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A New Voyage to Carolina by John Lawson

Part 6 out of 6

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or of their Delegates or Deputies, whom for enacting of the said Laws,
when, and as often as need shall require, We will that the said
Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton and Sir William Berkeley,
and their Heirs or Assigns, shall from Time to Time, assemble in
such Manner and Form as to them shall seem best: And the same Laws
duly to execute upon all People within the said Province or Territory,
County, Barony or Colony, and the Limits thereof, for the Time being,
which shall be constituted under the Power and Government of them,
or any of them, either sailing towards the said Province or Territory
of Carolina, or returning from thence towards England,
or any other of our, or foreign Dominions, by Imposition of Penalties,
Imprisonment, or any other Punishment: Yea, if it shall be needful,
and the Quality of the Offence require it, by taking away
Member and Life, either by them, the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, and their Heirs,
or by them or their Deputies, Lieutenants, Judges, Justices, Magistrates,
or Officers whatsoever, as well within the said Province, as at Sea,
in such Manner and Form, as unto the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, and their Heirs,
shall seem most convenient: Also, to remit, release, pardon and abolish,
whether before Judgment or after, all Crimes and Offences whatsoever,
against the said Laws; and to do all and every other Thing and Things,
which unto the compleat Establishment of Justice, unto Courts,
Sessions and Forms of Judicature, and Manners of proceedings therein,
do belong, altho' in these Presents, express Mention is not made thereof;
and by Judges, to him or them delegated to award, process, hold Please,
and determine in all the said Courts and Places of Judicature,
all Actions, Suits and Causes whatsoever, as well criminal as civil,
real, mixt, personal, or of any other Kind or Nature whatsoever:
Which Laws so as aforesaid, to be published, Our Pleasure is,
and We do enjoyn, require and command, shall be absolutely firm and available
in Law; and that all the Leige People of Us, our Heirs and Successors,
within the said Province or Territory, do observe and keep the same inviolably
in those Parts, so far as they concern them, under the Pains and Penalties
therein expressed; or to be expressed; provided nevertheless,
that the said Laws be consonant to Reason, and as near as may be conveniently,
agreeable to the Laws and Customs of this our Realm of England.

And because such Assemblies of Free-holders cannot be so suddenly called,
as there may be Occasion to require the same; We do therefore
by these Presents, give and grant unto the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns,
by themselves or their Magistrates in that Behalf, lawfully authorized,
full Power and Authority from Time to Time, to make and ordain
fit and wholsome Orders and Ordinances, within the Province
or Territory aforesaid, or any County, Barony or Province, of or within
the same, to be kept and observed, as well for the keeping of the Peace,
as for the better Government of the People there abiding, and to publish
the same to all to whom it may concern: Which Ordinances we do,
by these Presents, streightly charge and command to be inviolably observed
within the same Province, Counties, Territories, Baronies, and Provinces,
under the Penalties therein expressed; so as such Ordinances
be reasonable and not repugnant or contrary, but as near as may be agreeable
to the Laws and Statutes of this our Kingdom of England;
and so as the same Ordinances do not extend to the binding,
charging or taking away of the Right or Interest of any Person or Persons,
in their freehold Goods, or Chattels, whatsoever.

And to the end the said Province or Territory, may be the more happily
encreased by the Multitude of People resorting thither, and may likewise be
the more strongly defended from the Incursions of Savages and other Enemies,
Pirates, and Robbers.

Therefore, We for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, do give and grant
by these Presents, Power, License and Liberty unto all the Leige People of Us,
our Heirs and Successors in our Kingdom of England, or elsewhere,
within any other our Dominions, Islands, Colonies or Plantations;
(excepting those who shall be especially forbidden) to transport
themselves and Families into the said Province or Territory,
with convenient Shipping, and fitting Provisions; and there
to settle themselves, dwell and inhabit, any Law, Act, Statute, Ordinance,
or other Thing to the contrary in any wise, notwithstanding.

And we will also, and of Our especial Grace, for Us, our Heirs and Successors,
do streightly enjoyn, ordain, constitute and demand, That the said
Province or Territory, shall be of our Allegiance; and that all and singular,
the Subjects and Leige People of Us, our Heirs and Successors, transported,
or to be transported into the said Province, and the Children of them,
and such as shall descend from them, there born, or hereafter to be born,
be, and shall be Denizens and Lieges of Us, our Heirs and Successors of this
our Kingdom of England, and be in all Things, held, treated and reputed
as the Liege faithful People of Us, our Heirs and Successors,
born within this our said Kingdom, or any other of our Dominions;
and may inherit, or otherwise purchase and receive, take, hold,
buy and possess any Lands, Tenements or Hereditaments, within the said Places,
and them may occupy, and enjoy, sell, alien and bequeath; as likewise,
all Liberties, Franchises and Privileges of this our Kingdom,
and of other our Dominions aforesaid, may freely and quietly have,
possess and enjoy, as our Liege People born within the same,
without the Molestation, Vexation, Trouble or Grievance of Us,
Our Heirs and Successors, any Act, Statute, Ordinance, or Provision
to the contrary, notwithstanding.

And furthermore, That Our Subjects of this Our said Kingdom of England,
and other our Dominions, may be the rather encouraged to undertake
this Expedition, with ready and chearful Minds; Know Ye, That We,
of Our especial Grace, certain Knowledge and meer Motion, do give and grant,
by virtue of these Presents, as well to the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, and their Heirs,
as unto all others as shall, from time to time, repair unto
the said Province or Territory, with a Purpose to inhabit there,
or to trade with the Natives thereof; Full Liberty and License
to lade and freight in every Port whatsoever, of Us, our Heirs and Successors;
and into the said Province of Carolina, by them, their Servants and Assigns,
to transport all and singular, their Goods, Wares and Merchandizes;
as likewise, all sort of Grain whatsoever, and any other Thing whatsoever,
necessary for their Food and Cloathing, not prohibited
by the Laws and Statutes of our Kingdom and Dominions, to be carried out
of the same, without any Lett or Molestation of Us, our Heirs and Successors,
or of any other our Officers or Ministers whatsoever; saving also to Us,
our Heirs and Successors, the Customs, and other Duties and Payments due for
the said Wares and Merchandizes, according to the several Rates of the Place
from whence the same shall be transported.

