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A Lute of Jade: Being Selections from the Classical Poets of China
by L. Cranmer-Byng

[Note on text: Italicized words or phrases are capitalized.
Some slight errors have been corrected.]

[Due to the method of transliteration used in this text,
including many accent marks (and some strange ones),
please refer to the following chart to see how these words
originally appeared, and how they are presented in this text.
In each case, the line with the letters is the same as in the text,
and the accent marks are on the line above.

Names of People
---------------
" " ^ ^ "
Ch`u Yuan Meng Hao-jan Ts`en-Ts`an Po Chu-i

" ^ * *
Ssu-K`ung T`u T`ai Chen Lao Tzu Chuang Tzu

Names of Places
---------------
* "
Ssuch`uan Ch`u

The accent marked by an asterisk resembles the lower half of a circle.

It is noted in the appendix that Mr. Lionel Giles is responsible
for these transliterations.]

[This etext has been transcribed from a New York edition of 1909.
Please note that not only is the system of transliteration out of date
(though perhaps still easier to use than the current standard),
but other things may be out of date as well. The study of Chinese literature
has come a long way from the time when Mr. Cranmer-Byng had to include
books in four languages to come up with a short bibliography.
Still, this book may serve well as an introduction to the subject.]

A LUTE OF JADE

To Professor Herbert Giles

A Lute of Jade

Being Selections from the Classical Poets of China

Rendered with an Introduction
by L. Cranmer-Byng
Author of "The Odes of Confucius"

With lutes of gold and lutes of Jade
Li Po

Contents

Introduction
The Ancient Ballads
Poetry before the T`angs
The Poets of the T`ang Dynasty
A Poet's Emperor
Chinese Verse Form
The Influence of Religion on Chinese Poetry

The Odes of Confucius
Sadness
Trysting Time
The Soldier

Ch`u Yuan
The Land of Exile

Wang Seng-ju
Tears

Ch`en Tzu Ang
The Last Revel

Sung Chih-Wen
The Court of Dreams

Kao-Shih
Impressions of a Traveller
Desolation

Meng Hao-jan
The Lost One
A Friend Expected

Ch`ang Ch`ien
A Night on the Mountain

Ts`en-Ts`an
A Dream of Spring

Tu Fu
The Little Rain
A Night of Song
The Recruiting Sergeant
Chants of Autumn

Li Po
To the City of Nan-king
Memories with the Dusk Return
An Emperor's Love
On the Banks of Jo-yeh
Thoughts in a Tranquil Night
The Guild of Good-fellowship
Under the Moon
Drifting

Wang Ch`ang-ling
The Song of the Nenuphars
Tears in the Spring

Chang Chih-ho
A World Apart

Chang Jo-hu

T`ung Han-ching
The Celestial Weaver

Po Chu-i
The Lute Girl
The Never-ending Wrong
The River and the Leaf
Lake Shang
The Ruined Home
A Palace Story
Peaceful Old Age
Sleeplessness
The Grass
Autumn across the Frontier
The Flower Fair
The Penalties of Rank
The Island of Pines
Springtide
The Ancient Wind

Li Hua
An Old Battle-field

Ssu-K`ung T`u
Return of Spring
The Colour of Life
Set Free
Fascination
Tranquil Repose
The Poet's Vision
Despondent
Embroideries
Concentration
Motion

Ou-Yang Hsiu of Lu-ling
Autumn
At the Graveside

Appendix

Editorial Note

The object of the Editors of this series is a very definite one.
They desire above all things that, in their humble way,
these books shall be the ambassadors of good-will and understanding
between East and West -- the old world of Thought and the new of Action.
In this endeavour, and in their own sphere, they are but followers of
the highest example in the land. They are confident that a deeper knowledge
of the great ideals and lofty philosophy of Oriental thought
may help to a revival of that true spirit of Charity
which neither despises nor fears the nations of another creed and colour.
Finally, in thanking press and public for the very cordial reception given
to this Series, they wish to state that no pains have been spared
to secure the best specialists for the treatment of the various subjects
at hand.
L. Cranmer-Byng.
S. A. Kapadia.
Northbrook Society,
185 Piccadilly, W.

A Lute of Jade

Introduction

The Ancient Ballads

A little under three hundred years, from A.D. 618 to 906,
the period of the T`ang dynasty, and the great age of Chinese poetry
had come and gone. Far back in the twilight of history,
at least 1,700 years before Christ, the Chinese people sang their songs
of kings and feudal princes good or bad, of husbandry, or now and then
songs with the more personal note of simple joys and sorrows.
All things in these Odes collected by Confucius belong to the surface of life;
they are the work of those who easily plough light furrows,
knowing nothing of hidden gold. Only at rare moments of exaltation or despair
do we hear the lyrical cry rising above the monotone of dreamlike content.
Even the magnificent outburst at the beginning of this book,
in which the unhappy woman compares her heart to a dying moon,
is prefaced by vague complaint:

My brothers, although they support me not,
Are angry if I speak of my sadness.

My sadness is so great,
Nearly all are jealous of me;
Many calumnies attack me,
And scorning spares me not.
Yet what harm have I done?
I can show a clear conscience.

Yes, the conscience is clear and the song is clear, and so these
little streams flow on, shining in the clear dawn of a golden past
to which all poets and philosophers to come will turn with wistful eyes.
These early ballads of the Chinese differ in feeling from almost all
the ballad literature of the world. They are ballads of peace,
while those of other nations are so often war-songs and the remembrances
of brave deeds. Many of them are sung to a refrain.
More especially is this the case with those whose lines breathe sadness,
where the refrain comes like a sigh at the end of a regret:

Cold from the spring the waters pass
Over the waving pampas grass,
All night long in dream I lie,
Ah me! ah me! to awake and sigh --
Sigh for the City of Chow.

Cold from its source the stream meanders
Darkly down through the oleanders,
All night long in dream I lie,
Ah me! ah me! to awake and sigh --
Sigh for the City of Chow.

In another place the refrain urges and importunes; it is time for flight:

Cold and keen the north wind blows,
Silent falls the shroud of snows.
You who gave me your heart,
Let us join hands and depart!
Is this a time for delay?
Now, while we may,
Let us away.

Only the lonely fox is red,
Black but the crow-flight overhead.
You who gave me your heart --
The chariot creaks to depart.
Is this a time for delay?
Now, while we may,
Let us away.

Perhaps these Odes may best be compared with the little craftless figures
in an early age of pottery, when the fragrance of the soil
yet lingered about the rough clay. The maker of the song was a poet,
and knew it not. The maker of the bowl was an artist, and knew it not.
You will get no finish from either -- the lines are often blurred,
the design but half fulfilled; and yet the effect is not inartistic.
It has been well said that greatness is but another name for interpretation;
and in so far as these nameless workmen of old interpreted themselves
and the times in which they lived, they have attained enduring greatness.

Poetry before the T`angs

Following on the Odes, we have much written in the same style,
more often than not by women, or songs possibly written to be sung by them,
always in a minor key, fraught with sadness, yet full of quiet resignation
and pathos.

