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A History of Aeronautics by E. Charles Vivian

Part 8 out of 8

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that side of the machine which tends to move forward too rapidly
and keeps the machine with its front properly presented to the
direction of flight and with its body properly balanced around
its central longitudinal axis. The pivoting of the supports 23
so as to permit them to swing upward prevents injury to the
rudder and its supports in case the machine alights at such an
angle as to cause the rudder to strike the ground first, the
parts yielding upward, as indicated in dotted lines in Fig. 3,
and thus preventing injury or breakage. We wish it to be
understood, however, that we do not limit ourselves to the
particular description of rudder set forth, the essential being
that the rudder shall be vertical and shall be so moved as to
present its resisting surface on that side of the machine which
offers the least resistance to the atmosphere, so as to
counteract the tendency of the machine to turn around a vertical
axis when the two sides thereof offer different resistances to
the air.

From the central portion of the front of the machine struts 28
extend horizontally forward from the lower aeroplane, and struts
29 extend downward and forward from the central portion of the
upper aeroplane, their front ends being united to the struts 28,
the forward extremities of which are turned up, as indicated at
30. These struts 28 and 29 form truss-skids projecting in front
of the whole frame of the machine and serving to prevent the
machine from rolling over forward when it alights. The struts 29
serve to brace the upper portion of the main frame and resist its
tendency to move forward after the lower aeroplane has been
stopped by its contact with the earth, thereby relieving the rope
19 from undue strain, for it will be understood that when the
machine comes into contact with the earth, further forward
movement of the lower portion thereof being suddenly arrested,
the inertia of the upper portion would tend to cause it to
continue to move forward if not prevented by the struts 29, and
this forward movement of the upper portion would bring a very
violent strain upon the rope 19, since it is fastened to the
upper portion at both of its ends, while its lower portion is
connected by the guides 20 to the lower portion. The struts 28
and 29 also serve to support the front or horizontal rudder, the
construction of which we will now proceed to describe.

The front rudder 31 is a horizontal rudder having a flexible
body, the same consisting of three stiff crosspieces or sticks
32, 33, and 34, and the flexible ribs 35, connecting said
cross-pieces and extending from front to rear. The frame thus
provided is covered by a suitable fabric stretched over the same
to form the body of the rudder. The rudder is supported from
the struts 29 by means of the intermediate cross-piece 32, which
is located near the centre of pressure slightly in front of a
line equidistant between the front and rear edges of the rudder,
the cross-piece 32 forming the pivotal axis of the rudder, so as
to constitute a balanced rudder. To the front edge of the
rudder there are connected springs 36 which springs are
connected to the upturned ends 30 of the struts 28, the
construction being such that said springs tend to resist any
movement either upward or downward of the front edge of the
horizontal rudder. The rear edge of the rudder lies immediately
in front of the operator and may be operated by him in any
suitable manner. We have shown a mechanism for this purpose
comprising a roller or shaft 37, which may be grasped by the
operator so as to turn the same in either direction. Bands 38
extend from the roller 37 forward to and around a similar roller
or shaft 39, both rollers or shafts being supported in suitable
bearings on the struts 28. The forward roller or shaft has
rearwardly-extending arms 40, which are connected by links 41
with the rear edge of the rudder 31. The normal position of the
rudder 31 is neutral or substantially parallel with the
aeroplanes 1 and 2; but its rear edge may be moved upward or
downward, so as to be above or below the normal plane of said
rudder through the mechanism provided for that purpose. It will
be seen that the springs 36 will resist any tendency of the
forward edge of the rudder to move in either direction, so that
when force is applied to the rear edge of said rudder the
longitudinal ribs 35 bend, and the rudder thus presents a
concave surface to the action of the wind either above or below
its normal plane, said surface presenting a small angle of
incidence at its forward portion and said angle of incidence
rapidly increasing toward the rear. This greatly increases the
efficiency of the rudder as compared with a plane surface of
equal area. By regulating the pressure on the upper and lower
sides of the rudder through changes of angle and curvature in
the manner described a turning movement of the main structure
around its transverse axis may be effected, and the course of
the machine may thus be directed upward or downward at the will
of the operator and the longitudinal balance thereof maintained.

