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A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels, Volume 14 by Robert Kerr

Part 8 out of 11

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information; and all I could learn of him was, that these fellows were a
sort of banditti, who had formed themselves into a body, with a resolution
of seizing and robbing our people wherever they found them, and were now
armed for that purpose: For which reason he wanted me to go along with him,
to chastise them. I told him, if I went they would fly to the mountains;
but he said, they were resolved to fight us, and therefore desired I would
destroy both them and their house; but begged I would spare those in the
neighbourhood, as also the canoes and the _Whenooa_. By way of
securing these, he presented me with a pig as a peace-offering for the
_Whenooa_. It was too small to be meant for any thing but a ceremony
of this kind. This sensible old chief could see (what perhaps none of the
others ever thought of) that every thing in the neighbourhood was at our
mercy, and therefore took care to secure them by this method, which I
suppose to be of weight with them. When I returned on board, I considered
of the chiefs request, which upon the whole appeared an extraordinary one.
I however resolved to go, lest these fellows should be (by our refusal)
encouraged to commit greater acts of violence; and, as their proceeding
would soon reach Ulietea, where I intended to go next, the people there
might be induced to treat us in the same manner, or worse, they being more
numerous. Accordingly I landed with forty-eight men, including officers, Mr
Forster, and some other of the gentlemen. The chief joined us with a few
people, and we began to march, in search of the banditti, in good order. As
we proceeded, the chief's party increased like a snow-ball. Oedidee, who
was with us, began to be alarmed, observing that many of the people in our
company were of the very party we were going against, and at last telling
us, that they were only leading us to some place where they could attack us
to advantage. Whether there was any truth in this, or it was only Oedidee's
fears, I will not pretend to say. He, however, was the only person we could
confide in. And we regulated our motions according to the information he
had given us. After marching some miles, we got intelligence that the men
we were going after had fled to the mountains; but I think this was not
till I had declared to the chief I would proceed no farther. For we were
then about crossing a deep valley, bounded on each side by steep rocks,
where a few men with stones only might have made our retreat difficult, if
their intentions were what Oedidee had suggested, and which he still
persisted in. Having come to a resolution to return, we marched back in the
same order as we went, and saw, in several places, people, who had been
following us, coming down from the sides of the hills with their arms in
their hands, which they instantly quitted, and hid in the bushes, when they
saw they were discovered by us. This seemed to prove that there must have
been some foundation for what Oedidee had said; but I cannot believe that
the chief had any such design, whatever the people might have. In our
return we halted at a convenient place to refresh ourselves. I ordered the
people to bring us some cocoa-nuts, which they did immediately. Indeed, by
this time, I believe many of them wished us on board out of the way; for
although no one step was taken that could give them the least alarm, they
certainly were in terror. Two chiefs brought each of them a pig, a dog, and
some young plantain trees, the usual peace-offerings, and with due ceremony
presented them singly to me. Another brought a very large hog, with which
he followed us to the ship. After this we continued our course to the
landing-place, where I caused several vollies to be fired, to convince the
natives that we could support a continual fire. This being done, we all
embarked and went on board; and soon after the chief following, brought
with him a quantity of fruit, and sat down with us to dinner. We had scarce
dined before more fruit was brought us by others, and two hogs; so that we
were likely to make more by this little excursion than by all the presents
we had made them. It certainly gave them some alarm to see so strong a
party of men march into their country; and probably gave them a better
opinion of fire-arms than they had before. For I believe they had but an
indifferent, or rather contemptible, idea of muskets in general, having
never seen any fired but at birds, &c. by such of our people as used to
straggle about the country, the most of them but indifferent marksmen,
losing generally two shots out of three, their pieces often, missing fire,
and being slow in charging. Of all this they had taken great notice, and
concluded, as well they might, that fire-arms were not so terrible things
as they had been taught to believe.

When the chiefs took leave in the evening, they promised to bring us next
day a very large supply of provisions. In the article of fruit they were as
good as their word, but of hogs, which we most wanted, they brought far
less than we expected. Going ashore in the afternoon, I found the chief
just sitting down to dinner. I cannot say what was the occasion of his
dining so late. As soon as he was seated, several people began chewing the
pepper-root; about a pint of the juice of which, without any mixture, was
the first dish, and was dispatched in a moment. A cup of it was presented
to me; but the manner of brewing it was at this time sufficient. Oedidee
was not so nice, but took what I refused. After this the chief washed his
mouth with cocoa-nut water; then he eat of repe, plantain, and mahee, of
each not a little; and, lastly, finished his repast by eating, or rather
drinking, about three pints of _popoie_, which is made of bread-fruit,
plantains, mahee, &c. beat together and diluted with water till it is of
the consistence of a custard. This was at the outside of his house, in the
open air; for at this time a play was acting within, as was done almost
every day in the neighbourhood; but they were such poor performances that I
never attended. I observed that, after the juice had been squeezed out of
the chewed pepper-root for the chief, the fibres were carefully picked up
and taken away by one of his servants. On my asking what he intended to do
with it, I was told he would put water to it, and strain it again. Thus he
would make what I will call small beer.

The 23d, wind easterly, as it had been ever since we left Otaheite. Early
in the morning, we unmoored, and at eight weighed and put to sea. The good
old chief was the last man who went out of the ship. At parting I told him
we should see each other no more; at which he wept, and said, "Let your
sons come, we will treat them well." Oree is a good man, in the utmost
sense of the word; but many of the people are far from being of that
disposition, and seem to take advantage of his old age; Teraderre, his
grandson and heir, being yet but a youth. The gentle treatment the people
of this isle ever met with from me, and the careless and imprudent manner
in which many of our people had rambled about in the country, from a vain
opinion that firearms rendered them invincible, encouraged many at Huaheine
to commit acts of violence, which no man at Otaheite ever durst attempt.

During our stay here we got bread-fruit, cocoa-nuts, &c. more than we could
well-consume, but not hogs enough by far to supply our daily expence; and
yet it did not appear that they were scarce in the isle. It must be
allowed, however, that the number we took away, when last here, must have
thinned them greatly, and at the same time stocked the isle with our
articles. Besides, we now wanted a proper assortment of trade; what we had
being nearly exhausted, and the few remaining red feathers being here but
of little value, when compared to the estimation they stand in at Otaheite.
This obliged me to set the smiths to work to make different sorts of iron
tools, nails, &c. in order to enable me to procure refreshments at the
other isles, and to support my credit and influence among the natives.

[1] "Her parents, from whom she had eloped to Otaheite with a favoured
lover some years ago, were still alive, and the force of affection
urged her irresistibly to visit them. She had concealed herself on
board during Otoo's last visit, as he had expressly ordered that no
woman should go with us; but being safe at present, she ventured to
make her appearance. She was dressed in a suit of clothes belonging to
one of the officers, and was so much pleased with her new garments,
that she went ashore in them as soon as she arrived at Huaheine. She
dined with the officers without the least scruple, and laughed at the
prejudices of her country-women with all the good sense of a citizen
of the world. With a proper education she might have shone as a woman
of genius even in Europe; since, without the advantage of a cultivated
understanding, her great vivacity, joined to very polite manners,
already were sufficient to make her company supportable."--G.F.

From some of this gentleman's remarks, as well as what Captain Cook
says, it appears that these islanders have pretty correct notions of
the relative duty of children and parents.--E.

[2] Mr G.F. has entered upon a pretty minute account of this strange
society, and does his best to palliate the enormities of which, there
seems no reason to doubt, its really profligate members are almost
habitually guilty. That gentleman is certainly liberal in his views of
the natives in general, and on the whole appears disposed to give more
credit to human nature than, perhaps, it will be found on the closest
inspection to deserve. Though it may be conceded to him, that criminal
individuals are not more numerous in the Society Islands, than among
other people, yet it is obvious, that the discovery of the universal
prevelancy of vice does not warrant any person to extenuate its
malignity in any particular instances where it occurs.--E.

SECTION XV.

_Arrival at Ulietea; with an Account of the Reception we met with there,
and the several Incidents which happened during our Stay. A Report of two
ships being at Huaheine. Preparations to leave the Island; and the Regret
the Inhabitants shewed on the Occasion. The Character of Oedidee; with some
general Observations on the Islands._

As soon as we were clear of the harbour, we made sail, and stood over for
the South end of Ulietea. Oree took the opportunity to send a man with a
message to Opoony. Being little wind all the latter part of the day, it was
dark before we reached the west side of the isle, where we spent the night.
The same light variable wind continued till ten o'clock next morning, when
the trade-wind at east prevailed, and we ventured to ply up to the harbour,
first sending a boat to lie in anchorage in the entrance. After making a
few trips, we got before the channel, and with all our sails set, and the
head-way the ship had acquired, shut her in as far as she would go; then
dropped the anchor, and took in the sails. This is the method of getting
into most of the harbours which are on the lee-side of these isles; for the
channels, in general, are too narrow to ply in: We were now anchored
between the two points of the reef which form the entrance; each not more
than two-thirds the length of a cable from us, and on which the sea broke
with such height and violence, as to people less acquainted with the place,
would have been terrible. Having all our boats out with anchors and warps
in them, which were presently run out, the ship warped into safety, where
we dropt anchor for the night. While this work was going forward, my old
friend Oree the chief, and several more, came to see us. The chief came not
empty.

Next day we warped the ship into a proper birth, and moored her, so as to
command all the shores around us. In the mean time a party of us went
ashore to pay the chief a visit, and to make the customary present. At our
first entering his house, we were met by four or five old women, weeping
and lamenting, as it were, most bitterly, and at the same time cutting
their heads, with instruments made of shark's teeth, till the blood ran
plentifully down their faces and on their shoulders. What was still worse,
we were obliged to submit to the embraces of these old hags, and by that
means were all besmeared with blood. This ceremony (for it was merely such)
being over, they went out, washed themselves, and immediately after
appeared as cheerful as any of the company. Having made some little stay,
and given my present to the chief and his friends, he put a hog and some
fruit into my boat, and came on board with us to dinner. In the afternoon,
we had a vast number of people and canoes about us, from different parts of
the island. They all took up their quarters in our neighbourhood, where
they remained feasting for some days. We understood the most of them were
_Eareeoies_.

The 26th afforded nothing remarkable, excepting that Mr Forster, in his
botanical excursions, saw a burying-place for dogs, which they called
_Marai no te Oore_. But I think we ought not to look upon this as one
of their customs; because few dogs die a natural death, being generally, if
not always, killed and eaten, or else given as an offering to the gods.
Probably this might be a _Marai_ or altar, where this sort of offering
was made; or it might have been the whim of some person to have buried his
favourite dog in this manner. But be it as it will, I cannot think it is a
general custom in the nation; and, for my own part, I neither saw nor heard
of any such thing before.

Early in the morning of the 27th, Oree, his wife, son, daughter, and
several more of his friends, made us a visit, and brought with them a good
quantity of all manner of refreshments; little having as yet been got from
any body else. They staid dinner; after which a party of us accompanied
them on shore, where we were entertained with a play, called _Mididij
Harramy_, which signifies the _Child is coming_. It concluded with
the representation of a woman in labour, acted by a set of great brawny
fellows, one of whom at last brought forth a strapping boy, about six feet
high, who ran about the stage, dragging after him a large wisp of straw
which hung by a string from his middle. I had an opportunity of seeing this
acted another time, when I observed, that the moment they had got hold of
the fellow who represented the child, they flattened or pressed his nose.
From this I judged, that they do so by their children when born, which may
be the reason why all in general have flat noses. This part of the play,
from its newness, and the ludicrous manner in which it was performed, gave
us, the first time we saw it, some entertainment, and caused a loud laugh,
which might be the reason why they acted it so often afterwards. But this,
like all their other pieces, could entertain us no more than once;
especially as we could gather little from them, for want of knowing more of
their language.[1]

The 28th was spent by me in much the same manner as the preceding day, viz.
in entertaining my friends, and being entertained by them. Mr Forster and
his party in the country botanizing.

Next morning, we found several articles had been stolen, out of our boats
lying at the buoy, about sixty or seventy yards from the ship. As soon as I
was informed of it, I went to the chief to acquaint him therewith. I found
that he not only knew they were stolen, but by whom, and where they were;
and he went immediately with me in my boat in pursuit of them. After
proceeding a good way along shore, towards the south end of the island, the
chief ordered us to land near some houses, where we did not wait long
before all the articles were brought to us, except the pinnace's iron
tiller, which I was told was still farther off. But when I wanted to go
after it, I found the chief unwilling to proceed; and he actually gave me
the slip; and retired into the country. Without him I knew I could do
nothing. The people began to be alarmed when they saw I was for going
farther; by which I concluded that the tiller was out of their reach also.
I therefore sent one of them to the chief to desire him to return. He
returned accordingly; when we sat down, and had some victuals set before
us, thinking perhaps that, as I had not breakfasted, I must be hungry, and
not in a good humour. Thus I was amused, till two hogs were produced, which
they entreated me to accept. This I did, and then their fears vanished; and
I thought myself not ill off, in having gotten two good hogs for a thing
which seemed to be quite out of my reach. Matters being thus settled, we
returned on board, and had the company of the chief and his son to dinner.
After that we all went ashore, where a play was acted for the entertainment
of such as would spend their time in looking at it. Besides these plays,
which the chief caused frequently to be acted, there was a set of strolling
players in the neighbourhood, who performed everyday. But their pieces
seemed to be so much alike, that we soon grew tired of them; especially as
we could not collect any interesting circumstances from them. We, our ship,
and our country, were frequently brought on the stage; but on what account
I know not. It can hardly be doubted, that this was designed as a
compliment to us, and probably not acted but when some of us were present.
I generally appeared at Oree's theatre towards the close of the play, and
twice at the other, in order to give my mite to the actors. The only
actress at Oree's theatre was his daughter, a pretty brown girl, at whose
shrine, on these occasions, many offerings were made by her numerous
votaries. This, I believe, was one great inducement to her father's giving
us these entertainments so often.

