύω, to shut, and ὤψ, the eye). A defect of vision dependent
upon an eyeball that is too long, rendering distant objects indistinct;
_near sight_.

Myosin (Gr. μῶς, muscle). Chief proteid substance of muscle.

Narcotic (Gr. ναρκάω, to benumb). A medicine which, in poisonous doses,
produces stupor, convulsions, and sometimes death.

Nerve Cell. A minute round and ashen-gray cell found in the brain and
other nervous centers.

Nerve Fiber. An exceedingly slender thread of nervous tissue.

Nicotine. The poisonous and stupefying oil extracted from tobacco.

Nostril (Anglo-Saxon _nosu_, nose, and _thyrl_, a hole). One of the
two outer openings of the nose.

Nucleolus (dim. of _nucleus_). A little nucleus.

Nucleus (Lat. _nux_, a nut). A central part of any body, or that
about which matter is collected. In anatomy, a cell within a cell.

Nutrition (Lat. _nutrio_, to nourish). The processes by which the
nourishment of the body is accomplished.

Odontoid (Gr. ὀδούς, a tooth, εἶδος, shape). The name of the bony peg of
the second vertebra, around which the first turns.

Œsophagus. Literally, that which carries food. The tube leading
from the throat to the stomach; the gullet.

Olecranon (Gr. ὠλένη, the elbow, and κρανίον, the top of the head). A
curved eminence at the upper and back part of the ulna.

Olfactory (Lat. _olfacio_, to smell). Pertaining to the sense of
smell.

Optic (Gr. ὀπτεύω, to see). Pertaining to the sense of sight.

Orbit (Lat. _orbis_, a circle). The bony socket or cavity in which
the eyeball is situated.

Organ (Lat. _organum_, an instrument or implement). A portion of the
body having some special function or duty.

Osmosis (Gr. ὠσμός, impulsion). Diffusion of liquids through membranes.

Ossa Innominata, pl. of Os Innominatum (Lat.). "Unnamed bones." The
irregular bones of the pelvis, unnamed on account of their non-resemblance
to any known object.

Otoconia (Gr. οὖς, an ear, and κονία, dust). Minute crystals of lime in
the vestibule of the ear; also known as _otoliths_.

Palate (Lat. _palatum_, the palate). The roof of the mouth,
consisting of the hard and soft palate.

Palpitation (Lat. _palpitatio_, a frequent or throbbing motion). A
violent and irregular beating of the heart.

Papilla. The small elevations found on the skin and mucous membranes.

Paralysis (Gr. παραλύω, to loosen; also, to disable). Loss of function,
especially of motion or feeling. Palsy.

Parasite. A plant or animal that grows or lives on another.

Pelvis. Literally, a basin. The bony cavity at the lower part of the
trunk.

Pepsin (Gr. πέπτω, to digest). The active principle of the gastric juice.

Pericardium (Gr. περί, about, and καρδία, heart). The sac enclosing the
heart.

Periosteum (Gr. περί, around, ὀστέον, a bone). A delicate fibrous
membrane which invests the bones.

Peristaltic Movements (Gr. περί, round, and στέλλω, to send). The slow,
wave-like movements of the stomach and intestines.

Peritoneum (Gr. περιτείνω, to stretch around). The investing membrane of
the stomach, intestines, and other abdominal organs.

Perspiration (Lat. _perspiro_, to breathe through). The sweat.

Petrous (Gr. πέτρα, a rock). The name of the hard portion of the temporal
bone, in which are situated the drum of the ear and labyrinth.

Phalanges (Gr. φάλαγξ, a body of soldiers closely arranged in ranks and
files). The bones of the fingers and toes.

Pharynx (Gr. φάρμγξ, the throat). The cavity between the back of the
mouth and the gullet.

Physiology (Gr. φύσις, nature, and λόγος, a discourse). The science of the
functions of living, organized beings.

Pia Mater (Lat.). Literally, the tender mother; the innermost of the
three coverings of the brain. It is thin and delicate; hence the name.

Pinna (Lat. a feather or wing). External cartilaginous flap of the
ear.