We will also, and by these Presents, for Us, our Heirs and Successors,
do give and grant License by this our Charter, unto the said
Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
their Heirs and Assigns, and to all the Inhabitants and Dwellers
in the Province or Territory aforesaid, both present and to come,
full Power and Authority to import or unlade by themselves,
or their Servants, Factors or Assigns, all Merchandizes and Goods whatsoever,
that shall arise of the Fruits and Commodities of the said
Province or Territory, either by Land or Sea, into any the Ports of Us,
our Heirs and Successors, in our Kingdom of Engl. Scotl. or Ireland,
or otherwise, to dispose of the said Goods, in the said Ports.
And if need be, within one year next after the unlading,
to lade the said Merchandizes and Goods again in the same,
or other Ships; and to export the same into any other Countries,
either of our Dominions or foreign, being in Amity with Us,
our Heirs and Successors, so as they pay such Customs,
Subsidies and other Duties for the same to Us, our Heirs and Successors,
as the rest of our Subjects of this our Kingdom, for the Time being,
shall be bound to pay. Beyond which We will not that the Inhabitants
of the said Province or Territory, shall be any ways charged.
Provided, nevertheless, and our Will and Pleasure is, and we have further,
for the Considerations aforesaid, of our special Grace,
certain Knowledge and meer Motion, given and granted, and by these Presents,
for Us, our Heirs and Successors, do give and grant unto
the said Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
their Heirs and Assigns, full and free License, Liberty, Power and Authority,
at any Time or Times, from and after the Feast of St. Michael
the Arch-Angel, which shall be in the Year of our Lord Christ,
One Thousand, Six Hundred, Sixty and Seven; as well to import and bring into
any our Dominions from the said Province of Carolina, or any Part thereof,
the several Goods and Commodities herein after mentioned; That is to say,
Silks, Wines, Currants, Raisons, Capers, Wax, Almonds, Oil and Olives,
without paying or answering to Us, our Heirs and Successors,
any Custom, Impost, or other Duty, for, or in respect thereof,
for and during the Time and Space of Seven Years to commence and be accompted
from and after the first Importation of Four Tons of any the said Goods,
in any one Bottom Ship or Vessel, from the said Province or Territory,
into any of our Dominions; as also, to export and carry out of
any of our Dominions into the said Province or Territory, Custom-free,
all sorts of Tools, which shall be useful or necessary for the Planters there,
in the Accommodation and Improvement of the Premises, any thing
before in these Presents contained, or any Law, Act, Statute,
Prohibition, or other Matter or Thing, heretofore had, made,
enacted or provided, or hereafter to be had, made, enacted or provided,
in any wise notwithstanding.

And furthermore, of our more ample and especial Grace,
certain Knowledge and meer Motion, We do for Us, our Heirs and Successors,
grant unto the said Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
their Heirs and Assigns, full and absolute Power and Authority to make,
erect and constitute within the said Province or Territory,
and the Isles and Islets aforesaid, such and so many Sea-Ports, Harbours,
Creeks and other Places for discharge and unlading of Goods and Merchandizes
out of Ships, Boats, and other Vessels, and for lading of them
in such and so many Places, as with such Jurisdictions,
Privileges and Franchises, unto the said Ports belonging,
as to them shall seem most expedient; And that all and singular,
the Ships, Boats and other Vessels, which shall come for Merchandizes,
and trade into the said Province or Territory, or shall depart
out of the same, shall be laden and unladen at such Ports only,
as shall be erected and constituted by the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns,
and not elsewhere, any Use, Custom, or any thing to the contrary
in any wise notwithstanding.

And we do furthermore will, appoint and ordain, and by these Presents,
for Us, our Heirs and Successors, do grant unto the said
Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton and Sir William Berkeley,
their Heirs and Assigns, That they the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns,
may from Time to Time, for ever, have and enjoy the Customs and Subsidies in
the Ports, Harbours, Creeks and other Places, within the Province aforesaid,
payable for the Goods, Merchandizes and Wares there laded,
or to be laded or unladed, the said Customs to be reasonably assessed
upon any Occasion by themselves, and by and with the Consent
of the free People, or the greater Part of them, as aforesaid;
to whom We give Power by these Presents, for Us, our Heirs and Successors,
upon just Cause and in a due Proportion to assess and impose the same.

And further, of our especial Grace, certain Knowledge and meer Motion,
we have given, granted and confirmed, and by these Presents,
for Us, our Heirs and Successors, do give, grant and confirm
unto the said Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
their Heirs and Assigns, full and absolute Power, License and Authority,
that they the said Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
their Heirs and Assigns, from Time to Time, hereafter for ever,
at his and their Will and Pleasure, may assign, alien, grant,
demise or enfeoff the Premises or any Part or Parcel thereof to him or them,
that shall be willing to purchase the same; and to such Person and Persons,
as they shall think fit, to have, and to hold to them the said
Person or Persons, their Heirs and Assigns, in Fee simple or in Fee Tayle,
or for the Term of Life or Lives, or Years to be held of them,
the said Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
their Heirs and Assigns, by such Rents, Services and Customs,
as shall seem fit to them the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns,
and not of Us, our Heirs and Successors: And to the same Person and Persons,
and to all and every of them, We do give and grant by these Presents,
for Us, our Heirs and Successors, License, Authority and Power,
that such Person or Persons, may have and take the Premises,
or any Parcel thereof, of the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns,
and the same to hold to themselves, their Heirs or Assigns,
in what Estate of Inheritance soever, in Fee simple, or in Fee Tayle,
or otherwise, as to them the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns,
shall seem expedient; The Statute in the Parliament of Edward,
Son of King Henry, heretofore King of England, our Predecessor,
commonly called, The Statute of Quia Emptores Terrar; or any other Statute,
Act, Ordinance, Use, Law, Custom, any other Matter, Cause or Thing
heretofore published or provided to the contrary, in any wise notwithstanding.

And because many Persons born and inhabiting in the said Province
for their Deserts and Services may expect, and be capable of
Marks of Honour and Favour, which, in respect of the great Distance
cannot conveniently be conferred by Us; our Will and Pleasure therefore is,
and We do by these Presents, give and grant unto the said
Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Lord Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
their Heirs and Assigns, full Power and Authority to give and confer unto,
and upon such of the Inhabitants of the said Province, or Territory,
as they shall think, do, or shall merit the same, such Marks of Favour,
and Titles of Honour, as they shall think fit, so as their Titles of Honours
be not the same as are enjoyed by, or conferred upon any of the Subjects
of this Our Kingdom of England.