Early in the morning of the 30th, I set out with the two boats, accompanied
by the two Mr Forsters; Oedidee, the chief, his wife, son, and daughter,
for an estate which Oedidee called his, situated at the north end of the
island. There I was promised to have hogs and fruit in abundance; but when
we came there, we found that poor Oedidee could not command one single
thing, whatever right he might have to the _Whenooa_, which was now in
possession of his brother, who, soon after we landed, presented to me, with
the usual ceremony, two pigs. I made him a very handsome present in return,
and Oedidee gave him every thing he had left of what he had collected
during the time he was with us.

After this ceremony was over, I ordered one of the pigs to be killed and
dressed for dinner, and attended myself to the whole operation, which was
as follows:--They first strangled the hog, which was done by three men; the
hog being placed on his back, two of them laid a pretty strong stick across
his throat, and pressed with all their might on each end; the third man
held his hind legs, kept him on his back, and plugged up his fundament with
grass, I suppose to prevent any air from passing or repassing that way. In
this manner they held him for about ten minutes before he was quite dead.
In the mean time, some hands were employed in making a fire, to heat the
oven, which was close by. As soon as the hog was quite dead, they laid him
on the fire, and burnt or singed the hair, so that it came off with almost
the same ease as if it had been scalded. As the hair was got off one part,
another was applied to the fire till they had got off the whole, yet not so
clean but that another operation was necessary; which was to carry it to
the sea side, and there give it a good scrubbing with sandy stones, and
sand. This brought off all the scurf, &c. which the fire had left on. After
well washing off the sand and dirt, the carcase was brought again to the
former place, and laid on clean green leaves, in order to be opened. They
first ripped up the skin of the belly, and took out the fat or lard from
between the skin and the flesh, which they laid on a large green leaf. The
belly was then ripped open, and the entrails taken out, and carried away in
a basket, so that I know not what became of them; but am certain they were
not thrown away. The blood was next taken out, and put into a large leaf,
and then the lard, which was put to the other fat. The hog was now washed
clean, both inside and out, with fresh water, and several hot stones put
into his belly, which were shaken in under the breast, and green leaves
crammed in upon them. By this time the oven was sufficiently heated; what
fire remained was taken away, together with some of the hot stones; the
rest made a kind of pavement in the bottom of the hole or oven, and were
covered with leaves, on which the hog was placed on his belly. The lard and
fat, after being washed with water, were put into a vessel, made just then
of the green bark of the plantain tree, together with two or three hot
stones, and placed on one side the hog. A hot stone was put to the blood,
which was tied up in the leaf, and put into the oven; as also bread-fruit
and plantains. Then the whole was covered with green leaves, on which were
laid the remainder of the hot stones; over them were leaves; then any sort
of rubbish they could lay their hands on; finishing the operation by well
covering the whole with earth. While the victuals were baking, a table was
spread with green leaves on the floor, at one end of a large boat-house. At
the close of two hours and ten minutes, the oven was opened, and all the
victuals taken out. Those of the natives who dined with us, sat down by
themselves, at one end of the table, and we at the other. The hog was
placed before us, and the fat and blood before them, on which they chiefly
dined, and said it was _Mamity_, very good victuals; and we not only
said, but thought, the same of the pork. The hog weighed about fifty
pounds. Some parts about the ribs I thought rather overdone, but the more
fleshy parts were excellent; and the skin, which by the way of our dressing
can hardly be eaten, had, by this method, a taste and flavour superior to
any thing I ever met with of the kind. I have now only to add, that during
the whole of the various operations, they exhibited a cleanliness well
worthy of imitation. I have been the more particular in this account,
because I do not remember that any of us had seen the whole process before;
nor is it well described in the narrative of my former voyage.

While dinner was preparing, I took a view of this _Whenooa_ of
Oedidee. It was a small, but a pleasant spot; and the houses were so
disposed as to form a very pretty village, which is very rarely the case at
these isles, Soon after we had dined, we set out for the ship, with the
other pig, and a few races of plantains, which proved to be the sum total
of our great expectations.

In our return to the ship, we put ashore at a place where, in the corner of
a house, we saw four wooden images, each two feet long, standing on a
shelf, having a piece of cloth round their middle, and a kind of turban on
their heads, in which were stuck long feathers of cocks. A person in the
house told us they were _Eatua no te Toutou_, gods of the servants or
slaves. I doubt if this be sufficient to conclude that they pay them divine
worship, and that the servants or slaves are not allowed the same gods as
men of more elevated rank; I never heard that Tupia made any such
distinction, or that they worshipped any visible thing whatever. Besides,
these were the first wooden gods we had seen in any of the isles; and all
the authority we had for their being such, was the bare word of perhaps a
superstitious person, and whom, too, we were liable to misunderstand. It
must be allowed that the people of this isle are in general more
superstitious than at Otaheite. At the first visit I made the chief after
our arrival, he desired I would not suffer any of my people to shoot herons
and wood-peckers; birds as sacred with them as robin-red-breasts, swallows,
&c. are with many old women in England. Tupia, who was a priest, and well
acquainted with their religion, customs, traditions, &c. paid little or no
regard to these birds. I mention this, because some amongst us were of
opinion that these birds are their _Eatuas_, or gods. We indeed fell
into this opinion when I was here in 1769, and into some others still more
absurd, which we had undoubtedly adopted, if Tupia had not undeceived us. A
man of his knowledge and understanding we have not since met with, and
consequently have added nothing to his account of their religion but
superstitious notions.[2]

On the 31st, the people knowing that we should sail soon, began to bring
more fruit on board than usual. Among those who came was a young man who
measured six feet four inches and six-tenths; and his sister, younger, than
him, measured five feet ten inches and a half. A brisk trade for hogs and
fruit continued on the 1st of June. On the 2d, in the afternoon, we got
intelligence that, three days before, two ships had arrived at Huaheine.
The same report said, the one was commanded by Mr Banks, and the other by
Captain Furneaux. The man who brought the account said, he was made drunk
on board one of them, and described the persons of Mr Banks and Captain
Furneaux so well, that I had not the least doubt of the truth, and began to
consider about sending a boat over that very evening with orders to Captain
Furneaux, when a man, a friend of Mr Forster, happened to come on board and
denied the whole, saying it was _wa warre_, a lie. The man from whom
we had the intelligence was now gone, so that we could not confront them,
and there were none else present who knew any thing about it but by report;
so that I laid aside sending over a boat till I should be better informed.
This evening we entertained the people with fire-works, on one of the
little isles near the entrance of the harbour.

I had fixed on the next day for sailing, but the intelligence from Huaheine
put a stop to it. The chief had promised to bring the man on board who
first brought the account; but he was either not to be found, or would not
appear. In the morning, the people were divided in their opinions; but in
the afternoon, all said it was a false report. I had sent Mr Clerke, in the
morning, to the farthest part of the island, to make enquiries there; he
returned without learning any thing satisfactory. In short, the report
appeared now too ill founded to authorize me to send a boat over, or to
wait any longer here; and therefore, early in the morning of the 4th, I got
every thing in readiness to sail. Oree the chief, and his whole family,
came on board, to take their last farewell, accompanied by Oo-oo-rou, the
_Earee di hi_, and Boba, the _Earee_ of Otaha, and several of
their friends. None of them came empty; but Oo-oo-rou brought a pretty
large present, this being his first and only visit. I distributed amongst
them almost every thing I had left. The very hospitable manner in which I
had ever been received by these people, had endeared them to me, and given
them a just title to everything in my power to grant. I questioned them
again about the ships at Huaheine; and they all, to a man, denied that any
were there. During the time these people remained on board, they were
continually importuning me to return. The chief, his wife and daughter, but
especially the two latter, scarcely ever ceased weeping. I will not pretend
to say whether it was real or feigned grief they shewed on this occasion.
Perhaps there was a mixture of both; but were I to abide by my own opinion
only, I should believe it was real. At last, when we were about to weigh,
they took a most affectionate leave. Oree's last request was for me to
return; when he saw he could not obtain that promise, he asked the name of
my _Marai_ (burying-place). As strange a question as this was, I
hesitated not a moment to tell him Stepney; the parish in which I live when
in London. I was made to repeat it several times over till they could
pronounce it; then, Stepney _Marai no Toote_ was echoed through an
hundred mouths at once. I afterwards found the same question had been put
to Mr Forster by a man on shore; but he gave a different, and indeed more
proper answer, by saying, no man, who used the sea, could say where he
should be buried. It is the custom, at these isles, for all the great
families to have burial-places of their own, where their remains are
interred. These go with the estate to the next heir. The _Marai_ at
Oparee in Otaheite, when Tootaha swayed the sceptre, was called _Marai no
Tootaha_; but now it is called _Marai no Otoo_. What greater proof
could we have of these people esteeming us as friends, than their wishing
to remember us, even beyond the period of our lives? They had been
repeatedly told that we should see them no more; they then wanted to know
where we were to mingle with our parent dust. As I could not promise, or
even suppose, that more English ships would be sent to those isles, our
faithful companion Oedidee chose to remain in his native country. But he
left us with a regret fully demonstrative of the esteem he bore to us; nor
could any thing but the fear of never returning, have torn him from us.
When the chief teased me so much about returning, I sometimes gave such
answers as left them hopes. Oedidee would instantly catch at this, take me
on one side, and ask me over again. In short, I have not words to describe
the anguish which appeared in this young man's breast when he went away. He
looked up at the ship, burst into tears, and then sunk down into the canoe.
The maxim, that a prophet has no honour in his own country, was never more
fully verified than in this youth. At Otaheite he might have had any thing
that was in their power to bestow; whereas here he was not in the least
noticed. He was a youth of good parts, and, like most of his countrymen, of
a docile, gentle, and humane disposition, but in a manner wholly ignorant
of their religion, government, manners, customs, and traditions;
consequently no material knowledge could have been gathered from him, had I
brought him away. Indeed, he would have been a better specimen of the
nation, in every respect, than Omai. Just as Oedidee was going out of the
ship, he asked me to _Tatou_ some _Parou_ for him, in order to
shew the commanders of any other ships which might stop here. I complied
with his request, gave him a certificate of the time he had been with us,
and recommended him to the notice of those who might afterwards touch at
the island.

We did not get clear of our friends till eleven o'clock, when we weighed,
and put to sea; but Oedidee did not leave us till we were almost out of the
harbour. He staid, in order to fire some guns; for it being his majesty's
birthday, we fired the salute at going away.

When I first came to these islands, I had some thought of visiting Tupia's
famous Bolabola. But as I had now got on board a plentiful supply of all
manner of refreshments, and the route I had in view allowing me no time to
spare, I laid this design aside, and directed my course to the west; taking
our final leave of these happy isles, on which benevolent Nature has spread
her luxuriant sweets with a lavish hand. The natives, copying the bounty of
Nature, are equally liberal; contributing plentifully and cheerfully to the
wants of navigators. During the six weeks we had remained at them, we had
fresh pork, and all the fruits which were in season, in the utmost
profusion; besides fish at Otaheite, and fowls at the other isles. All
these articles we got in exchange for axes, hatchets, nails, chissels,
cloth, red feathers, beads, knives, scissars, looking-glasses, &c. articles
which will ever be valuable here. I ought not to omit shirts as a very
capital article in making presents; especially with those who have any
connexion with the fair sex. A shirt here is full as necessary as a piece
of gold in England. The ladies at Otaheite, after they had pretty well
stripped their lovers of shirts, found a method of clothing themselves with
their own cloth. It was their custom to go on shore every morning, and to
return on board in the evening, generally clad in rags. This furnished a
pretence to importune the lover for better clothes; and when he had no more
of his own, he was to dress them in new cloth of the country, which they
always left ashore; and appearing again in rags, they must again be
clothed. So that the same suit might pass through twenty different hands,
and be as often sold, bought, and given away.

Before I finish this account of these islands, it is necessary to mention
all I know concerning the government of Ulietea and Otaha. Oree, so often
mentioned, is a native of Bolabola; but is possessed of _Whenooas_ or
lands at Ulietea; which I suppose he, as well as many of his countrymen,
got at the conquest. He resides here as Opoony's lieutenant; seeming to be
vested with regal authority, and to be the supreme magistrate in the
island. Oo-oo-rou, who is the _Earee_ by hereditary right, seems to
have little more left him than the bare title, and his own _Whenooa_
or district, in which I think he is sovereign. I have always seen Oree pay
him the respect due to his rank; and he was pleased when he saw me
distinguish him from others.

Otaha, so far as I can find, is upon the very same footing. Boba and Ota
are the two chiefs; the latter I have not seen; Boba is a stout, well-made
young man; and we were told is, after Opoony's death, to marry his
daughter, by which marriage he will be vested with the same regal authority
as Opoony has now; so that it should seem, though a woman may be vested
with regal dignity, she cannot have regal power. I cannot find that Opoony
has got any thing to himself by the conquest of these isles, any farther
than providing for his nobles, who have seized on best part of the lands.
He seems to have no demand on them for any of the many articles they have
had from us. Oedidee has several times enumerated to me all the axes,
nails, &c. which Opoony is possessed of, which hardly amount to as many as
he had from me when I saw him in 1769. Old as this famous man is, he seems
not to spend his last days in indolence. When we first arrived here, he was
at Maurana; soon after he returned to Bolabola; and we were now told, he
was gone to Tubi.

