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A New Voyage to Carolina by John Lawson

Part 3 out of 6

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'Tis a very good and durable Wood, to bottom Vessels for the Sea withal;
and they say, that it is never eaten by the Worm. The Nuts have
a large Kernel, which is very oily, except lain by, a long time, to mellow.
The Shell is very thick, as all the native Nuts of America are.
When it has its yellow outward Coat on, it looks and smells much like a Lemon.

The Maple, of which we have two sorts, is used to make Trenchers,
Spinning-wheels, &c. withal.

Chinkapin is a sort of Chesnut, whose Nuts are most commonly very plentiful;
insomuch that the Hogs get fat with them. They are rounder and smaller
than a Chesnut, but much sweeter. The Wood is much of the Nature of Chesnut,
having a Leaf and Grain almost like it. It is used to timber Boats,
Shallops, &c. and makes any thing that is to endure the Weather.
This and the Hiccory are very tough Rods used to whip Horses withal;
yet their Wood, in Substance, is very brittle. This Tree
the Vine much delights to twist about. It's good Fire-Wood,
but very sparkling, as well as Sassafras.

The Birch grows all on the Banks of our Rivers, very high up.
I never saw a Tree on the Salts. It differs something, in Bark,
from the European Birch. Its Buds in April are eaten by the Parrakeetos,
which resort, from all Parts, at that Season, to feed thereon.
Where this Wood grows, we are not yet seated; and as to the Wine,
or other Profits it would yield, we are, at present, Strangers to.

The Willow, here, likewise differs both in Bark and Leaf. It is frequently
found on the Banks of fresh Water, as the Birch is.

The Sycamore, in these Parts, grows in a low, swampy Land, by River-sides.
Its Bark is quite different from the English, and the most beautiful
I ever saw, being mottled and clowded with several Colours,
as white, blue, &c. It bears no Keys but a Bur like the sweet Gum.
Its Uses I am ignorant of.

I never saw any Aspin, but in Rapahannock-River, from whence I brought one,
(that was presented me there as a great Present) but it died by the way.

Of Holly we have two sorts; one having a large Leaf, the other a smaller.
They grow very thick in our low Woods. Many of them are very strait,
and two Foot Diameter. They make good Trenchers, and other Turnery-Ware.

The Red-Bud-Tree bears a purple Lark-Heel, and is the best Sallad,
of any Flower I ever saw. It is ripe in April and May.
They grow in Trees, generally small, but some are a Foot Diameter.

Pelletory grows on the Sand-Banks and Islands. It is used
to cure the Tooth-ach, by putting a Piece of the Bark in the Mouth,
which being very hot, draws a Rhume from the Mouth, and causes much Spittle.
The Indians use it to make their Composition, which they give
to their young Men and Boys, when they are husquenaw'd, of which you shall
hear farther, when I come to treat of the Customs, &c. of that People.

Arrow-Wood, growing on the Banks, is used, by the Indians,
for Arrows and Gun-Sticks. It grows as strait, as if plain'd,
and is of all Sizes. 'Tis as tough and pliable, as the smallest Canes.

The Chesnut-Tree of Carolina, grows up towards the hilly Part thereof,
is a very large and durable Wood, and fit for House-Frames, Palisado's,
Sills, and many other Uses. The Nut is smaller than those from Portugal,
but sweeter.

This is no Tree, but call'd the Oak-Vine, by reason it bears a sort of Bur
as the Oak does, and generally runs up those Trees. It's so porous,
that you suck Liquors thro' a Length of two Foot.

Prickly-Ash grows up like a Pole; of which the Indians and English
make Poles to set their Canoes along in Shoal-Water. It's very light,
and full of Thorns or Prickles, bearing Berries in large Clusters,
of a purple Colour, not much unlike the Alder. The Root of this Tree
is Cathartick and Emetick, used in Cachexies.

{Poison Vine.}
The Poison Vine is so called, because it colours the Hands of those
who handle it. What the Effects of it may be, I cannot relate;
neither do I believe, that any has made an Experiment thereof.
The Juice of this will stain Linnen, never to wash out. It marks
a blackish blue Colour, which is done only by breaking a bit of the Vine off,
and writing what you please therewith. I have thought,
that the East-India Natives set their Colours, by some such Means,
into their finest Callicoes. It runs up any Tree it meets withal,
and clasps round about it. The Leaves are like Hemlock,
and fall off in Winter.

{Canes and Reeds.}
Of Canes and Reeds we have many sorts. The hollow Reed, or Cane,
such as Angling-Rods are made of, and Weavers use, we have great Plenty of,
though none to the Northward of James-River in Virginia.
They always grow in Branches and low Ground. Their Leaves endure the Winter,
in which Season our Cattle eat them greedily. We have them
(towards the Heads of our Rivers) so large, that one Joint will hold
above a pint of Liquor.

The small Bamboo is next, which is a certain Vine, like the rest
of these Species, growing in low Land. They seldom, with us,
grow thicker than a Man's little Finger, and are very tough.
Their Root is a round Ball, which the Indians boil as we do Garden-Roots,
and eat them. When these Roots have been some time out of the Ground,
they become hard, and make good Heads to the Canes, on which
several pretty Figures may be cut. There are several others of this kind,
not thoroughly discover'd.

That Palmeto grows with us, which we call the dwarfish sort;
but the Palmeto-Tree I have not yet met withal in North-Carolina,
of which you have a Description elsewhere. We shall next treat
of the Spontaneous Fruits of this Country; and then proceed to those
that have been transplanted from Europe, and other Parts.

{Natural Vines.}
Among the natural Fruits, the Vine first takes place, of which
I find six sorts, very well known. {Bunch-Grapes.} The first
is the black Bunch-Grapes, which yield a Crimson Juice.
These grow common, and bear plentifully. They are of a good Relish,
though not large, yet well knit in the Clusters. They have a thickish Skin,
and large Stone, which makes them not yield much Juice.
There is another sort of Black-Grapes like the former, in all respects,
save that their Juice is of a light Flesh-Colour, inclining to a White.
I once saw a Spontaneous white Bunch-Grape in Carolina;
but the Cattle browzing on the Sprouts thereof in the Spring, it died.
{Fox-Grapes.} Of those which we call Fox-Grapes, we have four sorts;
two whereof are called Summer-Grapes, because ripe in July;
the other two Winter-Fruit, because not ripe till September or October.
The Summer Fox-Grapes grow not in Clusters, or great Bunches,
but are about five or six in a Bunch, about the Bigness of a Damson,
or larger. The black sort are frequent, the white not so commonly found.
They always grow in Swamps, and low moist Lands, running sometimes very high,
and being shady, and therefore proper for Arbours. They afford
the largest Leaf I ever saw, to my remembrance, the Back of which
is of a white Horse-flesh Colour. This Fruit always ripens in the Shade.
I have transplanted them into my Orchard, and find they thrive well,
if manured: A Neighbour of mine has done the same; mine were by Slips,
his from the Roots, which thrive to Admiration, and bear Fruit,
tho' not so juicy as the European Grape, but of a glutinous Nature.
However, it is pleasant enough to eat.

The other Winter Fox-Grapes, are much of the same Bigness.
These refuse no Ground, swampy or dry, but grow plentifully
on the Sand-Hills along the Sea-Coast, and elsewhere, and are great Bearers.
I have seen near twelve Bushels upon one Vine of the black sort.
Some of these, when thoroughly ripe, have a very pretty vinous Taste,
and eat very well, yet are glutinous. The white sort
are clear and transparent, and indifferent small Stones.
Being removed by the Slip or Root, they thrive well in our Gardens,
and make pleasant Shades.

Persimmon is a Tree, that agrees with all Lands and Soils.
Their Fruit, when ripe, is nearest our Medlar; if eaten before,
draws your Mouth up like a Purse, being the greatest Astringent
I ever met withal, therefore very useful in some Cases. The Fruit, if ripe,
will presently cleanse a foul Wound, but causes Pain. The Fruit is rotten,
when ripe, and commonly contains four flat Kernels, call'd Stones,
which is the Seed. 'Tis said, the Cortex Peruvianus comes
from a Persimmon-Tree, that grows in New-Spain. I have try'd
the Drying of this Bark, to imitate it, which it does tolerably well,
and agrees therewith. It is binding enough to work the same Effect.
The Tree, in extraordinary Land, comes sometimes to two Foot Diameter,
though not often. There are two sorts of this Fruit; one ripe in Summer,
the other when the Frost visits us.

We have three sorts of Mulberries, besides the different Bigness
of some Trees Fruit. The first is the common red Mulberry,
whose Fruit is the earliest we have, (except the Strawberries) and very sweet.
These Trees make a very fine Shade, to sit under in Summer-time.
They are found wild in great Quantities, wherever the Land is light and rich;
yet their Fruit is much better when they stand open. They are used
instead of Raisins and Currants, and make several pretty Kickshaws.
They yield a transparent Crimson Liquor, which would make good Wine;
but few Peoples Inclinations in this Country tend that way.
The others are a smooth-leav'd Mulberry, fit for the Silk-Worm.
One bears a white Fruit, which is common; the other bears a small black Berry,
very sweet. They would persuade me there, that the black Mulberry
with the Silk-Worm smooth Leaf, was a white Mulberry, and changed its Fruit.
The Wood hereof is very durable, and where the Indians cannot get Locust,
they make use of this to make their Bows. This Tree grows
extraordinary round and pleasant to the Eye.

The Hiccory, Walnut, Chinkapin and Chesnut, with their Fruits,
we have mention'd before.

The Hazle-Nut grows plentifully in some places of this Country;
especially, towards the Mountains; but ours are not so good
as the English Nuts, having a much thicker Shell (like all
the Fruits of America, that I ever met withal) which in Hardness
exceeds those of Europe.

The Cherries of the Woods grow to be very large Trees. One sort,
which is rarely found, is red, and not much unlike the Cornel-Berry.
But the common Cherry grows high, and in Bunches, like English Currants,
but much larger. They are of a bitterish sweet Relish,
and are equally valuable with our small Black-Cherries,
for an Infusion in Spirits. They yield a crimson Liquor,
and are great Bearers.

Our Rasberries are of a purple Colour, and agreeable Relish,
almost like the English; but I reckon them not quite so rich.
When once planted, 'tis hard to root them out. They run wild
all over the Country, and will bear the same Year you transplant them,
as I have found by Experience.

The Hurts, Huckle-Berries, or Blues of this Country, are four sorts,
which we are well acquainted withal; but more Species of this sort,
and all others, Time and Enquiry must discover. The first sort is
the same Blue or Bilberry, that grows plentifully in the North of England,
and in other Places, commonly on your Heaths, Commons, and Woods,
where Brakes or Fern grows.

The second sort grows on a small Bush in our Savannas and Meads,
and in the Woods. They are larger than the common Fruit,
and have larger Seed.

The third grows on the single Stem of a Stick that grows in low good Land,
and on the Banks of Rivers. They grow three or four Foot high,
and are very pleasant like the first sort, but larger.

The fourth sort grows upon Trees, some ten and twelve Foot high,
and the Thickness of a Man's Arm; these are found in the Runs and low Grounds,
and are very pleasant, and bear wonderfully. The English sometimes
dry them in the Sun, and keep them to use in the Winter,
instead of Currants. The Indians get many Bushels, and dry them on Mats,
whereof they make Plum-Bread, and many other Eatables.
They are good in Tarts, or infused in Liquors.