And further also, We do by these Presents, for Us, Our Heirs and Successors,
give and Grant, License to them the Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns,
full Power, Liberty and License, to Erect, Raise and Build
within the said Province and Places aforesaid, or any Part or Parts thereof,
such and so many Forts, Fortresses, Castles, Cities, Boroughs,
Towns, Villages and other Fortifications whatsoever;
and the same or any of them to Fortify and Furnish with Ordnance,
Powder, Shot, Armour and all other Weapons, Ammunition and Habiliments of War,
both Defensive and Offensive, as shall be thought fit and convenient for
the Safety and Welfare of the said Province, and Places, or any Part thereof;
and the same, or any of them, from Time to Time, as Occasion shall require,
to Dismantle, Disfurnish, Demolish and Pull down; And also to Place,
Constitute and Appoint in, or over all, or any of the said Castles,
Forts, Fortifications, Cities, Towns and Places aforesaid,
Governours, Deputy Governours, Magistrates, Sheriffs and other Officers,
Civil and Military, as to them shall seem meet; and to the said Cities,
Boroughs, Towns, Villages, or any other Place or Places, within the said
Province or Territory, to Grant Letters or Charters of Incorporation,
with all Liberties, Franchises and Privileges requisite, or usual,
to, or within this our Kingdom of England granted, or belonging;
And in the same Cities, Boroughs, Towns and other Places, to Constitute,
Erect and Appoint such, and so many Markets, Marts and Fairs
as shall in that Behalf be thought fit and necessary; And further also,
to Erect and Make in the Province or Territory aforesaid, or any Part thereof,
so many Mannors with such Signories as to them shall seem meet and convenient,
and in every of the same Mannors to have and to hold a Court-Baron,
with all Things whatsoever, which to a Court-Baron do belong,
and to have and to hold Views of Frank Pledge, and Court-Leet,
for the Conservation of the Peace, and better Government of those Parts,
with such Limits, Jurisdiction and Precincts, as by the said
Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
or their Heirs, shall be appointed for that purpose, with all
things whatsoever, which to a Court-Leet, or view of Franck Pledge, do belong;
the same Courts to be holden by Stewards, to be Deputed and Authorized
by the said Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
or their Heirs, by the Lords of the Mannors and Leets, for the Time being,
when the same shall be Erected.

And because that in so remote a Country, and Situate among
so many Barbarous Nations, the Invasions as well of Savages as other Enemies,
Pirates, and Robbers may probably be feared; Therefore We have Given,
and for Us, Our Heirs and Successors do give Power by these Presents,
unto the said Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
their Heirs or Assigns by themselves, or their Captains, or their Officers
to Levy, Muster and Train up all sorts of Men, of what Condition soever,
or wheresoever Born, whether in the said Province, or elsewhere,
for the Time being; and to make War and pursue the Enemies aforesaid,
as well by Sea, as by Land; yea, even without the Limits of the said Province,
and by God's Assistance, to Vanquish and Take them, and being Taken,
to put them to Death by the Law of War, and to save them at their Pleasure;
And to do all and every other thing, which to the Charge and Office
of a Captain General of an Army belongeth, or hath accustomed to belong,
as fully and freely as any Captain General of an Army hath had the same.

Also, Our Will and Pleasure is, and by this Our Charter,
We do give and grant unto the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Lord Craven, John Lord Berkeley,
Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton,
and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns, full Power,
Liberty and Authority, in Case of Rebellion, Tumult, or Sedition
(if any should happen, which God forbid) either upon the Land within
the Province aforesaid, or upon the main Sea, in making a Voyage thither,
or returning from thence, by him and themselves, their Captains,
Deputies or Officers, to be authorized under his or their Seals,
for that purpose: To whom also for Us, our Heirs and Successors,
We do give and grant by these Presents, full Power and Authority
to exercise Martial Law against mutinous and seditious Persons of those Parts;
such as shall refuse to submit themselves to their Government,
or shall refuse to serve in the Wars, or shall fly to the Enemy,
or forsake their Colours or Ensigns, or be Loiterers or Stragglers,
or otherwise howsoever offending against Law, Custom, or Military Discipline,
as freely, and in as ample Manner and Form as any Captain General of an Army,
by virtue of his Office, might, or hath accustomed to use the same.

And Our further Pleasure is, and by these Presents, for Us, our Heirs
and Successors, We do grant unto the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns,
and to the Tenants and Inhabitants of the said Province, or Territory,
both present and to come, and to every of them, that the said Province,
or Territory, and the Tenants and Inhabitants thereof,
shall not from henceforth, be held or reputed any Member,
or Part of any Colony whatsoever, in America or elsewhere,
now transported or made, or hereafter to be transported or made;
nor shall be depending on, or subject to their Government in any Thing,
but be absolutely separated and divided from the same: And our Pleasure is,
by these Presents, That they may be separated, and that they be subject
immediately to our Crown of England, as depending thereof for ever.
And that the Inhabitants of the said Province or Territory, or any of them,
shall at any Time hereafter, be compelled or compellible,
or be any ways subject, or liable to appear or answer to any Matter, Suit,
Cause, or Plaint whatsoever, out of the Province or Territory aforesaid,
in any other of our Islands, Colonies or Dominions in America, or elsewhere,
other than in our Realm of England and Dominion of Wales.

And because it may happen, That some of the People and Inhabitants
of the said Province, cannot in their private Opinions conform
to the Publick Exercise of Religion according to the Liturgy,
Forms and Ceremonies of the Church of England, or take or subscribe
the Oaths and Articles made and established in that Behalf:
And for that the same, by reason of the remote Distances of those Places,
will, as we hope, be no Breach of the Unity, and Conformity,
Established in this Nation; Our Will and Pleasure therefore is,
and We do by these Presents for Us, Our Heirs, and Successors,
Give and Grant unto the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns,
full and free Licence, Liberty and Authority, by such Ways and Means
as they shall think fit, To Give and Grant unto such Person and Persons,
Inhabiting, and being within the said Province or Territory,
hereby or by the said recited Letters Patents, mentioned to be granted
as aforesaid, or any Part thereof, such Indulgencies and Dispensations,
in that Behalf, for, and during such Time and Times, and with such
Limitations and Restrictions, as they the said Edward Earl of Clarendon,
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven,
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett,
Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs,
or Assigns, shall in their Discretion think fit and reasonable.
And that no Person or Persons, unto whom such Liberty shall be given,
shall be any way molested, punished, disquieted, or called in question for
any Differences in Opinion or Practice, in Matters of Religious Concernment,
who do not actually disturb the civil Peace of the Province, County or Colony,
that they shall make their abode in. But all and every such
Person and Persons, may from Time to Time, and at all Times,
freely and quietly have and enjoy his and their Judgment and Consciences,
in Matters of Religion, throughout all the said Province, or Colony,
they behaving themselves peaceably, and not using this Liberty
to Licentiousness, nor to the Civil Injury or outward Disturbance of others.
Any Law, Statute or Clause contained, or to be contained,
Usage or Customs of our Realm of England to the contrary hereof
in any wise, notwithstanding.

And in Case it shall happen, that any Doubts or Questions should arise
concerning the True Sense and Understanding of any Word, Clause, or Sentence,
contained in this Our present Charter, We Will, Ordain, and Command,
that at all Times, and in all Things, such Interpretations be made thereof,
and allow'd in all and every of Our Courts whatsoever,
as Lawfully may be Adjudged most Advantageous and Favourable
to the said Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle,
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley,
Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley,
their Heirs and Assigns, although Express Mention, &c.

Witness our Self at Westminster, the Thirtieth Day of June,
in the Seventeenth Year of our Reign.

Per Ipsum Regem.

An
ABSTRACT
of the
CONSTITUTION
of
CAROLINA.