I shall conclude this account of these islands, with some observations on
the watch which Mr Wales hath communicated to me. At our arrival in Matavai
Bay in Otaheite, the longitude pointed out by the watch was 2 deg. 8' 38" 1/2 too
far to the west; that is, it had gained, since our leaving Queen
Charlotte's Sound, of its then rate of going, 8' 34" 1/2. This was in about
five months, or rather more, during which time it had passed through the
extremes of cold and heat. It was judged that half this error arose after
we left Easter Island; by which it appeared that it went better in the cold
than in the hot climates.

[1] "The man who acted the part of the woman in labour went through
the gestures which the Greeks were wont to admire in the groves of
Venus-Ariadne, near Amathus, where the same ceremony was acted on the
second day of the month Gorpioeus, in memory of Ariadne, who died in
child-bed. Thus it appears that there is scarcely a practice, though
ever so ridiculous, existing in any corner of the world, that has not
been hit upon by the extravagant fancy of men in some other region. A
tall, stout fellow, dressed in cloth, personated the new-born infant
in such a ludicrous style, that we could not refuse joining in the
plaudits which his countrymen bestowed on him. Anatomists and midwives
would have been surprised to observe, that this overgrown babe had
every necessary character of a child newly born; but the natives were
particularly delighted with his running about the stage, whilst the
rest of the dancers endeavoured to catch him. The ladies were much
pleased with this scene, which, according to the simplicity of their
ideas, had not the least indecency; they looked on, therefore,
unconcernedly, and were not obliged, like some European dames, to peep
through their fans."--G.F.

[2] The two Forsters, particularly the father, a man of great sagacity
and of very acute discernment, paid much attention to this interesting
subject. The information they procured is contained in their
respective works, and is, as might be expected, very similar. From
this it would have been easy to add to the contents of the text. But
this has been avoided, principally because we may perhaps present the
reader with the substance of Forster's observations, in a connected
form, on another occasion. That publication indeed is a treasure of
most curious and important matter, deserving to be more extensively
known, than there is reason to believe it now is.--E.

CHAPTER III.

FROM ULIETEA TO NEW ZEALAND.

SECTION I.

_Passage from Ulietea to the Friendly Isles, with a Description of
several Islands that were discovered, and the Incidents which happened in
that Track._

On the 6th, being the day after leaving Ulietea, at eleven o'clock a.m., we
saw land bearing N.W., which, upon a nearer approach, we found to be a low
reef island about four leagues in compass, and of a circular form. It is
composed of several small patches connected together by breakers, the
largest lying on the N.E. part. This is Howe Island, discovered by Captain
Wallis, who, I think, sent his boat to examine it; and, if I have not been
misinformed, found a channel through, within the reef, near the N.W. part.
The inhabitants of Ulietea speak of an uninhabited island about this
situation, called by them Mopeha, to which they go at certain seasons for
turtle. Perhaps, this may be the same; as we saw no signs of inhabitants
upon it. Its latitude is 16 deg. 46' S. longitude 154 deg. 8' W.

From this day to the 16th, we met nothing remarkable, and our course was
west southerly; the winds variable from north round by the east to S.W.,
attended with cloudy, rainy, unsettled weather, and a southerly swell. We
generally brought-to, or stood upon a wind during night; and in the day
made all the sail we could. About half an hour after sun-rise this morning,
land was seen from the top-mast head, bearing N.N.E. We immediately altered
the course, and steering for it, found it to be another reef island,
composed of five or six woody islets, connected together by sand-banks and
breakers inclosing a lake, into which we could see no entrance. We ranged
the west and N.W. coasts, from its southern to its northern-extremity,
which is about two leagues, and so near the shore, that at one time we
could see the rocks under us; yet we found no anchorage, nor saw we any
signs of inhabitants. There were plenty of various kinds of birds, and the
coast seemed to abound with fish. The situation of this isle is not very
distant from that assigned by Mr Dalrymple for La Sagitaria, discovered by
Quiros; but, by the description the discoverer has given of it, it cannot
be the same. For this reason, I looked upon it as a new discovery, and
named it Palmerston Island, in honour of Lord Palmerston, one of the lords
of the Admiralty. It is situated in latitude 18 deg. 4' S. longitude 163 deg. 10'
W.

At four o'clock in the afternoon, we left this isle, and resumed our course
to the W. by S. with a fine steady gale easterly, till noon on the 20th, at
which time, being in latitude 18 deg. 50', longitude 168 deg. 52, we thought we saw
land to S.S.W. and hauled up for it accordingly. But two hours after, we
discovered our mistake, and resumed our course W. by S. Soon after, we saw
land from the mast-head in the same direction; and, as we drew nearer,
found it to be an island, which, at five o'clock, bore west, distant five
leagues. Here we spent the night plying under the topsails; and at day-
break next morning, bore away, steering to the northern point, and ranging
the west coast at the distance of one mile, till near noon. Then perceiving
some people on the shore, and landing seeming to be easy, we brought-to,
and hoisted out two boats, with which I put off to the land, accompanied by
some of the officers and gentlemen. As we drew near the shore, some of the
inhabitants, who were on the rocks, retired to the woods, to meet us, as we
supposed; and we afterwards found our conjectures right. We landed with
ease in a small creek, and took post on a high rock to prevent a surprise.
Here we displayed our colours, and Mr Forster and his party began to
collect plants, &c. The coast was so over-run with woods, bushes, plants,
stones, &c. that we could not see forty yards round us. I took two men, and
with them entered a kind of chasm, which opened a way into the woods. We
had not gone far before we heard the natives approaching; upon which I
called to Mr Forster to retire to the party, as I did likewise. We had no
sooner joined than the islanders appeared at the entrance of a chasm not a
stone's throw from us. We began to speak, and make all the friendly signs
we could think of, to them, which they answered by menaces; and one of two
men, who were advanced before the rest, threw a stone, which struck Mr
Sparrman on the arm. Upon this two muskets were fired, without order, which
made them all retire under cover of the woods; and we saw them no more.

After waiting for some little time, and till we were satisfied nothing was
to be done here, the country being so overrun with bushes, that it was
hardly possible to come to parley with them, we embarked and proceeded down
along shore, in hopes of meeting with better success in another place.
After ranging the coast for some miles, without seeing a living soul, or
any convenient landing-place, we at length came before a small beach, on
which lay four canoes. Here we landed by means of a little creek, formed by
the flat rocks before it, with a view of just looking at the canoes, and to
leave some medals, nails, &c. in them; for not a soul was to be seen. The
situation of this place was to us worse than the former. A flat rock lay
next the sea; behind it a narrow stone beach; this was bounded by a
perpendicular rocky cliff of unequal height, whose top was covered with
shrubs; two deep and narrow chasms in the cliff seemed to open a
communication into the country. In or before one of these lay the four
canoes which we were going to look at; but in the doing of this, I saw we
should be exposed to an attack from the natives, if there were any, without
being in a situation proper for defence. To prevent this, as much as could
be, and to secure a retreat in case of an attack, I ordered the men to be
drawn up upon the rock, from whence they had a view of the heights; and
only myself, and four of the gentlemen, went up to the canoes. We had been
there but a few minutes, before the natives, I cannot say how many, rushed
down the chasm out of the wood upon us. The endeavours we used to bring
them to a parley, were to no purpose; for they came with the ferocity of
wild boars, and threw their darts. Two or three muskets, discharged in the
air did not hinder one of them from advancing still farther, and throwing
another dart, or rather a spear, which passed close over my shoulder. His
courage would have cost him his life, had not my musket missed fire; for I
was not five paces from him when he threw his spear, and had resolved to
shoot him to save myself. I was glad afterwards that it happened as it did.
At this instant, our men on the rock began to fire at others who appeared
on the heights, which abated the ardour of the party we were engaged with,
and gave us time to join our people, when I caused the firing to cease. The
last discharge sent all the islanders to the woods, from whence they did
not return so long as we remained. We did not know that any were hurt. It
was remarkable, that when I joined our party, I tried my musket in the air,
and it went off as well as a piece could do. Seeing no good was to be got
with these people, or at the isle, as having no port, we returned on board,
and having hoisted in the boats, made sail to the W.S.W. I had forgot to
mention in its proper order, that having put ashore a little before we came
to this last place, three or four of us went upon the cliffs, where we
found the country, as before, nothing but coral rocks, all over-run with
bushes, so that it was hardly possible to penetrate into it; and we
embarked again with intent to return directly on board, till we saw the
canoes; being directed to the place by the opinion of some of us, who
thought they heard some people.

The conduct and aspect of these islanders occasioned my naming it Savage
Island. It is situated in the latitude 19 deg. 1' S. longitude 169 deg. 37' W. It
is about eleven leagues in circuit; of a round form, and good height; and
hath deep waters close to its shores. All the sea-coast, and as far inland
as we could see, is wholly covered with trees, shrubs, &c.; amongst which
were some cocoa-nut trees; but what the interior parts may produce we know
not. To judge of the whole garment by the skirts, it cannot produce much;
for so much as we saw of it consisted wholly of coral rocks, all over-run
with woods and bushes. Not a bit of soil was to be seen; the rocks alone
supplying the trees with humidity. If these coral rocks were first formed
in the sea by animals, how came they thrown up to such an height? Has this
island been raised by an earthquake? Or has the sea receded from it? Some
philosophers have attempted to account for the formation of low isles, such
as are in the sea; but I do not know that any thing has been said of high
islands, or such as I have been speaking of. In this island, not only the
loose rocks which cover the surface, but the cliffs which bound the shores,
are of coral stone, which the continual beating of the sea has formed into
a variety of curious caverns, some of them very large: The roof or rock
over them being supported by pillars, which the foaming waves have formed
into a multitude of shapes, and made more curious than the caverns
themselves. In one we saw light was admitted through a hole at the top; in
another place, we observed that the whole roof of one of these caverns had
sunk in, and formed a kind of valley above, which lay considerably below
the circumjacent rocks.

I can say but little of the inhabitants, who, I believe, are not numerous.
They seemed to be stout well-made men, were naked except round the waists,
and some of them had their faces, breasts, and thighs painted black. The
canoes were precisely like those of Amsterdam; with the addition of a
little rising like a gunwale on each side of the open part; and had some
carving about them, which shewed that these people are full as ingenious.
Both these islanders and their canoes agree very well with the description
M. de Bougainville has given of those he saw off the Isle of Navigators,
which lies nearly under the same meridian.

After leaving Savage Island, we continued to steer W.S.W. with a fine
easterly trade-wind, till the 24th in the evening, when, judging ourselves
not far from Rotterdam, we brought-to, and spent the night plying under the
top-sails. At daybreak next morning, we bore away west; and soon after, saw
a string of islands extending from S.S.W. by the west to N.N.W. The wind
being at N.E., we hauled to N.W., with a view of discovering more
distinctly the isles in that quarter; but, presently after, we discovered a
reef of rocks a-head, extending on each bow farther than we could see. As
we could not weather them, it became necessary to tack and bear up to the
south, to look for a passage that way. At noon the southernmost island bore
S.W., distant four miles. North of this isle were three others, all
connected by breakers, which we were not sure did not join to those we had
seen in the morning, as some were observed in the intermediate space. Some
islands were also seen to the west of those four; but Rotterdam was not yet
in sight. Latitude 20 deg. 23' S. longitude 174 deg. 6' W. During the whole
afternoon, we had little wind; so that at sunset, the southernmost isle
bore W.N.W., distant five miles; and some breakers, we had seen to the
south, bore now S.S.W. 1/2 W. Soon after it fell calm, and we were left to
the mercy of a great easterly swell; which, however, happened to have no
great effect upon the ship. The calm continued till four o'clock the next
morning, when it was succeeded by a breeze from the south. At day-light,
perceiving a likelihood of a passage between the islands to the north and
the breakers to the south, we stretched in west, and soon after saw more
islands, both to the S.W. and N.W., but the passage seemed open and clear.
Upon drawing near the islands, we sounded, and found forty-five and forty
fathoms, a clear sandy bottom. I was now quite easy, since it was in our
power to anchor, in case of a calm; or to spend the night, if we found no
passage. Towards noon some canoes came off to us from one of the isles,
having two or three people in each; who advanced boldly alongside, and
exchanged some cocoa-nuts, and shaddocks, for small nails. They pointed out
to us Anamocka, or Rotterdam; an advantage we derived from knowing the
proper names. They likewise gave us the names of some of the other isles,
and invited us much to go to theirs, which they called Cornango. The breeze
freshening, we left them astern, and steered for Anamocka; meeting with a
clear passage, in which we found unequal sounding, from forty to nine
fathoms, depending, I believe, in a great measure, on our distance from the
islands which form it.