Plasma (Gr. πλάσσω, to mould). Anything formed or moulded. The liquid
part of the blood.

Pleura (Gr. πλευρά, the side, also a rib). A membrane covering the lung,
and lining the chest.

Pleurisy. An inflammation affecting the pleura.

Pneumogastric (Gr. πνεύμων, the lungs, and γαστήρ, the stomach). The chief
nerve of respiration; also called the _vagus_, or wandering nerve.

Pneumonia. An inflammation affecting the air cells of the lungs.

Poison (Fr. _poison_). Any substance, which, when applied externally,
or taken into the stomach or the blood, works such a change in the animal
economy as to produce disease or death.

Pons Varolii. Bridge of Varolius. The white fibers which form a
_bridge_ connecting the different parts of the brain, first described by
_Varolius_.

Popliteal (Lat. _poples_, _poplitis_, the ham, the back part of the
knee). The space _behind the knee joint_ is called the _popliteal_ space.

Portal Vein (Lat. _porta_, a gate). The venous trunk formed by the
veins coming from the intestines. It carries the blood to the liver.

Presbyopia (Gr. πρέσβυς, old, and ὤψ, the eye). A defect of the
accommodation of the eye, caused by the hardening of the crystalline
lens; the "far sight" of adults and aged persons.

Process (Lat. _procedo_, _processus_, to proceed, to go forth). Any
projection from a surface; also, a method of performance; a procedure.

Pronation (Lat. _pronus_, inclined forwards). The turning of the hand
with the palm downwards.

Pronator. The group of muscles which turn the hand palm downwards.

Proteids (Gr. πρῶτος, first, and εἶδος, form). A general term for the
albuminoid constitutents of the body.

Protoplasm (Gr. πρῶτος, first, and πλάσσω, to form). A _first-formed_
organized substance; primitive organic cell matter.

Pterygoid (Gr. πτέρων, a wing, and εἶδος, form, resemblance). Wing-like.

Ptomaine (Gr. πτῶμα, a dead body). One of a class of animal bases or
alkaloids formed in the putrefaction of various kinds of albuminous
matter.

Ptyalin (Gr. σίαλον, saliva). A ferment principle in _saliva_, having
power to convert starch into sugar.

Pulse (Lat. _pello, pulsum_, to beat). The throbbing of an artery
against the finger, occasioned by the contraction of the heart. Commonly
felt at the _wrist_.

Pupil (Lat. _pupilla_). The central, round opening in the iris,
through which light passes into the interior of the eye.

Pylorus (Gr. πυλουρός, a gatekeeper). The lower opening of the stomach,
at the beginning of the small intestine.

Reflex (Lat. _reflexus_, turned back). The name given to involuntary
movements produced by an excitation traveling along a sensory nerve to a
center, where it is turned back or reflected along motor nerves.

Renal (Lat. _ren_, _renis_, the kidney). Pertaining to the _kidneys_.

Respiration (Lat. _respiro_, to breathe frequently). The function of
breathing, comprising two acts,--_inspiration_, or breathing in, and
_expiration_, or breathing out.

Retina (Lat. _rete_, a net). The innermost of the three tunics, or
coats, of the eyeball, being an expansion of the optic nerve.

Rima Glottidis (Lat. _rima_, a chink or cleft). The _opening_ of the
glottis.

Saccharine (Lat. _saccharum_, sugar). The group of food substances
which embraces the different varieties of sugar, starch, and gum.

Saliva. The moisture, or fluids, of the mouth, secreted by the
salivary glands; the spittle.

Sarcolemma (Gr. σάρξ, flesh, and λέμμα, a husk). The membrane which
surrounds the contractile substance of a striped muscular fiber.

Sclerotic (Gr. σκληρός, hard). The tough, fibrous, outer coat of the
eyeball.

Scurvy. Scorbutus,--a disease of the general system, having prominent
skin symptoms.

Sebaceous (Lat. _sebum_, fat). Resembling fat; the name of the oily
secretion by which the skin is kept flexible and soft.