In the same Ground, commonly grows the Piemento, or All-Spice-Tree,
whose Berries differ in shape from those in the West-Indies,
being Taper or Conick, yet not inferiour, to any of that sort.
This Tree grows much like the Hurts, and is of the same Bigness.
I have known it transplanted to high Land, where it thrives.

{Dews. Black-Berries.}
Our Dew-Berries are very good. But the Black-Berries are bitterish,
and not so palatable, as in England.

{Sugar Tree.}
The Sugar-Tree ought to have taken place before. It is found
in no other parts of Carolina or America, that I ever learnt,
but in Places that are near the Mountains. It's most like one sort of Maple,
of any Tree, and may be rank'd amongst that kind. This Tree,
which, I am told, is of a very tedious Growth, is found very plentifully
towards the Heads of some of our Rivers. The Indians tap it,
and make Gourds to receive the Liquor, which Operation is done
at distinct and proper times, when it best yields its Juice,
of which, when the Indians have gotten enough, they carry it home,
and boil it to a just Consistence of Sugar, which grains of itself,
and serves for the same Uses, as other Sugar does.

The Papau is not a large Tree. I think, I never saw one a Foot through;
but has the broadest Leaf of any Tree in the Woods, and bears an Apple
about the Bigness of a Hen's Egg, yellow, soft, and as sweet,
as any thing can well be. They make rare Puddings of this Fruit.
The Apple contains a large Stone.

{Wild Fig.}
The wild Fig grows in Virginia, up in the Mountains, as I am inform'd
by a Gentleman of my acquaintance, who is a Person of Credit,
and a great Traveller in America. I shall be glad to have an Opportunity
to make Tryal what Improvement might be made of this wild Fruit.

{Plum red.}
The wild Plums of America are of several sorts. Those which I can give
an account of from my own Knowledge, I will, and leave the others
till a farther Discovery. The most frequent is that which we call
the common Indian Plum, of which there are two sorts, if not more.
One of these is ripe much sooner than the other, and differs in the Bark;
one of the Barks being very scaly, like our American Birch.
These Trees, when in Blossom, smell as sweet as any Jessamine,
and look as white as a Sheet, being something prickly. You may make it grow
to what Shape you please; they are very ornamental about a House,
and make a wonderful fine Shew at a Distance, in the Spring,
because of their white Livery. Their Fruit is red, and very palatable
to the sick. They are of a quick Growth, and will bear from the Stone
in five Years, on their Stock. The English large black Plum thrives well,
as does the Cherry, being grafted thereon.

{Damsons of America.}
The American Damsons are both black and white, and about the Bigness of
an European Damson. They grow any where, if planted from the Stone or Slip;
bear a white Blossom, and are a good Fruit. They are found on the Sand-Banks
all along the Coast of America. I have planted several in my Orchard,
that came from the Stone, which thrive well amongst the rest of my Trees.
But they never grow to the Bigness of the other Trees now spoken of.
These are plentiful Bearers.

There is a third sort of Plum about the Bigness of the Damson.
The Tree is taller, seldom exceeding ten Inches in Thickness.
The Plum seems to taste physically, yet I never found any Operation it had,
except to make their Lips sore, that eat them. The Wood is something porous,
but exceeds any Box, for a beautiful Yellow.

{Winter Currant.}
There is a very pretty, bushy Tree, about seven or eight Foot high,
very spreading, which bears a Winter-Fruit, that is ripe in October.
They call 'em Currants, but they are nearer a Hurt. I have eaten
very pretty Tarts made thereof. They dry them instead of Currants.
This Bush is very beautiful.

{Bermudas Currants.}
The Bermudas Currants grow in the Woods on a Bush, much like
the European Currant. Some People eat them very much; but for my part,
I can see nothing inviting in them, and reckon them a very indifferent Fruit.

{April Currants.}
We have another Currant, which grows on the Banks of Rivers,
or where only Clay hath been thrown up. This Fruit is red,
and gone almost as soon as come. They are a pretty Fruit
whilst they last, and the Tree (for 'tis not a Bush) they grow upon,
is a very pleasant Vegetable.

{Red Haws.}
The Haw-thorn grows plentifully in some parts of this Country.
The Haws are quite different from those in England, being four times as big,
and of a very pleasant agreeable Taste. We make no use of this Plant,
nor any other, for Hedges, because Timber is so plentiful at present.
In my Judgment, the Honey-Locust would be the fittest for Hedges;
because it is very apt to shoot forth many Sprouts and Succours
from the Roots; besides, it is of a quick Growth, and very prickly.

The Black Haw grows on a slender Tree, about the Height of a Quince-Tree,
or something higher, and bears the black Haw, which People eat,
and the Birds covet also. What Vertues the Fruit or Wood is of,
I cannot resolve you, at present.

Thus have I given an Account of all the Spontaneous Fruits of Carolina,
that have come to my Knowledge, excepting Services, which I have seen
in the Indians Hands, and eat of them, but never saw,
how nor where they grew. There may very well be expected
a great many more Fruits, which are the natural Product of this Country,
when we consider the Fruitfulness of the Soil and Climate,
and account for the vast Tract of Land, (great part of which
is not yet found out) according to the Product of that which
is already discover'd, which (as I once hinted before) is not as yet
arriv'd to our Knowledge, we having very little or no Correspondence
amongst the mountainous Parts of this Province, and towards
the Country of Messiasippi, all which we have strange Accounts of,
and some very large ones, with respect to the different and noble Fruits,
and several other Ornaments and Blessings of Nature which
Messiasippi possesses; more to be coveted, than any of those we enjoy,
to the Eastward of the Mountains: Yet when I came to discourse
some of the Idolizers of that Country, I found it to be rather Novelty,
than Truth and Reality, that induced those Persons to allow it
such Excellencies above others. It may be a brave and fertile Country,
as I believe it is; but I cannot be persuaded, that it can be
near so advantageous as ours, which is much better situated for Trade,
being faced all along with the Ocean, as the English America is;
when the other is only a direct River, in the midst of a wild unknown Land,
greatest part of whose Product must be fetch'd, or brought a great way,
before it can come to a Market. Moreover, such great Rivers
commonly allow of more Princes Territories than one; and thus nothing
but War and Contention accompanies the Inhabitants thereof.

But not to trouble our Readers with any more of this, we will proceed,
in the next place, to shew, what Exotick Fruits we have, that thrive well
in Carolina; and what others, it may reasonably be suppos'd, would do there,
were they brought thither and planted. In pursuance of which,
I will set down a Catalogue of what Fruits we have; I mean Species:
For should I pretend to give a regular Name to every one;
it's neither possible for me to do it, nor for any one to understand it,
when done; if we consider, that the chiefest part of our Fruit came
from the Kernel, and some others from the Succours, or Sprouts of the Tree.
First, we will begin with Apples; which are the

Golden Russet.
Pearmain | Winter.
| Summer.
Harvey-Apple, I cannot tell, whether the same as in England.
Winter Queening.
Leather Coat.

The Golden Russet thrives well.

The Pearmains, of both sorts, are apt to speck, and rot on the Trees;
and the Trees are damaged and cut off by the Worm, which breeds in the Forks,
and other parts thereof; and often makes a Circumposition,
by destroying the Bark round the Branches, till it dies.

Harvey-Apple; that which we call so, is esteem'd very good to make Cider of.

Winter Queening is a durable Apple, and makes good Cider.

Leather-Coat; both Apple and Tree stand well.

The Juniting is early ripe, and soon gone, in these warm Countries.

Codlin; no better, and fairer Fruit in the World; yet the Tree suffers
the same Distemper, as the Pearmains, or rather worse; the Trees always dying
before they come to their Growth.

The Redstreak thrives very well.

Long-stalk is a large Apple, with a long Stalk, and makes good Summer Cider.

We beat the first of our Codlin Cider, against reaping our Wheat,
which is from the tenth of June, to the five and twentieth.

Lady-Finger, the long Apple, the same as in England, and full as good.
We have innumerable sorts; some call'd Rope-Apples which are small Apples,
hanging like Ropes of Onions; Flattings, Grigsons, Cheese-Apples,
and a great number of Names, given according to every ones Discretion.

The Warden-Pear here proves a good eating Pear; and is not so long ripening
as in England.

Katharine excellent.


And several others without Name, The Bergamot we have not,
nor either of the Bonne Chrestiennes, though I hear, they are all three
in Virginia. Those sorts of Pears which we have, are as well relisht,
as ever I eat any where; but that Fruit is of very short Continuance with us,
for they are gone almost as soon as ripe.

I am not a Judge of the different sorts of Quinces, which they call
Brunswick, Portugal, and Barbary; But as to the Fruit, in general,
I believe no Place has fairer and better relisht. They are very pleasant
eaten raw. Of this Fruit, they make a Wine, or Liquor,
which they call Quince-Drink, and which I approve of beyond any Drink
which that Country affords, though a great deal of Cider and some Perry
is there made. The Quince-Drink most commonly purges those
that first drink it, and cleanses the Body very well.
The Argument of the Physicians, that they bind People, is hereby contradicted,
unless we allow the Quinces to differ in the two Countries.
The least Slip of this Tree stuck in the Ground, comes to bear in three years.

All Peaches, with us, are standing; neither have we any Wall-Fruit
in Carolina; for we have Heat enough, and therefore do not require it.
We have a great many sorts of this Fruit, which all thrive to Admiration,
Peach-Trees coming to Perfection (with us) as easily as the Weeds.
A Peach falling on the Ground, brings a Peach-Tree that shall bear
in three years, or sometimes sooner. Eating Peaches in our Orchards
makes them come up so thick from the Kernel, that we are forced
to take a great deal of Care to weed them out; otherwise they make our Land
a Wilderness of Peach-Trees. They generally bear so full,
that they break great part of their Limbs down. We have likewise
very fair Nectarines, especially the red, that clings to the Stone,
the other yellow Fruit, that leaves the Stone; of the last,
I have a Tree, that, most Years, brings me fifteen or twenty Bushels.
I see no Foreign Fruit like this, for thriving in all sorts of Land,
and bearing its Fruit to Admiration. I want to be satisfy'd about
one sort of this Fruit, which the Indians claim as their own, and affirm,
they had it growing amongst them, before any Europeans came to America.
The Fruit I will describe, as exactly as I can. The Tree grows very large,
most commonly as big as a handsome Apple-tree; the Flowers are of a reddish,
murrey Colour; the Fruit is rather more downy, than the yellow Peach,
and commonly very large and soft, being very full of Juice.
They part freely from the Stone, and the Stone is much thicker
than all the other Peach Stones we have, which seems to me,
that it is a Spontaneous Fruit of America; yet in those Parts of America
that we inhabit, I never could hear that any Peach-Trees were ever found
growing in the Woods; neither have the foreign Indians, that live remote
from the English, any other sort. And those living amongst us
have a hundred of this sort for one other; they are a hardy Fruit,
and are seldom damaged by the North-East Blasts, as others are.
Of this sort we make Vinegar; wherefore we call them Vinegar-Peaches,
and sometimes Indian-Peaches.