As we drew near the south end of Rotterdam, or Anamocka, we were met by a
number of canoes, laden with fruit and roots; but as I did not shorten
sail, we had but little traffic with them. The people in one canoe enquired
for me by name; a proof that these people have an intercourse with those of
Amsterdam. They importuned us much to go towards their coast, letting us
know, as we understood them, that we might anchor there. This was on the
S.W. side of the island, where the coast seemed to be sheltered from the S.
and S.E. winds; but as the day was far spent, I could not attempt to go in
there, as it would have been necessary to have sent first a boat to examine
it. I therefore stood for the north side of the island, where we anchored
about three-fourths of a mile from shore; the extremes of it bearing south,
88 deg. E. to S.W.; a cove with a sandy beach at the bottom of it S. 50 deg. E.

SECTION II.

_Reception at Anamocka; a Robbery and its Consequences, with a Variety of
other Incidents. Departure from the Island. A sailing Canoe described. Some
Observations on the Navigation of these Islanders. A Description of the
Island, and of those in the Neighbourhood, with some Account of the
Inhabitants, and nautical Remarks._

Before we had well got to an anchor, the natives came off from all parts in
canoes, bringing with them yams and shaddocks, which they exchanged for
small nails and old rags. One man taking a vast liking to our lead and
line, got hold of it, and, in spite of all the threats I could make use of,
cut the line with a stone; but a discharge of small shot made him return
it. Early in the morning, I went ashore with Mr Gilbert to look for fresh
water. We landed in the cove above-mentioned, and were received with great
courtesy by the natives. After I had distributed some presents amongst
them, I asked for water, and was conducted to a pond of it that was
brackish, about three-fourths of a mile from the landing-place, which I
supposed to be the same that Tasman watered at. In the mean time, the
people in the boat had laden her with fruit and roots, which the natives
had brought down, and exchanged for nails and beads. On our return to the
ship, I found the same sort of traffic carrying on there. After breakfast,
I went ashore with two boats to trade with the people, accompanied by
several of the gentlemen, and ordered the launch to follow with casks to be
filled with water. The natives assisted us to roll them to and from the
pond; and a nail or a bead was the expence of their labour. Fruits and
roots, especially shaddocks and yams, were brought down in such plenty,
that the two boats were laden, sent off, cleared, and laden a second time,
before noon; by which time also the launch had got a full supply of water,
and the botanical and shooting parties had all come in, except the surgeon,
for whom we could not wait, as the tide was ebbing fast out of the cove;
consequently he was left behind. As there is no getting into the cove with
a boat, from between half-ebb to half-flood, we could get off no water in
the afternoon. However, there is a very good landing-place, without it,
near the southern point, where boats can get ashore at all times of the
tide. Here some of the officers landed after dinner, where they found the
surgeon, who had been robbed of his gun. Having come down to the shore some
time after the boats had put off, he got a canoe to bring him on board;
but, as he was getting into her, a fellow snatched hold of the gun, and ran
off with it. After that no one would carry him to the ship, and they would
have stripped him, as he imagined, had he not presented a tooth-pick case,
which they, no doubt, thought was a little gun. As soon as I heard of this,
I landed at the place above-mentioned, and the few natives who were there
fled at my approach. After landing I went in search of the officers, whom I
found in the cove, where we had been in the morning, with a good many of
the natives about them. No step had been taken to recover the gun, nor did
I think proper to take any; but in this I was wrong. The easy manner of
obtaining this gun, which they now, no doubt, thought secure in their
possession, encouraged them to proceed in these tricks, as will soon
appear. The alarm the natives had caught being soon over, they carried
fruit, &c. to the boats, which got pretty well laden before night, when we
all returned on board.

Early in the morning of the 28th, Lieutenant Clerke, with the master and
fourteen or fifteen men, went on shore in the launch for water. I did
intend to have followed in another boat myself, but rather unluckily
deferred it till after breakfast. The launch was no sooner landed than the
natives gathered about her, behaving in so rude a manner, that the officers
were in some doubt if they should land their casks; but, as they expected
me on shore soon, they ventured, and with difficulty got them filled, and
into the boat again. In the doing of this Mr Clerke's gun was snatched from
him, and carried off; as were also some of the cooper's tools; and several
of the people were stripped of one thing or another. All this was done, as
it were, by stealth; for they laid hold of nothing by main force. I landed
just as the launch was ready to put off; and the natives, who were pretty
numerous on the beach, as soon as they saw me, fled; so that I suspected
something had happened. However, I prevailed on many to stay, and Mr Clerke
came, and informed me of all the preceding circumstances. I quickly came to
a resolution to oblige them to make restitution; and, for this purpose,
ordered all the marines to be armed and sent on shore. Mr Forster and his
party being gone into the country, I ordered two or three guns to be fired
from the ship, in order to alarm him; not knowing how the natives might act
on this occasion. These orders being given, I sent all the boats off but
one, with which I staid, having a good many of the natives about me, who
behaved with their usual courtesy. I made them so sensible of my intention,
that long before the marines came, Mr Clerke's musket was brought; but they
used many excuses to divert me from insisting on the other. At length Mr
Edgcumbe arriving with the marines, this alarmed them so much, that some
fled. The first step I took was to seize on two large double sailing
canoes, which were in the cove. One fellow making resistance, I fired some
small shot at him, and sent him limping off. The natives being now
convinced that I was in earnest, all fled; but on my calling to them, many
returned; and, presently after, the other musket was brought, and laid down
at my feet. That moment, I ordered the canoes to be restored, to shew them
on what account they were detained. The other things we had lost being of
less value, I was the more indifferent about them. By this time the launch
was ashore for another turn of water, and we were permitted to fill the
casks without any one daring to come near us; except one man, who had
befriended us during the whole affair, and seemed to disapprove of the
conduct of his countrymen.

On my returning from the pond to the cove, I found a good many people
collected together, from whom we understood that the man I had fired at was
dead. This story I treated as improbable, and addressed a man, who seemed
of some consequence, for the restitution of a cooper's adze we had lost in
the morning. He immediately sent away two men, as I thought, for it; but I
soon found that we had greatly mistaken each other; for instead of the
adze, they brought the wounded man, stretched out on a board, and laid him
down by me, to all appearance dead. I was much moved at the sight; but soon
saw my mistake, and that he was only wounded in the hand and thigh. I,
therefore, desired he might be carried out of the sun, and sent for the
surgeon to dress his wounds. In the mean time, I addressed several people
for the adze; for as I had now nothing else to do, I determined to have it.
The one I applied the most to, was an elderly woman, who had always a great
deal to say to me, from my first landing; but, on this occasion, she gave
her tongue full scope. I understood but little of her eloquence; and all I
could gather from her arguments was, that it was mean in me to insist on
the return of so trifling a thing. But when she found I was determined, she
and three or four more women went away; and soon after the adze was brought
me, but I saw her no more. This I was sorry for, as I wanted to make her a
present, in return for the part she had taken in all our transactions,
private as well as public. For I was no sooner returned from the pond, the
first time I landed, than this old lady presented to me a girl, giving me
to understand she was at my service. Miss, who probably had received her
instructions, wanted, as a preliminary article, a spike-nail or a shirt,
neither of which I had to give her, and soon made them sensible of my
poverty. I thought, by that means, to have come off with flying colours;
but I was mistaken; for they gave me to understand I might retire with her
on credit. On my declining this proposal, the old lady began to argue with
me; and then abuse me. Though I comprehended little of what she said, her
actions were expressive enough, and shewed that her words were to this
effect, sneering in my face, saying, What sort of a man are you, thus to
refuse the embraces of so fine a young woman? For the girl certainly did
not want beauty; which, however, I could better withstand, than the abuses
of this worthy matron, and therefore hastened into the boat. They wanted me
to take the young lady aboard; but this could not be done, as I had given
strict orders, before I went ashore, to suffer no woman, on any pretence
whatever, to come into the ship, for reasons which I shall mention in
another place.

As soon as the surgeon got ashore, he dressed the man's wounds, and bled
him; and was of opinion that he was in no sort of danger, as the shot had
done little more than penetrate the skin. In the operation, some poultice
being wanting, the surgeon asked for ripe plantains; but they brought
sugar-cane, and having chewed it to a pulp, gave it him to apply to the
wound. This being of a more balsamic nature than the other; proves that
these people have some knowledge of simples. As soon as the man's wounds
were dressed, I made him a present, which his master, or at least the man
who owned the canoe, took, most probably to himself. Matters being thus
settled apparently to the satisfaction of all parties, we repaired on board
to dinner, where I found a good supply of fruit and roots, and, therefore,
gave orders to get every thing in readiness to sail.

I now was informed of a circumstance which was observed on board; several
canoes being at the ship, when the great guns were fired in the morning,
they all retired, but one man, who was bailing the water out of his canoe,
which lay alongside directly under the guns. When the first was fired, he
just looked up, and then, quite unconcerned, continued his work. Nor had
the second gun any other effect upon him. He did not stir till the water
was all out of his canoe, when he paddled leisurely off. This man had,
several times, been observed to take fruit and roots out of other canoes,
and sell them to us. If the owners did not willingly part with them, he
took them by force; by which he obtained the appellation of custom-house
officer. One time, after he had been collecting tribute, he happened to be
lying alongside of a sailing canoe which was on board. One of her people
seeing him look another way, and his attention otherwise engaged, took the
opportunity of stealing somewhat out of his canoe; they then put off, and
set their sail. But the man, perceiving the trick they had played him,
darted after them, and having soon got on board their canoe, beat him who
had taken his things, and not only brought back his own, but many other
articles which he took from them. This man had likewise been observed
making collections on shore at the trading-place. I remembered to have seen
him there; and, on account of his gathering tribute, took him to be a man
of consequence, and was going to make him a present; but some of their
people would not let me, saying he was no _Areeke_ (that is, chief).
He had his hair always powdered with some kind of white dust.

As we had no wind to sail this afternoon, a party of us went ashore in the
evening. We found the natives everywhere courteous and obliging; so that,
had we made a longer stay, it is probable we should have had no more reason
to complain of their conduct. While I was now on shore, I got the names of
twenty islands, which lie between the N.W. and N.E., some of them in sight.
Two of them, which lie most to the west, viz. Amattafoa and Oghao, are
remarkable on account of their great height. In Amattafoa, which is the
westernmost, we judged there was a volcano, by the continual column of
smoke we saw daily ascending from the middle of it.

Both Mr Cooper and myself being on shore at noon, Mr Wales could not wind
up the watch at the usual time; and, as we did not come on board till late
in the afternoon, it was forgotten till it was down. This circumstance was
of no consequence, as Mr Wales had had several altitudes of the sun at this
place, before it went down; and also had opportunities of taking some
after.

At day-break on the 29th, having got under sail with a light breeze at
west, we stood to the north for the two high islands; but the wind,
scanting upon us, carried us in amongst the low isles and shoals; so that,
we had to ply, to clear them. This gave time for a great many canoes to get
up with us. The people in them brought for traffic various articles; some
roots, fruits, and fowls, but of the latter not many. They took in exchange
small nails, and pieces of any kind of cloth. I believe, before they went
away, they stripped the most of our people of the few clothes the ladies at
Otaheite had left them; for the passion for curiosities was as great as
ever. Having got clear of the low isles, we made a stretch to the south,
and did but fetch a little to windward of the south end of Anamocka; so
that we got little by this day's plying. Here we spent the night, making
short boards over that space with which we had made ourselves acquainted
the preceding day.

On the 30th at day-break, stretched out for Amattafoa, with a gentle breeze
at W.S.W. Day no sooner dawned than we saw canoes coming from all parts.
Their traffic was much the same as it had been the day before, or rather
better; for out of one canoe I got two pigs, which were scarce articles
here. At four in the afternoon, we drew near the island of Amattafoa, and
passed between it and Oghao, the channel being two miles broad, safe, and
without soundings. While we were in the passage, we had little wind and
calms. This gave time for a large sailing double canoe, which had been
following us all the day, as well as some others with paddles, to come up
with us. I had now an opportunity to verify a thing I was before in doubt
about, which was, whether or no some of these canoes did not, in changing
tacks, only shift the sail, and so proceed with that end foremost, which
before was the stern. The one we now saw wrought in this manner. The sail
is latteen, extending to a latteen yard above, and to a boom at the foot;
in one word, it is like a whole mizzen, supposing the whole foot to be
extended to a boom. The yard is slung nearly in the middle, or upon an
equipoise. When they change tacks they throw the vessel up in the wind,
ease off the sheet, and bring the heel or tack-end of the yard to the other
end of the boat, and the sheet in like manner; there are notches, or
sockets, at each end of the vessel in which the end of the yard fixes. In
short, they work just as those do at the Ladrone Islands, according to Mr
Walter's description.[1] When they want to sail large, or before the wind,
the yard is taken out of the socket and squared. It most be observed, that
all their sailing vessels are not rigged to sail in the same manner. Some,
and those of the largest size, are rigged, so as to tack about. These have
a short but pretty stout mast, which steps on a kind of roller that is
fixed to the deck near the fore-part. It is made to lean or incline very
much forward; the head is forked; on the two points of which the yard
rests, as on two pivots, by means of two strong cleats of wood secured to
each side of the yard, at about one-third its length from the tack or heel,
which, when under sail, is confined down between the two canoes, by means
of two strong ropes, one to and passing through a hole at the head of each
canoe; for it must be observed, that all the sailing vessels of this sort
are double. The tack being thus fixed, it is plain that, in changing tacks,
the vessels must be put about; the sail and boom on the one tack will be
clear of the mast, and on the other it will lie against it, just as a whole
mizzen. However, I am not sure if they do not sometimes unlace that part of
the sail from the yard which is between the tack and mast-head, and so
shift both sail and boom leeward of the mast. The drawings which Mr Hodges
made of these vessels seem to favour this supposition. The outriggers and
ropes used for shrowds, &c. are all stout and strong. Indeed, the sail,
yard, and boom, are all together of such an enormous weight, that strength
is required.