Contrary to the usual custom, we place the horizontal rudder in
front of the aeroplanes at a negative angle and employ no
horizontal tail at all. By this arrangement we obtain a forward
surface which is almost entirely free from pressure under
ordinary conditions of flight, but which even if not moved at
all from its original position becomes an efficient
lifting-surface whenever the speed of the machine is
accidentally reduced very much below the normal, and thus
largely counteracts that backward travel of the centre of
pressure on the aeroplanes which has frequently been productive
of serious injuries by causing the machine to turn downward and
forward and strike the ground head-on. We are aware that a
forward horizontal rudder of different construction has been
used in combination with a supporting surface and a rear
horizontal-rudder; but this combination was not intended to
effect and does not effect the object which we obtain by the
arrangement hereinbefore described.

We have used the term 'aeroplane' in this specification and the
appended claims to indicate the supporting surface or supporting
surfaces by means of which the machine is sustained in the air,
and by this term we wish to be understood as including any
suitable supporting surface which normally is substantially
flat, although. Of course, when constructed of cloth or other
flexible fabric, as we prefer to construct them, these surfaces
may receive more or less curvature from the resistance of the
air, as indicated in Fig. 3.

We do not wish to be understood as limiting ourselves strictly
to the precise details of construction hereinbefore described
and shown in the accompanying drawings, as it is obvious that
these details may be modified without departing from the
principles of our invention. For instance, while we prefer the
construction illustrated in which each aeroplane is given a
twist along its entire length in order to set its opposite
lateral margins at different angles, we have already pointed out
that our invention is not limited to this form of construction,
since it is only necessary to move the lateral marginal
portions, and where these portions alone are moved only those
upright standards which support the movable portion require
flexible connections at their ends.

Having thus fully described our invention, what we claim as new,
and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is:--

1. In a flying machine, a normally flat aeroplane having
lateral marginal portions capable of movement to different
positions above or below the normal plane of the body of the
aeroplane, such movement being about an axis transverse to the
line of flight, whereby said lateral marginal portions may be
moved to different angles relatively to the normal plane of the
body of the aeroplane, so as to present to the atmosphere
different angles of incidence, and means for so moving said
lateral marginal portions, substantially as described.

2. In a flying machine, the combination, with two normally
parallel aeroplanes, superposed the one above the other, of
upright standards connecting said planes at their margins, the
connections between the standards and aeroplanes at the lateral
portions of the aeroplanes being by means of flexible joints,
each of said aeroplanes having lateral marginal portions capable
of movement to different positions above or below the normal
plane of the body of the aeroplane, such movement being about an
axis transverse to the line of flight, whereby said lateral
marginal portions may be moved to different angles relatively to
the normal plane of the body of the aeroplane, so as to present
to the atmosphere different angles of incidence, the standards
maintaining a fixed distance between the portions of the
aeroplanes which they connect, and means for imparting such
movement to the lateral marginal portions of the aeroplanes,
substantially as described.

3. In a flying machine, a normally flat aeroplane having
lateral marginal portions capable of movement to different
positions above or below the normal plane of the body of the
aeroplane, such movement being about an axis transverse to the
line of flight, whereby said lateral marginal portions may be
moved to different angles relatively to the normal plane of the
body of the aeroplane, and also to different angles relatively
to each other, so as to present to the atmosphere different
angles of incidence, and means for simultaneously imparting such
movement to said lateral marginal portions, substantially as
described.

4. In a flying machine, the combination, with parallel
superposed aeroplanes, each having lateral marginal portions
capable of movement to different positions above or below the
normal plane of the body of the aeroplane, such movement being
about an axis transverse to the line of flight, whereby said
lateral marginal portions may be moved to different angles
relatively to the normal plane of the body of the aeroplane, and
to different angles relatively to each other, so as to present
to the atmosphere different angles of incidence, of uprights
connecting said aeroplanes at their edges, the uprights
connecting the lateral portions of the aeroplanes being
connected with said aeroplanes by flexible joints, and means for
simultaneously imparting such movement to said lateral marginal
portions, the standards maintaining a fixed distance between the
parts which they connect, whereby the lateral portions on the
same side of the machine are moved to the same angle,
substantially as described.