This Tree grows to a vast Bigness, exceeding most Apple-Trees.
They bear well, tho' sometimes an early Spring comes on in February,
and perhaps, when the Tree is fully blown the Cloudy North-East-Winds
which attend the end of, that Month, or the beginning of March,
destroy most of the Fruit. The biggest Apricock-Tree I ever saw,
as they told me, was grafted on a Peach-Stock, in the Ground.
I know of no other sort with us, than the Common. We generally
raise this Fruit from the Stone, which never fails to bring the same Fruit.
Likewise our Peach-Stones effect the same, without so much as once missing,
to produce the same sort that the Stone came from.

Damson, Damazeen, and a large round black Plum are all I have met withal
in Carolina. They thrive well enough; the last to Admiration,
and becomes a very large Tree, if in stiff Ground; otherwise they will not
do well.

Of Figs we have two sorts; One is the low Bush-Fig, which bears a large Fruit.
If the Winter happens to have much Frost, the tops thereof die,
and in the Spring sprout again, and bear two or three good Crops.

The Tree-Fig is a lesser Fig, though very sweet. The Tree grows
to a large Body and Shade, and generally brings a good Burden;
especially, if in light Land. This Tree thrives no where better,
than on the Sand-Banks by the Sea.

We have the common red and black Cherry, which bear well.
I never saw any grafted in this Country, the common excepted,
which was grafted on an Indian Plum-stock, and bore well.
This is a good way, because our common Cherry-Trees are very apt
to put Scions all round the Tree, for a great Distance, which must needs be
prejudicial to the Tree and Fruit. Not only our Cherries are apt to do so,
but our Apples and most other Fruit-Trees, which may chiefly be imputed
to the Negligence and Unskilfulness of the Gardener. Our Cherries are ripe
a Month sooner than in Virginia.

Goosberries I have seen of the smaller sort, but find they do not do so well
as in England, and to the Northward. Want of Dressing may be
some Reason for this.

Currants, White, Red, and Black, thrive here, as well as any where.

Rasberries, the red and white, I never saw any Trial made of.
But there is no doubt of their thriving to Admiration,
since those of the Country do so well.

The Mulberries are spontaneous. We have no others, than what I have
already mentioned in the Class of Natural Fruits of Carolina.

Barberry red, with Stones, and without Stones, grow here.

Strawberries, not Foreign, but those of the Country, grow here
in great Plenty. Last April I planted a Bed of two hundred Foot in Length,
which bore the same Year.

Medlars we have none.

All sorts of Walnuts from England, France, and Maderas,
thrive well from the Nut.

No Filberts, but Hazle-Nuts; the Filbert-Nut planted,
becomes a good Hazle-Nut, and no better.

As for that noble Vegetable the Vine, without doubt, it may
(in this Country) be improved, and brought to the same Perfection,
as it is, at this Day, in the same Latitude in Europe,
since the chiefest part of this Country is a deep, rich, black Mould,
which is up towards the Freshes and Heads of our Rivers,
being very rich and mix'd with Flint, Pebbles, and other Stones.
And this sort of Soil is approv'd of (by all knowing Gardeners and Vigneroons)
as a proper Earth, in which the Grape chiefly delights; and what seems
to give a farther Confirmation hereof, is, that the largest Vines,
that were ever discover'd to grow wild, are found in those Parts,
oftentimes in such Plenty, and are so interwoven with one another,
that 'tis impossible to pass through them. Moreover, in these Freshes,
towards the Hills, the Vines are above five times bigger than those
generally with us, who are seated in the Front-parts of this Country,
adjoining to the Salts. Of the wild Vines, which are most of them
great Bearers, some Wine has been made, which I drank of.
It was very strong and well relisht; but what detains them all from offering
at great quantities, they add, that this Grape has a large Stone,
and a thick Skin, and consequently yields but a small Quantity of Wine.
Some Essays of this Nature have been made by that Honourable Knight,
Sir Nathanael Johnson, in South Carolina, who, as I am inform'd,
has rejected all Exotick Vines, and makes his Wine from the natural
black Grape of Carolina, by grafting it upon its own Stock.
What Improvement this may arrive to, I cannot tell; but in other Species,
I own Grafting and Imbudding yields speedy Fruit, tho' I never found
that it made them better.

New planted Colonies are generally attended with a Force and Necessity
of Planting the known and approved Staple and Product of the Country,
as well as all the Provisions their Families spend. Therefore we
can entertain but small hopes of the Improvement of the Vine,
till some skilful in dressing Vines shall appear amongst us,
and go about it, with a Resolution, that Ordering the Vineyard
shall be one half of their Employment. If this be begun and carried on,
with that Assiduity and Resolution which it requires,
then we may reasonably hope to see this a Wine-Country;
for then, when it becomes a general Undertaking, every one will be capable
to add something to the common Stock, of that which he has gain'd
by his own Experience. This way would soon make the Burden light,
and a great many shorter and exacter Curiosities, and real Truths
would be found out in a short time. The trimming of Vines,
as they do in France, that is, to a Stump, must either here be not follow'd,
or we are not sensible of the exact time, when they ought to be thus pruned;
for Experience has taught us, that the European Grape,
suffer'd to run and expand itself at large, has been found to bear
as well in America, as it does in Europe; when, at the same time,
the same sort of Vine trimm'd to a Stump, as before spoken of,
has born a poor Crop for one Year or two; and by its spilling, after cutting,
emaciated, and in three or four Years, died. This Experiment, I believe,
has never fail'd; for I have trimm'd the natural Vine the French way,
which has been attended, at last, with the same Fate. Wherefore, it seems
most expedient, to leave the Vines more Branches here, than in Europe,
or let them run up Trees, as some do, in Lombardy, upon Elms.
The Mulberries and Chinkapin are tough, and trimm'd to what you please,
therefore fit Supporters of the Vines. Gelding and plucking away the Leaves,
to hasten the ripening of this Fruit, may not be unnecessary,
yet we see the natural wild Grape generally ripens in the Shade.
Nature in this, and many others, may prove a sure Guide.
The Twisting of the Stems to make the Grapes ripe together,
loses no Juice, and may be beneficial, if done in Season.
A very ingenious French Gentleman, and another from Switzerland,
with whom I frequently converse, exclaim against that strict cutting of Vines,
the generally approved Method of France and Germany, and say,
that they were both out in their Judgment, till of late, Experience has
taught them otherwise. Moreover, the French in North Carolina assure me,
that if we should trim our Apple and other Fruit-Trees,
as they do in Europe, we should spoil them. As for Apples and Plums,
I have found by Experience, what they affirm to be true. The French,
from the Mannakin Town on the Freshes of James River in Virginia,
had, for the most part, removed themselves to Carolina, to live there,
before I came away; and the rest were following, as their Minister,
(Monsieur Philip de Rixbourg) told me, who was at Bath-Town,
when I was taking my leave of my Friends. He assur'd me, that their Intent
was to propagate Vines, as far as their present Circumstances would permit;
provided they could get any Slips of Vines, that would do. At the same time,
I had gotten some Grape-Seed, which was of the Jesuits white Grape
from Madera. The Seed came up very plentifully, and, I hope,
will not degenerate, which if it happens not to do, the Seed may prove
the best way to raise a Vineyard, as certainly it is most easy
for Transportation. Yet I reckon we should have our Seed from a Country,
where the Grape arrives to the utmost Perfection of Ripeness.
These French Refugees have had small Encouragement in Virginia,
because, at their first coming over, they took their Measures of Living,
from Europe; which was all wrong; for the small Quantities of ten,
fifteen, and twenty Acres to a Family did not hold out according to
their way of Reckoning, by Reason they made very little or no Fodder;
and the Winter there being much harder than with us, their Cattle fail'd;
chiefly, because the English took up and survey'd all the Land
round about them; so that they were hemm'd in on all Hands
from providing more Land for themselves or their Children,
all which is highly prejudicial in America, where the generality
are bred up to Planting. One of these French Men being a Fowling,
shot a Fowl in the River, upon which his Dog went down the Bank
to bring it to his Master; but the Bank was so high and steep,
that he could not get up again. Thereupon, the French Man went down,
to help his Dog up, and breaking the Mould away, accidentally, with his Feet,
he discover'd a very rich Coal-Mine. This Adventure he gave an Account of
amongst the Neighbourhood, and presently one of the Gentlemen of that Part
survey'd the Land, and the poor French Man got nothing by his Discovery.
The French are good Neighbours amongst us, and give Examples of Industry,
which is much wanted in this Country. They make good Flax, Hemp,
Linnen-Cloth and Thread; which they exchange amongst the Neighbourhood
for other Commodities, for which they have occasion.

We have hitherto made no Tryal of foreign Herbage; but, doubtless,
it would thrive well; especially, Sanfoin, and those Grasses,
that endure Heat, and dry Grounds. As for our Low Lands, such as Marshes,
Savannas and Percoarson-Ground, which lies low, all of them naturally afford
good Land for Pasturage.

We will next treat of the Beasts, which you shall have an Account of,
as they have been discover'd.

The Beasts of Carolina are the

Buffelo, or wild Beef.
Wild Cat.
Rabbet, two sorts.
Squirrel, four sorts.
Lion, and Jackall on the Lake.
Rats, two sorts.
Mice, two sorts.
Weasel, Dormouse.

The Buffelo is a wild Beast of America, which has a Bunch on his Back,
as the Cattle of St. Laurence are said to have. He seldom appears
amongst the English Inhabitants, his chief Haunt being
in the Land of Messiasippi, which is, for the most part, a plain Country;
yet I have known some kill'd on the Hilly Part of Cape-Fair-River,
they passing the Ledges of vast Mountains from the said Messiasippi,
before they can come near us. {Two killed one year in Virginia
at Appamaticks.} I have eaten of their Meat, but do not think it so good
as our Beef; yet the younger Calves are cry'd up for excellent Food,
as very likely they may be. It is conjectured, that these Buffelos,
mixt in Breed with our tame Cattle, would much better the Breed
for Largeness and Milk, which seems very probable. Of the wild Bull's Skin,
Buff is made. The Indians cut the Skins into Quarters
for the Ease of their Transportation, and make Beds to lie on.
They spin the Hair into Garters, Girdles, Sashes, and the like,
it being long and curled, and often of a chesnut or red Colour.
These Monsters are found to weigh (as I am informed by a Traveller of Credit)
from 1600 to 2400 Weight.

The Bears here are very common, though not so large as in Greenland,
and the more Northern Countries of Russia. The Flesh of this Beast
is very good, and nourishing, and not inferiour to the best Pork in Taste.
It stands betwixt Beef and Pork, and the young Cubs are a Dish
for the greatest Epicure living. I prefer their Flesh before any Beef,
Veal, Pork, or Mutton; and they look as well as they eat,
their fat being as white as Snow, and the sweetest of any Creature's
in the World. If a Man drink a Quart thereof melted,
it never will rise in his Stomach. We prefer it above all things,
to fry Fish and other things in. Those that are Strangers to it,
may judge otherwise; But I who have eaten a great deal of Bears Flesh
in my Life-time (since my being an Inhabitant in America)
do think it equalizes, if not excels, any Meat I ever eat in Europe.
The Bacon made thereof is extraordinary Meat; but it must be well saved,
otherwise it will rust. This Creature feeds upon all sorts of wild Fruits.
When Herrings run, which is in March, the Flesh of such of those Bears
as eat thereof, is nought, all that Season, and eats filthily.
Neither is it good, when he feeds on Gum-berries, as I intimated before.
They are great Devourers of Acorns, and oftentimes meet the Swine
in the Woods, which they kill and eat, especially when they are hungry,
and can find no other Food. Now and then they get into
the Fields of Indian Corn, or Maiz, where they make a sad Havock,
spoiling ten times as much as they eat. The Potatos of this Country
are so agreeable to them, that they never fail to sweep 'em all clean,
if they chance to come in their way. They are seemingly
a very clumsy Creature, yet are very nimble in running up Trees,
and traversing every Limb thereof. When they come down,
they run Tail foremost. At catching of Herrings, they are
most expert Fishers. They sit by the Creek-sides, (which are very narrow)
where the Fish run in; and there they take them up, as fast as it's possible
they can dip their Paws into the Water. There is one thing more
to be consider'd of this Creature, which is, that no Man,
either Christian or Indian, has ever kill'd a She-bear with Young.