The summit of Amattafoa was hid in the clouds the whole day, so that we
were not able to determine with certainty whether there was a volcano or
no; but every thing we could see concurred to make us believe there was.
This island is about five leagues in circuit. Oghao is not so much; but
more round and peaked. They lie in the direction of N.N.W. 1/2 W. from
Anamocka, eleven or twelve leagues distant; they are both inhabited, but
neither of them seemed fertile.

We were hardly through the passage before we got a fresh breeze at south.
That moment all the natives made haste to be gone, and we steered to the
west; all sails set. I had some thoughts of touching at Amsterdam, as it
lay not much out of the way; but as the wind was now, we could not fetch
it; and this was the occasion of my laying my design aside altogether.

Let us now return to Anamocka, as it is called by the natives. It is
situated in the latitude of 20 deg. 15' S.; longitude 174 deg. 31' W., and was
first discovered by Tasman, and by him named Rotterdam. It is of a
triangular form, each side whereof is about three and a half or four miles.
A salt-water lake in the middle of it occupies not a little of its surface,
and in a manner cuts off the S.E. angle. Round the island, that is, from
the N.W. to the S., round by the N. and E., lie scattered a number of small
isles, sand-banks, and breakers. We could see no end to their extent to the
N.; and it is not impossible that they reach as far S. as Amsterdam or
Tongatabu. These, together with Middleburg or Eaoowee, and Pylstart, make a
group, containing about three degrees of latitude and two of longitude,
which I have named the Friendly Isles or Archipelago, as a firm alliance
and friendship seems to subsist among their inhabitants, and their
courteous behaviour to strangers entitles them to that appellation; under
which we might, perhaps, extend their group much farther, even down to
Boscawen and Keppell's Isles discovered by Captain Wallis, and lying nearly
under the same meridian, and in the latitude of 15 deg. 53'; for, from the
little account I have had of the people of these two isles they seem to
have the same sort of friendly disposition we observed in our Archipelago.

The inhabitants, productions, &c. of Rotterdam, and the neighbouring isles,
are the same as at Amsterdam. Hogs and fowls are, indeed, much scarcer; of
the former having got but six, and not many of the latter. Yams and
shaddocks were what we got the most of; other fruits were not so plenty.
Not half of the isle is laid out in inclosed plantations as at Amsterdam;
but the parts which are not inclosed, are not less fertile or uncultivated.
There is, however, far more waste land on this isle, in proportion to its
size, than upon the other; and the people seem to be much poorer; that is,
in cloth, matting, ornaments, &c. which constitute a great part of the
riches of the South-Sea islanders.

The people of this isle seem to be more affected with the leprosy, or some
scrophulous disorder, than any I have seen elsewhere. It breaks out in the
face more than any other part of the body. I have seen several whose faces
were ruined by it, and their noses quite gone. In one of my excursions,
happening to peep into a house where one or more of them were, one man only
appeared at the door, or hole, by which I must have entered, and which he
began to stop up, by drawing several parts of a cord across it. But the
intolerable stench which came from his putrid face was alone sufficient to
keep me out, had the entrance been ever so wide. His nose was quite gone,
and his whole face in one continued ulcer; so that the very sight of him
was shocking. As our people had not all got clear of a certain disease they
had contracted at the Society Isles, I took all possible care to prevent
its being communicated to the natives here; and I have reason to believe my
endeavours succeeded.

Having mentioned a house, it may not be amiss to observe, that some here
differ from those I saw at the other isles: being inclosed or walled on
every side, with reeds neatly put together, but not close. The entrance is
by a square hole, about two feet and a half each way. The form of these
houses is an oblong square; the floor or foundation every way shorter than
the eve, which is about four feet from the ground. By this construction,
the rain that falls on the roof, is carried off from the wall, which
otherwise would decay and rot.

We did not distinguish any king or leading chief, or any person who took
upon him the appearance of supreme authority. The man and woman before
mentioned, whom I believed to be man and wife, interested themselves on
several occasions in our affairs; but it was easy to see they had no great
authority. Amongst other things which I gave them as a reward for their
service, was a young dog and bitch, animals which they have not, but are
very fond of, and know very well by name. They have some of the same sort
of earthen pots we saw at Amsterdam; and I am of opinion they are of their
own manufacture, or that of some neighbouring isle.

The road, as I have already mentioned, is on the north side of the isle,
just to the southward of the southernmost cove; for there are two on this
side. The bank is of some extent, and the bottom free from rocks, with
twenty-five and twenty fathoms water, one or two miles from the shore.

Fire-wood is very convenient to be got at, and easy to be shipped off; but
the water is so brackish that it is not worth the trouble of carrying it on
board; unless one is in great distress for want of that article, and can
get no better. There is, however, better, not only on this isle, but on
others in the neighbourhood; for the people brought us some in cocoa-nut
shells which was as good as need be; but probably the springs are too
trifling to water a ship.

I have already observed, that the S.W. side of the island is covered by a
reef or reefs of rocks, and small isles. If there be a sufficient depth of
water between them and the island, as there appeared to be, and a good
bottom, this would be a much securer place for a ship to anchor in, than
that where we had our station.[2]

[1] See Lord Anson's Voyages.

[2] Mr G.F. has given a few particulars respecting the subjects of
this and the preceding sections, in addition to Captain Cook's
account, but they are not important enough to warrant quotation.--E.

SECTION III.

_The Passage from the Friendly Isles to the New Hebrides, with an Account
of the Discovery of Turtle Island, and a Variety of Incidents which
happened, both before and after the Ship arrived in Port Sandwich, in the
Island of Mallicollo. A Description of the Port, the adjacent Country, its
Inhabitants, and many other Particulars._

On the first of July, at sun-rise, Amattafoa was still in sight, bearing
N.E., distant twenty leagues. Continuing our course to the west, we, the
next day at noon, discovered land bearing N.W. by W., for which we steered;
and, upon a nearer approach, found it to be a small island. At four o'clock
it bore from N.W. half W. to N.W. by N., and, at the same time, breakers
were seen from the masthead, extending from W. to S.W. The day being too
far spent to make farther discoveries, we soon after shortened sail, hauled
the wind, and spent the night, making short boards, which, at day-break, we
found had been so advantageous that we were farther from the island than we
expected, and it was eleven o'clock before we reached the N.W. or lee-side,
where anchorage and landing seemed practicable. In order to obtain a
knowledge of the former, I sent the master with a boat to sound, and, in
the mean time, we stood on and off with the ship. At this time four or five
people were seen on the reef, which lies round the isle, and about three
times that number on the shore. As the boat advanced, those on the reef
retired and joined the others; and when the boat landed they all fled to
the woods. It was not long before the boat returned, when the master
informed me that there were no soundings without the reef, over which, in
one place only, he found a boat channel of six feet water. Entering by it,
he rowed in for the shore, thinking to speak with the people, not more than
twenty in number, who were armed with clubs and spears; but the moment he
set his foot on shore, they retired to the woods. He left on the rocks some
medals, nails, and a knife, which they no doubt found, as some were seen
near the place afterwards. This island is not quite a league in length, in
the direction of N.E. and S.W., and not half that in breadth. It is covered
with wood, and surrounded by a reef of coral rocks, which in some places
extend two miles from the shore. It seems to be too small to contain many
inhabitants; and probably the few whom we saw, may have come from some isle
in the neighbourhood to fish for turtle; as many were seen near this reef,
and occasioned that name to be given to the island, which is situated in
latitude 19 deg. 48' south, longitude 178 deg. 21' west.[1]

Seeing breakers to the S.S.W., which I was desirous of knowing the extent
of before night, I left Turtle Isle, and stood for them. At two o'clock we
found they were occasioned by a coral bank, of about four or five leagues
in circuit. By the bearing we had taken, we knew these to be the same
breakers we had seen the preceding evening. Hardly any part of this bank or
reef is above water at the reflux of the waves. The heads of some of the
rocks are to be seen near the edge of the reef, where it is the shoalest;
for in the middle is deep water. In short, this bank wants only a few
little islets to make it exactly like one of the half-drowned isles so
often mentioned. It lies S.W. from Turtle Island, about five or six miles,
and the channel between it and the reef of that isle is three miles over.
Seeing no more shoals or islands, and thinking there might be turtle on
this bank, two boats were properly equipped and sent thither; but returned
without having seen one.

The boats were now hoisted in, and we made sail to the west, with a brisk
gale at east, which continued till the 9th, when we had for a few hours, a
breeze at N.W., attended with squalls of rain. This was succeeded by a
steady fresh gale at S.E., with which we steered N.W., being at this time
in the latitude of 20 deg. 20' S. longitude 176 deg. 8' E.

On the 15th at noon, being in the latitude of 15 deg. 9' south, longitude 171 deg.
16' east, I steered west. The next day the weather was foggy, and the wind
blew in heavy squalls, attended with rain, which in this ocean, within the
tropics, generally indicates the vicinity of some high land. This was
verified at three in the afternoon, when high land was seen bearing S.W.
Upon this we took in the small sails, reefed the top-sails, and hauling up
for it, at half-past five we could see it extend from S.S.W. to N.N.W. half
W. Soon after we tacked and spent the night, which was very stormy, in
plying. Our boards were disadvantageous; for, in the morning, we found we
had lost ground. This, indeed, was no wonder, for having an old suit of
sails bent, the most of them were split to pieces; particularly a fore-top-
sail, which was rendered quite useless. We got others to the yards, and
continued to ply, being desirous of getting round the south ends of the
lands, or at least so far to the south as to be able to judge of their
extent in that direction. For no one doubted that this was the Australia
del Espiritu Santo of Quiros, which M. de Bougainville calls the Great
Cyclades, and that the coast we were now upon was the east side of Aurora
Island, whose longitude is 168 deg. 30' E.

The gale kept increasing till we were reduced to our low sails; so that, on
the 18th, at seven in the morning, I gave over plying, set the top-sails
double-reefed, bore up for, and hauled round the north end of Aurora
Island, and then stretched over for the Isle of Lepers, under close-reefed
topsails and courses, with a very hard gale at N.E.; but we had now the
advantage of a smooth sea, having the Isle of Aurora to windward. At noon
the north end of it bore N.E. 1/2 N., distant four leagues; our latitude,
found by double altitudes, and reduced to this time, was 15 deg. 1' 30" south,
longitude 168 deg. 14' east. At two o'clock p.m. we drew near the middle of the
Isle of Lepers, and tacked about two miles from land; in which situation we
had no soundings with a line of seventy fathoms. We now saw people on the
shore, and many beautiful cascades of water pouring down the neighbouring
hills. The next time we stood for this isle, we came to within half a mile
of it, where we found thirty fathoms a sandy bottom; but a mile off we
found no soundings at seventy fathoms. Here two canoes came off to us, in
one of which were three men, and in the other but one. Though we made all
the signs of friendship, we could not bring them nearer than a stone's
throw; and they made but a short stay before they retired ashore, where we
saw a great number of people assembled in parties, and armed with bows and
arrows. They were of a very dark colour; and, excepting some ornaments at
their breast and arms, seemed to be entirely naked.

As I intended to get to the south, in order to explore the land which might
lie there, we continued to ply between the Isle of Lepers and Aurora; and
on the 19th, at noon, the south end of the last-mentioned isle bore south
24 deg. east, and the north end north, distant twenty miles. Latitude observed
15 deg. 11'. The wind continued to blow strong at S.E., so that what we got by
plying in the day, we lost in the night. On the 20th, at sun-rise, we found
ourselves off the south end of Aurora, on the N.W. side of which, the coast
forms a small bay. In this we made some trips to try for anchorage; but
found no less than eighty fathoms water, the bottom a fine dark sand, at
half a mile from shore. Nevertheless, I am of opinion that, nearer, there
is much less depth, and secure riding; and in the neighbourhood is plenty
of fresh water and wood for fuel. The whole isle, from the sea-shore to the
summits of the hills, seemed to be covered with the latter; and every
valley produced a fine stream of the former.[2] We saw people on the shore,
and some canoes on the coast, but none came off to us. Leaving the bay just
mentioned, we stretched across the channel which divides Aurora from
Whitsuntide Island. At noon we were abreast the north end of this latter,
which bore E.N.E., and observed in 15 deg. 28' 1/2. The isle of Aurora bore
from N. to N.E. 1/2 east, and the Isle of Lepers from N. by W. 1/2 W. to
west. Whitsuntide Isle appeared joined to the land to the S. and S.W. of
it; but in stretching to S.W. we discovered the separation. This was about
four o'clock p.m., and then we tacked and stretched in for the island till
near sun-set, when the wind veering more to the east, made it necessary to
resume our course to the south. We saw people on the shore, smokes in many
parts of the island, and several places which seemed to be cultivated.
About midnight, drawing near the south land, we tacked and stretched to the
north, in order to spend the remainder of the night.