5. In a flying machine, an aeroplane having substantially the
form of a normally flat rectangle elongated transversely to the
line of flight, in combination which means for imparting to the
lateral margins of said aeroplane a movement about an axis lying
in the body of the aeroplane perpendicular to said lateral
margins, and thereby moving said lateral margins into different
angular relations to the normal plane of the body of the
aeroplane, substantially as described.

6. In a flying machine, the combination, with two superposed
and normally parallel aeroplanes, each having substantially the
form of a normally flat rectangle elongated transversely to the
line of flight, of upright standards connecting the edges of
said aeroplanes to maintain their equidistance, those standards
at the lateral portions of said aeroplanes being connected
therewith by flexible joints, and means for simultaneously
imparting to both lateral margins of both aeroplanes a movement
about axes which are perpendicular to said margins and in the
planes of the bodies of the respective aeroplanes, and thereby
moving the lateral margins on the opposite sides of the machine
into different angular relations to the normal planes of the
respective aeroplanes, the margins on the same side of the
machine moving to the same angle, and the margins on one side of
the machine moving to an angle different from the angle to which
the margins on the other side of the machine move, substantially
as described.

7. In a flying machine, the combination, with an aeroplane, and
means for simultaneously moving the lateral portions thereof
into different angular relations to the normal plane of the body
of the aeroplane and to each other, so as to present to the
atmosphere different angles of incidence, of a vertical rudder,
and means whereby said rudder is caused to present to the wind
that side thereof nearest the side of the aeroplane having the
smaller angle of incidence and offering the least resistance to
the atmosphere, substantially as described.

8. In a flying machine, the combination, with two superposed
and normally parallel aeroplanes, upright standards connecting
the edges of said aeroplanes to maintain their equidistance,
those standards at the lateral portions of said aeroplanes being
connected therewith by flexible joints, and means for
simultaneously moving both lateral portions of both aeroplanes
into different angular relations to the normal planes of the
bodies of the respective aeroplanes, the lateral portions on one
side of the machine being moved to an angle different from that
to which the lateral portions on the other side of the machine
are moved, so as to present different angles of incidence at the
two sides of the machine, of a vertical rudder, and means
whereby said rudder is caused to present to the wind that side
thereof nearest the side of the aeroplanes having the smaller
angle of incidence and offering the least resistance to the
atmosphere, substantially as described.

9. In a flying machine, an aeroplane normally flat and
elongated transversely to the line of flight, in combination
with means for imparting to said aeroplane a helicoidal warp
around an axis transverse to the line of flight and extending
centrally along the body aeroplane in the direction of the
elongation aeroplane, substantially as described.

10. In a flying machine, two aeroplanes, each normally flat and
elongated transversely to the line of flight, and upright
standards connecting the edges of said aeroplanes to maintain
their equidistance, the connections between said standards and
aeroplanes being by means of flexible joints, in combination
with means for simultaneously imparting to each of said
aeroplanes a helicoidal warp around an axis transverse to the
line of flight and extending centrally along the body of the
aeroplane in the direction of the aeroplane, substantially as
described.

11. In a flying machine, two aeroplanes, each normally flat
and elongated transversely to the line of flight, and upright
standards connecting the edges of said aeroplanes to maintain
their equidistance, the connections between such standards and
aeroplanes being by means of flexible joints, in combination
with means for simultaneously imparting to each of said
aeroplanes a helicoidal warp around an axis transverse to the
line of flight and extending centrally along the body of the
aeroplane in the direction of the elongation of the
aeroplane, a vertical rudder, and means whereby said rudder is
caused to present to the wind that side thereof nearest the side
of the aeroplanes having the smaller angle of incidence and
offering the least resistance to the atmosphere, substantially
as described.

12. In a flying machine, the combination, with an aeroplane, of
a normally flat and substantially horizontal flexible rudder,
and means for curving said rudder rearwardly and upwardly or
rearwardly and downwardly with respect to its normal plane,
substantially as described.

13. In a flying machine, the combination, with an aeroplane, of
a normally flat and substantially horizontal flexible rudder
pivotally mounted on an axis transverse to the line of flight
near its centre, springs resisting vertical movement of the
front edge of said rudder, and means for moving the rear edge of
said rudder, above or below the normal plane thereof,
substantially as described.