Secretion (Lat. _secerno_, _secretum_, to separate). The process of
separating from the blood some essential, important fluid; which fluid is
also called a _secretion_.

Semicircular Canals. Three canals in the internal ear.

Sensation. The perception of an external impression by the nervous
system.

Serum. The clear, watery fluid which separates from the clot of the
blood.

Spasm (Gr. σπασμός, convulsion). A sudden, violent, and involuntary
contraction of one or more muscles.

Special Sense. A sense by which we receive particular sensations,
such as those of sight, hearing, taste, and smell.

Sputum, pi. Sputa (Lat. _spuo_, _sputum_, to _spit_). The matter
which is coughed up from the air passages.

Stapes. Literally, a stirrup; one of the small bones of the middle
ear.

Stimulant (Lat. _stimulo_, to prick or goad on). An agent which
causes an increase of vital activity in the body or in any of its parts.

Striated (Lat. _strio_, to furnish with channels). Marked with fine
lines.

Styptics (Gr. στυπτικός astringent). Substances used to produce a
contraction or shrinking of living tissues.

Subclavian Vein (Lat. _sub_, under, and _clavis_, a key). The great
vein bringing back the blood from the arm and side of the head; so called
because it is situated underneath the _clavicle_, or collar bone.

Superior Vena Cava (Lat., upper hollow vein). The great vein of the
upper part of the body.

Suture (Lat. _sutura_, a seam). The union of certain bones of the
skull by the interlocking of jagged edges.

Sympathetic System of Nerves. A double chain of nervous ganglia,
situated chiefly in front of, and on each side of, the spinal column.

Symptom (Gr. σύν, with, and πίπτω, to fall). A sign or token of disease.

Synovial (Gr. σύν, with, and ὠόν, an egg). The liquid which lubricates
the joints; joint-oil. It resembles the white of a raw egg.

System. A number of different organs, of similar structures,
distributed throughout the body and performing similar functions.

Systemic. Belonging to the system, or body, as a whole.

Systole (Gr. συστέλλω, to contract). The contraction of the heart, by
which the blood is expelled from that organ.

Tactile (Lat. _tactus_, touch). Relating to the sense of touch.

Tartar. A hard crust which forms on the teeth, and is composed of
salivary mucus, animal matter, and a compound of lime.

Temporal (Lat. _tempus_, time, and _tempora_, the temples).
Pertaining to the temples; so called because the hair begins to turn white
with age in that portion of the scalp.

Tendon (Lat. _tendo_, to stretch). The white, fibrous cord, or band,
by which a muscle is attached to a bone; a sinew.

Tetanus (Gr. τείνω, to stretch). A disease
marked by persistent contractions of all or some of the voluntary muscles;
those of the jaw are sometimes solely affected; the disorder is then
termed lockjaw.

Thorax (Gr. θώραξ, a breast-plate). The upper cavity of the trunk of the
body, containing the lungs, heart, etc.; the chest.

Thyroid (Gr. θυρέος, a shield, and εἶδος, form). The largest of
the cartilages of the larynx: its projection in front is called "Adam's
Apple."

Tissue. Any substance or texture in the body formed of various
elements, such as cells, fibers, blood-vessels, etc., interwoven with each
other.

Tobacco (Indian _tabaco_, the tube, or pipe, in which the Indians
smoked the plant). A plant used for smoking and chewing, and in snuff.

Trachea (Gr. τραχύς, rough). The windpipe.

Tragus (Gr. τράγος, a goat). The eminence in front of the opening of the
ear; sometimes hairy, like a goat's beard.

Transfusion (Lat. _transfundo_, to pour from one vessel to another).
The operation of injecting blood taken from one person into the veins of
another.

Trichina Spiralis. (A twisted hair). A minute species of parasite, or
worm, which infests the flesh of the hog: may be introduced into the human
system by eating pork not thoroughly cooked.

Trochanter (Gr. τροχάω, to turn, to revolve). Name given to two
projections on the upper extremities of the femur, which give attachment
to the _rotator_ muscles of the thigh.

Trypsin. The ferment principle in pancreatic juice, which converts
proteid material into peptones.