It is supposed, that the She-Bears, after Conception, hide themselves
in some secret and undiscoverable Place, till they bring forth their Young,
which, in all Probability, cannot be long; otherwise, the Indians,
who hunt the Woods like Dogs, would, at some time or other,
have found them out. Bear-Hunting is a great Sport in America,
both with the English and Indians. Some Years ago, there were kill'd
five hundred Bears, in two Counties of Virginia, in one Winter;
and but two She-Bears amongst them all, which were not with Young,
as I told you of the rest. The English have a breed of Dogs
fit for this sport, about the size of Farmers Curs, and, by Practice,
come to know the Scent of a Bear, which as soon as they have found,
they run him, by the Nose, till they come up with him,
and then bark and snap at him, till he trees, when the Huntsman shoots him
out of the Trees, there being, for the most part, two or three with Guns,
lest the first should miss, or not quite kill him. Though they are not
naturally voracious, yet they are very fierce when wounded.
The Dogs often bring him to a Bay, when wounded, and then the Huntsmen
make other Shots, perhaps with the Pistols that are stuck in their Girdles.
If a Dog is apt to fasten, and run into a Bear, he is not good,
for the best Dog in Europe is nothing in their Paws; but if ever
they get him in their Clutches, they blow his Skin from his Flesh,
like a Bladder, and often kill him; or if he recovers it, he is never good
for any thing after. As the Paws of this Creature, are held for the best bit
about him, so is the Head esteem'd the worst, and always thrown away,
for what reason I know not. I believe, none ever made Trial thereof,
to know how it eats. The Oil of the Bear is very Sovereign for Strains,
Aches, and old Pains. The fine Fur at the bottom of the Belly, is used
for making Hats, in some places. The Fur itself is fit for several Uses;
as for making Muffs, facing Caps, &c. but the black Cub-skin is preferable
to all sorts of that kind, for Muffs. Its Grain is like Hog-Skin.

The Panther is of the Cat's kind; about the height of a very large Greyhound
of a reddish Colour, the same as a Lion. He climbs Trees
with the greatest Agility imaginable, is very strong-limb'd,
catching a piece of Meat from any Creature he strikes at.
His Tail is exceeding long; his Eyes look very fierce and lively,
are large, and of a grayish Colour; his Prey is, Swines-flesh, Deer,
or any thing he can take; no Creature is so nice and clean, as this,
in his Food. When he has got his Prey, he fills his Belly with the Slaughter,
and carefully lays up the Remainder, covering it very neatly with Leaves,
which if any thing touches, he never eats any more of it.
He purrs as Cats do; if taken when Young, is never to be reclaim'd
from his wild Nature. He hollows like a Man in the Woods, when kill'd,
which is by making him take a Tree, as the least Cur will presently do;
then the Huntsmen shoot him; if they do not kill him outright,
he is a dangerous Enemy, when wounded, especially to the Dogs
that approach him. This Beast is the greatest Enemy to the Planter,
of any Vermine in Carolina. His Flesh looks as well
as any Shambles-Meat whatsoever; a great many People eat him, as choice Food;
but I never tasted of a Panther, so cannot commend the Meat,
by my own Experience. His Skin is a warm Covering for the Indians
in Winter, though not esteem'd amongst the choice Furs. This Skin dress'd,
makes fine Womens Shooes, or Mens Gloves.

The Mountain-Cat, so call'd, because he lives in the Mountainous Parts
of America. He is a Beast of Prey, as the Panther is, and nearest to him
in Bigness and Nature.

{Wild Cat.}
This Cat is quite different from those in Europe; being more
nimble and fierce, and larger; his Tail does not exceed four Inches.
He makes a very odd sort of Cry in the Woods, in the Night.
He is spotted as the Leopard is, tho' some of them are not,
(which may happen, when their Furs are out of Season)
he climbs a Tree very dexterously, and preys as the Panther does.
He is a great Destroyer of young Swine. I knew an Island,
which was possess'd by these Vermine, unknown to the Planter,
who put thereon a considerable Stock of Swine; but never took one back;
for the wild Cats destroy'd them all. He takes most of his Prey by Surprize,
getting up the Trees, which they pass by or under, and thence leaping
directly upon them. Thus he takes Deer (which he cannot catch by running)
and fastens his Teeth into their Shoulders and sucks them.
They run with him, till they fall down for want of strength,
and become a Prey to the Enemy. Hares, Birds, and all he meets,
that he can conquer, he destroys. The Fur is approv'd to wear
as a Stomacher, for weak and cold Stomachs. They are likewise used
to line Muffs, and Coats withal, in cold Climates.

The Wolf of Carolina, is the Dog of the Woods. The Indians had
no other Curs, before the Christians came amongst them.
They are made domestick. When wild, they are neither so large, nor fierce,
as the European Wolf. They are not Man-slayers; neither is any Creature
in Carolina, unless wounded. They go in great Droves in the Night,
to hunt Deer, which they do as well as the best Pack of Hounds.
Nay, one of these will hunt down a Deer. They are often so poor,
that they can hardly run. When they catch no Prey, they go to a Swamp,
and fill their Belly full of Mud; if afterwards they chance
to get any thing of Flesh, they will disgorge the Mud, and eat the other.
When they hunt in the Night, that there is a great many together,
they make the most hideous and frightful Noise, that ever was heard.
The Fur makes good Muffs. The Skin dress'd to a Parchment
makes the best Drum-Heads, and if tann'd makes the best sort of Shooes
for the Summer-Countries.

Tygers are never met withal in the Settlement; but are more to the Westward,
and are not numerous on this Side the Chain of Mountains. I once saw one,
that was larger that a Panther, and seem'd to be a very bold Creature.
The Indians that hunt in those Quarters, say, they are seldom met withal.
It seems to differ from the Tyger of Asia and Africa.

Polcats or Skunks in America, are different from those in Europe.
They are thicker, and of a great many Colours; not all alike,
but each differing from another in the particular Colour.
They smell like a Fox, but ten times stronger. When a Dog encounters them,
they piss upon him, and he will not be sweet again in a Fortnight or more.
The Indians love to eat their Flesh, which has no manner of ill Smell,
when the Bladder is out. I know no use their Furs are put to.
They are easily brought up tame.

There have been seen some Otters from the Westward of Carolina,
which were of a white Colour, a little inclining to a yellow.
They live on the same Prey here, as in Europe, and are the same
in all other Respects; so I shall insist no farther on that Creature.
Their Furs, if black, are valuable.

Bevers are very numerous in Carolina, their being abundance of their Dams
in all Parts of the Country, where I have travel'd. They are the most
industrious and greatest Artificers (in building their Dams and Houses)
of any four-footed Creatures in the World. Their Food is chiefly
the Barks of Trees and Shrubs, viz. Sassafras, Ash, Sweet-Gum,
and several others. If you take them young, they become
very tame and domestick, but are very mischievous in spoiling Orchards,
by breaking the Trees, and blocking up your Doors in the Night,
with the Sticks and Wood they bring thither. If they eat any thing
that is salt, it kills them. Their Flesh is a sweet Food;
especially, their Tail, which is held very dainty. Their Fore-Feet are open,
like a Dog's; their Hind-Feet webb'd like a Water-Fowl's.
The Skins are good Furs for several Uses, which every one knows.
The Leather is very thick; I have known Shooes made thereof in Carolina,
which lasted well. It makes the best Hedgers Mittens that can be used.

{Musk Rat.}
Musk Rats frequent fresh Streams and no other; as the Bever does.
He has a Cod of Musk, which is valuable, as is likewise his Fur.

The Possum is found no where but in America. He is the Wonder
of all the Land Animals, being the size of a Badger, and near that Colour.
The Male's Pizzle is placed retrograde; and in time of Coition,
they differ from all other Animals, turning Tail to Tail,
as Dog and Bitch when ty'd. The Female, doubtless, breeds her Young
at her Teats; for I have seen them stick fast thereto, when they have been
no bigger than a small Rasberry, and seemingly inanimate.
She has a Paunch, or false Belly, wherein she carries her Young,
after they are from those Teats, till they can shift for themselves.
Their Food is Roots, Poultry, or wild Fruits. They have no Hair
on their Tails, but a sort of a Scale, or hard Crust, as the Bevers have.
If a Cat has nine Lives, this Creature surely has nineteen;
for if you break every Bone in their Skin, and mash their Skull,
leaving them for Dead, you may come an hour after, and they will be
gone quite away, or perhaps you meet them creeping away.
They are a very stupid Creature, utterly neglecting their Safety.
They are most like Rats of any thing. I have, for Necessity
in the Wilderness, eaten of them. Their Flesh is very white,
and well tasted; but their ugly Tails put me out of Conceit with that Fare.
They climb Trees, as the Raccoons do. Their Fur is not esteem'd nor used,
save that the Indians spin it into Girdles and Garters.

The Raccoon is of a dark-gray Colour; if taken young, is easily made tame,
but is the drunkenest Creature living, if he can get any Liquor
that is sweet and strong. They are rather more unlucky than a Monkey.
When wild, they are very subtle in catching their Prey.
Those that live in the Salt-Water, feed much on Oysters which they love.
They watch the Oyster when it opens, and nimbly put in their Paw,
and pluck out the Fish. Sometimes the Oyster shuts, and holds fast their Paw
till the Tide comes in, that they are drown'd, tho' they swim very well.
The way that this Animal catches Crabs, which he greatly admires,
and which are plenty in Carolina, is worthy of Remark.
When he intends to make a Prey of these Fish, he goes to a Marsh,
where standing on the Land, he lets his Tail hang in the Water.
This the Crab takes for a Bait, and fastens his Claws therein,
which as soon as the Raccoon perceives, he, of a sudden, springs forward,
a considerable way, on the Land, and brings the Crab along with him.
As soon as the Fish finds himself out of his Element, he presently
lets go his hold; and then the Raccoon encounters him, by getting him
cross-wise in his Mouth, and devours him. There is a sort of small Land-Crab,
which we call a Fiddler, that runs into a Hole when any thing pursues him.
This Crab the Raccoon takes by putting his Fore-Foot in the Hole,
and pulling him out. With a tame Raccoon, this Sport is very diverting.
The Chief of his other Food is all sorts of wild Fruits, green Corn,
and such as the Bear delights in. This and the Possum
are much of a Bigness. The Fur makes good Hats and Linings.
The Skin dress'd makes fine Womens Shooes.