It is necessary to mention in passing the celebrated Ch`u Yuan
(fourth cent. B.C.), minister and kinsman of a petty kinglet under
the Chou dynasty, whose `Li Sao', literally translated `Falling into Trouble',
is partly autobiography and partly imagination. His death by drowning
gave rise to the great Dragon-boat Festival, which was originally
a solemn annual search for the body of the poet.

Soon a great national dynasty arrives whose Emperors are often
patrons of literature and occasionally poets as well. The House of Han
(200 B.C.-A.D. 200) has left its mark upon the Empire of China,
whose people of to-day still call themselves "Sons of Han".
There were Emperors beloved of literary men, Emperors beloved of the people,
builders of long waterways and glittering palaces, and one great conqueror,
the Emperor Wu Ti, of almost legendary fame. This was an age of preparation
and development of new forces. Under the Hans, Buddhism first began
to flourish. The effect is seen in the poetry of the time,
especially towards the closing years of this dynasty. The minds of poets
sought refuge in the ideal world from the illusions of the senses.

The third century A.D. saw the birth of what was probably
the first literary club ever known, the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove.
This little coterie of friends was composed of seven famous men,
who possessed many talents in common, being poets and musicians,
alchemists, philosophers, and mostly hard drinkers as well.
Their poetry, however, is scarcely memorable. Only one great name
stands between them and the poets of the T`ang dynasty --
the name of T`ao Ch`ien (A.D. 365-427), whose exquisite allegory
"The Peach Blossom Fountain" is quoted by Professor Giles
in his `Chinese Literature'. The philosophy of this ancient poet
appears to have been that of Horace. `Carpe diem!'

"Ah, how short a time it is that we are here! Why then not set our hearts
at rest, ceasing to trouble whether we remain or go? What boots it
to wear out the soul with anxious thoughts? I want not wealth;
I want not power: heaven is beyond my hopes. Then let me stroll
through the bright hours as they pass, in my garden among my flowers,
or I will mount the hill and sing my song, or weave my verse
beside the limpid brook. Thus will I work out my allotted span,
content with the appointments of Fate, my spirit free from care."*
For him enjoyment and scarcely happiness is the thing.
And although many of his word-pictures are not lacking in charm or colour,
they have but little significance beyond them. They are essentially
the art works of an older school than that of the Seven Sages. But we must
have due regard for them, for they only miss greatness by a little,
and remind us of the faint threnodies that stir in the throats
of bird musicians upon the dawn.

--
* Giles, `Chinese Literature', p. 130.
--

The Poets of the T`ang Dynasty

At last the golden age of Chinese poetry is at hand.
Call the roll of these three hundred eventful years,
and all the great masters of song will answer you. This is an age
of professional poets, whom emperors and statesmen delight to honour.
With the Chinese, verse-making has always been a second nature.
It is one of the accomplishments which no man of education
would be found lacking. Colonel Cheng-Ki-Tong, in his delightful book
`The Chinese Painted by Themselves', says: "Poetry has been in China,
as in Greece, the language of the gods. It was poetry that inculcated
laws and maxims; it was by the harmony of its lines that traditions
were handed down at a time when memory had to supply the place of writing;
and it was the first language of wisdom and of inspiration."
It has been above all the recreation of statesmen and great officials,
a means of escape from the weariness of public life and the burden of ruling.
A study of the interminable biographies of Chinese poets and men of letters
would reveal but a few professional poets, men whose lives
were wholly devoted to their art; and of these few the T`ang dynasty
can claim nearly all. Yet strange as it may seem, this matters but little
when the quality of Chinese poetry is considered. The great men of the age
were at once servants of duty and the lords of life. To them official routine
and the responsibilities of the state were burdens to be borne
along the highway, with periods of rest and intimate re-union with nature
to cheer the travellers. When the heavy load was laid aside,
song rose naturally from the lips. Subtly connecting the arts,
they were at once painters and poets, musicians and singers.
And because they were philosophers and seekers after the beauty that underlies
the form of things, they made the picture express its own significance,
and every song find echo in the souls of those that heard.
You will find no tedium of repetition in all their poetry,
no thin vein of thought beaten out over endless pages. The following extract
from an ancient treatise on the art of poetry called `Ming-Chung'
sets forth most clearly certain ideals to be pursued:

"To make a good poem, the subject must be interesting,
and treated in an attractive manner; genius must shine throughout the whole,
and be supported by a graceful, brilliant, and sublime style. The poet
ought to traverse, with a rapid flight, the lofty regions of philosophy,
without deviating from the narrow way of truth. . . .
Good taste will only pardon such digressions as bring him towards his end,
and show it from a more striking point of view.

"Disappointment must attend him, if he speaks without speaking to the purpose,
or without describing things with that fire, with that force,
and with that energy which present them to the mind as a painting does
to the eyes. Bold thought, untiring imagination, softness and harmony,
make a true poem.

"One must begin with grandeur, paint everything expressed,
soften the shades of those which are of least importance,
collect all into one point of view, and carry the reader thither
with a rapid flight."

Yet when due respect has been paid to this critic of old time,
the fact still remains that concentration and suggestion
are the two essentials of Chinese poetry. There is neither Iliad nor Odyssey
to be found in the libraries of the Chinese; indeed, a favourite feature
of their verse is the "stop short", a poem containing only four lines,
concerning which another critic has explained that only the words stop,
while the sense goes on. But what a world of meaning is to be found
between four short lines! Often a door is opened, a curtain drawn aside,
in the halls of romance, where the reader may roam at will.
With this nation of artists in emotion, the taste of the tea
is a thing of lesser importance; it is the aroma which remains and delights.
The poems of the T`angs are full of this subtle aroma, this suggestive
compelling fragrance which lingers when the songs have passed away.
It is as though the Aeolian harps had caught some strayed wind
from an unknown world, and brought strange messages from peopled stars.

A deep simplicity touching many hidden springs, a profound regard
for the noble uses of leisure, things which modern critics of life
have taught us to despise -- these are the technique and the composition
and colour of all their work.

Complete surrender to a particular mood until the mood itself
surrenders to the artist, and afterwards silent ceaseless toil
until a form worthy of its expression has been achieved --
this is the method of Li Po and his fellows. And as for leisure,
it means life with all its possibilities of beauty and romance.
The artist is ever saying, "Stay a little while! See,
I have captured one moment from eternity." Yet it is only in the East
that poetry is truly appreciated, by those to whom leisure to look around them
is vital as the air they breathe. This explains the welcome given
by Chinese Emperors and Caliphs of Bagdad to all roving minstrels
in whose immortality, like flies in amber, they are caught.

A Poet's Emperor

In the long list of imperial patrons the name of the Emperor Ming Huang
of the T`ang dynasty holds the foremost place. History alone would not have
immortalized his memory.* But romance is nearer to this Emperor's life
than history. He was not a great ruler, but an artist stifled in ceremony
and lost in statecraft. Yet what Emperor could escape immortality
who had Tu Fu and Li Po for contemporaries, Ch`ang-an for his capital,
and T`ai Chen of a thousand songs to wife? Poet and sportsman,
mystic and man of this world, a great polo player, and the passionate lover
of one beautiful woman whose ill-starred fate inspired Po Chu-i,
the tenderest of all their singers,** Ming Huang is more to literature
than to history. Of his life and times the poets are faithful recorders.
Tu Fu in `The Old Man of Shao-Ling' leaves us this memory of his peaceful days
passed in the capital, before the ambition of the Turkic general An Lu-shan
had driven his master into exile in far Ssuch`uan. The poet himself
is speaking in the character of a lonely old man, wandering slowly
down the winding banks of the river Kio.