Tubercle (Lat. _tuber_, a bunch). A pimple, swelling, or tumor. A
morbid product occurring in certain lung diseases.

Tuberosity (Lat. _tuber, tuberis_, a swelling). A protuberance.

Turbinated (Lat. _turbinatus_, from _turbo, turbinis_, a top). Formed
like a _top_; a name given to the bones in the outer wall of the nasal
fossæ.

Tympanum (Gr. τύμπανον, a drum). The cavity of the middle ear, resembling
a drum in being closed by two membranes.

Umbilicus (Lat., the navel.) A round cicatrix or scar in the median
line of the abdomen.

Urea (Lat. _urina_, urine). Chief solid constitutent of _urine_.
Nitrogenous product of tissue decomposition.

Ureter (Gr. οὐρέω, to pass urine).
The tube through which the _urine_ is conveyed from the kidneys to the
bladder.

Uvula (Lat. _uva_, a grape). The small, pendulous body attached to
the back part of the palate.

Vaccine Virus (Lat. _vacca_, a cow, and _virus_, poison). The
material derived from heifers for the purpose of vaccination,--the great
preventive of smallpox.

Valvulae Conniventes. A name given to transverse folds of the mucous
membrane in the small intestine.

Varicose (Lat. _varix_, a dilated vein). A distended or enlarged
vein.

Vascular (Lat. _vasculum_, a little vessel). Pertaining to or
possessing blood or lymph vessels.

Vaso-motor (Lat. _vas_, a vessel, and _moveo, motum_, to move).
Causing _motion_ to the _vessels_. Vaso-motor nerves cause contraction and
relaxation of the blood-vessels.

Venæ Cavæ, pl. of Vena Cava. "Hollow veins." A name given to the
two great veins of the body which meet at the right auricle of the heart

Venous (Lat. _vena_, a vein). Pertaining to, or contained within, a
vein.

Ventilation. The introduction of fresh air into a room or building in
such a manner as to keep the air within it in a pure condition.

Ventral (Lat. _venter, ventris_, the belly). Belonging to the
abdominal or belly cavity.

Ventricles of the Heart. The two largest cavities of the heart.

Vermiform (Lat. _vermis_, a worm, and _forma_, form). Worm-shaped.

Vertebral Column (Lat. _vertebra_, a joint). The backbone; also
called the spinal column and spine.

Vestibule. A portion of the internal ear, communicating with the
semicircular canals and the cochlea, so called from its fancied
resemblance to the vestibule, or porch, of a house.

Villi (Lat. _villus_, shaggy hair). Minute, thread-like projections
upon the internal surface of the small intestine, giving it a velvety
appearance.

Virus (Lat., poison). Foul matter of an ulcer; poison.

Vital Knot. A part of the medulla oblongata, the destruction of which
causes instant death.

Vitreous (Lat. _vitrum_, glass). Having the appearance of glass;
applied to the humor occupying the largest part of the cavity of the
eyeball.

Vivisection (Lat. _vivus_, alive, and _seco_, to cut). The practice
of operating upon living animals, for the purpose of studying some
physiological process.

Vocal Cords. Two elastic bands or ridges situated in the larynx; the
essential parts of the organ of voice.

Zygoma (Gr. ζυγώς, a yoke). The arch formed by the malar bone and the
zygomatic process of the temporal bone.

Index.

Absorption
from mouth and stomach
by the intestines
Accident and emergencies
Achilles, Tendon of
Air, made impure by breathing
Foul, effect of, on health
Alcohol, Effect of, on bones
Effect of, on muscles
Effect of, on muscular tissue
Effect of, on physical culture
Nature of
Effects of, on human system
and digestion
Effect of, on the stomach
and the gastric juice
Final results on digestion
Effects of, on the liver
Fatty degeneration due to
Effect of, on the circulation
Effect of, on the heart
Effect of, on the blood-vessels
Effect of, on the lungs
Other results of, on lungs
Effect of, on disease
Effect of, on kidneys
Alcohol
as cause of Bright's disease
and the brain
How, injures the brain
Why brain suffers from
the enemy of brain work
Other physical results of
Diseases produced by
Mental and moral ruin by
Evil results of, inherited
Effect of, on taste
Effect of, on the eye
Effect of, on throat and voice
Alcoholic beverages
Alcoholic fermentation and Bacteria
Anabolism defined
Anatomy defined
Antidotes for poisons
Antiseptics
Apparatus, Question of
Arm, Upper
Arteries
Astigmatism
Asphyxia
Atlas and axis
Atmosphere, how made impure