14. A flying machine comprising superposed connected aeroplanes
means for moving the opposite lateral portions of said
aeroplanes to different angles to the normal planes thereof, a
vertical rudder, means for moving said vertical rudder toward
that side of the machine presenting the smaller angle of
incidence and the least resistance to the atmosphere, and a
horizontal rudder provided with means for presenting its upper
or under surface to the resistance of the atmosphere,
substantially as described.

15. A flying machine comprising superposed connected
aeroplanes, means for moving the opposite lateral portions of
said aeroplanes to different angles to the normal planes
thereof, a vertical rudder, means for moving said vertical
rudder toward that side of the machine presenting the smaller
angle of incidence and the least resistance to the atmosphere,
and a horizontal rudder provided with means for presenting its
upper or under surface to the resistance of the atmosphere, said
vertical rudder being located at the rear of the machine and
said horizontal rudder at the front of the machine,
substantially as described.

16. In a flying machine, the combination, with two superposed
and connected aeroplanes, of an arm extending rearward from each
aeroplane, said arms being parallel and free to swing upward at
their rear ends, and a vertical rudder pivotally mounted in the
rear ends of said arms, substantially as described.

17. A flying machine comprising two superposed aeroplanes,
normally flat but flexible, upright standards connecting the
margins of said aeroplanes, said standards being connected to
said aeroplanes by universal joints, diagonal stay-wires
connecting the opposite ends of the adjacent standards, a rope
extending along the front edge of the lower aeroplane, passing
through guides at the front corners thereof, and having its ends
secured to the rear corners of the upper aeroplane, and a rope
extending along the rear edge of the lower aeroplane, passing
through guides at the rear corners thereof, and having its ends
secured to the front corners of the upper aeroplane,
substantially as described.

18. A flying machine comprising two superposed aeroplanes,
normally flat but flexible, upright standards connecting the
margins of said aeroplanes, said standards being connected to
said aeroplanes by universal joints, diagonal stay-wires
connecting the opposite ends of the adjacent standards, a rope
extending along the front edge of the lower aeroplane, passing
through guides at the front corners thereof, and having its ends
secured to the rear corners of the upper aeroplane, and a rope
extending along the rear edge of the lower aeroplane, passing
through guides at the rear corners thereof, and having its ends
secured to the front corners of the upper aeroplane, in
combination with a vertical rudder, and a tiller-rope connecting
said rudder with the rope extending along the rear edge of the
lower aeroplane, substantially as described.
ORVILLE WRIGHT.
WILBUR WRIGHT.
Witnesses:
Chas. E. Taylor.
E. Earle Forrer.

APPENDIX C

Proclamation published by the French Government on balloon
ascents, 1783.

NOTICE TO THE PUBLIC! PARIS, 27TH AUGUST, 1783.

On the Ascent of balloons or globes in the air. The one
in question has been raised in Paris this day, 27th August,
1783, at 5 p.m., in the Champ de Mars.

A Discovery has been made, which the Government deems it right to
make known, so that alarm be not occasioned to the people.

On calculating the different weights of hot air, hydrogen gas,
and common air, it has been found that a balloon filled with
either of the two former will rise toward heaven till it is in
equilibrium with the surrounding air, which may not happen until
it has attained a great height.

The first experiment was made at Annonay, in Vivarais, MM.
Montgolfier, the inventors; a globe formed of canvas and paper,
105 feet in circumference, filled with heated air, reached an
uncalculated height. The same experiment has just been renewed
in Paris before a great crowd. A globe of taffetas or light
canvas covered by elastic gum and filled with inflammable air,
has risen from the Champ de Mars, and been lost to view in the
clouds, being borne in a north-westerly direction. One cannot
foresee where it will descend.

It is proposed to repeat these experiments on a larger scale.
Any one who shall see in the sky such a globe, which resembles
'la lune obscurcie,' should be aware that, far from being an
alarming phenomenon, it is only a machine that cannot possibly
cause any harm, and which will some day prove serviceable to the
wants of society.

(Signed) DE SAUVIGNY.
LENOIR.

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