--
* A.D. 685-762.

** See and .
--

"`Alas!' he murmured, `they are closed, the thousand palace doors,
mirrored in clear cool waters. The young willows and the rushes renewing
with the year -- for whom will they now grow green?'

"Once in the garden of the South waved the standard of the Emperor.

"All that nature yields was there, vying with the rarest hues.

"There lived she whom the love of the first of men had made first among women.

"She who rode in the imperial chariot, in the excursions on sunny days.

"Before the chariot flashed the bright escort of maidens
armed with bow and arrow.

"Mounted upon white steeds which pawed the ground, champing their golden bits.

"Gaily they raised their heads, launching their arrows into the clouds,

"And, laughing, uttered joyous cries when a bird fell victim to their skill."

In the city of Ch`ang-an, with its triple rows of glittering walls
with their tall towers uprising at intervals, its seven royal palaces
all girdled with gardens, its wonderful Yen tower nine stories high,
encased in marble, the drum towers and bell towers, the canals and lakes
with their floating theatres, dwelt Ming Huang and T`ai Chen.
Within the royal park on the borders of the lake stood a little pavilion
round whose balcony crept jasmine and magnolia branches scenting the air.
Just underneath flamed a tangle of peonies in bloom, leaning down
to the calm blue waters. Here in the evening the favourite reclined,
watching the peonies vie with the sunset beyond. Here the Emperor
sent his minister for Li Po, and here the great lyrist
set her mortal beauty to glow from the scented, flower-haunted balustrade
immortally through the twilights yet to come.

What matter if the snow
Blot out the garden? She shall still recline
Upon the scented balustrade and glow
With spring that thrills her warm blood into wine.

Once, and once alone, the artist in Ming Huang was merged in the Emperor.
In that supreme crisis of the empire and a human soul,
when the mutinous soldiers were thronging about the royal tent
and clamouring for the blood of the favourite, it was the Emperor
who sent her forth --

lily pale,
Between tall avenues of spears, to die.

Policy, the bane of artists demanded it, and so, for the sake
of a thousand issues and a common front to the common foe,
he placed the love of his life upon the altar of his patriotism, and went,
a broken-hearted man, into the long exile. From that moment the Emperor died.
History ceases to take interest in the crownless wanderer.
His return to the place of tragedy, and on to the capital
where the deserted palace awaits him with its memories,
his endless seeking for the soul of his beloved, her discovery
by the priest of Tao in that island of P`eng Lai where --

gaily coloured towers
Rise up like rainbow clouds, and many gentle
And beautiful Immortals pass their days in peace,

her message to her lover with its splendid triumphant note of faith
foretelling their reunion at the last -- in fine, the story of their love
with the grave between them -- is due to the genius of Po Chu-i.
And to all poets coming after, these two lovers have been types
of romantic and mystic love between man and woman. Through them
the symbols of the mandarin duck and drake, the one-winged birds,
the tree whose boughs are interwoven, are revealed.
They are the earthly counterparts of the heavenly lovers,
the Cow-herd and the Spinning-maid in the constellations of Lyra and Aquila.
To them Chinese poetry owes some of its finest inspirations,
and at least two of its greatest singers, Tu Fu and Li Po.

Chinese Verse Form

In passing it is necessary to refer to the structure of Chinese verse,
which, difficult as it is to grasp and differing in particulars
from our European ideas of technique, has considerable interest
for the student of verse form and construction.

The favourite metres of the T`ang poets were in lines
of five or seven syllables. There is no fixed rule as regards
the length of a poem, but, generally speaking, they were composed of four,
eight, twelve, or sixteen lines. Only the even lines rhyme,
except in the four-line or stop-short poem, when the first line often rhymes
with the second and fourth, curiously recalling the Rubaiyat form
of the Persian poets. There is also a break or caesura
which in five-syllable verses falls after the second syllable
and in seven-syllable verses after the fourth. The Chinese also make use
of two kinds of tone in their poetry, the Ping or even,
and the Tsze or oblique.

The even tone has two variations differing from each other only in pitch;
the oblique tone has three variations, known as "Rising, Sinking,
and Entering." In a seven-syllable verse the odd syllables can have any tone;
as regards the even syllables, when the second syllable is even,
then the fourth is oblique, and the sixth even. Furthermore,
lines two and three, four and five, six and seven, have the same tones
on the even syllables. The origin of the Chinese tone is not a poetical one,
but is undoubtedly due to the necessity of having some distinguishing method
of accentuation in a language which only contains about four hundred
different sounds.

The Influence of Religion on Chinese Poetry

To Confucius, as has been already stated, is due that groundwork
of Chinese poetry -- the Odes. But the master gave his fellow countrymen
an ethical system based upon sound common sense, and a deep knowledge of
their customs and characteristics. There is little in the Confucian classics
to inspire a poet, and we must turn to Buddhism and the mystical philosophy
of Lao Tzu for any source of spiritual inspiration from which
the poets have drawn. Buddhism and Taoism are sisters.
Their parents are self-observance and the Law. Both are quietists,
yet in this respect they differ, that the former is the grey quietist,
the latter the pearl. The neutral tint is better adapted to the sister
in whose eyes all things are Maya -- illusion. The shimmer of pearl
belongs of right to her whose soul reflects the colour and quiet radiance
of a thousand dreams. Compassion urged the one, the love of harmony
led the other. How near they were akin! how far apart they have wandered!
Yet there has always been this essential difference between them,
that while the Buddhist regards the senses as windows looking out
upon unreality and mirage, to the Taoist they are doors through which
the freed soul rushes to mingle with the colours and tones and contours
of the universe. Both Buddha and Lao Tzu are poets, one listening to
the rhythm of infinite sorrow, one to the rhythm of infinite joy.
Neither knows anything of reward at the hands of men or angels.
The teaching of the Semitic religions, "Do good to others that you may benefit
at their hands," does not occur in their pages, nor any hints
of sensuous delights hereafter.* In all the great Buddhist poems,
of which the Shu Hsing Tsan Ching is the best example,
there is the same deep sadness, the haunting sorrow of doom.
To look on beautiful things is only to feel more poignantly
the passing of bright days, and the time when the petals must leave the rose.
The form of desire hides within it the seeds of decay. In this epic
of which I have spoken, Buddha sees the lovely and virtuous Lady Aruna
coming to greet him, says to his disciples:

--
* This is a simplistic and inaccurate picture of religious teachings.
Mr. Cranmer-Byng, like many cross-cultural scholars,
seems to have fallen into the trap of seeing only noble things afar,
and only ignoble things at hand. As counter-examples, there are
numerous schools of Buddhism, some of which DO offer a type of heaven;
and the Confucian ideal of reciprocity can easily be, and often has been,
misinterpreted in the same way as Semitic religions. -- A. Light, 1995.
--