Bacteria, Nature of
Bacteria, Struggle for existence of
Importance of, in Nature
Action of
Battle against
Baths and bathing
Bathing, Rules and precautions
Bicycling
Bile
Biology defined
Bladder
Bleeding, from stomach
from lungs
from nose
How to stop
Blood, Circulation of
Physical properties of
corpuscles
Coagulation of
General plan of circulation
Blood-vessels, Nervous control of
connected with heart
Effect of alcohol on
Injuries to
Bodies, living, Characters of
Body, General plan of
Bone, Chemical composition of
Physical properties of
Microscopic structure of
Bones, uses of, The
Kinds of
in infancy and childhood
positions at school
in after life
Broken
broken, Treatment for
Effect of alcohol on
Effect of tobacco on
Breathing, Movements of
Breathing, Mechanism of
Varieties of
Nervous control of
change in the air
Air, made impure by
Brain, as a whole
Membranes of
as a reflex center
Effects of alcohol on
Brain center, Functions of, in perception of impressions
Bright's disease caused by alcohol
Bronchial tubes
Burns or scalds

Capillaries
Carbohydrates
Carpus
Cartilage
Hyaline
White fibro-
Yellow fibro-
Thyroid
Arytenoid
Cricoid
Cells
and the human organism
Kinds of
Vital properties of
Epithelial
Nerve
Cerebrum
Cerebellum
Chemical compounds in the body
Chloral
Chyle
Chyme
Cilia of air passages
Circulation
General plan of
Portal
Pulmonic
Systemic
Effect of alcohol on
Clavicle
Cleanliness, Necessity for
Clothing, Use of
Material used for
Suggestions for use of
Effects of tight-fitting
Miscellaneous hints on use of
Catching, on fire
Coagulation of blood
Cocaine, ether, and chloroform
Cochlea of ear
Cocoa
Coffee
Colon
Color-blindness
Complemental air
Compounds, Chemical
Organic
Condiments
Conjunctiva
Connective tissue
Consonants
Contagious diseases
Contraction, Object of
Contusions and bruises
Convulsions
Cooking
Coughing
Cornea
Corpuscles, Blood
Red
Colorless
Corti, Organ of
Cranial Nerves
Cranium, Bones of
Crying
Crystalline lens
Cuticle
Cutis vera, or true skin

Degeneration, Fatty, due to alcohol
Deglutition, or swallowing
Deodorants
Diet, Important articles of
Effect of occupation on
Too generous
Effect of climate on
Digestion, Purpose of
General plan of
in small intestines
in large intestines
Effect of alcohol on
Disease, Effect of alcoholics upon
Diseases, infectious and contagious, Management of
Care of
Hints on nursing
Disinfectants
Air and water as
How to use
Dislocations
Dogs, mad, Bites of
Drowning, Apparent
Methods of treating
Sylvester method
Marshall Hall method
Duct, Hepatic
Cystic
Common bile
Thoracic
Nasal
Duodenum
Dura mater

Ear, External
Middle
Bones of the
Internal
Practical hints on care of
Foreign bodies in
Eating, Practical points about
Eggs as food
Elements, Chemical, in the body
Epidermis, or cuticle
Epiglottis
Epithelium
Squamous
Columnar
Glandular
Ciliated
Epithelial tissues, Functions of
Erect position
Ethmoid bone
Eustachian tube
Excretion
Exercise, Physical
Importance of
Effect of, on muscles
Effect of, on important organs
Effect of, on personal appearance
Effect of excessive
Amount of, required
Time for
Physical, in school
Practical points about
Effect of alcohol and tobacco on
Experiments, Limitations of
Value of
Eye
Inner structure of
Compared to camera
Refractive media of
Movements of
Foreign bodies in
Practical hints on care of
Effect of alcohol on
Effect of tobacco on
Eyeball, Coats of
Eyelids and eyebrows
Eyesight in schools