The Minx is an Animal much like the English Fillimart or Polcat.
He is long, slender, and every way shap'd like him. His Haunts are chiefly
in the Marshes, by the Sea-side and Salt-Waters, where he lives on Fish, Fowl,
Mice, and Insects. They are bold Thieves, and will steal any thing from you
in the Night, when asleep, as I can tell by Experience; for one Winter,
by Misfortune, I ran my Vessel a-ground, and went often to the Banks,
to kill wild Fowl, which we did a great many. One Night, we had a mind
to sleep on the Banks (the Weather being fair) and wrapt up the Geese
which we had kill'd, and not eaten, very carefully, in the Sail of a Canoe,
and folded it several Doubles, and for their better Security,
laid 'em all Night under my Head. In the Morning when I wak'd,
a Minx had eaten thro' every Fold of the Canoe's Sail,
and thro' one of the Geese, most part of which was gone.
These are likewise found high up in the Rivers, in whose sides they live;
which is known by the abundance of Fresh-Water Muscle-Shells
(such as you have in England) that lie at the Mouth of their Holes.
This is an Enemy to the Tortois, whose Holes in the Sand,
where they hide their Eggs, the Minx finds out, and scratches up and eats.
The Raccoons and Crows do the same. The Minx may be made domestick,
and were it not for his paying a Visit now and then to the Poultry,
they are the greatest Destroyers of Rats and Mice, that are in the World.
Their Skins, if good of that kind, are valuable, provided they are kill'd
in Season.

The Water-Rat is found here the same as in England. The Water-Snakes
are often found to have of these Rats in their Bellies.

That which the People of Carolina call a Hare, is nothing but a Hedge-Coney.
They never borough in the Ground, but much frequent Marshes and Meadow-Land.
They hide their Young in some Place secure from the Discovery of the Buck,
as the European Rabbets do, and are of the same Colour;
but if you start one of them, and pursue her, she takes into a hollow Tree,
and there runs up as far as she can, in which Case the Hunter makes a Fire,
and smoaks the Tree, which brings her down, and smothers her.
At one time of the Year, great Bots or Maggots breed betwixt
the Skin and the Flesh of these Creatures. They eat just as
the English ones do; but I never saw one of them fat. We fire the Marshes,
and then kill abundance.

{Rabbet English.}
The English, or European Coneys are here found, tho' but in one place
that I ever knew of, which was in Trent-River, where they borough'd
among the Rocks. I cannot believe, these are Natives of the Country,
any otherwise than that they might come from aboard some Wreck;
the Sea not being far off. I was told of several that were upon
Bodies Island by Ronoak, which came from that Ship of Bodies;
but I never saw any. However the Banks are no proper Abode of Safety,
because of the many Minxes in those Quarters. I carried over
some of the tame sort from England to South-Carolina,
which bred three times going over, we having a long Passage.
I turn'd them loose in a Plantation, and the young ones,
and some of the old ones bred great Maggots in their Testicles. At last,
the great Gust in September, 1700, brought a great deal of Rain,
and drown'd them all in their Holes. I intend to make a second Tryal of them
in North Carolina, and doubt not but to secure them.

The Elk is a Monster of the Venison sort. His Skin is used
almost in the same Nature as the Buffelo's. Some take him
for the red Deer of America; but he is not: For, if brought and kept
in Company with one of that sort, of the contrary Sex, he will never couple.
His Flesh is not so sweet as the lesser Deers. His Horns exceed (in Weight)
all Creatures which the new World affords. They will often resort and feed
with the Buffelo, delighting in the same Range as they do.

The Stags of Carolina are lodg'd in the Mountains. They are not so large
as in Europe, but much larger than any Fallow-Deer. They are always fat,
I believe, with some delicate Herbage that grows on the Hills;
for we find all Creatures that graze much fatter and better Meat on the Hills,
than those in the Valleys: I mean towards and near the Sea.
Some Deer on these Mountains afford the occidental Bezoar,
not coming from a Goat, as some report. What sort of Beast affords
the oriental Bezoar, I know not. The Tallow of the Harts
make incomparable Candles. Their Horns and Hides are of the same Value,
as others of their kind.

Fallow-Deer in Carolina, are taller and longer-legg'd, than in Europe;
but neither run so fast, nor are so well haunch'd. Their Singles are
much longer, and their Horns stand forward, as the others incline backward;
neither do they beam, or bear their Antlers, as the English Deer do.
Towards the Salts, they are not generally so fat and good Meat,
as on the Hills. I have known some kill'd on the Salts in January,
that have had abundance of Bots in their Throat, which keep them very poor.
As the Summer approaches, these Bots come out, and turn into
the finest Butterfly imaginable, being very large, and having black, white,
and yellow Stripes. Deer-Skins are one of the best Commodities
Carolina affords, to ship off for England, provided they be large.

{Fox Squirrel.}
Of Squirrels we have four Sorts. The first is the Fox-Squirrel,
so call'd, because of his large Size, which is the Bigness of a Rabbet
of two or three Months old. His Colour is commonly gray;
yet I have seen several pied ones, and some reddish, and black;
his chiefest Haunts are in the Piny Land, where the Almond-Pine grows.
There he provides his Winter-Store; they being a Nut
that never fails of bearing. He may be made tame, and is very good Meat,
when killed.

{Small gray Squirrel.}
The next sort of Squirrel is much of the Nature of the English,
only differing in Colour. Their Food is Nuts (of all sorts
the Country affords) and Acorns. They eat well; and, like the Bear,
are never found with young.

This Squirrel is gray, as well as the others. He is the least of the Three.
His Food is much the same with the small gray Squirrels. He has not Wings,
as Birds or Bats have, there being a fine thin Skin cover'd with Hair,
as the rest of the parts are. This is from the Fore-Feet to the Hinder-Feet,
which is extended and holds so much Air, as buoys him up,
from one Tree to another, that are greater distances asunder,
than other Squirrels can reach by jumping or springing. He is made very tame,
is an Enemy to a Cornfield, (as all Squirrels are) and eats only
the germinating Eye of that Grain, which is very sweet.

{Ground Squirrel.}
Ground Squirrels are so call'd, because they never delight
in running up Trees, and leaping from Tree to Tree. They are
the smallest of all Squirrels. Their Tail is neither so long not bushy;
but flattish. They are of a reddish Colour, and striped down each Side
with black Rows, which make them very beautiful. They may be kept tame,
in a little Box with Cotton. They and the Flying-Squirrels seldom stir out
in Cold Weather, being tender Animals.

The Fox of Carolina is gray, but smells not as the Foxes
in Great-Britain, and elsewhere. They have reddish Hair about their Ears,
and are generally very fat; yet I never saw any one eat them.
When hunted, they make a sorry Chace, because they run up Trees, when pursued.
They are never to be made familiar and tame, as the Raccoon is.
Their Furs, if in Season, are used for Muffs and other Ornaments.
They live chiefly on Birds and Fowls, and such small Prey.

{Supposed Lion and Jackall.}
I have been inform'd by the Indians, that on a Lake of Water
towards the Head of Neus River, there haunts a Creature,
which frightens them all from Hunting thereabouts. They say,
he is the Colour of a Panther, but cannot run up Trees;
and that there abides with him a Creature like an Englishman's Dog,
which runs faster than he can, and gets his Prey for him. They add,
that there is no other of that Kind that ever they met withal;
and that they have no other way to avoid him, but by running up a Tree.
The Certainty of this I cannot affirm by my own Knowledge,
yet they all agree in this Story. As for Lions, I never saw any in America;
neither can I imagine, how they should come there.

Of Rats we have two sorts; the House-Rat, as in Europe; and the Marsh-Rat,
which differs very much from the other, being more hairy,
and has several other Distinctions, too long here to name.

Mice are the same here, as those in England, that belong to the House.
There is one sort that poisons a Cat, as soon as she eats of them,
which has sometimes happen'd. These Mice resort not to Houses.

The Dormouse is the same as in England; and so is the Weasel,
which is very scarce.

The Bat or Rearmouse, the same as in England. The Indian Children
are much addicted to eat Dirt, and so are some of the Christians.
But roast a Bat on a Skewer, then pull the Skin off, and make the Child
that eats Dirt, eat the roasted Rearmouse; and he will never eat Dirt again.
This is held as an infallible Remedy. I have put this amongst the Beasts,
as partaking of both Natures; of the Bird, and Mouse-Kind.

Having mention'd all the sorts of terrestrial or Land-Animals,
which Carolina affords and are yet known to us, except the Tame
and Domestick Creatures (of which I shall give an Account hereafter,
when I come to treat of the Ways and Manners of Agriculture in that Province)
I shall now proceed to the known Insects of that Place.
Not that I pretend to give an ample Account of the whole Tribe,
which is too numerous, and contains too great a Diversity of Species,
many not yet discovered, and others that have slipt my Memory at present;
But those which I can remember, I here present my Readers withal.

Insects of Carolina.

Ground Rattle-Snakes.
Water-Snakes, four sorts.
Swamp Snakes three sorts.
Red-bellied Land-Snakes.
Red-back'd Snake.
Black Truncheon Snake.
Green Lizard.
Frogs, many sorts.
Long black Snake.
Green Snake.
Corn Snake.
Vipers black and gray.
Terebin Land and Water.
Egg, or Chicken-Snake.
Eel-Snake, or great Loach.
Brown Lizard.
Rotten-wood Worm, &c.

{Strange Genitors.}
The Allegator is the same, as the Crocodile, and differs only in Name.
They frequent the sides of Rivers, in the Banks of which they make
their Dwellings a great way under Ground; the Hole or Mouth of their Dens
lying commonly two Foot under Water, after which it rises
till it be considerably above the Surface thereof. Here it is,
that this amphibious Monster dwells all the Winter, sleeping away his time
till the Spring appears, when he comes from his Cave, and daily swims
up and down the Streams. He always breeds in some fresh Stream,
or clear Fountain of Water, yet seeks his Prey in the broad Salt Waters,
that are brackish, not on the Sea-side, where I never met with any.
He never devours Men in Carolina, but uses all ways to avoid them,
yet he kills Swine and Dogs, the former as they come to feed in the Marshes,
the others as they swim over the Creeks and Waters. They are very mischievous
to the Wares made for taking Fish, into which they come to prey
on the Fish that are caught in the Ware, from whence they cannot
readily extricate themselves, and so break the Ware in Pieces,
being a very strong Creature. This Animal, in these Parts,
sometimes exceeds seventeen Foot long. It is impossible to kill them
with a Gun, unless you chance to hit them about the Eyes,
which is a much softer Place, than the rest of their impenetrable Armour.
They roar, and make a hideous Noise against bad Weather,
and before they come out of their Dens in the Spring. I was pretty much
frightened with one of these once; which happened thus: I had built a House
about half a Mile from an Indian Town, on the Fork of Neus-River,
where I dwelt by my self, excepting a young Indian Fellow, and a Bull-Dog,
that I had along with me. I had not then been so long a Sojourner
in America, as to be throughly acquainted with this Creature.
One of them had got his Nest directly under my House, which stood on
pretty high Land, and by a Creek-side, in whose Banks his Entring-place was,
his Den reaching the Ground directly on which my House stood.
I was sitting alone by the Fire-side (about nine a Clock at Night,
some time in March) the Indian Fellow being gone to the Town,
to see his Relations; so that there was no body in the House
but my self and my Dog; when, all of a sudden, this ill-favour'd
Neighbour of mine, set up such a Roaring, that he made the House shake
about my Ears, and so continued, like a Bittern, (but a hundred times louder,
if possible) for four or five times. The Dog stared, as if he was frightned
out of his Senses; nor indeed, could I imagine what it was,
having never heard one of them before. Immediately again
I had another Lesson; and so a third. Being at that time
amongst none but Savages, I began to suspect, they were working
some Piece of Conjuration under my House, to get away my Goods;
not but that, at another time, I have as little Faith in their,
or any others working Miracles, by diabolical Means, as any Person living.
At last, my Man came in, to whom when I had told the Story, he laugh'd at me,
and presently undeceiv'd me, by telling me what it was that made that Noise.
These Allegators lay Eggs, as the Ducks do; only they are longer shap'd,
larger, and a thicker Shell, than they have. How long they are in hatching,
I cannot tell; but, as the Indians say, it is most part of the Summer,
they always lay by a Spring-Side, the young living in and about the same,
as soon as hatch'd. Their Eggs are laid in Nests made in the Marshes,
and contain twenty or thirty Eggs. Some of these Creatures afford
a great deal of Musk. Their Tail, when cut of, looks very fair and white,
seemingly like the best of Veal. Some People have eaten thereof, and say,
it is delicate Meat, when they happen not to be musky. Their Flesh
is accounted proper for such as are troubled with the lame Distemper,
(a sort of Rhumatism) so is the Fat very prevailing to remove Aches and Pains,
by Unction. The Teeth of this Creature, when dead, are taken out,
to make Chargers for Guns, being of several Sizes, fit for all Loads.
They are white, and would make pretty Snuff-Boxes, if wrought by an Artist.
After the Tail of the Allegator is separated from the Body,
it will move very freely for four days.