As to the Government of Carolina, the Laws of England are there in Force;
yet the Lords-Proprietors, by their Deputies, have Power,
with the Consent of the Inhabitants, to make By-Laws for the better Government
of the said Province; so that no Law can be made, or Money rais'd,
unless the Inhabitants, or their Representatives, consent thereto:
One Law which they have in South-Carolina deserves particular Mention,
which is, their Method of chusing Juries, it being done by making
a considerable Number of Paper-Billets, on which are written
the Names of as many of the most substantial Freeholders.
These Billets are put into a Hat, out of which Twenty-four are chosen
by the next Child that appears. Then, out of those Twenty-four,
Twelve are chosen at the next Court, after the same manner;
which is an infallible way to prevent all Manner of Fraud.

North and South-Carolina Settlements are distant from one another
some hundreds of Miles; so that Necessity compels each Colony
to keep to themselves, a Governour, Council and Assembly.
The Governor represents the Lord-Palatine; the rest of the Counsellors
are the Lord-Deputies; who, of themselves, make a Palatines Court,
and a Court of Chancery; wherein they pass several Orders of Council,
much of the Nature of the Prince's Proclamation; which continues
no longer in Force, than the next Assembly. Likewise, they grant
several sorts of Commissions, Warrants, &c. yet Military Commissions
lie wholly in the Governor's Power; but Making of War or Peace, in all,
or the Majority of the Lords-Deputies; by whom (the Governor being one)
it is determin'd, and by whose Commissions all other Magistrates act.
On these Heads they have settled, and maintain an admirable
Constitution of Government, for the lasting Peace, Security, and Well-being
of all the Inhabitants. The way of any ones taking up his Land in Carolina,
due to him either by Purchasing it of the Lords Proprietors here in England,
who keep their Board at Craven-House in Drury-Lane, London,
the first Thursday in every Month; or if purchas'd in Carolina,
is after this manner: He first looks out for a Place to his Mind,
that is not already possess'd by any other; then applies himself
to the Governor and Lords Proprietors Deputies, and shews what Right he hath
to such a Tract of Land, either by Purchase of the Lords in England,
or by an Entry in the Surveyor-General's Office, in order
to purchase of the Governor and Lords Deputies there in Carolina,
who thereupon issue out their Warrant-Land as is due to him.
Who making Certificate, that he had measured out so much Land and the Bounds,
a Deed is prepared of Course, by the Secretary, which is sign'd
by the Governor and the Lords Proprietors Deputies, and the Proprietors Seal
affix'd to it, and register'd in the Secretaries Office,
which is a good Coveyance in Law of the Land therein mention'd,
to the Party and his Heirs for ever.

Thus have I given you as large and exact an Account of Carolina,
as the Discovery of so few Years (in this great and extensive Land)
would permit. Which flourishing Country will, doubtless, in time,
increase the Number of its Productions, and afford us plentifully
those Necessaries and rich Commodities, which the Streights,
Turky and other Countries supply us withal at present,
and not seldom in their own Shipping; whereas, were those Merchandizes
the Produce of an English Plantation, and brought us home
by our own Hands and Bottoms, of what Advantage such an Improvement would be
to the Crown of Great-Britain, and the People in general,
I leave to Men of Reason and Experience to judge. I do intend (if God permit)
by future Voyages (after my Arrival in Carolina) to pierce into
the Body of the Continent, and what Discoveries and Observations
I shall, at any time hereafter, make, will be communicated
to my Correspondents in England, to be publish'd, having furnish'd myself
with Instruments and other Necessaries for such Voyages.

For the better Understanding of this Country, I have already drawn
a very large and exact Map thereof, as far as any Discoveries
have been yet made, either by others or my self, and have spared
neither Cost nor Pains, to procure the most correct Maps and Journals thereof,
that are extant in Print, or in Manuscript. This Map containing
nine Sheets of Imperial Paper, and now fit for engraving,
begins at Cape Henry in Virginia, 37 deg. N. Lat. and contains
all the Coasts of Carolina, or Florida, with the Bahama Islands,
great Part of the Bay of Mexico, and the Island of Cuba, to the Southward,
and several Degrees to the Westward of the Messiasippi River,
with all the Indian Nations and Villages, and their Numbers,
which of them are subject to Carolina, and trade with their People,
what Places are convenient Factories and Forts, to increase and secure
our Trade on the Messiasippi, and what Forts and Factories
the French and Spaniards have gain'd in those Latitudes,
especially on the great River and the Neighbouring Streams; all which
they illegally possess, since the very Mouth of the River Messiasippi
is in the King of England's Grant to the Lords Proprietors of Carolina,
it falling something to the Northward of 29 Degr. North Lat.
whose Claim and Right I question not, but a Peace will adjust, and restore,
which every Englishman is bound in Duty and Interest, to wish for;
if we consider how advantageously they have seated themselves,
whereby to disturb the Peace and Interest of all the English Plantations
on the Continent of America.

----------

FINIS.

----------

[Original Advertisement, included for historical context.]

Lately publish'd, in the Collections for December, January, February,
and March,

The Discovery and Conquest of the Molucco and Philippine Islands;
containing their History, Ancient and Modern, Natural and Political:
Their Description, Product, Religion, Government, Laws, Languages,
Customs, Manners, Habits, Shape, and Inclinations of the Natives.
With an Account of many other adjacent Islands, and several remarkable Voyages
through the Streights of Magellan, and in other Parts. Written in Spanish
by Bartholomew Leonardo Argensola, Chaplain to the Empress,
and Rector of Villahermosa. Now translated into English;
and illustrated with a Map and several Cuts.

[End of Original Advertisement.]

Notes to etext:

This book was originally published in London in 1709.
This text follows the original spellings, which are somewhat irregular,
though still quite readable.

A footnote from William Gilmore Simms' "Life of Francis Marion" (online):

Lawson's "Journal of a Thousand Miles' Travel among the Indians,
from South to North Carolina", is a work equally rare and interesting.
This unfortunate man fell a victim to his official duties.
He was confounded, by the savages, with the government which he represented,
and sacrificed to their fury, under the charge of depriving them,
by his surveys, of their land. He was made captive
with the Baron de Graffenreid. The latter escaped,
but Lawson was subjected to the fire-torture.

Simms, however, was never a stickler for details. Other accounts differ
as to John Lawson's exact fate, and no one is sure how he died.

Mike Lawson, (MIKE_LAWSON@intertec.com, http://www.mixbooks.com),
a direct descendant of the author, contacted me while I was working
on putting this book online, and sent me some interesting information,
which is summarized below. Baron de Graffenreid = Degraffenreid, etc.