Face
Bones of the
Fainting
Fats
and oils
Femur
Fibrin
Fibula
Fish as food
Food and drink
Food, why we need it
Absorption of, by the blood
Quantity of, as affected by age
Kinds of, required
Foods, Classification of
Nitrogenous
Proteid
Saline or mineral
Vegetable
Proteid vegetable
Non-proteid vegetable
Non-proteid animal
Table of
Food materials, Table of
Composition of
Foot
Foul air, Effect of, on health
Frontal bone
Frost bites
Fruits as food

Gall bladder
Garden vegetables
Gastric glands
Gastric juice, Effect of alcohol on
Glands
Mesenteric
Lymphatic
Ductless
Thyroid
Thymus
Suprarenal
Lacrymal
Glottis

Hair
Structure of
Hair and nails, Care of
Hall, Marshall, method for apparent drowning
Hand
Haversian canals
Head and spine, how joined
Head, Bones of
Hearing, Sense of
Mechanism of
Effect of tobacco on
Heart
Valves of
General plan of blood-vessels connected with
Rhythmic action of
Impulse and sounds of
Nervous control of
Effect of alcohol on
Effect of tobacco on
Heat, Animal
Sources of
Hiccough
Hip bones
Histology defined
Humerus
Hygiene defined
Hyoid bone
Hypermetropia

Ileum
Injured, Prompt aid to
Insalivation
Intestine, Small
Coats of small
Large
Intoxicants, Physical results of
Iris of the eye

Jejunum
Joints
Imperfect
Perfect
Hinge
Ball-and-socket
Pivot

Katabolism defined
Kidneys
Structure of
Function of
Action if, how modified
Effect of alcohol on
Kidneys and skin

Lacrymal apparatus
gland
Lacteals
Landmarks, Bony
Muscular
heart
arteries
Larynx
Laughing
Lens, Crystalline
Levers in the body
Life, The process of
Ligaments
Limbs, Upper
Lower
Liver
Minute structure of
Blood supply of
Functions of
Effect of alcohol on
Lungs
Minute structure of
Capacity of
Effect of alcohol on
Bleeding from
Lymph
Lymphatics

Mad dogs, Bites of
Malar bone
Mastication
Maxillary, Superior
Inferior
Meals, Hints about
Meats as food
Medulla oblongata
Membrane, Synovial
Serous
Arachnoid
Membranes, Brain
Mesentery
Metabolism defined
Metacarpal bones
Metatarsal bones
Microscope, Use of
Milk
Mineral foods
Morphology defined
Motion in animals
Mouth
Movement, Mechanism of
Muscles, Kinds of
voluntary, Structure of
involuntary, Structure of
Arrangement of
Important
Effect of alcohol on
Effect of tobacco on
Review analysis of
Rest for
Muscular tissue, Effect of alcohol on
Changes in
Properties of
activity
contraction
fatigue
sense
Myopia

Nails
Care of
Nasal bones
Nerve cells
fibers
cells and fibers, Function of
Nerves, Cranial
Spinal
Motor
Sensory
spinal, Functions of
Nervous system, General view of
compared to telegraph system
Divisions of
Effect of alcohol on
Effect of tobacco on
Nitrogenous foods.
Non-proteid vegetable foods
animal foods
Nose, Bleeding from
Foreign bodies in

Occipital bone
Œsophagus
Opium
Poisonous effects of
In patent medicines
Victim of the, habit
Organic compounds
Outdoor games
Oxidation