The Rattle-Snakes are found on all the Main of America, that I ever had
any Account of; being so call'd from the Rattle at the end of their Tails,
which is a Connexion of jointed Coverings, of an excrementitious Matter,
betwixt the Substance of a Nail, and a Horn, though each Tegmen
is very thin. Nature seems to have design'd these, on purpose to give Warning
of such an approaching Danger, as the venomous Bite of these Snakes is.
Some of them grow to a very great Bigness, as six Foot in Length,
their Middle being the Thickness of the Small of a lusty Man's Leg.
We have an Account of much larger Serpents of this Kind;
but I never met them yet, although I have seen and kill'd abundance
in my time. They are of an Orange, tawny, and blackish Colour, on the Back;
differing (as all Snakes do) in Colour, on the Belly; being of an Ash-Colour,
inclining to Lead. The Male is easily distinguish'd from the Female,
by a black Velvet-Spot on his Head; and besides, his Head is smaller shaped,
and long. Their Bite is venomous, if not speedily remedied;
especially, if the Wound be in a Vein, Nerve, Tendon, or Sinew;
when it is very difficult to cure. The Indians are the best Physicians
for the Bite of these and all other venomous Creatures of this Country.
There are four sorts of Snake-Roots already discover'd, which Knowledge
came from the Indians, who have perform'd several great Cures.
The Rattle-Snakes are accounted the peaceablest in the World;
for they never attack any one, or injure them, unless they are trod upon,
or molested. The most Danger of being bit by these Snakes, is for those
that survey Land in Carolina; yet I never heard of any Surveyor
that was kill'd, or hurt by them. I have myself gone over
several of this Sort, and others; yet it pleased God, I never came
to any harm. They have the Power, or Art (I know not which to call it)
to charm Squirrels, Hares, Partridges, or any such thing,
in such a manner, that they run directly into their Mouths.
This I have seen by a Squirrel and one of these Rattle-Snakes;
and other Snakes have, in some measure, the same Power. The Rattle-Snakes
have many small Teeth, of which I cannot see they make any use;
for they swallow every thing whole; but the Teeth which poison, are only four;
two on each side of their Upper-Jaws. These are bent like a Sickle,
and hang loose as if by a Joint. Towards the setting on of these,
there is, in each Tooth, a little Hole, wherein you may just get in
the Point of a small Needle. And here it is, that the Poison comes out,
(which is as green as Grass) and follows the Wound,
made by the Point of their Teeth. They are much more venomous
in the Months of June and July, than they are in March,
April or September. The hotter the Weather, the more poisonous.
Neither may we suppose, that they can renew their Poison as oft as they will;
for we have had a Person bit by one of these, who never rightly recover'd it,
and very hardly escaped with Life; a second Person bit in the same Place
by the same Snake, and receiv'd no more Harm, that if bitten with a Rat.
They cast their Skins every Year, and commonly abide near the Place
where the old Skin lies. These cast Skins are used in Physick,
and the Rattles are reckon'd good to expedite the Birth.
The Gall is made up into Pills, with Clay, and kept for Use;
being given in Pestilential Fevers and the Small-Pox. It is accounted
a noble Remedy, known to few, and held as a great Arcanum.
This Snake has two Nostrils on each side of his Nose. Their Venom,
I have Reason to believe, effects no Harm, any otherwise than when
darted into the Wound by the Serpents Teeth.

{Ground Rattle-Snakes.}
The Ground Rattle-Snake, wrong nam'd, because it has nothing like Rattles.
It resembles the Rattle-Snake a little in Colour, but is darker,
and never grows to any considerable Bigness, not exceeding a Foot,
or sixteen Inches. He is reckon'd amongst the worst of Snakes;
and stays out the longest of any Snake I know, before he returns
(in the Fall of the Leaf) to his Hole.

Of the Horn-Snakes I never saw but two, that I remember.
They are like the Rattle-Snake in Colour, but rather lighter.
They hiss exactly like a Goose, when any thing approaches them.
They strike at their Enemy with their Tail, and kill whatsoever
they wound with it, which is arm'd at the End with a horny Substance,
like a Cock's Spur. This is their Weapon. I have heard it credibly reported,
by those who said they were Eye-Witnesses, that a small Locust-Tree,
about the Thickness of a Man's Arm, being struck by one of these Snakes,
at Ten a Clock in the Morning, then verdant and flourishing,
at four in the Afternoon was dead, and the Leaves red and wither'd.
Doubtless, be it how it will, they are very venomous. I think,
the Indians do not pretend to cure their Wound.

Of Water-Snakes there are four sorts. The first is of the Horn-Snakes Colour,
though less. The next is a very long Snake, differing in Colour,
and will make nothing to swim over a River a League wide.
They hang upon Birches and other Trees by the Water-Side.
I had the Fortune once to have one of them leap into my Boat,
as I was going up a narrow River; the Boat was full of Mats,
which I was glad to take out, to get rid of him. They are reckon'd poisonous.
A third is much of an English Adder's Colour, but always
frequents the Salts, and lies under the Drift Seaweed,
where they are in abundance, and are accounted mischievous, when they bite.
The last is of a sooty black Colour, and frequents Ponds and Ditches.
What his Qualities are, I cannot tell.

Of the Swamp-Snakes there are three sorts, which are very near akin
to the Water-Snakes, and may be rank'd amongst them.

The Belly of the first is of a Carnation or Pink Colour;
his Back a dirty brown; they are large, but have not much Venom in them,
as ever I learnt. The next is a large Snake, of a brown Dirt Colour,
and always abides in the Marshes.

The last is mottled, and very poisonous. They dwell in Swamps Sides,
and Ponds, and have prodigious wide Mouths, and (though not long)
arrive to the Thickness of the Calf of a Man's Leg.

{Red-Belly Land-Snakes.}
These frequent the Land altogether, and are so call'd,
because of their red Bellies, which incline to an Orange-Colour.
Some have been bitten with these sort of Snakes, and not hurt;
when others have suffer'd very much by them. Whether there be
two sorts of these Snakes, which we make no Difference of,
I cannot at present determine.

{Red-Back Snakes.}
I never saw but one of these, which I stept over, and did not see him;
till he that brought the Chain after me, spy'd him. He has a red Back,
as the last has a red Belly. They are a long, slender Snake, and very rare
to be met withal. I enquired of the Indian that was along with me,
whether they were very venomous, who made Answer, that if he had bitten me,
even the Indians could not have cured it.

{Black Truncheon-Snake.}
This sort of Snake might very well have been rank'd with the Water-Snakes.
They lie under Roots of Trees, and on the Banks of Rivers.
When any thing disturbs them, they dart into the Water (which is Salt)
like an Arrow out of a Bow. They are thick, and the shortest Snake
I ever saw. What Good, or Harm, there is in them, I know not.
Some of these Water-Snakes will swallow a black Land-Snake,
half as long again as themselves.

{Scorpion Lizard.}
The Scorpion Lizard, is no more like a Scorpion, than a Hedge-Hog;
but they very commonly call him a Scorpion. He is of the Lizard Kind,
but much bigger; his Back is of a dark Copper-Colour; his Belly an Orange;
he is very nimble in running up Trees, or on the Land, and is accounted
very poisonous. He has the most Sets of Teeth in his Mouth and Throat,
that ever I saw.

{Green Lizard.}
Green Lizards are very harmless and beautiful, having a little Bladder
under their Throat, which they fill with Wind, and evacuate the same
at Pleasure. They are of a most glorious Green, and very tame.
They resort to the Walls of Houses in the Summer Season,
and stand gazing on a Man, without any Concern or Fear.
There are several other Colours of these Lizards; but none so beautiful
as the green ones are.

Of Frogs we have several sorts; the most famous is the Bull-Frog, so call'd,
because he lows exactly like that Beast, which makes Strangers wonder
(when by the side of a Marsh) what's the matter, for they hear the Frogs low,
and can see no Cattle; he is very large. I believe, I have seen one
with as much Meat on him, as a Pullet, if he had been dress'd.
The small green Frogs get upon Trees, and make a Noise. There are
several other colour'd small Frogs; but the Common Land-Frog is likest a Toad,
only he leaps, and is not poisonous. He is a great Devourer of Ants,
and the Snakes devour him. These Frogs baked and beat to Powder,
and taken with Orrice-Root cures a Tympany.

{Long black Snake.}
The long, black Snake frequents the Land altogether,
and is the nimblest Creature living. His Bite has no more Venom,
than a Prick with a Pin. He is the best Mouser that can be;
for he leaves not one of that Vermine alive, where he comes.
He also kills the Rattle-Snake, wheresoever he meets him,
by twisting his Head about the Neck of the Rattle-Snake,
and whipping him to Death with his Tail. This Whipster haunts
the Dairies of careless Housewives, and never misses to skim the Milk
clear of the Cream. He is an excellent Egg-Merchant,
for he does not suck the Eggs, but swallows them whole (as all Snakes do.)
He will often swallow all the Eggs from under a Hen that sits,
and coil himself under the Hen, in the Nest, where sometimes
the Housewife finds him. This Snake, for all his Agility, is so brittle,
that when he is pursued, and gets his Head into the Hole of a Tree,
if any body gets hold of the other end, he will twist, and break himself off
in the middle. One of these Snakes, whose Neck is no thicker
that a Woman's little Finger, will swallow a Squirrel;
so much does that part stretch, in all these Creatures.