At day-break on the 21st, we found ourselves before the channel that
divides Whitsuntide Island from the south land, which is about two leagues
over. At this time, the land to the southward extended from S. by E. round
to the west, farther than the eye could reach, and on the part nearest to
us, which is of considerable height, we observed two very large columns of
smoke, which, I judged, ascended from volcanoes. We now stood S.S.W., with
a fine breeze at S.E.; and, at ten o'clock, discovered this part of the
land to be an island, which is called by the natives Ambrym. Soon after an
elevated land appeared open off the south end of Ambrym; and after that,
another still higher, on which is a high peaked hill. We judged these lands
to belong to two separate islands. The first came in sight at S.E.; the
second at E. by S., and they appeared to be ten leagues distant. Holding on
our course for the land ahead, at noon it was five miles distant from us,
extending from S.S.E. to N.W. by W., and appeared to be continued. The
islands to the east bore from N.E. by E. to S.E. by E., latitude observed
16 deg. 17' south. As we drew nearer the shore we discovered a creek, which had
the appearance of being a good harbour, formed by a low point or peninsula,
projecting out to the north. On this a number of people were assembled, who
seemed to invite us ashore; probably with no good intent, as the most of
them were armed with bows and arrows. In order to gain room and time to
hoist out and arm our boats, to reconnoitre this place, we tacked and made
a trip off, which occasioned the discovery of another port about a league
more to the south. Having sent two armed boats to sound and look for
anchorage, on their making the signal for the latter, we sailed in S.S.W.,
and anchored in eleven fathoms water, not two cables' length from the S.E.
shore, and a mile within the entrance.

We had no sooner anchored than several of the natives came off in canoes.
They were very cautious at first; but, at last, trusted themselves
alongside, and exchanged, for pieces of cloth, arrows; some of which were
pointed with bone, and dipped in some green gummy substance, which we
naturally supposed was poisonous. Two men having ventured on board, after a
short stay, I sent them away with presents. Others, probably induced by
this, came off by moon-light; but I gave orders to permit none to come
alongside, by which means we got clear of them for the night.

Next morning early, a good many came round us, some in canoes, and others
swimming. I soon prevailed on one to come on board, which be no sooner did,
than he was followed by more than I desired; so that not only our deck, but
rigging, was presently filled with them. I took four into the cabin, and
gave them various articles, which they shewed to those in the canoes, and
seemed much pleased with their reception. While I was thus making friends
with those in the cabin, an accident happened that threw all into
confusion, but in the end, I believe, proved advantageous to us. A fellow
in a canoe having been refused admittance into one of our boats that lay
alongside, bent his bow to shoot a poisoned arrow at the boat-keeper. Some
of his countrymen prevented his doing it that instant, and gave time to
acquaint me with it. I ran instantly on deck, and saw another man
struggling with him; one of those who had been in the cabin, and had leaped
out of the window for this purpose. The other seemed resolved, shook him
off, and directed his bow again to the boat-keeper; but, on my calling to
him, pointed it at me. Having a musquet in my hand loaded with small shot,
I gave him the contents. This staggered him for a moment, but did not
prevent him from holding his bow still in the attitude of shooting. Another
discharge of the same nature made him drop it, and the others, who were in
the canoe, to paddle off with all speed. At this time, some began to shoot
arrows on the other side. A musquet discharged in the air had no effect;
but a four-pound shot over their heads sent them off in the utmost
confusion. Many quitted their canoes and swam on shore; those in the great
cabin leaped out of the windows; and those who were on the deck, and on
different parts of the rigging, all leaped overboard. After this we took no
farther notice of them, but suffered them to come off and pick up their
canoes; and some of them even ventured alongside of the ship. Immediately
after the great gun was fired, we heard the beating of drums on shore;
which was, probably, the signal for the country to assemble in arms. We now
got every thing in readiness to land, to cut some wood, which we were in
want of, and to try to get some refreshments, nothing of this kind having
been seen in any of the canoes.

About nine o'clock, we put off in two boats, and landed in the face of four
or five hundred people, who were assembled on the shore. Though they were
all armed with bows and arrows, clubs and spears, they made not the least
opposition. On the contrary, seeing me advance alone, with nothing but a
green branch in my hand, one of them, who seemed to be a chief, giving his
bow and arrows to another, met me in the water, bearing also a green
branch, which having exchanged for the one I held, he then took me by the
hand, and led me up to the crowd. I immediately distributed presents to
them, and, in the mean time, the marines were drawn up upon the beach. I
then made signs (for we understood not a word of their language) that we
wanted wood; and they made signs to us to cut down the trees. By this time,
a small pig being brought down and presented to me, I gave the bearer a
piece of cloth, with which he seemed well pleased. This made us hope that
we should soon have some more; but we were mistaken. The pig was not
brought to be exchanged for what we had, but on some other account,
probably as a peace-offering. For, all we could say or do, did not prevail
on them to bring down, after this, above half a dozen cocoa-nuts, and a
small quantity of fresh water. They set no value on nails, or any sort of
iron tools; nor indeed on any thing we had. They would, now and then,
exchange an arrow for a piece of cloth; but very seldom would part with a
bow. They were unwilling we should go off the beach, and very desirous we
should return on board. At length, about noon, after sending what wood we
had cut on board, we embarked ourselves; and they all retired, some one way
and some another. Before we had dined, the afternoon was too far spent to
do any thing on shore; and all hands were employed, setting up the rigging,
and repairing some defects in it. But seeing a man bring along the strand a
buoy, which they had taken in the night from the kedge-anchor, I went on
shore for it, accompanied by some of the gentlemen. The moment we landed,
it was put into the boat, by a man who walked off again without speaking
one word. It ought to be observed, that this was the only thing they took,
or even attempted to take from us, by any means whatever. Being landed near
one of their plantations and houses, which were just within the skirts of
the wood, I prevailed on the man to conduct me to them; but, though they
suffered Mr Forster to go with me, they were unwilling any more should
follow. These houses were something like those of the other isles; rather
low, and covered with palm thatch. Some were enclosed, or walled round with
boards; and the entrance to those was by a square hole at one end, which at
this time was shut up, and they were unwilling to open it for us to look
in. There were here about six houses, and some small plantations of roots,
&c., fenced round with reeds as at the Friendly Isles. There were,
likewise, some bread-fruit, cocoa-nut, and plaintain trees; but very little
fruit on any of them. A good many fine yams were piled up upon sticks, or a
kind of raised platform; and about twenty pigs, and a few fowls, were
running about loose. After making these observations, having embarked, we
proceeded to the S.E. point of the harbour, where we again landed and
walked along the bench till we could see the islands to the S.E. already
mentioned. The names of these we now obtained, as well as the name of that
on which we were. This they called Mallicollo;[3] the island that first
appeared over the south end of Ambrym is called Apee; and the other with
the hill upon it Paoom. We found on the beach a fruit like an orange,
called by them Abbimora; but whether it be fit for eating, I cannot say, as
this was decayed.

Proceeding next to the other side of the harbour, we there landed, near a
few houses, at the invitation of some people who came down to the shore;
but we had not been there five minutes before they wanted us to be gone. We
complied, and proceeded up the harbour in order to sound it, and look for
fresh water, of which, as yet, we had seen none, but the very little that
the natives brought, which we knew not where they got. Nor was our search
now attended with success; but this is no proof that there is not any. The
day was too far spent to examine the place well enough to determine this
point. Night having brought us on board, I was informed that no soul had
been off to the ship; so soon was the curiosity of these people satisfied.
As we were coming on board, we heard the sound of a drum, and, I think, of
some other instruments, and saw people dancing; but us soon as they heard
the noise of the oars, or saw us, all was silent.

Being unwilling to lose the benefit of the moon-light nights, which now
happened, at seven a.m. on the 23d, we weighed; and, with a light air of
wind, and the assistance of our boats, proceeded out of the harbour, the
south end of which, at noon, bore W.S.W., distant about two miles.

When the natives saw us under sail, they came off in canoes, making
exchanges with more confidence than before, and giving such extraordinary
proofs of their honesty as surprised us. As the ship, at first, had fresh
way through the water, several of them dropped astern after they had
received our goods, and before they had time to deliver theirs in return.
Instead of taking advantage of this, as our friends at the Society Isles
would have done, they used their utmost efforts to get up with us, and to
deliver what they had already been paid for. One man, in particular,
followed us a considerable time, and did not reach us till it was calm, and
the thing was forgotten. As soon as he came alongside he held up the thing
which several were ready to buy; but he refused to part with it, till he
saw the person to whom he had before sold it, and to him he gave it. The
person, not knowing him again, offered him something in return, which he
refused, and shewed him what he had given him before. Pieces of cloth, and
marble paper, were in most esteem with them; but edge-tools, nails, and
beads, they seemed to disregard. The greatest number of canoes we had
alongside at once did not exceed eight, and not more than four or five
people in each, who would frequently retire to the shore all on a sudden,
before they had disposed of half their things, and then others would come
off.

At the time we came out of the harbour, it was about low water, and great
numbers of people were then on the shoals or reefs which lie along the
shore, looking, as we supposed., for shell and other fish. Thus our being
on their coast, and in one of their ports, did not hinder them from
following the necessary employments. By this time they might be satisfied
we meant them no harm; so that, had we made a longer stay, we might soon
have been upon good terms with this ape-like nation. For, in general, they
are the most ugly, ill-proportioned people I ever saw, and in every respect
different from any we had met with in this sea. They are a very dark-
coloured and rather diminutive race; with long heads, flat faces, and
monkey countenances. Their hair mostly black or brown, is short and curly;
but not quite so soft and woolly as that of a negroe. Their beards are very
strong, crisp, and bushy, and generally black and short. But what most adds
to their deformity, is a belt or cord which they wear round the waist, and
tie so tight over the belly, that the shape of their bodies is not unlike
that of an overgrown pismire. The men go quite naked, except a piece of
cloth or leaf used as a wrapper.[4]

We saw but few women, and they were not less ugly than the men; their
heads, faces, and shoulders, are painted red; they wear a kind of
petticoat; and some of them had something over their shoulders like a bag,
in which they carry their children. None of them came off to the ship, and
they generally kept at a distance when we were on shore. Their ornaments
are ear-rings, made of tortoise-shell and bracelets. A curious one of the
latter, four or five inches broad, wrought with thread or cord, and studded
with shells, is worn by them just above the elbow. Round the right wrist
they wear hogs' tusks, bent circular, and rings made of shells; and round
their left, a round piece of wood, which we judged was to ward off the bow-
string. The bridge of the nose is pierced, in which they wear a piece of
white stone, about an inch and a half long. As signs of friendship they
present a green branch, and sprinkle water with the hand over the head.

Their weapons are clubs, spears, and bows and arrows. The two former are
made of hard or iron-wood. Their bows are about four feet long, made of a
stick split down the middle, and are not circular. The arrows, which are a
sort of reeds, are sometimes armed with a long and sharp point, made of the
hard wood, and sometimes with a very hard point made of bone; and these
points are all covered with a substance which we took for poison. Indeed
the people themselves confirmed our suspicions, by making signs to us not
to touch the point, and giving us to understand that if we were prickled by
them we should die. They are very careful of them themselves, and keep
them, always wrapped up in a quiver. Some of these arrows are formed with
two or three points, each with small prickles on the edges, to prevent the
arrow being drawn out of the wound.

The people of Mallicollo seemed to be a quite different nation from any we
had yet met with, and speak a different language. Of about eighty words,
which Mr Forster collected, hardly one bears any affinity to the language
spoken at any other island or place I had ever been at. The letter R is
used in many of their words; and frequently two or three being joined
together, such words we found difficult to pronounce. I observed that they
could pronounce most of our words with great ease. They express their
admiration by hissing like a goose.

To judge of the country by the little water we saw of it, it must be
fertile; but I believe their fruits are not so good as those of the Society
or Friendly Isles. Their cocoa-nut trees, I am certain, are not; and their
bread-fruit and plantains did not seem much better. But their yams appeared
to be very good. We saw no other animals than those I have already
mentioned. They have not so much as a name for a dog, and consequently have
none, for which reason we left them a dog and a bitch; and there is no
doubt they will be taken care of, as they were very fond of them.[5]

After we had got to sea, we tried what effect one of the poisoned arrows
would have on a dog. Indeed we had tried it in the harbour the very first
night, but we thought the operation was too slight, as it had no effect.
The surgeon now made a deep incision in the dog's thigh, into which he laid
a large portion of the poison, just as it was scraped from the arrows, and
then bound up the wound with a bandage. For several days after we thought
the dog was not so well as it had been before, but whether this was really
so, or only suggested by imagination, I know not. He was afterwards as if
nothing had been done to him, and lived to be brought home to England.
However, I have no doubt of this stuff being of a poisonous quality, as it
could answer no other purpose. The people seemed not unacquainted with the
nature of poison, for when they brought us water on shore, they first
tasted it, and then gave us to understand we might with safety drink it.

This harbour, which is situated on the N.E. side of Mallicollo, not far
from the S.E. end, in latitude 16 deg. 25' 20" S., longitude 167 deg. 57' 23" E., I
named Port Sandwich. It lies in S.W. by S. about one league, and is one-
third of a league broad. A reef of rocks extends out a little way from each
point, but the channel is of a good breadth, and hath in it from forty to
twenty-four fathoms water. In the port, the depth of water is from twenty
to four fathoms; and it is so sheltered that no winds can disturb a ship at
anchor there. Another great advantage is, you can lie so near the shore, as
to cover your people, who may be at work upon it.

[1] Some large single rocks of coral, we are told by Mr G.F., near
fifteen feet above the surface of the water, narrow at the base, and
spreading out at the top, were observed, on standing along the reef of
this island. That gentleman, however, does not venture to assign any
cause for so curious a fact--E.