Pain, Sense of
Palate bones
Pancreas
Pancreatic juice
Parietal bones
Patella
Pepsin
Pericardium
Periosteum
Peritoneum
Phalanges
Pharynx and œsophagus
Physical exercise
Physical education in school
Physical exercises in school
Physiology defined
Study of
what it should teach
Main problems of, briefly stated.
Physiological knowledge, Value of
Pia mater
Pneumogastric nerve
Poisons
Poisons, Table of
Antidotes for
Practical points about
Poisoning, Treatment of
Portal circulation
Portal vein
Presbyopia
Pressure, Where to apply
Proteids
Proteid vegetable foods
Protoplasm
Pulmonary artery
veins
Pulmonary infection
Pulse
Pupil of the eye

Radius
Receptaculum chyli
Rectum
Reflex centers
in the brain
Reflex action, Importance of
Renal secretion
Residual air
Respiration, Nature and object of
Nervous control of
Effect of, on the blood
Effect of, on the air
Modified movements of
Effect of alcohol on
Effect of tobacco on
artificial, Methods of
Rest, for the muscles
Need of
Benefits of
The Sabbath, a day of
of mind and body
Retina
Ribs and sternum

Saline or mineral foods
Saliva
Salt as food
Salts, Inorganic, in the body
Scalds or burns
Scapula
School, Physical education in
Positions at
School and physical education
Secretion
Semicircular canals
Sensations, General
Sensation, Conditions of
Sense, Organs of
Sense organ, The essentials of
Serous membranes
Sick-room, Arrangement of
Ventilation of
Hints for
Rules for
Sighing
Sight, Sense of
Skating, swimming, and rowing
Skeleton
Review analysis of
Skeleton and manikin, Use of
Skin, The
regulating temperature
Action of, how modified
Absorbent powers of
and the kidneys
Skull
Sutures of
Sleep, a periodical rest
Effect of, on bodily functions
Amount of, required
Practical rules about
Smell
Sense of
Sneezing
Snoring
Sobbing
Special senses
Speech
Sphenoid bone
Spinal column
Spinal cord
Structure of
Functions of
conductor of impulses
as a reflex center
Spinal nerves
Functions of
Spleen
Sprains and dislocations
Stammering
Starches and sugars
Sternum
Stomach
Coats of
Digestion in
Effect of alcohol on
Bleeding from
Strabismus
Stuttering
Sunstroke
Supplemental air
Suprarenal capsules
Sutures of skull
Sweat glands
Sweat, Nature of
Sylvester method for apparent drowning
Sympathetic system
Functions of
Synovial membrane
sheaths and sacs

Taste, Organ of
Sense of
Taste, Physiological conditions of
Modifications of the sense
Effect of alcohol on
Effect of tobacco on
Tea
Tear gland and tear passages
Tears
Technical terms defined
Teeth
Development of
Structure of
Proper care of
Hints about saving
Temperature, Regulation of bodily
Skin as a regulator of
Voluntary regulation of
Sense of
Temporal bones
Tendon of Achilles
Tendons
Thigh
Thoracic duct
Throat
Care of
Effect of alcohol on
Effect of tobacco on
Foreign bodies in
Thymus gland
Thyroid gland
Tibia
Tidal air
Tissue, White fibrous
Connective
Yellow elastic
Areolar
Adipose
Adenoid
Muscular
Tissues, Epithelial
Tissues, epithelial, Varieties of
Functions of
Connective
Tobacco, Effect of, on bones
Effect of, on muscles
Effect of, on physical culture
Effect of, on digestion
Effect of, on the heart
Effect of, on the lungs
Effect of, on the nervous system
Effect of, on the mind
Effect of, on the character
Effect of, on taste
Effect of, on hearing
Effect of, on throat and voice
Touch, Organ of
Sense of
Trachea
Trunk, Bones of
Tympanum, Cavity of

Ulna
Urine

Valve, Mitral
Valves of the heart
Valves, Tricuspid
Semilunar
Vegetable foods
Veins
Ventilation
Conditions of efficient
of sick-room
Vestibule of ear
Vermiform appendix
Vision, Common defects of
Effect of tobacco on
Vivisection and dissection
Vocal cords
Voice, Mechanism of
Factors in the production of
Care of
Effect of alcohol on
Effect of tobacco on

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