"This woman is indeed exceedingly beautiful, able to fascinate the minds
of the religious; so then keep your recollections straight! Let wisdom
keep your mind in subjection! Better fall into the fierce tiger's mouth,
or under the sharp knife of the executioner, than to dwell with a woman. . . .
A woman is anxious to exhibit her form and shape, whether walking, standing,
sitting, or even sleeping; even when represented as a picture,
she desires most of all to set off the blandishments of her beauty,
and thus rob men of their steadfast heart! How then ought you
to guard yourselves? By regarding her tears and her smiles as enemies,
her stooping form, her hanging arms, and all her disentangled hair
as toils designed to entrap man's heart. Then how much more
should you suspect her studied, amorous beauty! when she displays
her dainty outline, her richly ornamented form, and chatters gaily
with the foolish man! Ah, then! what perturbation and what evil thoughts,
not seeing underneath the sorrows of impermanence, the impurity,
the unreality! Considering these as the reality, all desires die out."*

--
* `Sacred Books of the East', vol. 19 pp. 253-4.
--

How different is this meeting of beauty and Buddhism from the meeting
of Ssu-K`ung T`u, the great Taoist poet, with an unknown girl!

Gathering the water-plants
From the wild luxuriance of spring,
Away in the depth of a wild valley
Anon, I see a lovely girl.
With green leaves the peach-trees are loaded,
The breeze blows gently along the stream,
Willows shade the winding path,
Darting orioles collect in groups.
Eagerly I press forward
As the reality grows upon me. . . .
'Tis the eternal theme,
Which, though old, is ever new.*

Here is reality emerging from the unreal, spring renewing, love and beauty
triumphant over death and decay. The girl is the central type and symbol.
From her laughing eyes a thousand dead women look out once more on spring,
through her poets find their inspiration. Beauty is the key that unlocks
the secrets of the frozen world, and brings the dead to life again.

--
* `History of Chinese Literature', by Professor Herbert Giles, p. 180.
--

The Symbol of Decay!

The Symbol of Immortality!

It is perhaps both. There are times when the grave words of the Dhammapada
fall like shadows along the path: "What is life but the flower or the fruit
which falls when ripe, yet ever fears the untimely frost? Once born,
there is naught but sorrow; for who is there can escape death?
From the first moment of life, the result of passionate love and desire,
there is nought but the bodily form transitional as the lightning flash."
Yet apart from all transitory passions and the ephemeral results
of mortal love, the song of the Taoist lover soars unstained, untrammelled.
Man attains not by himself, nor woman by herself, but,
like the one-winged birds of the Chinese legend, they must rise together.
To be a great lover is to be a great mystic, since in the highest conception
of mortal beauty that the mind can form there lies always the unattainable,
the unpossessed, suggesting the world of beauty and finality
beyond our mortal reach. It is in this power of suggestion
that the Chinese poets excel. Asked to differentiate between
European and Chinese poetry, some critics would perhaps insist upon
their particular colour sense, instancing the curious fact
that where we see blue to them it often appears green, and vice versa,
or the tone theories that make their poems so difficult to understand;
in fact, a learned treatise would be written on these lines, to prove that
the Chinese poets were not human beings as we understand humanity at all.
It is, however, not by this method that we can begin to trace the difference
between the poets of East and West, but in the two aspects of life
which no amount of comparison can reconcile.

To the Chinese such commonplace things as marriage, friendship, and home
have an infinitely deeper meaning than can be attached to them
by civilisation which practically lives abroad, in the hotels and restaurants
and open houses of others, where there is no sanctity of the life within,
no shrine set apart for the hidden family re-union,
and the cult of the ancestral spirit. To the Western world,
life, save for the conventional hour or so set aside on the seventh day,
is a thing profane. In the far East the head of every family
is a high-priest in the calling of daily life. It is for this reason
that a quietism is to be found in Chinese poetry ill appealing to
the unrest of our day, and as dissimilar to our ideals of existence
as the life of the planets is to that of the dark bodies
whirling aimlessly through space.

The Odes of Confucius

1765-585 B.C.

Collected by Confucius about 500 B.C.

Sadness

The sun is ever full and bright,
The pale moon waneth night by night.
Why should this be?

My heart that once was full of light
Is but a dying moon to-night.

But when I dream of thee apart,
I would the dawn might lift my heart,
O sun, to thee.

Trysting Time

I

A pretty girl at time o' gloaming
Hath whispered me to go and meet her
Without the city gate.
I love her, but she tarries coming.
Shall I return, or stay and greet her?
I burn, and wait.

II

Truly she charmeth all beholders,
'Tis she hath given me this jewel,
The jade of my delight;
But this red jewel-jade that smoulders,
To my desire doth add more fuel,
New charms to-night.

III

She has gathered with her lily fingers
A lily fair and rare to see.
Oh! sweeter still the fragrance lingers
From the warm hand that gave it me.

The Soldier

I climbed the barren mountain,
And my gaze swept far and wide
For the red-lit eaves of my father's home,
And I fancied that he sighed:
My son has gone for a soldier,
For a soldier night and day;
But my son is wise, and may yet return,
When the drums have died away.

I climbed the grass-clad mountain,
And my gaze swept far and wide
For the rosy lights of a little room,
Where I thought my mother sighed:
My boy has gone for a soldier,
He sleeps not day and night;
But my boy is wise, and may yet return,
Though the dead lie far from sight.

I climbed the topmost summit,
And my gaze swept far and wide
For the garden roof where my brother stood,
And I fancied that he sighed:
My brother serves as a soldier
With his comrades night and day;
But my brother is wise, and may yet return,
Though the dead lie far away.

Ch`u Yuan

Fourth Century, B.C.

A loyal minister to the feudal Prince of Ch`u, towards the close
of the Chou dynasty. His master having, through disregard of his counsel,
been captured by the Ch`in State, Ch`u Yuan sank into disfavour with his sons,
and retired to the hills, where he wrote his famous `Li Sao',
of which the following is one of the songs. He eventually drowned himself
in the river Mi-Lo, and in spite of the search made for his body,
it was never found. The Dragon-boat Festival, held on the fifth day
of the fifth moon, was founded in his honour.

The Land of Exile

Methinks there's a genius
Roams in the mountains,
Girdled with ivy
And robed in wisteria,
Lips ever smiling,
Of noble demeanour,
Driving the yellow pard,
Tiger-attended,
Couched in a chariot
With banners of cassia,
Cloaked with the orchid,
And crowned with azaleas;
Culling the perfume
Of sweet flowers, he leaves
In the heart a dream-blossom,
Memory haunting.
But dark is the forest
Where now is my dwelling,
Never the light of day
Reaches its shadow.
Thither a perilous
Pathway meanders.
Lonely I stand
On the lonelier hill-top,
Cloudland beneath me
And cloudland around me.
Softly the wind bloweth,
Softly the rain falls,
Joy like a mist blots
The thoughts of my home out;
There none would honour me,
Fallen from honours.
I gather the larkspur
Over the hillside,
Blown mid the chaos
Of boulder and bellbine;
Hating the tyrant
Who made me an outcast,
Who of his leisure
Now spares me no moment:
Drinking the mountain spring,
Shading at noon-day
Under the cypress
My limbs from the sun glare.
What though he summon me
Back to his palace,
I cannot fall
To the level of princes.
Now rolls the thunder deep,
Down the cloud valley,
And the gibbons around me
Howl in the long night.
The gale through the moaning trees
Fitfully rushes.
Lonely and sleepless
I think of my thankless
Master, and vainly would
Cradle my sorrow.