From about 1705 to 1708 John Lawson had lived in Bath Town, NC,
where his primary interests were his orchards and vines.
When he went to England to have his book published, he was "called upon
by the Lord Proprietors to assist DeGraffenreid" who was trying to settle
a colony of Palatines in North Carolina. Franz Louis Michel,
of Bern, Switzerland, (Lawson refers to him as Francis-Louis Mitchell)
had come to America in 1702, and discovered evidence of silver
in the mountains. He returned to Europe to start a company
to found a colony in America, and met Degraffenreid, who had similar plans,
and had already contracted with the city of Bern to remove some Anabaptists
to America -- they formed a partnership, and intended to search for silver.
After the course of events which included John Lawson's death
and a massacre of these colonists, they had a falling out,
and that plan never came off.

According to De Graffenreid, some days before the New Bern massacre
John Lawson proposed that they go up the Neuse River,
where there were plenty of wild grapes. They were assured
"that no savages lived on that branch of the river. But to feel safer
we took two Indians to guide, which we knew well, with two negroes to row."
Two days out, near the village of Coram, they were overtaken
by a large number of Tuscaroras, and captured.

There was a trial of sorts, where their intentions were examined,
and Mr. Lawson was charged with being too severe, and for selling their land.
After a lengthy debate, it was decided that they should be released
the next day, but the following morning, one Cor Tom reproached Mr. Lawson,
and they quarrelled. "I made every effort to get Lawson to quit quarrelling.
I did not succeed. All at once three or four Indians fell upon us
in a furious manner. . . . They took our hats and periwigs and threw them
into the fire, and a council of war being held we were immediately
sentenced to death." One of the Indians, a relation of King Taylor,
from whom De Graffenreid had bought the land for New Bern,
appealed in his behalf. "The Indians whispered in my ear
that I had nothing to fear, but that Lawson would die, what affected me much.
They also liberated my negro, but I never saw him since. . . .
As to his death, I know nothing. Some said he was hung,
some said he was burnt. The Indians kept that execution very secret."

The Tuscaroras then informed De Graffenreid that they were going to war,
but would not harm Chattooka (New Bern), but that the people of New Bern
ought to stay in the town -- unfortunately, there was no way to inform
the people of New Bern. Several days later prisoners were brought back,
and De Graffenreid tells of recognizing some of them as his tenants,
including a boy who reported that his whole family had been killed.
After six weeks imprisonment at Catechna, he was released,
and returned to New Bern, where the people were surprised to find him alive.

(The relevant passages from De Graffenreid's journal were printed
in the North Carolina Booklet, Vol. I, No. 2, June 10, 1901,
`Colonial New Bern', by Mrs. Sara Beaumont Kennedy, pp. 7-13.
Issued by the North Carolina Society of the Daughters of the Revolution.
Raleigh: Capital Printing Company, 1901.)

Due to the age of this book, there are a number of nonstandard spellings,
and the font used in the original, with the s's much like f's,
has surely led to an error or two in the transcription, though every effort
was made to minimize this factor. The standards of printing at the time
were also somewhat low, and combine all this with those instances
where Indian names and words are given, and some of the material
is doubtless inaccurate -- though Lawson's comments on zoology
should make that quite clear. Nonetheless, this account remains
one of our best sources for information on the Indians of North Carolina
in and about the year 1700.

Sidenotes, throughout, are presented in squiggly brackets. {As here.}
Where the sidenote precedes a paragraph, it is given on a separate line.

Corrections:

(p. 11)
[ and become Cripples all ther Life-time; ]
changed to:
[ and become Cripples all their Life-time; ]

(p. 13)
[ to satisfy the Apppetite of the Rich alone. ]
changed to:
[ to satisfy the Appetite of the Rich alone. ]

(p. 14)
[ so we got that Night to Mons. Gallian's the elder, ]
changed to:
[ so we got that Night to Mons. Galliar's the elder, ]
As the difference between "n" and "r" is significant,
other evidence (William Dobein James) suggests the real name was Gaillard,
and "Mons. Galliar's, jun'," is mentioned on the next page.

(In giving the background of Marion, in his "Life of Gen. Francis Marion",
Judge William Dobein James quotes from "A New Voyage to Carolina",
and in his footnotes gives some additional commentary on the area
in relation to Lawson's description. This text is online.)

(p. 19)
[ which was s Parrade of all Nations, ]
changed to:
[ which was a Parrade of all Nations, ]
and:
[ most Natious of the known World. ]
changed to:
[ most Nations of the known World. ]

(p. 21)
[ about it is hung Gourds Feathers, and other such like Trophies, ]
changed to:
[ about it is hung Gourds, Feathers, and other such like Trophies, ]

(p.28)
[ for tho' this most bears a Seed in a Sort of a small Cod, ]
changed to:
[ for tho' this Moss bears a Seed in a Sort of a small Cod, ]

(p. 44)
[ the Sinnagers, or Troquois. ]
changed to:
[ the Sinnagers, or Iroquois. ]

(p. 47-48)
[ At that, time these Toteros Saponas, and the Keyauwees, ]
changed to:
[ At that time these Toteros, Saponas, and the Keyauwees, ]

(p. 73)
[ on the 6th of February, 166(3/4) came to an Anchor ]
changed to:
[ on the 6th of February, 1664, came to an Anchor ]

(p. 75)
[ to more Certainty, and greater Anvantage; whereby they might arrive ]
changed to:
[ to more Certainty, and greater Advantage; whereby they might arrive ]

(p. 80)
[ to leave the more Northerly Platations, and sit down under ]
changed to:
[ to leave the more Northerly Plantations, and sit down under ]

(p. 87)
[ In the Year 1707. we had the severest Winter ]
changed to:
[ In the Year 1707, we had the severest Winter ]

(p. 91)
[ and dry it in the Sun. to keep for Use. ]
changed to:
[ and dry it in the Sun to keep for Use. ]

(p. 111)
[ {Plum.} ]
inserted before:
[Damson, Damazeen, and a large round black Plum are all I have met withal ]
(This follows the paragraph on Apricots ["Apricock"],
and the absence of this or similar side-note seems to be accidental.)

(p. 118)
[ This Beast is the greatast Enemy to the Planter, ]
changed to:
[ This Beast is the greatest Enemy to the Planter, ]

(p. 120)
[ There Fore-Feet are open, like a Dog's; ]
changed to:
[ Their Fore-Feet are open, like a Dog's; ]

(p. 120)
[ great Gust in September. 1700. brought ]
changed to:
[ great Gust in September, 1700. brought ]

(p. 134)
[ and make Euquiries therein, when, at least, ]
changed to:
[ and make Enquiries therein, when, at least, ]
(the ol' upside-down "n" error.)

(p. 136)
(from the list of Water Fowl)
[ Whifflers. ]
changed to:
[ Whistlers. ]
(in accordance with the text about them that follows.)

(p. 137)
(from the list of Water Fowl)
[ Men. ]
changed to:
[ Mew. ]
(in accordance with the text about them that follows.)