[2] "On approaching the Isle of Aurora, we observed a fine beach, and
the most luxuriant vegetation that can be conceived. The whole country
was woody; numberless climbers ran up the highest trees, and, forming
garlands and festoons between them, embellished the scene. A neat
plantation fenced with reeds, stood on the slope of the bill; and a
beautiful cascade poured down through the adjacent forest."--G.F.

[3] Or Mallicolla. Some of our people pronounced it Manicolo or
Manicola, and thus it is also writ in Quiros' Memorial, as printed by
Dalrymple, vol. ii. p. 146.

[4] The particular manner of applying the wrapper may be seen in
Wafer's voyage, who mentions this singular custom as existing, though
with some little variation, amongst the Indians of the Isthmus of
Darien. See Wafer's Voyage, p. 140.

Mr G.F. tells us that these people increased their disagreeable
appearance, by painting their faces and breasts with a black colour. A
few of them, he says, had a small cap on the head, made of matted
work. This gentleman speaks highly of the extensive faculties and
quick apprehension of these people, low enough as they must be ranked
in the scale of personal beauty; he admits, however, that their skill
in the arts is inconsiderable, and their civilization very
imperfect.--E.

[5] "The productions of Mallicollo are less remarkable and striking at
first sight than the race of its inhabitants. To judge of their
numbers from the crowd we saw at Port Sandwich, I should conclude,
that they are far from inconsiderable; but considering the great size
of the island, I cannot suppose it to be very populous. Fifty thousand
is, I think, the greatest number we can admit, and these are not
confined to the skirts of the hills, as at Otaheite, but dispersed
over the whole extent of more than six hundred square miles. We ought
to figure their country to ourselves as one extensive forest: They
have only begun to clear and plant a few insulated spots, which are
lost in it, like small islands in the vast Pacific Ocean. Perhaps if
we could ever penetrate through the darkness which involves the
history of this nation, we might find that they have arrived in the
South Sea much later than the natives of the Friendly and Society
Isles. So much at least is certain, that they appear to be of a race
totally distinct from these. Their form, their language, and their
manners, strongly and completely mark the difference. The natives on
some parts of New Guinea and Papua, seem to correspond in many
particulars with what we have observed among the Mallicollese. The
black colour and woolly hair in particular are characteristics common
to both nations. The slender form of the Mallicolese is a character,
as far as I know, peculiar to them and the New Zealanders; but that
nation hath nothing in common with them in all other respects. The
features of these people, though remarkably irregular and ugly, yet
are full of great sprightliness, and express a quick comprehension.
Their lips, and the lower part of their face, are entirely different
from those of African negroes; but the upper part, especially the
nose, is of very similar conformation, and the substance of the hair
is the same. The climate of Mallicollo, and the adjacent islands, is
very warm, but perhaps not at all times so temperate as at Otaheite,
because the extent of land is vastly greater. However, during our
short stay, we experienced no unusual degree of heat, the thermometer
being at 76 deg. and 78 deg., which is very moderate in the torrid zone."--
G.F.

SECTION IV.

_An Account of the Discovery of several Islands, and an Interview and
Skirmish with the Inhabitants upon one of them. The Arrival of the Ship at
Tanna, and the Reception we met with there._

Soon after we got to sea, we had a breeze at E.S.E. with which we stood
over for Ambrym till three o'clock in the afternoon, when the wind veering
to the E.N.E. we tacked and stretched to the S.E. and weathered the S.E.
end of Mallicolo, off which we discovered three or four small islands, that
before appeared to be connected. At sun-set the point bore S. 77 deg. W.,
distant three leagues, from which the coast seemed to trend away west. At
this time, the isle of Ambrym extended from N. 3 deg. E. to N. 65 deg. E. The isle
of Paoon from N. 76 deg. E. to S. 88 deg. E.; and the isle of Apee from S. 83 deg. E.
to S. 43 deg. E. We stood for this last isle, which we reached by midnight, and
then brought-to till day-break on the 24th, when we made sail to the S.E.,
with a view of plying up to the eastward on the south side of Apee. At sun-
rise we discovered several more islands, extending from the S.E. point of
Apee to the south as far as S.E. by S. The nearest to us we reached by ten
o'clock, and not being able to weather it, we tacked a mile from its shore
in fourteen fathoms water. This island is about four leagues in circuit, is
remarkable by having three high peaked hills upon it, by which it has
obtained that name. In the p.m. the wind veering more to the north, we
resumed our course to the east; and having weathered Threehills, stood for
the group of small isles which lie off the S.E. point of Apee. These I
called Shepherd's Isles, in honour of my worthy friend Dr Shepherd, Plumian
professor of astronomy at Cambridge. Having a fine breeze, I had thoughts
of going through between them; but the channels being narrow, and seeing
broken water in the one we were steering for, I gave up the design, and
bore up, in order to go without, or to the south of them. Before this could
be accomplished, it fell calm, and we were left to the mercy of the
current, close to the isles, where we could find no soundings with a line
of an hundred and eighty fathoms. We had now land or islands in every
direction, and were not able to count the number which lay round us. The
mountain on Paoon was seen over the east end of Apee, bearing N.N.W. at
eight o'clock. A breeze at S.E. relieved us from the anxiety the calm had
occasioned; and we spent the night in making short boards.

The night before we came out of Port Sandwich, two reddish fish, about the
size of large bream, and not unlike them, were caught with hook and line.
On these fish most of the officers, and some of the petty officers, dined
the next day. The night following, every one who had eaten of them was
seized with violent pains in the head and bones, attended with a scorching
heat all over the skin, and numbness in the joints. There remained no doubt
that this was occasioned by the fish being of a poisonous nature, and
having communicated its bad effects to all who partook of them, even to the
hogs and dogs. One of the former died about sixteen hours after; it was not
long before one of the latter shared the same fate; and it was a week or
ten days before all the gentlemen recovered. These must have been the same
sort of fish mentioned by Quiros,[1] under the name of pargos, which
poisoned the crews of his ships, so that it was some time before they
recovered; and we should, doubtless, have been in the same situation, had
more of them been eaten.

At day break on the 25th, we made a short stretch to the east of Shepherd's
Isles till after sun-rise, when seeing no more land in that direction, we
tacked and stood for the island we had seen in the south, having a gentle
breeze at S.E. We passed to the east of Threehills, and likewise of a low
isle, which lies on the S.E. side of it, between a remarkable peaked rock
which obtained the name of Monument, and a small island named Twohills, on
account of two peaked hills upon it, disjoined by a low and narrow isthmus.
The channel between this island and the Monument is near a mile broad, and
twenty-four fathoms deep. Except this rock, which is only accessible to
birds, we did not find an island on which people were not seen. At noon, we
observed, in latitude 17 deg. 18' 30"; longitude, made from Port Sandwich, 45'
E. In this situation, the Monument bore N. 16 deg. E. distant two miles;
Twohills bore N. 25 deg. W. distant two miles, and in a line with the S.W. part
of Threehills; and the islands to the south extended from S. 16 deg. 30' E. to
S. 42 deg. W.

Continuing our course to the south, at five p.m. we drew near the southern
lands, which we found to consist of one large island, whose southern and
western extremities extended beyond our sight, and three or four smaller
ones lying off its north side. The two northernmost are much the largest,
have a good height, and lie in the direction of E. by S. and W. by N. from
each other, distant two leagues; I named the one Montagu and the other
Hinchinbrook, and the large island Sandwich, in honour of my noble patron
the Earl of Sandwich. Seeing broken water ahead, between Montagu and
Hinchinbrook isles, we tacked; and soon after it fell calm. The calm
continued till seven o'-clock the next morning, when it was succeeded by a
breeze from the westward. During the calm, having been carried by the
currents and a S.E. swell, four leagues to the W.N.W., we passed
Hinchinbrook Isle, saw the western extremity of Sandwich Island, bearing
S.S.W., about five leagues distant, and at the same time discovered a small
island to the west of this direction. After getting the westerly breeze, I
steered S.E. in order to pass between Montagu Isle and the north end of
Sandwich Island. At noon we were in the middle of the channel, and observed
in latitude 17 deg. 31' S. The distance from one island to the other is about
four or five miles; but the channel is not much above half that breadth,
being contracted by breakers. We had no soundings in it with a line of
forty fathoms.

As we passed Montagu Isle several people came down to the sea-side, and, by
signs, seemed to invite us ashore. Some were also seen on Sandwich Island,
which exhibited a most delightful prospect, being spotted with woods and
lawns, agreeably diversified over the whole surface. It hath a gentle slope
from the hills, which are of a moderate height, down to the sea coast. This
is low, and guarded by a chain of breakers, so that there is no approaching
it at this part. But more to the west, beyond Hinchinbrook Island, there
seemed to run in a bay sheltered from the reigning winds. The examining it
not being so much an object, with me as the getting to the south, in order
to find the southern extremity of the Archipelago, with this view I steered
S.S.E., being the direction of the coast of Sandwich Island. We had but
just got through the passage, before the west wind left us to variable
light airs and calms; so that we were apprehensive of being carried back
again by the currents, or rather of being obliged to return, in order to
avoid being driven on the shoals, as there was no anchorage, a line of an
hundred and sixty fathoms not reaching to the bottom. At length a breeze
springing up at S.W. we stood to S.E., and at sun-set the Monument bore N.
14 deg. 30' W., and Montagu Island N. 28 deg. W. distant three leagues. We judged
we saw the S.E. extremity of Sandwich Island, bearing about S. by E.

We continued to stand S.E. till four a.m. on the 27th, when we tacked to
the west. At sun-rise, having discovered a new land bearing south, and
making in three hills, this occasioned us to tack and stand towards it. At
this time Montagu Isle bore N. 52 deg. W., distant thirteen leagues; at noon it
was nearly in the same direction, and the new land extended from S. 1/2 E.
to S. by W., and the three hills seemed to be connected. Our latitude by
observation, was 18 deg. 1' S., and the longitude, made from Port Sandwich, 1 deg.
23' E. We continued to stand to the S.E., with a gentle breeze at S.W. and
S.S.W. till the 28th at sun-rise, when, the wind veering to the south, we
tacked and stood to the west. The three hills mentioned above, we now saw,
belonging to one island, which extended from S. 35 deg. to 71 deg. W. distant about
ten or twelve leagues.[2]

Retarded by contrary winds, calms, and the currents, that set to N.W., we
were three days in gaining this space; in which time we discovered an
elevated land to the south of this; It first appeared in detached hummocks,
but we judged it to be connected. At length, on the 1st of August, about
ten a.m. we got a fine breeze at E.S.E., which soon after veered to N.E.,
and we steered for the N.W. side of the island. Reaching it about two p.m.,
we ranged the west coast at one mile from shore, on which the inhabitants
appeared in several parts, and by signs invited us to land. We continued to
sound without finding bottom, till we came before a small bay, or bending
of the coast, where, near a mile from shore, we found thirty and twenty-two
fathoms water, a sandy bottom. I had thoughts of anchoring here, but the
wind almost instantly veered to N.W.; which being nearly on shore, I laid
this design aside. Besides, I was unwilling to lose the opportunity that
now offered of getting to the south-east, in order first to explore the
lands which lay there. I therefore continued to range the coast to the
south, at about the same distance from shore; but we soon got out of
soundings. About a league to the south of this bay, which hath about two
miles extent, is another more extensive. Towards the evening, the breeze
began to abate, so that it was sun-set before we got the length of it. I
intended not to stop here, and to stand to the south under an easy sail all
night; but at eight o'clock, as we were steering S.S.E. we saw a light
ahead. Not knowing but it might be on some low detached isle, dangerous to
approach while dark, we hauled the wind, and spent the night standing off
and on, or rather driving to and fro; for we had but very little wind.

At sun-rise on the 2d, we saw no more land than the coast we were upon; but
found that the currents had carried us some miles to the north, and we
attempted, to little purpose, to regain what we had lost. At noon we were
about a league from the coast, which extended from S.S.E. to N.E. Latitude
observed 18 deg. 45' S. In the afternoon, finding the ship to drift not only to
the north, but in shore also, and being yet to the south of the bay we
passed the day before, I had thoughts of getting to an anchor before night,
while we had it in our power to make choice of a place. With this view,
having hoisted out two boats, one of them was sent ahead to tow the ship;
in the other Mr Gilbert went to sound for anchorage. Soon after, the towing
boat was sent to assist him. So much time was spent in sounding this bay,
that the ship drove past, which made it necessary to call the boats on
board to tow her off from the northern point. But this service was
performed by a breeze of wind, which, that moment, sprung up at S.W.; so
that as the boats got on board, we hoisted them in, and then bore up for
the north side of the island, intending once more to try to get round by
the east; Mr Gilbert informed me, that at the south part of the bay, he
found no soundings till close to a steep stone beach, where he landed to
taste a stream of water he saw there, which proved to be salt. Some people
were seen there, but they kept at a distance. Farther down the coast, that
is to the north, he found twenty, twenty-four, and thirty fathoms, three-
fourths of a mile, or a mile, from shore, the bottom a fine dark sand.