Wang Seng-ju

Sixth Century, A.D.

Tears

High o'er the hill the moon barque steers.
The lantern lights depart.
Dead springs are stirring in my heart;
And there are tears. . . .
But that which makes my grief more deep
Is that you know not when I weep.

Ch`en Tzu Ang

A.D. 656-698

Famous for writing that kind of impromptu descriptive verse
which the Chinese call "Ying". In temperament he was less Chinese
than most of his contemporaries. His passionate disposition
finally brought him into trouble with the magistrate of his district,
who had him cast into prison, where he died at the age of forty-two.

Whatever his outward demeanour may have been, his poetry gives us
no indication of it, being full of delicate mysticism,
almost impossible to reproduce in the English language.
For this reason I have chosen one of his simpler poems as a specimen.

The Last Revel

From silver lamps a thin blue smoke is streaming,
And golden vases 'mid the feast are gleaming;
Now sound the lutes in unison,
Within the gates our lives are one.
We'll think not of the parting ways
As long as dawn delays.

When in tall trees the dying moonbeams quiver:
When floods of fire efface the Silver River,
Then comes the hour when I must seek
Lo-Yang beyond the furthest peak.
But the warm twilight round us twain
Will never rise again.

Sung Chih-Wen

Died A.D. 710

The son of a distinguished general, he began his career as attache
to the military advisers of the Emperor. These advisers were always drawn
from the literary class, and their duties appear to have been chiefly
administrative and diplomatic. Of his life, the less said the better.
He became involved in a palace intrigue, and only saved himself
by betraying his accomplices. In the end he was banished,
and finally put to death by the Emperor's order. It is necessary, however,
to dissociate the man from his poetry, and Sung Chih-Wen's poetry
often touches a high level of inspiration.

The Court of Dreams

Rain from the mountains of Ki-Sho
Fled swiftly with a tearing breeze;
The sun came radiant down the west,
And greener blushed the valley trees.

I entered through the convent gate:
The abbot bade me welcome there,
And in the court of silent dreams
I lost the thread of worldly care.

That holy man and I were one,
Beyond the bounds that words can trace:
The very flowers were still as we.
I heard the lark that hung in space,
And Truth Eternal flashed on me.

Kao-Shih

Circa A.D. 700

One of the most fascinating of all the T`ang poets. His life was
one long series of romantic adventure. At first, a poor youth
battling with adversity; then the lover of an actress,
whom he followed through the provinces, play-writing for the strolling troupe
to which she was attached; the next, secretary to a high personage
engaged in a mission to Thibet; then soldier, and finally poet of renown,
acquiring with his latter years the fortune and honours denied him
in his youth.

The chief characteristics of his poetry are intense concentration,
a vivid power of impressionism, and a strong leaning
in the direction of the occult. Indeed, one of his best-known poems,
"The Return to the Mountains", makes mention of the projection
of the astral body through space during sleep. Many of his poems leave us
with a strange sense of horror which is suggested rather than revealed.
It is always some combination of effects which produces this result,
and never a concrete form.

Impressions of a Traveller

In a silent, desolate spot,
In the night stone-frozen and clear,
The wanderer's hand on the sail
Is gripped by the fingers of fear.

He looketh afar o'er the waves,
Wind-ruffled and deep and green;
And the mantle of Autumn lies
Over wood and hill and ravine.

'Tis Autumn! -- time of decay,
And the dead leaves' 'wildering flight;
And the mantle of Autumn lies
On the wanderer's soul to-night!

Desolation

I

There was a King of Liang* -- a king of wondrous might --
Who kept an open palace, where music charmed the night --

II

Since he was Lord of Liang a thousand years have flown,
And of the towers he builded yon ruin stands alone.

III

There reigns a heavy silence; gaunt weeds through windows pry,
And down the streets of Liang old echoes, wailing, die.

--
* Strictly speaking, the pronunciation of all words such as Liang,
Kiang, etc., is nearer one syllable than two. For purposes of euphony,
however, without which the lines would be harsh and unpoetical,
I have invariably made two syllables of them.
--

Meng Hao-jan

A.D. 689-740

One of the few literary men of the day whose later life
was devoted entirely to literature. He was the inseparable friend
of the famous Buddhist poet and doctor, Wang Wei. He spent the first
forty years of his life in acquiring knowledge, but having failed to obtain
his doctor's degree, he returned to the quiet hills of his native province
and dedicated his remaining years to composition. Most of his poems,
other than certain political satire, which drew on him the Emperor's wrath,
are full of subtle sadness and fragrant regret, reminding one of pot-pourri
in some deep blue porcelain bowl.

The Lost One

The red gleam o'er the mountains
Goes wavering from sight,
And the quiet moon enhances
The loveliness of night.

I open wide my casement
To breathe the rain-cooled air.
And mingle with the moonlight
The dark waves of my hair.

The night wind tells me secrets
Of lotus lilies blue;
And hour by hour the willows
Shake down the chiming dew.

I fain would take the zither,
By some stray fancy led;
But there are none to hear me,
And who can charm the dead?

So all my day-dreams follow
The bird that leaves the nest;
And in the night I gather
The lost one to my breast.

A Friend Expected

Over the chain of giant peaks
The great red sun goes down,
And in the stealthy floods of night
The distant valleys drown.

Yon moon that cleaves the gloomy pines
Has freshness in her train;
Low wind, faint stream, and waterfall
Haunt me with their refrain.

The tired woodman seeks his cot
That twinkles up the hill;
And sleep has touched the wanderers
That sang the twilight still.

To-night -- ah! beauty of to-night
I need my friend to praise,
So take the lute to lure him on
Through the fragrant, dew-lit ways.

Ch`ang Ch`ien

Circa A.D. 720

One of the great philosopher-poets of the Taoist school. His life was spent
far from the court and away from the sounds of civil warfare,
in the endeavour to set himself in harmony with the universe -- to become,
in fact, like an Aeolian harp through which all the cords of nature
might sweep at will. How far he attained the end desired may be seen
in his work, which is penetrated by a sense of profound beauty,
recalling the quiet twilight upon the mountain-side,
which he so well describes.

A Night on the Mountain

I sat upon the mountain-side and watched
A tiny barque that skimmed across the lake,
Drifting, like human destiny upon
A world of hidden peril; then she sailed
From out my ken, and mingled with the blue
Of skies unfathomed, while the great round sun
Weakened towards the waves.
The whole expanse
Suddenly in the half-light of the dusk
Glimmered and waned. The last rays of the sun
Lit but the tops of trees and mountain-peaks
With tarnished glory; and the water's sheen,
Once blue and bright, grew lustreless, and soon
A welter of red clouds alone betrayed
The passing of the sun. The scattered isles
Uprose, black-looming o'er the tranquil deeps,
Where the reflected heavens wanly showed
A lingering gleam. Already wood and hill
Sank in obscurity. The river marge
Seemed but a broken line to failing sight.