(p. 151)
[ {Swaddle-Bills.} ]
inserted before:
[ Swaddle-Bills are a sort of an ash-colour'd Duck, ]
(This follows the paragraph on Tutcocks, precedes that on Mew,
and the absence of this or similar side-note seems to be accidental.)

(p. 165)
[ although their be Water enough for as large Ships ]
changed to:
[ although there be Water enough for as large Ships ]

(p. 189)
[ Their Remedies area great Cause of this Easiness ]
changed to:
[ Their Remedies are a great Cause of this Easiness ]

(p. 194)
[ and so strung, as Beds are, and a Cubit ]
changed to:
[ and so strung, as Beads are, and a Cubit ]

(p. 203)
[ that is common amongst them, If they are caught in theft ]
changed to:
[ that is common amongst them. If they are caught in theft ]

In "An Account of the Indians of North-Carolina", the side-notes
do not always perfectly match the text in the original. In this edition,
an attempt has been made to match them to the relevent text.
The most notable changes are:

p. 204, side note {Get Fire.} has been omitted, as at the end of p. 203
there is the note {Get Fire how.} which refers to the same text,
which is only broken by the turn of a page. The second note
appears to serve no other purpose than continuity, which is no longer needed.

p. 207, the side note {Moss Match.} actually refers to text
that begins at the end of p. 206, and in this edition the side note
has been inserted at the beginning of the relevant text.

(p. 208)
[ others (where they find a Vein of white Clay, fit for their purpose, ]
changed to:
[ others (where they find a Vein of white Clay, fit for their purpose) ]
(Closing parenthesis was missing.)

(pp. 212-213)
Throughout the book, a curious device is used -- at the end of each page,
on a separate line, and right-justified, appears the first word
of the next page. This does not generally need comment,
but at the junction of pages 212 and 213, an error occurs,
in that at the bottom of page 212 the next-word-to-come is given as "being",
but the first word on page 213 is "because". The latter is retained,
and the former omitted, as seeming best to fit the context.
It is a possibility that both should have been retained,
i.e., "being because".

(p. 214)
[ is a great Man or hath good Frieds, the Doctor is sent for. ]
changed to:
[ is a great Man or hath good Friends, the Doctor is sent for. ]
also:
[ keeps sucking. till he has got a great Quaatity of very ]
changed to:
[ keeps sucking, till he has got a great Quantity of very ]

(p. 220)
[ girded him as hard for a great while) as if he had ]
changed to:
[ girded him as hard for a great while, as if he had ]
(No opening parenthesis.)

(p. 226)
[ Mif-kis-'su ]
changed to:
[ Mis-kis-'su ]
as Lawson notes the Indian languages have no "f" sound,
and the old `s' and `f' are very similar in shape.

(p. 227)
(In the Dictionary of Indian terms, the translations for "Minx" [Mink])
[ Min ]
changed to:
[ Minx ]
(in accordance with context and the preferred spelling in the text)

(p. 231)
[ settled America so easily, at they have done, ]
changed to:
[ settled America so easily, as they have done, ]

(p. 246)
[ into any other Countries, either of our Dominins or foreign, ]
changed to:
[ into any other Countries, either of our Dominions or foreign, ]

(p. 248)
[ such Ports only, as shall be erected and constitued by the said ]
changed to:
[ such Ports only, as shall be erected and constituted by the said ]

(p. 253)
[ To Give and Grant unto such Person any Persons, Inhabiting, ]
changed to:
[ To Give and Grant unto such Person and Persons, Inhabiting, ]

(p. 257)
[ to the Westward of of the Messiasippi River, ]
changed to:
[ to the Westward of the Messiasippi River, ]

I am unable to match all of Lawson's spellings with modern versions,
especially when it comes to the names of people, places, and tribes.

However, quite likely:

Tuscarora: Tuskeruro, and probably Turkeiruro also.
Roanoke: Ronoack.
Neuse River: Neus-River.
Falls-of-Neuse (north of Raleigh): Falls of Neus-Creek.
Deep River: Sapona-River (possible -- given as the West Branch of Cape Fair).
Cape Fear: Cape Fair.
Haw River: Hau River.
Congaree: Congeree
Wateree: Waterree
Catawba: Kadapau (possible -- the location seems correct)
Waxhaw: Waxsaw
Seneca: Sinnager

"Rocky-River" is probably still "Rocky River", but there are two by that name
in North Carolina, and the one in question is doubtless the larger one,
situated between Haw River and Deep River.

Other non-standard spellings follow, but first some notes
on how nonstandard items were handled in the text:

1. It seems as if "off" is occasionally spelled "of",
but almost always in conjunction with "far" or the like:
i.e., "not far of", "when farthest of". On p. 128, "when cut of"
may also be an example. In all these examples, though,
"of" *could* be the correct word, if used in the sense of "from".
If is difficult to ascertain if the difference is spelling or usage.
2. Where modern English would always use "than", Lawson sometimes
uses "that". This instance is repeated, so it is not conclusively
an error. One example is on p. 119, "larger that a Panther".
3. Abbreviated words often end with an apostrophe, rather than a period,
which is now the standard. "Through" is usually abbreviated as "thro'".
4. Italics have been kept throughout, with these notable exceptions:
in the original, every case of "&c." was italicized;
the side-notes were entirely italicized, except those words
generally italicized in the text, which were rendered in normal type --
this has been reversed. (Where "&c." appeared in an italicized section,
it was presented in normal type. This too was ignored.)
5. Printing was not as exact an art in 1709 as it is now,
and this should be kept in mind throughout the text.
As spelling was also not as standardized as it is now,
it is difficult to tell sometimes whether a word has an old spelling,
has a typographical error, or refers to something entirely different
from what the first impression would suggest. In addition to this,
there is a problem of battered type, which seems especially common
in italic text -- which, unfortunately, is commonly used here
for words in Indian languages, which makes reading the text
extremely difficult at times. And even without broken type,
as in Lawson's dictionary entry for "A Rundlet" (perhaps a Roundlet,
a small round object?) he gives `Ynpyupseunne' as the Woccon term,
which remains unclear on several accounts, as `u' and `n'
were not infrequently accidentally inverted in old texts --
i.e., it might be `Yupyupseunne', but where can we check it?
No exact answers can be given here, but all these factors
should be kept in mind when attempting to read this text.
Also in Lawson's Dictionary, occur the Indian words
Pulawa and Mif-kis-'su -- the latter has been rendered Mis-kis-'su,
as the old `s' and `f' were nearly identical, and were probably
inadvertently switched -- which according to his own notes on p. 231,
cannot happen, there being no `l' or `f' sounds in the languages.
(In this old type, `s' has an f-like appearance in most cases,
but a modern `s' was used if it was the last letter in a word,
which follows a similar usage with the `s' sound in the Greek alphabet.)
It is much harder to guess what Pulawa ought to have been.