{King Snake.}
The King-Snake is the longest of all others, and not common;
no Snake (they say) will meddle with them. I think they are not accounted
very venomous. The Indians make Girdles and Sashes of their Skins.

{Green Snake.}
Green-Snakes are very small, tho' pretty (if any Beauty be allow'd to Snakes.)
Every one makes himself very familiar with them, and puts them in their Bosom,
because there is no manner of Harm in them.

The Corn-Snakes are but small ones; they are of a brown Colour,
mixed with tawny. There is no more hurt in this, than in the green Snake.

Of those we call Vipers, there are two sorts. People call these Vipers,
because they spread a very flat Head at any time when they are vex'd.
One of these is a grayish like the Italian Viper, the other black and short;
and is reckon'd amongst the worst of Snakes, for Venom.

Tortois, vulgarly call'd Turtle; I have rank'd these among the Insects,
because they lay Eggs, and I did not know well where to put them. Among us
there are three sorts. The first is the green Turtle, which is not common,
but is sometimes found on our Coast. The next is the Hawks-bill,
which is common. These two sorts are extraordinary Meat.
The third is Logger-Head, which Kind scarce any one covets,
except it be for the Eggs, which of this and all other Turtles,
are very good Food. None of these sorts of Creatures Eggs
will ever admit the White to be harder than a Jelly; yet the Yolk,
with boiling, becomes as hard as any other Egg.

Of Terebins there are divers sorts, all which, to be brief, we will comprehend
under the Distinction of Land and Water-Terebins.

The Land-Terebin is of several Sizes, but generally Round-Mouth'd,
and not Hawks-Bill'd, as some are. The Indians eat them. Most of them
are good Meat, except the very large ones; and they are good Food too,
provided they are not Musky. They are an utter Enemy to the Rattle-Snake,
for when the Terebin meets him, he catches hold of him a little below
his Neck, and draws his Head into his Shell, which makes the Snake
beat his Tail, and twist about with all the Strength and Violence imaginable,
to get away; but the Terebin soon dispatches him, and there leaves him.
These they call in Europe the Land Tortois; their Food is Snails, Tad-pools,
or young Frogs, Mushrooms, and the Dew and Slime of the Earth and Ponds.

Water Terebins are small; containing about as much Meat as a Pullet,
and are extraordinary Food; especially, in May and June.
When they lay, their Eggs are very good; but they have so many Enemies
that find them out, that the hundredth part never comes to Perfection.
The Sun and Sand hatch them, which come out the Bigness of a small Chesnut,
and seek their own Living.

We now come again to the Snakes. The Brimstone is so call'd, I believe,
because it is almost of a Brimstone Colour. They might as well
have call'd it a Glass-Snake, for it is as brittle as a Tobacco-Pipe,
so that if you give it the least Touch of a small Twigg,
it immediately breaks into several Pieces. Some affirm,
that if you let it remain where you broke it, it will come together again.
What Harm there is in this brittle Ware, I cannot tell;
but I never knew any body hurt by them.

The Egg or Chicken-Snake is so call'd, because it is frequent about
the Hen-Yard, and eats Eggs and Chickens, they are of a dusky Soot Colour,
and will roll themselves round, and stick eighteen, or twenty Foot high,
by the side of a smooth-bark'd Pine, where there is no manner of Hold,
and there sun themselves, and sleep all the Sunny Part of the Day.
There is no great matter of Poison in them.

The Wood-Worms are of a Copper, shining Colour, scarce so thick
as your little Finger; are often found in Rotten-Trees.
They are accounted venomous, in case they bite, though I never knew any thing
hurt by them. They never exceed four or five Inches in length.

The Reptiles, or smaller Insects, are too numerous to relate here,
this Country affording innumerable Quantities thereof;
as the Flying-Stags with Horns, Beetles, Butterflies, Grashoppers,
Locust, and several hundreds of uncouth Shapes, which in the Summer-Season
are discovered here in Carolina, the Description of which
requires a large Volume, which is not my Intent at present.
Besides, what the Mountainous Part of this Land may hereafter
lay open to our View, Time and Industry will discover,
for we that have settled but a small Share of this large Province,
cannot imagine, but there will be a great number of Discoveries made
by those that shall come hereafter into the Back-part of this Land,
and make Enquiries therein, when, at least, we consider that
the Westward of Carolina is quite different in Soil, Air, Weather,
Growth of Vegetables, and several Animals too, which we at present
are wholly Strangers to, and to seek for. As to a right Knowledge thereof,
I say, when another Age is come, the Ingenious then in being
may stand upon the Shoulders of those that went before them,
adding their own Experiments to what was delivered down to them
by their Predecessors, and then there will be something
towards a complete Natural History, which (in these days)
would be no easie Undertaking to any Author that writes
truly and compendiously, as he ought to do. It is sufficient at present,
to write an honest and fair Account of any of the Settlements,
in this new World, without wandring out of the Path of Truth,
or bespattering any Man's Reputation any wise concern'd
in the Government of the Colony; he that mixes Invectives
with Relations of this Nature rendering himself suspected of Partiality
in whatever he writes. For my part, I wish all well, and he that has received
any severe Dealings from the Magistrate or his Superiours,
had best examine himself well, if he was not first in the Fault; if so,
then he can justly blame none but himself for what has happen'd to him.

Having thus gone thro' the Insects, as in the Table, except the Eel-Snake,
(so call'd, though very improperly, because he is nothing but a Loach,
that sucks, and cannot bite, as the Snakes do.) He is very large,
commonly sixteen Inches, or a Foot and half long; having all the Properties
that other Loaches have, and dwells in Pools and Waters, as they do.
Notwithstanding, we have the same Loach as you have, in Bigness.

This is all that at present I shall mention, touching the Insects,
and so go on to give an Account of the Fowls and Birds,
that are properly found in Carolina, which are these.

{Birds in America more beautiful than in Europe.}
Birds of Carolina.

Eagle bald.
Eagle gray.
Fishing Hawk.
Turkey Buzzard, or Vulture.
Herring-tail'd Hawk.
Black Birds, two sorts.
Buntings two sorts.
Green Plover.
Plover gray or whistling.
Turtle Dove.
Wood-Peckers, five sorts.
Mocking-birds, two sorts.
Sparrows, two sorts.
Red Bird.
East-India Bat.
Martins, two sorts.
Diveling, or Swift.
Humming Bird.
The Tom-Tit, or Ox-Eye.
Owls, two sorts.
Scritch Owl.
Baltimore bird.
Throstle, no Singer.
Whippoo Will.
Reed Sparrow.
Weet bird.
Rice bird.
Cranes and Storks.

{Water Fowl.}
Water Fowl are,

Swans, called Trompeters.
Swans, called Hoopers.
Geese, three sorts.
Brant gray.
Brant white.
Sea-pies or pied Curlues.
Will Willets.
Great Gray Gulls.
Old Wives.
Sea Cock.
Curlues, three sorts.
Loons, two sorts.
Bitterns, three sorts.
Hern gray.
Hern white.
Water Pheasant.
Little gray Gull.
Little Fisher, or Dipper.
Ducks, as in England.
Ducks black, all Summer.
Ducks pied, build on Trees.
Ducks whistling, at Sapona.
Ducks scarlet-eye at Esaw.
Teal, two sorts.
Black Flusterers, or bald Coot.
Turkeys wild.
Raft Fowl.
Great black pied Gull.
Blue Peter's.
Bald Faces.
Water Witch, or Ware Coot.

As the Eagle is reckon'd the King of Birds I have begun with him.
The first I shall speak of, is the bald Eagle; so call'd, because his Head,
to the middle of his Neck, and his Tail, is as white as Snow.
These Birds continually breed the Year round; for when the young Eagles
are just down'd, with a sort of white woolly Feathers, the Hen-Eagle
lays again, which Eggs are hatch'd by the Warmth of the young ones
in the Nest, so that the Flight of one Brood makes Room for the next,
that are but just hatch'd. They prey on any living thing they can catch.
They are heavy of Flight, and cannot get their Food by Swiftness,
to help which there is a Fishawk that catches Fishes, and suffers the Eagle
to take them from her, although she is long-wing'd and a swift Flyer,
and can make far better way in her Flight than the Eagle can. The bald Eagle
attends the Gunners in Winter, with all the Obsequiousness imaginable,
and when he shoots and kills any Fowl, the Eagle surely comes in for his Bird;
and besides, those that are wounded, and escape the Fowler,
fall to the Eagle's share. He is an excellent Artist at stealing young Pigs,
which Prey he carries alive to his Nest, at which time the poor Pig
makes such a Noise over Head, that Strangers that have heard them cry,
and not seen the Bird and his Prey, have thought there were
Flying Sows and Pigs in that Country. The Eagle's Nest is made of Twigs,
Sticks and Rubbish. It is big enough to fill a handsome Carts Body,
and commonly so full of nasty Bones and Carcasses that it stinks
most offensively. This Eagle is not bald, till he is one or two years old.

{Gray Eagle.}
The gray Eagle is altogether the same sort of Bird, as the Eagle in Europe;
therefore, we shall treat no farther of him.

The Fishing-Hawk is the Eagle's Jackal, which most commonly
(though not always) takes his Prey for him. He is a large Bird,
being above two thirds as big as the Eagle. He builds his Nest
as the Eagles do; that is, in a dead Cypress-Tree, either standing in,
or hard by, the Water. The Eagle and this Bird seldom sit on a living Tree.
He is of a gray pied Colour, and the most dexterous Fowl in Nature
at Catching of Fish, which he wholly lives on, never eating any Flesh.

The Turkey-Buzzard of Carolina is a small Vulture, which lives on
any dead Carcasses. They are about the Bigness of the Fishing-Hawk,
and have a nasty Smell with them. They are of the Kites Colour,
and are reported to be an Enemy to Snakes, by killing all they meet withal
of that Kind.

{Herring-tail'd Hawk.}
The Herring, or Swallow-tail'd Hawk, is about the Bigness of a Falcon,
but a much longer Bird. He is of a delicate Aurora-Colour;
the Pinions of his Wings, and End of his Tail are black.
He is a very beautiful Fowl, and never appears abroad but in the Summer.
His Prey is chiefly on Snakes, and will kill the biggest we have,
with a great deal of Dexterity and Ease.

Goshawks are very plentiful in Carolina. They are not seemingly so large
as those from Muscovy; but appear to be a very brisk Bird.

The Falcon is much the same as in Europe, and promises to be a brave Bird,
tho' I never had any of them in my Hand; neither did I ever see any of them
in any other Posture than on the Wing, which always happen'd to be
in an Evening, and flying to the Westward; therefore, I believe,
they have their Abode and Nest among the Mountains, where we may expect
to find them, and several other Species that we are at present Strangers to.

The Merlin is a small Bird in Europe, but much smaller here;
yet he very nimbly kills the smaller sorts of Birds, and sometimes
the Partridge; if caught alive, he would be a great Rarity,
because of his Beauty and Smalness.

The Sparrow-Hawk in Carolina is no bigger than a Field-fare in England.
He flies at the Bush and sometimes kills a small Bird, but his chiefest Food
is Reptiles, as Beetles, Grashoppers, and such small things.
He is exactly of the same Colour, as the Sparrow-Hawk in England,
only has a blackish Hood by his Eyes.

Hobbies are the same here as in England, and are not often met withal.