. . . . .

Night is at hand; the night winds fret afar,
The North winds moan. The waterfowl are gone
To cover o'er the sand-dunes; dawn alone
Shall call them from the sedges. Some bright star

Mirrors her charms upon the silver shoal;
And I have ta'en the lute, my only friend:
The vibrant chords beneath my fingers blend;
They sob awhile, then as they slip control

Immortal memories awake, and the dead years
Through deathless voices answer to my strings,
Till from the brink of Time's untarnished springs
The melting night recalls me with her tears.

Ts`en-Ts`an

Circa A.D. 750

Of his life we know little, save that he was the intimate friend
of the great poet Tu Fu, and came of a noble family. He was,
moreover, Censor under the Emperor Su Tsung (A.D. 756-762),
and rose to be Governor of Chia-chou. What remains of his verse
mostly takes the form of quatrains, yet for originality of thought,
wealth of imagery and style, they have seldom been excelled.
He was a master of metre, and contributed certain modifications
to the laws of Chinese prosody which exist to the present day.

A Dream of Spring

Last night within my chamber's gloom some vague light breath of Spring
Came wandering and whispering, and bade my soul take wing.

A hundred moonlit miles away the Chiang crept to sea;
O keeper of my heart, I came by Chiang's ford to thee.

It lingered but a moment's space, that dream of Spring, and died;
Yet as my head the pillows pressed, my soul had found thy side.

Oh! Chiang Nan's a hundred miles, yet in a moment's space
I've flown away to Chiang Nan and touched a dreaming face.

Tu Fu

A.D. 712-770

Tu Fu, whom his countrymen called the God of Verse, was born in the province
of Hu-Kuang, and this was his portrait from contemporaries:

He was tall and slightly built, yet robust with finely chiselled features;
his manners were exquisite, and his appearance distinguished.
He came of a literary family, and, as he says of himself,
from his seventh to his fortieth year study and letter occupied
all his available time. At the age of twenty-seven he came to the capital
with his fame in front of him, and there Li Po the poet and Ts`en-Ts`an
became his friends, and Ming Huang his patron. He obtained a post at Court
somewhat similar to that of Master of Ceremonies in our own Court.
Yet the poet had few sympathies outside the artistic life.
He was so unworldly and so little of a courtier that when the new Emperor
Su Tsung returned in triumph to the capital and appointed him Imperial Censor,
he fulfilled his new duties by telling his majesty the whole unpalatable truth
in a manner strangely free from ornamental apology, and was promptly rewarded
with the exile of a provincial governorship. But Tu Fu was no man of affairs,
and knew it. On the day of his public installation he took off
his insignia of office before the astonished notables, and, laying them
one by one on the table, made them a profound reverence, and quietly withdrew.

Like his friend Li Po, he became a homeless wanderer, but, unlike him,
he concealed his brilliant name, obtaining food and patronage
for his delightful nameless self alone, and not for his reputation's sake.
Finally, he was discovered by the military governor
of the province of Ssuch`uan, who applied on his behalf
for the post of Restorer of Ancient Monuments in the district,
the one congenial appointment of his life. For six years he kept his post;
then trouble in the shape of rebel hordes burst once more upon the province,
and again he became an exile. The last act of this eventful life
took place in his native district: some local mandarin gave a great banquet
in honour of the distinguished poet, whom he had rescued,
half drowned and famishing, from the ruined shrine by the shore
where the waters had cast him up. The wine-cup brimmed again and again,
food was piled up in front of the honoured guest, and the attendant who waited
was Death. The end was swift, sudden, and pitiful. The guest died
from the banquet of his rescuer.

Of all poets Tu Fu is the first in craftsmanship. It is interesting to add
that he was a painter as well, and the friend of painters,
notably the soldier-artist, Kiang-Tu, to whom he dedicates a poem.
Possibly it is to this faculty that he owes his superb technique.
He seeks after simplicity and its effects as a diver seeks
for sunken gold. In his poem called "The Little Rain",
which I have (perhaps somewhat rashly) attempted, there is
all the graciousness of fine rain falling upon sullen furrows,
which charms the world into spring. "The Recruiting Sergeant"
has the touch of grim desolation, which belongs inevitably to a country
plundered of its men and swept with the ruinous winds of rebellion.

Li Po gives us Watteau-like pictures of life in Ch`ang-an before the flight
of the Emperor. The younger poet paints, with the brush of Verestchagin,
the realism and horrors of civil war. In most of Tu Fu's work
there is an underlying sadness which appears continually,
sometimes in the vein that runs throughout the poem,
sometimes at the conclusion, and often at the summing up of all things.
Other poets have it, some more, some less, with the exception of those
who belong to the purely Taoist school. The reason is that the Chinese poet
is haunted. He is haunted by the vast shadow of a past without historians --
a past that is legendary, unmapped and unbounded, and yields, therefore,
Golcondas and golden lands innumerable to its bold adventurers.
He is haunted from out the crumbled palaces of vanished kings,
where "in the form of blue flames one sees spirits moving through
each dark recess." He is haunted by the traditional voices
of the old masters of his craft, and lastly, more than all,
by the dead women and men of his race, the ancestors that count
in the making of his composite soul and have their silent say
in every action, thought, and impulse of his life.

The Little Rain

Oh! she is good, the little rain! and well she knows our need
Who cometh in the time of spring to aid the sun-drawn seed;
She wanders with a friendly wind through silent nights unseen,
The furrows feel her happy tears, and lo! the land is green.

Last night cloud-shadows gloomed the path that winds to my abode,
And the torches of the river-boats like angry meteors glowed.
To-day fresh colours break the soil, and butterflies take wing
Down broidered lawns all bright with pearls in the garden of the King.

A Night of Song

The wind scarce flutters through the leaves,
The young moon hath already gone,
And kind and cool the dews descend:
The lute-strings wake for night alone.

In shadow lapse the twinkling streams,
The lilied marge their waves caress;
And the sheer constellations sway
O'er soundless gulfs of nothingness.

What cadence charms the poet's ear!
What fire-fly fancies round him swarm!
He dreads the lantern lights may fail
Long ere his thoughts have taken form.

Now gallants tap their two-edged swords,
And pride and passion swell amain;
Like red stars flashing through the night
The circling wine-cups brim again.

There steals the old sad air of Ou --
Each calls his latest song to mind;
Then white sails taper down the stream,
While lingering thoughts still look behind.