Modern Spelling is listed first: alternate spelling(s) follow:
(More or less in the order they appear in the text.)

1. When multiple spellings in text include the modern spelling,
it is not noted.
2. Any word ending in -ed, such as "viewed", may end in -'d,
as "view'd". This gets a little complicated in such cases
as "accompany'd" (accompanied), "try'd" (tried), "supply'd" (supplied),
"carry'd" (carried), "hurry'd" (hurried), and the like.
Also cases where the root word originally ended with an "e",
such as "us'd" and "continu'd". These cases are not always noted.

them: 'em
Mississippi: Missisipi, Messiasippi (older concept -- seems to refer
to a vast area, probably everything drained by that river.)
New York: New-York
spacious: spatious
public: publick
style: stile
fur: furr
situate: soituate
price: prize
privilege: priviledge
show: shew
frontier: fronteer
enterprise: enterprize
scalp: sculp
flay: flea
allege: alledge (applies also to alleging, alleged, etc.)
mountainous: mountanous
gulf: gulph
lemon: limon
trial: tryal
palmetto: palmeto
mosquitoes: musketoes, musquetos
troublesome: troblesome (p. 8)
tried: try'd
vegetable: vegitable
buckets or boquets?: bokeets
Pennsylvania: Pensilvania, Pensylvania
isthmus: istmus
Glasgow: Glasco
corpses: corps
o'clock: a Clock
cattle: cattel
deer (plural): deers
beach: beech
clam: clann (probable -- may be a textual error)
curlew: curleu
pelican: pellican
Cyprus: Ciprus
alarm: allarm
turkey: turkie, turky
morbific: morbifick
complement: compliment (warning: compliment is also spelled this way)
specific: specifick
most impatient (impatientest): impatients (textual error?)
Mons. Huger: Mons. Eugee
(according to `Life of Gen. Francis Marion', by Judge William Dobein James,
"Huger, who lived in the fork between South Santee and Wambaw Creek.")
splendid: splended
continued: continu'd
courses: coarses
crowded: crouded
Ashley River: Ashley-River, Ashly-River
clothe or cloth: cloath
tribe: trible (textual error?)
rejoice: rejoyce
Mons. Gendron: Mons. L'Jandro
???: Mons. L'Grand
Mons. Gaillard: Mons. Galliar
affirmed: affir'm'd
knoll: knowl (possible)
paddling: padling
fabrics (fabrication, a structure): fabricks
loam: loom
hut: hutt
used: us'd
oil: oyl
chinquapin, chinkapin, chincapin: chinkapin, thinkapin (error?)
quiddany (a confection of quinces made with sugar): quiddony
barbecued: barbacu'd
loaves: loves
creoles: criolo's
courtesan: curtesan
monsieur: mounsieur
Leaguer-Ladies (soldier's wives -- Scottish term): Leager Ladies
parade: parrade
physic (medicine): physick
surgery: chirurgery
expense: expence
retaliation: retalliation
villainy: villany
balsamic: balsamick
belly-ache: belly-ach
crutches (i.e., props): crotches
smoke: smoak
straight: strait (probable), streight
complete: compleat
scraped: scrapt
fatigue: fatiegue (textual error?)
maize: maiz
over-flowed: over-flown
Stroud-water-Blue?: Stroud-water-Blew
[From the American Encyclopaedic Dictionary, 1896 (AED):
stroud: (Etym. doubtful: perhaps from Stroud, in Gloucester, England,
where flannel and cloth are manufactured in large quantities.)
A kind of coarse blanket or garment of strouding (a coarse kind of cloth
employed in trade with North American Indians) worn by the Indians
of North America.]
medley: medly
ragout: ragoo
burden: burthen (archaic)
availing (useful): eviling [possible, but questionable]
[Note also that the "e" in the print is badly formed,
and there is a slim chance it might be an "a" or another letter.]
chalybeate: chalybid
most dismal (dismallest): dismall'st
surprisal: surprizal
threatening: threatning
music: musick
tiger: tyger (note that in 1709 "tyger" and "panther" were generic terms)
drizzly: drisly
acorns: acrons (textual error?)
polecat (skunk): polcat
arithmetic: arithmetick
straggling: stragling
hickory: hiccory, hickery, hickerie
broth: broath
loblolly
[AED: 1. water-gruel or spoon-meat. 2. a sweet.]
brunette: brounetto (probable)
[Probably in the older sense of a woman of brownish complexion;
i.e., skin, eyes, and hair.]
squaw: squah
swaddling-cloths: swadling-clouts
rive: reave (possible -- not a common word)
pigged: pig'd
[AED: To be huddled together with several others in a single room
by night as well as by day; to live like pigs.]
tetter (generic term, skin disease): tettar
colic: cholick
gourd: goard
saddled: sadl'd
Brussels, Bruxelles: Bruxels (probable)
fuller's-earth: fullers-earth
stopped: stopt
portion: potion (possible -- or textual error?)
wondering: wondring
mechanics: mechanicks
domestic: domestick
passed: past
cornuted
[horned. These references to horns reflect the time this book was written,
when a man whose wife was unfaithful was said to have horns.]
stews
[archaic: a brothel.]
barbecues: barbakues
fusil: fusee, fuzee (probable)
[a fusee can be one of several things, but the context here suggests
that it was a fusil, which was a type of small, firelock musket.]
festination
[haste, hurry, expedition.]
human: humane
fuel: fewel
ankle: ancle
wondered: wondred
cully
[several senses, including a dupe or fool, especially one imposed upon
by a prostitute.]
caddis: cadis
Winchester-wedding
[The AED had no entry for this, but notes that "Winchester-goose"
is "a cant term for a venereal sore, said to have originated from
the public stews (brothels) in Southwark, England,
being under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Winchester."
It is probable that a Winchester-wedding would be of the type (or non-type)
performed in these same institutions.]
bachelor: batchelor
widower: widdower
shoes: shooes
moccasins: moggisons, moggizons
merchandise: merchandize
valleys: vallies
chestnut: chesnut
perch: pearch
soup: soop, soupe
Appalachian: Appallatche
desert: desart
Cape Fear: Cape-Fair, Caip-Fair
befall: befal
beaver: bever
buffalo: buffelo
palisades: palisadoes
necromantic: necromantick
Cologne, Koeln: Cologn (possible)
cliff or cleft?: clift
mustaches: mustachoes
alligator: allegator (despite Lawson's claim, NOT a crocodile)
turnip: turnep
biscuit: bisket (probable)
wholesome: wholsome
basin: bason
percoarson = perkoson, but I can not find any external references to either
certify: certifie
threatened: threatned
hindrance: hinderance
Atlantic: Atlantick
honeysuckle: honysuckle, hony-suckle
molasses: molosses
Roanoke: Ronoack, Ronoak
shore: shoar
moored: mor'd
parakeet: parrakeeto (doubtless the Carolina Parakeet, now extinct.)