{Ring Tail.}
The Ring-tail is a short-wing'd Hawk, preying on Mice, and such Vermine
in the Marshes, as in England.

Ravens, the same as in England, though very few. I have not seen above six
in eight Years time.

Crows are here less than in England. They are as good Meat as a Pigeon;
and never feed on any Carrion. They are great Enemies to the Corn-Fields;
and cry and build almost like Rooks.

Of these we have two sorts, which are the worst Vermine in America.
They fly sometimes in such Flocks, that they destroy every thing before them.
They (both sorts) build in hollow Trees, as Starlings do. The first sort
is near as big as a Dove, and is very white and delicate Food.
The other sort is very beautiful, and about the Bigness of the Owsel.
Part of their Head, next to the Bill, and the Pinions of their Wings,
are of an Orange, and glorious Crimson Colour. They are as good Meat
as the former, tho' very few here (where large Fowl are so plenty)
ever trouble themselves to kill or dress them.

{Bunting two sorts.}
Of the Bunting-Larks we have two sorts, though the Heel of this Bird
is not so long as in Europe. The first of these often accompany
the Black-birds, and sing as the Bunting-Larks in England do,
differing very little. The first sort has an Orange-Colour
on the Tops of their Wings, and are as good Meat as those in Europe.
The other sort is something less, of a lighter Colour;
nothing differing therein from those in England, as to Feathers,
Bigness, and Meat.

The Pheasant of Carolina differs some small matter from
the English Pheasant, being not so big, and having some difference
in Feather; yet he is not any wise inferiour in Delicacy,
but is as good Meat, or rather finer. He haunts the back Woods,
and is seldom found near the Inhabitants.

The Woodcocks live and breed here, though they are not in great plenty,
as I have seen them in some Parts of England, and other Places.
They want one third of the English Woodcock in Bigness;
but differ not in Shape, or Feather, save that their Breast
is of a Carnation Colour; and they make a Noise (when they are on the Wing)
like the Bells about a Hawk's Legs. They are certainly as dainty Meat,
as any in the World. Their Abode is in all Parts of this Country,
in low, boggy Ground, Springs, Swamps, and Percoarsons.

The Snipes here frequent the same Places, as they do in England,
and differ nothing from them. They are the only wild Bird
that is nothing different from the Species of Europe, and keeps with us
all the Year. In some Places, there are a great many of these Snipes.

Our Partridges in Carolina, very often take upon Trees,
and have a sort of Whistle and Call, quite different from those in England.
They are a very beautiful Bird, and great Destroyers of the Pease
in Plantations; wherefore, they set Traps, and catch many of them.
They have the same Feather, as in Europe; only the Cock wants
the Horse-Shooe, in lieu of which he has a fair Half-Circle over each Eye.
These (as well as the Woodcock) are less than the European Bird;
but far finer Meat. They might be easily transported to any Place,
because they take to eating, after caught.

The Moorhens are of the black Game. I am inform'd, that the gray Game
haunts the Hills. They never come into the Settlement,
but keep in the hilly Parts.

Jays are here common, and very mischievous, in devouring our Fruit,
and spoiling more than they eat. They are abundantly more beautiful,
and finer feather'd than those in Europe, and not above half so big.

The Lap-wing or Green-Plover are here very common. They cry pretty much,
as the English Plovers do; and differ not much in Feather,
but want a third of their Bigness.

The gray or whistling Plover, are very scarce amongst us.
I never saw any but three times, that fell and settled on the Ground.
They differ very little from those in Europe, as far as I could discern.
I have seen several great Flocks of them fly over head; therefore, believe,
they inhabit the Valleys near the Mountains.

Our wild Pigeons, are like the Wood-Queese or Stock-Doves,
only have a longer Tail. They leave us in the Summer. This sort of Pigeon
(as I said before) is the most like our Stock-Doves, or Wood-Pigeons
that we have in England; only these differ in their Tails,
which are very long, much like a Parrakeeto's? You must understand,
that these Birds do not breed amongst us, (who are settled at,
and near the Mouths of the Rivers, as I have intimated to you before)
but come down (especially in hard Winters) amongst the Inhabitants,
in great Flocks, as they were seen to do in the Year 1707,
which was the hardest Winter that ever was known, since Carolina
has been seated by the Christians. And if that Country had such hard Weather,
what must be expected of the severe Winters in Pensylvania, New-York,
and New-England, where Winters are ten times (if possible)
colder than with us. Although the Flocks are, in such Extremities,
very numerous; yet they are not to be mention'd in Comparison with
the great and infinite Numbers of these Fowl, that are met withal
about a hundred, or a hundred and fifty, Miles to the Westward of the Places
where we at present live; and where these Pigeons come down, in quest of
a small sort of Acorns, which in those Parts are plentifully found.
They are the same we call Turky-Acorns, because the wild Turkies
feed very much thereon; And for the same Reason, those Trees that bear them,
are call'd Turky-Oaks. I saw such prodigious Flocks of these Pigeons,
in January or February, 1701-2, (which were in the hilly Country,
between the great Nation of the Esaw Indians, and the pleasant Stream
of Sapona, which is the West-Branch of Clarendon, or Cape-Fair River)
that they had broke down the Limbs of a great many large Trees
all over those Woods, whereon they chanced to sit and roost;
especially the great Pines, which are a more brittle Wood,
than our sorts of Oak are. These Pigeons, about Sun-Rise,
when we were preparing to march on our Journey, would fly by us
in such vast Flocks, that they would be near a Quarter of an Hour,
before they were all pass'd by; and as soon as that Flock was gone,
another would come; and so successively one after another,
for great part of the Morning. It is observable, that whereever these Fowl
come in such Numbers, as I saw them then, they clear all before them,
scarce leaving one Acorn upon the Ground, which would, doubtless,
be a great Prejudice to the Planters that should seat there,
because their Swine would be thereby depriv'd of their Mast.
When I saw such Flocks of the Pigeons I now speak of, none of our Company
had any other sort of Shot, than that which is cast in Moulds,
and was so very large, that we could not put above ten or a dozen of them
into our largest Pieces; Wherefore, we made but an indifferent Hand
of shooting them; although we commonly kill'd a Pigeon for every Shot.
They were very fat, and as good Pigeons, as ever I eat.
I enquired of the Indians that dwell'd in those Parts, where it was
that those Pigeons bred, and they pointed towards the vast Ridge of Mountains,
and said, they bred there. Now, whether they make their Nests
in the Holes in the Rocks of those Mountains, or build in Trees,
I could not learn; but they seem to me to be a Wood-Pigeon,
that build in Trees, because of their frequent sitting thereon,
and their Roosting on Trees always at Night, under which
their Dung commonly lies half a Foot thick, and kills every thing that grows
where it falls.

{Turtle Doves.}
Turtle Doves are here very plentiful; they devour the Pease; for which Reason,
People make Traps and catch them.

The Parrakeetos are of a green Colour, and Orange-Colour'd
half way their Head. Of these and the Allegators, there is none found
to the Northward of this Province. They visit us first,
when Mulberries are ripe, which Fruit they love extremely.
They peck the Apples, to eat the Kernels, so that the Fruit rots and perishes.
They are mischievous to Orchards. They are often taken alive, and will become
familiar and tame in two days. They have their Nests in hollow Trees,
in low, swampy Ground. They devour the Birch-Buds in April,
and lie hidden when the Weather is frosty and hard.

The Thrushes in America, are the same as in England,
and red under the Wings. They never appear amongst us but in hard Weather,
and presently leave us again.

Of Wood-peckers, we have four sorts. The first is as big as a Pigeon,
being of a dark brown Colour, with a white Cross on his Back, his Eyes circled
with white, and on his Head stands a Tuft of beautiful Scarlet Feathers.
His Cry is heard a long way; and he flies from one rotten Tree to another,
to get Grubs, which is the Food he lives on.

The second sort are of an Olive-Colour, striped with yellow. They eat Worms
as well as Grubs, and are about the Bigness of those in Europe.

The third is the same Bigness as the last; he is pied with black and white,
has a Crimson Head, without a Topping, and is a Plague to the Corn and Fruit;
especially the Apples. He opens the Covering of the young Corn,
so that the Rain gets in, and rots it.

The fourth sort of these Wood-peckers, is a black and white speckled,
or mottled; the finest I ever saw. The Cock has a red Crown;
he is not near so big as the others; his Food is Grubs, Corn,
and other creeping Insects. He is not very wild, but will let one
come up to him, then shifts on the other side the Tree,
from your sight; and so dodges you for a long time together.
He is about the size of an English Lark.

The Mocking-Bird is about as big as a Throstle in England, but longer;
they are of a white, and gray Colour, and are held to be
the Choristers of America, as indeed they are. They sing with
the greatest Diversity of Notes, that is possible for a Bird to change to.
They may be bred up, and will sing with us tame in Cages;
yet I never take any of their Nests, altho' they build yearly
in my Fruit-Trees, because I have their Company, as much as if tame,
as to the singing Part. They often sit upon our Chimneys in Summer,
there being then no Fire in them, and sing the whole Evening
and most part of the Night. They are always attending our Dwellings;
and feed upon Mulberries and other Berries and Fruits;
especially the Mechoacan-berry, which grows here very plentifully.

{2d. sort.}
There is another sort call'd the Ground-Mocking-Bird. She is
the same bigness, and of a Cinnamon Colour. This Bird sings excellently well,
but is not so common amongst us as the former.

The Cat-Bird, so nam'd, because it makes a Noise exactly like young Cats.
They have a blackish Head, and an Ash-coloured Body,
and have no other Note that I know of. They are no bigger than a Lark,
yet will fight a Crow or any other great Bird.

The Cuckoo of Carolina may not properly be so call'd,
because she never uses that Cry; yet she is of the same Bigness and Feather,
and sucks the Small-Birds Eggs, as the English Cuckoo does.

A Blue-Bird is the exact Bigness of a Robin-red-breast.
The Cock has the same colour'd Breast as the Robin has, and his Back,
and all the other Parts of him, are of as fine a Blue, as can possibly be seen
in any thing in the World. He has a Cry, and a Whistle. They hide themselves
all the Winter.

Bulfinches, in America, differ something from those in Europe,
in their Feathers, tho' not in their Bigness. I never knew any one tame,
therefore know not, what they might be brought to.

The Nightingales are different in Plumes from those in Europe.
They always frequent the low Groves, where they sing very prettily all Night.

Hedge-Sparrows are here, though few Hedges. They differ scarce any thing
in Plume or Bigness, only I never heard this Whistle,
as the English one does; especially after Rain.

The Wren is the same as in Europe, yet I never heard any Note she has
in Carolina.

Sparrows here differ in Feather from the English. We have
several Species of Birds call'd Sparrows, one of them much resembling
the Bird call'd a Corinthian Sparrow.

The Lark with us resorts to the Savannas, or natural Meads,
and green Marshes. He is colour'd and heel'd as the Lark is;
but his Breast is of a glittering fair Lemon-Colour, and he is as big
as a Fieldfare, and very fine Food.

The Red-Birds (whose Cock is all over of a rich Scarlet Feather,
with a tufted Crown on his Head, of the same Colour)
are the Bigness of a Bunting-Lark, and very hardy, having a strong thick Bill.
They will sing very prettily, when taken old, and put in a Cage.
They are good Birds to turn a Cage with Bells; or if taught,

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