The Recruiting Sergeant

At sunset in the village of Che-Kao*
I sought for shelter; on my heels there trod
A grim recruiting sergeant, of the kind
That seize their prey by night. A poor old man
Saw -- scaled the wall, and vanished. Through the gate
An old bent woman hobbled, and she marched
A pace before him. Loudly in his wrath
The grim recruiter stormed; and bitterly
She answered: "Listen to the voice of her
Who drags before you. Once I had three sons --
Three in the Emperor's camp. A letter came
From one, and -- there was one; the others fell
In the same battle -- he alone was left,
Scarce able from the iron grasp of Death
To tear his miserable life.
Alas
My two dead boys! for ever and for aye
Death holds them. In our wretched hut remains
The last of all the men -- a little child,
Still at his mother's breast. She cannot flee,
Since her few tatters scarce suffice to clothe
Her shrunken limbs.
My years are nearly done,
My strength is well-nigh spent; yet I will go
Readily to the camping-ground. Perchance
I may be useful for some humble task,
To cook the rice or stir the morning meal."

. . . . .

Night slipped away. The clamour and the cries
Died down; but there was weeping and the sound
Of stifled moans around me.
At the break
Of dawn I hurried on my road, and left
None but an old and broken man behind.

--
* All words ending in `ao' are pronounced `ow', as in English
`vow', `allow', etc.
--

Chants of Autumn

Shorn by the frost with crystal blade,
The dry leaves, scattered, fall at last;
Among the valleys of Wu Chan
Cold winds of death go wailing past.
Tumultuous waves of the great river rise
And seem to storm the skies,
While snow-bright peak and prairie mist combine,
And greyness softens the harsh mountain line.

Chrysanthemums unfurl to-day,
To-morrow the last flowers are blown.
I am the barque that chains delay:
My homeward thoughts must sail alone.
From house to house warm winter robes are spread,
And through the pine-woods red
Floats up the sound of the washerman's bat who plies
His hurried task ere the brief noon wanes and dies.

Li Po

A.D. 702-762

The most famous name in Chinese literature. Born in the province
of Ssuch`uan, Li Po obtained his doctor's degree at the age of twenty,
and was already known as a brilliant, inspired poet
before Ming Huang became his patron in the capital.
A suite of rooms overlooking the beautiful gardens of T`eng-hsiang T`ing,
where the Emperor retired after the routine of the day, was assigned to him.
Here the poet improvised, whilst Ming Huang himself wrote down the verses
that he afterwards set to music, and accompanied while the poet sang.
But Li Po, with all his enthusiasm for his patron and the delights
of the garden-life, was little of a courtier. When Ming Huang
bade the masterful eunuch Kao Li-shih unlace the poet's boots,
he gave him a relentless enemy whose malice pursued him,
until at length he was glad to beg leave to retire from the court,
where he was never at ease and to which he never returned.
Troubadour-like, he wandered through the provinces,
the guest of mandarin and local governor, the star of the drinking-taverns,
the delight and embarrassment of all his hosts. At length
a friend of former days, to whom he had attached himself,
unhappily involved him in the famous rebellion of An Lu-shan.
The poet was seized and thrown into prison. Yet prison doors were
ill warders of his fame, and letters of recall followed closely upon pardon;
but death overtook the exile before he could reach the capital,
and at the age of sixty his wanderings came to an end.

Li Po was a poet with a sword by his side. He would have ruffled bravely
with our Elizabethans, and for a Chinese is strangely warlike in sentiment.
How he loves the bravo of Chao with his sabre from the Chinese Sheffield
of Wu, "with the surface smooth as ice and dazzling as snow,
with his saddle broidered with silver upon his white steed;
who when he passes, swift as the wind, may be said to resemble
a shooting star!" He compares the frontiersman, who has never so much
as opened a book in all his life, yet knows how to follow in the chase,
and is skilful, strong, and hardy, with the men of his own profession.
"From these intrepid wanderers how different our literary men
who grow grey over their books behind a curtained window."

It is harder to write of Li Po than of any other Chinese poet.
Po Chu-i has his own distinctive feeling for romance,
Tu Fu his minute literary craftsmanship, Ssu-K`ung T`u the delicate aroma
of suggestive mysticism; but Li Po is many-sided, and has perhaps
more of the world-spirit than all of them. We can imagine this bold,
careless, impulsive artist, with his moments of great exaltation
and alternate depression, a kind of Chinese Paul Verlaine,
with his sensitive mind of a child, always recording impressions as they come.
T`ai Chen the beautiful and the grim frontiersman are alike
faithfully portrayed. He lives for the moment, and the moment is often
wine-flushed like the rosy glow of dawn, or grey and wan as the twilight
of a hopeless day.

To the City of Nan-king

Thou that hast seen six kingdoms pass away,
Accept my song and these three cups I drain!
There may be fairer gardens light the plain;
Thine are the dim blue hills more fair than they.

Here Kings of Wu were crowned and overthrown,
Where peaceful grass along the ruin wins;
Here -- was it yesterday? -- the royal Tsins
Called down the dreams of sunset into stone.

One end awaits for all that mortal be;
Pride and despair shall find a common grave:
The Yang-tse-kiang renders wave and wave
To mingle with the abysms of the sea.

Memories with the Dusk Return

The yellow dusk winds round the city wall;
The crows are drawn to nest,
Silently down the west
They hasten home, and from the branches call.
A woman sits and weaves with fingers deft
Her story of the flower-lit stream,
Threading the jasper gauze in dream,
Till like faint smoke it dies; and she, bereft,
Recalls the parting words that died
Under the casement some far eventide,
And stays the disappointed loom,
While from the little lonely room
Into the lonely night she peers,
And, like the rain, unheeded fall her tears.

An Emperor's Love

In all the clouds he sees her light robes trail,
And roses seem beholden to her face;
O'er scented balustrade the scented gale
Blows warm from Spring, and dew-drops form apace.
Her outline on the mountain he can trace,
Now leans she from the tower in moonlight pale.

A flower-girt branch grows sweeter from the dew.
A spirit of snow and rain unheeded calls.
Who wakes to memory in these palace walls?
Fei-yen!* -- but in the robes an Empress knew.

The most renowned of blossoms, most divine
Of those whose conquering glances overthrow
Cities and kingdoms, for his sake combine
And win the ready smiles that ever flow
From royal lips. What matter if the snow
Blot out the garden? She shall still recline
Upon the scented balustrade and glow
With spring that thrills her warm blood into wine.

--
* A delicate compliment to the beautiful T`ai Chen,
of which the meaning is that, as the Emperor Yang-ti of the Sui dynasty
elevated his mistress Fei-yen to share with him the throne,
so shall T`ai Chen become the Empress of Ming Huang.
--

On the Banks of Jo-yeh

They gather lilies down the stream,
A net of willows drooping low
Hides boat from boat; and to and fro
Sweet whispered confidences seem
'Mid laughing trills to flow.

In the green deeps a shaft of gold
Limns their elaborate attire;
Through silken sleeves the winds aspire,
Embalmed, to stray, and, growing bold,
Swell them to their desire.

But who are these, the cavaliers
That gleam along the river-side?
By three, by five they prance with pride
Beyond the willow-line that sheers
Over the trellised tide.

A charger neighs; one turns to start,
Crushing the kingcups as he flies,
And one pale maiden vainly tries
To hush the tumult in her heart
And veil the secret of her eyes.