inferior: inferiour
tie: tye
ashore: ashoar
peas: pease
garlic: garlick
chives: cives
salad: sallad
lettuce: lettice
spinach: spinage
cauliflower: colly-flower
watermelon: water-melon
basil: bazil
assuaging: asswaging
chamomile, camomile: camomil
houseleek: housleek
conveniences: conveniencies
rounceval: rouncival (in the text, a type of pea, now called a marrowfat)
rosin: rozin
subterranean, subterraneous: subteraneous
gigantic: gigantick
linen: linnen
housewife/housewives: houswife/houswives
housewifery: houswifry
woolens: woollens
choleric: cholerick
watery: watry
emetic: emetick
weirs: wares (probable -- pp. 86, 127. Can also be "wares", however.)
whaling: whale-fishing
porket: a young pig or hog.
thrived: throve
fit: fitt
Maryland: Mariland
supplied: supplyed
wig: wigg
cutlery: cuttlery
jasmine, jessamine: jessamin
browse/browsing: browze/browzing
evergreen: ever-green
household: houshold
virtue: vertue
vermin: vermine
Appamattox: Apamaticks, Appamaticks (probable)
cloud: clowd
aspen: aspin
ache: ach
burr, bur. (Both are still used, but "burr" is now more common,
where John Lawson tends towards "bur".)
cathartic: cathartick
cachexia (plural): cachexies ("cachexy" is an English form of the word,
now rarely, if ever, used.)
calico: callico
hazelnut: hazle-nut
conic/conical: conick
exotic: exotick
serviceberry/Juneberry/shadblow: service (given as the name of a fruit),
the plant it grows on is called the shadbush. (probable)
relished?: relisht
apricot: apricock
gooseberry: goosberry
vinedresser/vine dresser/vine-dresser: vigneroon (French "vigneron")
Madeira: Madera
rabbit: rabbet
jackal: jackall
havoc: havock
holler: hollow (Not all cases. Of the Panther, "He hollows like a Man"
should be "He hollers like a Man".)
sourwood tree: sowr-wood-tree, sowr wood, sorrel
surprise: surprize
raspberry: rasberry
mink: minx
mussel: muscle (in cases such as "muscle-shell")
rheum/rheumatism: rhume/rhumatism
rheumatic: rhumatick
tortoise: tortois
burrow: borough
chipmunk: ground squirrel (probable)
chase: chace
insect: reptile
reptile: insect
("Insect" is used strangely, to include reptiles and amphibians.
Conversely, Lawson uses "Reptile" to refer to insects.)
thoroughly: throughly (possible, p. 127)
entering: entring
frightened: frightned
connection: connexion (spelling in common use through the 19th century)
excrementitious (spelling still technically correct, but rare enough
that "excrescent" is suggested as an alternative, yet even that
has the wrong connotation in modern usage.)
terrapin: terebin
tadpole: tad-pool
easy: easie
wandering: wandring
leech: loach
Screech Owl: Scritch Owl (probable)
Trumpeter Swan: Swans, called Trompeters (probable)
fish hawk: fishawk
smallness: smalness
grasshopper: grashopper
set: sett
shot (past tense of shoot): shotten (see case on p. 151)
livor: liver
waiving: waving (??? -- p. 163)
rye: rie
indigo: indico (??? -- p. 164)
plasterers: plaisterers
governor: governour
joists: joices (probably this or a related word)
hazel: hazle
dye: die (p. 172)
gait: gate (p. 172)
inventor: inventer (both spellings acceptable, but "inventer" non-standard)
pare: pair (p. 173)
warrior: warriour
Trap-Ball (from Sense 8 of "Trap" in the AED)
A game and also one of the instruments used in playing the game,
the others being a small bat and a ball. The trap is of wood,
made like a slipper, with a hollow at the heel end,
and a kind of wooden spoon working on a pivot, in which
the ball is placed. By striking the handle or end of the spoon
the ball is projected up into the air, and the striker endeavors
to hit it as far as possible with the bat before it falls to the ground.
The opponents endeavor to catch the ball, or to bowl it
so as to hit the trap. Also called Trap-bat and Trap-bat and ball.
baton, bat: batoon (a variant spelling of baton, with a meaning
closer to that of bat. See Trap-Ball)
worse: worser
wrangling: rangling
sepulchre: sepulcre
hominy (grits): Rockahomine Meal (conjecture: Lawson gives Roocauwa
as the Woccon word for homine [hominy].), homine
nowadays: now adays
flag (p. 189) is another word for rushes or reeds.
artificially (p. 189) has changed meaning over the years. Means "artfully".
plaid: plad (in the sense of the garment, not the pattern)
porcelain: porcelan (used in a very old sense, referring to a cowry shell)
antic: antick
hero: heroe
disappointment: disapointment
relic: relick
tomahawk: tamahauk
unmanned: unman'd
frolic: frolick
prefixed: prefixt (obsolete sense)
enough: enow (correct but obsolete)
hieroglyphic: hieroglyphick
republic: republick
pestle: pestil, pestel
lightninged: lightned (the strict conversion to modern spelling
would be "lightened", but "lightninged" adheres to modern usage)
lie: lye
dripping: dropping (probable)
barricaded: barricadoed
stolen: stoln
frightened: frightned
lingering: lingring
mere: meer (at least in one case -- "meer Motion" may mean something else.)
foul: fowl (p. 222 -- same spelling used elsewhere for "fowl".)
phthisis, phthisic: phthisick (may be the old sense of the term,
designating any waste, decay, or emaciation; including tuberculosis,
which it now designates.)
torrefy: To dry, roast, scorch, or parch by a fire. AED.
This dictionary also notes that "torrefy" is a formation from the French,
whereas "torrify" (meaning the same thing) is an English formation,
from "torrid".
Waccon & Woccon used interchangeably
baked: bak't
Mongolian Hordes: Tartarian Hurds
(`Tartar' or `Tatar' is still in use, but in this context,
`Mongolian Hordes' is now used almost exclusively. What is curious
is why Lawson has this sidenote in the first place --
apparently he is comparing the Indians to the Tatars,
though on what grounds is unclear.)
jailor: jaylor
ghastly: gastly
stuffed: stufft
stalking: stauking
choose: chuse
mutinying: mutining
sylvan: sylvian
forewarn: forwarn
recall: recal
lies, lieth: lyeth
chapel: chappel
manor: mannor (possible)
ore: oar
dignified: dignifyed
enjoin: enjoyn
increase: encrease
liege: leige (may be an error in one case)
cheerful: chearful
let: lett (p. 246) (not sure if this is the same type of `let')
twig: twigg
brier: bryar
wherever: whereever (p.141 -- may be an error resulting from being broken
at the end of a line -- i.e., where-ever.)
red clay?: "A marl as red as blood" (p. 40)
aperitive?: apersive (a laxative -- it fits the context. p. 83)

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