On the 3d, at sun-rise, we found ourselves abreast a lofty promontory on
the S.E. side of the island, and about three leagues from it. Having but
little wind, and that from the south, right in our teeth, and being in want
of fire-wood, I sent Lieutenant Clerke with two boats to a small islet
which lies off the promontory, to endeavour to get some. In the mean time
we continued to ply up with the ship; but what we gained by our sails, we
lost by the current. At length towards noon, we got a breeze at E.S.E., and
E., with which we could lie up for the head; and soon after Mr Clerke
returned, having not been able to land, on account of a high surf on the
shore. They met with no people on the isle; but saw a large bat, and some
birds, and caught a water-snake. At six o'clock p.m. we got in with the
land, under the N.W. side of the head, where we anchored in seventeen
fathoms water, the bottom a fine dark sand, half a mile from shore; the
point of the head bearing N. 18 deg. E., distant half a league; the little
islet before-mentioned N.E. by E. 1/2 E., and the N.W. point of the bay N.
32 deg. W. Many people appeared on the shore, and some attempted to swim off to
us; but having occasion to send the boat ahead to sound, they retired as
she drew near them. This, however, gave us a favourable idea of them.

On the 4th, at day-break, I went with two boats to examine the coast, to
look for a proper landing-place, wood, and water. At this time, the natives
began to assemble on the shore, and by signs invited us to land. I went
first to a small beach, which is towards the head, where I found no good
landing, on account of some rocks which every where lined the coast. I,
however, put the boat's bow to the shore, and gave cloth, medals, &c. to
some people who were there. For this treatment they offered to haul the
boats over the breakers to the sandy beach, which I thought a friendly
offer, but had reason afterwards to alter my opinion. When they found I
would not do as they desired, they made signs for us to go down into the
bay, which we accordingly did, and they ran along shore abreast of us,
their number increasing prodigiously. I put in to the shore in two or three
places, but, not liking the situation, did not land. By this time, I
believe, the natives conceived what I wanted, as they directed me round a
rocky point, where, on a fine sandy beach, I stepped out of the boat
without wetting a foot, in the face of a vast multitude, with only a green
branch in my hand, which I had before got from one of them. I took but one
man out of the boat with me, and ordered the other boat to lie-to at a
little distance off. They received me with great courtesy and politeness;
and would retire back from the boat on my making the least motion with my
hand. A man, whom I took to be a chief, seeing this, made them form a
semicircle round the boat's bow, and beat such as attempted to break
through this order. This man I loaded with presents, giving likewise to
others, and asked by signs for fresh water, in hopes of seeing where they
got it. The chief immediately sent a man for some, who ran to a house, and
presently returned with a little in a bamboo; so that I gained but little
information by this. I next asked, by the same means, for something to eat,
and they as readily brought me a yam, and some cocoa-nuts. In short, I was
charmed with their behaviour; and the only thing which could give the least
suspicion was, that most of them were armed with clubs, spears, darts, and
bows and arrows. For this reason I kept my eye continually upon the chief,
and watched his looks as well as his actions. He made many signs to me to
haul the boat up upon the shore, and at last slipped into the crowd, where
I observed him speak to several people, and then return to me, repeating
signs to haul the boat up, and hesitating a good deal before he would
receive some spike-nails, which I then offered him. This made me suspect
something was intended, and immediately I stepped into the boat, telling
them by signs that I should soon return. But they were not for parting so
soon, and now attempted by force, what they could not obtain by gentler
means. The gang-board happened unluckily to be laid out for me to come into
the boat, I say unluckily, for if it had not been out, and if the crew had
been a little quicker in getting the boat off, the natives might not have
had time to put their design in execution, nor would the following
disagreeable scene have happened. As we were putting off the boat, they
laid hold of the gang-board, and unhooked it off the boat's stern. But as
they did not take it away, I thought this had been done by accident, and
ordered the boat in again to take it up. Then they themselves hooked it
over the boat's stern, and attempted to haul her ashore; others, at the
same time, snatched the oars out of the people's hands. On my pointing a
musket at them, they in some measure desisted, but returned in an instant,
seemingly determined to haul the boat ashore. At the head of this party was
the chief; the others, who could not come at the boat, stood behind with
darts, stones, and bows and arrows in hand, ready to support them. Signs
and threats having no effect, our own safety became the only consideration;
and yet I was unwilling to fire on the multitude, and resolved to make the
chief alone fall a victim to his own treachery; but my musket at this
critical moment missed fire. Whatever idea they might have formed of the
arms we held in our hands, they must now have looked upon them as childish
weapons, and began to let us see how much better theirs were, by throwing
stones and darts, and by shooting arrows. This made it absolutely necessary
for me to give orders to fire. The first discharge threw them into
confusion; but a second was hardly sufficient to drive them off the beach;
and after all, they continued to throw stones from behind the trees and
bushes, and, every now and then, to pop out and throw a dart. Four lay, to
all appearance, dead on the shore; but two of them afterwards crawled into
the bushes. Happy it was for these people, that not half our muskets would
go off, otherwise many more must have fallen. We had one man wounded in the
cheek with a dart, the point of which was as thick as my finger, and yet it
entered above two inches, which shews that it must have come with great
force, though indeed we were very near them. An arrow struck Mr Gilbert's
naked breast, who was about thirty yards off; but probably it had struck
something before; for it hardly penetrated the skin. The arrows were
pointed with hard wood.

As soon as we got on board, I ordered the anchor to be weighed, with a view
of anchoring near the landing-place. While this was doing, several people
appeared on the low rock point, displaying two oars we had lost in the
scuffle. I looked on this as a sign of submission, and of their wanting to
give us the oars. I was, nevertheless, prevailed on to fire a four-pound
shot at them, to let them see the effect of our great guns. The ball fell
short, but frightened them so much, that none were seen afterwards; and
they left the oars standing up against the bushes.

It was now calm; but the anchor was hardly at the bow before a breeze
sprung up at north, of which we took the advantage, set our sails, and
plyed out of the bay, as it did not seem capable of supplying our wants
with that conveniency I wished to have. Besides, I always had it in my
power to return to this place, in case I should find none more convenient
farther south.

These islanders seemed to be a different race from those of Mallicollo; and
spoke a different language. They are of the middle size, have a good shape,
and tolerable features. Their colour is very dark, and they paint their
faces, some with black, and others with red pigment. Their hair is very
curly and crisp, and somewhat woolly. I saw a few women, and I thought them
ugly; they wore a kind of petticoat made of palm-leaves, or some plant like
it. But the men, like those of Mallicollo, were in a manner naked; having
only the belt about the waist, and the piece of cloth, or leaf, used as a
wrapper. I saw no canoes with these people, nor were any seen in any part
of this island. They live in houses covered with thatch, and their
plantations are laid out by a line, and fenced round.

At two o'clock in the afternoon, we were clear of the bay, bore up round
the head, and steered S.S.E. for the south end of the island, having a fine
breeze at N.W. On the S.W. side of the head is a pretty deep bay, which
seemed to run in behind the one on the N.W. side. Its shores are low, and
the adjacent lands appeared very fertile. It is exposed to the S.E. winds;
for which reason, until it be better known, the N.W. bay is preferable,
because it is sheltered from the reigning winds; and the winds to which it
is open, viz. from N.W. by N. to E. by N., seldom blow strong. The
promontory, or peninsula, which disjoins these two bays, I named Traitor's
Head, from the treacherous behaviour of its inhabitants. It is the N.E.
point of the island, situated in the latitude 18 deg. 43' S. longitude 169 deg.
'28' E., and terminates in a saddle-hill which is of height sufficient to
be seen sixteen or eighteen leagues. As we advanced to S.S.E., the new
island, we had before discovered, began to appear over the S.E. point of
the one near us, bearing S. 1/2 E., distant ten or twelve leagues. After
leaving this one, we steered for the east end of the other, being directed
by a great light we saw upon it.

At one o'clock the next morning, drawing near the shore, we tacked and
spent the remainder of the night making short boards. At sun-rise we
discovered a high table land (an island) bearing E. by S., and a small low
isle in the direction of N.N.E., which we had passed in the night without
seeing it. Traitor's Head was still in sight, bearing N. 20 deg. W. distant
fifteen leagues, and the island to the south extended from S. 7 deg. W. to S.
87 deg. W. distant three or four miles. We then found that the light we had
seen in the night was occasioned by a volcano, which we observed to throw
up vast quantities of fire and smoke, with a rumbling noise heard at a
great distance. We now made sail for the island; and, presently after,
discovered a small inlet which had the appearance of being a good harbour.
In order to be better informed, I sent away two armed boats, under the
command of Lieutenant Cooper, to sound it; and, in the meanwhile, we stood
on and off with the ship, to be ready to follow, or give them any
assistance they might want. On the east point of the entrance, we observed
a number of people, and several houses and canoes; and when our boats
entered the harbour, they launched some, and followed them, but came not
near. It was not long before Mr Cooper made the signal for anchorage; and
we stood in with the ship. The wind being at west, and our course S.S.W.,
we borrowed close to the west point, and passed over some sunken rocks,
which might have been avoided, by keeping a little more to the east, or
about one-third channel over. The wind left us as soon as we were within
the entrance, and obliged us to drop an anchor in four fathoms water. After
this, the boats were sent again to sound; and, in the meantime, the launch
was hoisted out, in order to carry out anchors to warp in by, as soon as we
should be acquainted with the channel.

While we were thus employed, many of the natives got together in parties,
on several parts of the shore, all armed with bows, spears, &c. Some swam
off to us, others came in canoes. At first they were shy, and kept at the
distance of a stone's throw; they grew insensibly bolder; and, at last,
came under our stern, and made some exchanges. The people in one of the
first canoes, after coming as near as they durst, threw towards us some
cocoa-nuts. I went into a boat and picked them up, giving them in return
some cloth and other articles. This induced others to come under the stern,
and alongside, where their behaviour was insolent and daring. They wanted
to carry off every thing within their reach; they got hold of the fly of
the ensign, and would have torn it from the staff; others attempted to
knock the rings off the rudder; but the greatest trouble they gave us was
to look after the buoys of our anchors, which were no sooner thrown out of
our boats, or let go from the ship, than they got hold of them. A few
muskets fired in the air had no effect; but a four-pounder frightened them
so much, that they quitted their canoes that instant, and took to the
water. But as soon as they found themselves unhurt, they got again into
their canoes, gave us some halloos, flourished their weapons, and returned
once more to the buoys. This put us to the expence of a few musquetoon
shot, which had the desired effect. Although none were hurt, they were
afterwards afraid to come near the buoys; very soon all retired on shore,
and we were permitted to sit down to dinner undisturbed.

During these transactions, a friendly old man in a small canoe made several
trips between us and the shore, bringing off each time a few cocoa-nuts, or
a yam, and taking in exchange whatever we gave him. Another was on the
gangway when the great gun was fired, but I could not prevail on him to
stay there long. Towards the evening, after the ship was moored, I landed
at the head of the harbour, in the S.E. corner, with a strong party of men,
without any opposition being made by a great number of the natives who were
assembled in two parties, the one on our right and the other on the left,
armed with clubs, darts, spears, slings, and stones, bows, and arrows, &c.
After distributing to the old people (for we could distinguish no chief),
and some others, presents of cloth, medals, &c. I ordered two casks to be
filled with water out of a pond about twenty paces behind the landing-
place; giving the natives to understand, that this was one of the articles
we wanted. Besides water, we got from them a few cocoa-nuts, which seemed
to be in plenty on the trees; but they could not be prevailed upon to part
with any of their weapons. These they held in constant readiness, and in
the proper attitudes of offence and defence; so that little was wanting to
make them attack us; at least we thought so, by their pressing so much upon
us, and in spite of our endeavours to keep them off. Our early re-embarking
probably disconcerted their scheme; and after that, they all retired. The
friendly old man before mentioned, was in one of these parties; and we
judged, from his conduct, that his temper was pacific.

[1] Dalrymple's Collection of Voyages, vol. I. p. 140, 141.

[2] "Our ship now probably resembled an hospital; the poisoned
patients were still in a deplorable situation; they continued to have
gripes and acute pains in all their bones: In the day time they were
in a manner giddy, and felt a great heaviness in their heads; at
night, as soon as they were warm in bed, their pains redoubled, and
robbed them actually of sleep. The secretion of _saliva_ was
excessive; the skin peeled off from the whole body, and pimples
appeared on their hands. Those who were less affected with pains, were
much weaker in proportion, and crawled about the decks, emaciated to
mere shadows We had not one lieutenant able to do duty; and as one of
the mates and several of the midshipmen were likewise ill, the watches
were commanded by the gunner and the other mates. The dogs which had
unfortunately fed upon the same fish, were in a still worse condition,
as we could not give them any relief. They groaned and panted most
piteously, drank great quantities of water, and appeared to be
tortured with pain. Those which had eaten of the entrails were vastly
more affected than the rest.--G.F."

According to this gentleman, the crew never felt more severely the
tediousness of confinement to the ship, or were more tired of salt
provisions. Two sharks caught on the 31st afforded them a very
acceptable entertainment, and were greedily devoured. One of these, he
tells us, had in his maw four young turtles, of eighteen inches in
diameter, two large cuttle-fishes, and the feathers and skeleton of a
booby; yet notwithstanding so plentiful a repast, he seemed to be well
disposed for a piece of salt pork with which the hook was baited.--E.

SECTION V.

_An Intercourse established with the Natives; some Account of the Island,
and a Variety of Incidents that happened during our Stay at it._

As we wanted to take in a large quantity both of wood and water, and as,
when I was on shore, I had found it practicable to lay the ship much nearer
the landing-place than she now was, which would greatly facilitate that
work, as well as overawe the natives, and enable us better to cover and
protect the working party on shore; with this view, on the 6th, we went to
work to transport the ship to the place I designed to moor her in. While we

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