Thoughts in a Tranquil Night

Athwart the bed
I watch the moonbeams cast a trail
So bright, so cold, so frail,
That for a space it gleams
Like hoar-frost on the margin of my dreams.
I raise my head, --
The splendid moon I see:
Then droop my head,
And sink to dreams of thee --
My Fatherland, of thee!

The Guild of Good-fellowship

The universe is but a tenement
Of all things visible. Darkness and day
The passing guests of Time. Life slips away,
A dream of little joy and mean content.

Ah! wise the old philosophers who sought
To lengthen their long sunsets among flowers,
By stealing the young night's unsullied hours
And the dim moments with sweet burdens fraught.

And now Spring beckons me with verdant hand,
And Nature's wealth of eloquence doth win
Forth to the fragrant-bowered nectarine,
Where my dear friends abide, a careless band.

There meet my gentle, matchless brothers, there
I come, the obscure poet, all unfit
To wear the radiant jewellery of wit,
And in their golden presence cloud the air.

And while the thrill of meeting lingers, soon
As the first courtly words, the feast is spread,
While, couched on flowers 'mid wine-cups flashing red,
We drink deep draughts unto The Lady Moon.

Then as without the touch of verse divine
There is no outlet for the pent-up soul,
'Twas ruled that he who quaffed no fancy's bowl
Should drain the "Golden Valley"* cups of wine.

--
* i.e. drink three cups of wine, the "Golden Valley" being the name
of a garden, the owner of which enforced this penalty
among his boon companions (`Gems of Chinese Literature', p. 113).
--

Under the Moon

Under the crescent moon's faint glow
The washerman's bat resounds afar,
And the autumn breeze sighs tenderly.
But my heart has gone to the Tartar war,
To bleak Kansuh and the steppes of snow,
Calling my husband back to me.

Drifting

We cannot keep the gold of yesterday;
To-day's dun clouds we cannot roll away.
Now the long, wailing flight of geese brings autumn in its train,
So to the view-tower cup in hand to fill and drink again,

And dream of the greatest singers of the past,
Their fadeless lines of fire and beauty cast.
I too have felt the wild-bird thrill of song behind the bars,
But these have brushed the world aside and walked amid the stars.

In vain we cleave the torrent's thread with steel,
In vain we drink to drown the grief we feel;
When man's desire with fate doth war this, this avails alone --
To hoist the sail and let the gale and the waters bear us on.

Wang Ch`ang-ling

Circa A.D. 750

This poet came from the district of Chiang-ning to the capital,
where he obtained his doctor's degree and distinguished himself
as a man of letters. For some time he filled a minor post,
but was eventually disgraced and exiled to the province of Hunan.
When the rebellion of An Lu-shan broke out, he returned to his native place,
where he was cruelly murdered by the censor Lu Ch`in-hsiao.
(See Hervey Saint-Denys, `Poe/sies des Thang', p. 224;
Giles, `Biog. Dict.' p. 8087.)

The Song of the Nenuphars

Leaves of the Nenuphars and silken skirts the same pale green,
On flower and laughing face alike the same rose-tints are seen;
Like some blurred tapestry they blend within the lake displayed:
You cannot part the leaves from silk, the lily from the maid.
Only when sudden voices swell
Do maidens of their presence tell.

Here long ago the girls of Sou, the darlings of the King,
Dabbled their shining skirts with dew from the gracious blooms of Spring.
When to the lake's sun-dimpled marge the bright procession wends,
The languid lilies raise their heads as though to greet their friends;
When down the river-banks they roam,
The white moon-lady leads them home.

Tears in the Spring

Clad in blue silk and bright embroidery
At the first call of Spring the fair young bride,
On whom as yet Sorrow has laid no scar,
Climbs the Kingfisher's Tower. Suddenly
She sees the bloom of willows far and wide,
And grieves for him she lent to fame and war.

Chang Chih-ho

Circa A.D. 750

A Taoist philosopher who lived in the time of the Emperor Su Tsung,
and held office under him. For some offence he was exiled,
and the royal pardon found him far too occupied to dream of return.

Like so many of the same philosophy, he became a lonely wanderer,
calling himself the "Old Fisherman of the Mists and Waters".
Professor Giles (`Chinese Literature', p. 191) adds the curious statement
that "he spent his time in angling, but used no bait,
his object not being to catch fish."

A World Apart

The Lady Moon is my lover,
My friends are the oceans four,
The heavens have roofed me over,
And the dawn is my golden door
I would liefer follow the condor
Or the seagull, soaring from ken,
Than bury my godhead yonder
In the dust of the whirl of men.

Chang Jo-hu

Circa A.D. 800

When heaven reveals her primal stainless blue,
Alone within the firmament there burns
The tiny torch of dusk. What startled eyes
Uplifted from the restless stream first met
The full round glory of the moon! Yon orb
That pales upon the flood of broad Kiang,
When did she first through twilight mists unveil
Her wonders to the world?
Men come and go;
New generations hunger at the heels
Of those that yield possession. Still the moon
Fulfils her phases. While the tides of time
Eat out the rocks of empire, and the stars
Of human destiny adown the void
Go glittering to their doom, she changeless sweeps
Through all her times and destinies. Alas!
The little lives that swarmed beneath the moon,
I cannot count them. This alone I know --
That, wave on wave, the Kiang seeks the sea,
And not a wave returns.
One small white cloud
Threading the vasty vault of heaven recalls
My heart unto her loneliness. I sail
Between two banks, where heavy boughs enlace,
Whose verdurous luxuriance wakes once more
My many griefs. None know me as I am,
Steering to strange adventure. None may tell
If, steeped in the same moonlight, lies afar
Some dim pavilion where my lady dreams
Of me. Ah, happy moon! low lingering moon!
That with soft touch now brightens into jade
Lintel and door, and when she lifts the blind
Floats through the darkened chamber of her sleep;
While leagues away my love-winged messages
Go flocking home; and though they mingle not,
Our thoughts seek one another. In the lilt
Of winds I hear her whisper: "Oh that I
Might melt into the moonbeams, and with them
Leap through the void, and shed myself with them
Upon my lover." Slow the night creeps on.
Sleep harbours in the little room. She dreams --
Dreams of a fall o' flowers. Alas! young Spring
Lies on the threshold of maternity,
And still he comes not. Still the flowing stream
Sweeps on, but the swift torrents of green hours
Are licked into the brazen skies between
Their widening banks. The great deliberate moon
Now leans toward the last resort of night,
Gloom of the western waves. She dips her rim,
She sinks, she founders in the mist; and still
The stream flows on, and to the insatiate sea
Hurries her white-wave flocks innumerable
In never-ending tale. On such a night
How many tireless travellers may attain
The happy goal of their desire! So dreams
My lady till the moon goes down, and lo!
A rush of troubled waters floods her soul,
While black forebodings rise from deeps unknown
And the cold trail of fear creeps round her heart.

T`ung Han-ching

Circa A.D. 800

The Celestial Weaver

A thing of stone beside Lake Kouen-ming
Has for a thousand autumns borne the name
Of the Celestial Weaver. Like that star
She shines above the waters, wondering
At her pale loveliness. Unnumbered waves

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