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A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels, Volume 14 by Robert Kerr

Part 3 out of 11

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to be the same we saw the evening we first fell in with the land.

Having five geese left out of those we brought from the Cape of Good Hope,
I went with them next morning to Goose Cove (named so on this account,)
where I left them. I chose this place for two reasons; first, here are no
inhabitants to disturb them; and, secondly, here being the most food, I
make no doubt but that they will breed, and may in time spread over the
whole country, and fully answer my intention in leaving them. We spent the
day shooting in and about the cove, and returned aboard about ten o'clock
in the evening. One of the party shot a white hern, which agreed exactly
with Mr Pennant's description, in his British Zoology, of the white herns
that either now are, or were formerly, in England.

The 20th was the eighth fair day we had had successively; a circumstance, I
believe, very uncommon in this place, especially at this season of the
year. This fair weather gave us an opportunity to complete our wood and
water, to overhaul the rigging, caulk the ship, and put her in a condition
for sea. Fair weather was, however, now at an end; for it began to rain
this evening, and continued without intermission till noon the next day,
when we cast off the shore fasts, hove the ship out of the creek to her
anchor, and steadied her with an hawser to the shore.

On the 27th, hazy weather, with showers of rain. In the morning I set out,
accompanied by Mr Pickersgill and the two Mr Forsters, to explore the arm
or inlet I discovered the day I returned from the head of the bay. After
rowing about two leagues up it, or rather down, I found it to communicate
with the sea, and to afford a better outlet for ships bound to the north
than the one I came in by. After making this discovery, and refreshing
ourselves on broiled fish and wild fowl, we set out for the ship, and got
on board at eleven o'clock at night, leaving two arms we had discovered,
and which ran into the east, unexplored. In this expedition we shot forty-
four birds, sea-pies, ducks, &c., without going one foot out of our way, or
causing any other delay than picking them up.

Having got the tents, and every other article on board on the 28th, we only
now waited for a wind to carry us out of the harbour, and through New
Passage, the way I proposed to go to sea. Every thing being removed from
the shore, I set fire to the top-wood, &c., in order to dry a piece of the
ground we had occupied, which, next morning, I dug up, and sowed with
several sorts of garden seeds. The soil was such as did not promise success
to the planter; it was, however, the best we could find. At two o clock in
the afternoon, we weighed with a light breeze at S.W., and stood up the bay
for the New Passage. Soon after we had got through, between the east end of
Indian Island and the west end of Long Island, it fell calm, which obliged
us to anchor in forty-three fathom water, under the north side of the
latter island.

In the morning of the 30th we weighed again with a light breeze at west,
which, together with all our boats a-head towing, was hardly sufficient to
stem the current. For, after struggling till six o'clock in the evening,
and not getting more than five miles from our last anchoring-place, we
anchored under the north side of Long Island, not more than one hundred
yards from the shore, to which we fastened a hawser.

At day-light next morning, May 1st, we got again under sail, and attempted
to work to windward, having a light breeze down the bay. At first we gained
ground, but at last the breeze died away; when we soon lost more than we
had got, and were obliged to bear up for a cove on the north side of Long
Island, where we anchored in nineteen fathom water, a muddy bottom: In this
cove we found two huts not long since inhabited; and near them two very
large fire-places or ovens, such as they have in the Society Isles. In this
cove we were detained by calms, attended with continual rain, till the 4th
in the afternoon, when, with the assistance of a small breeze at south-
west, we got the length of the reach or passage leading to sea. The breeze
then left us, and we anchored under the east point, before a sandy beach,
in thirty fathoms water; but this anchoring-place hath nothing to recommend
it like the one we came from, which hath every thing in its favour.

In the night we had some very heavy squalls of wind, attended with rain,
hail, and snow, and some thunder. Daylight exhibited to our view all the
hills and mountains covered with snow. At two o'clock in the afternoon, a
light breeze sprung up at S.S.W., which, with the help of our boats,
carried us down the passage to our intended anchor-place, where, at eight
o'clock, we anchored in sixteen fathoms water, and moored with a hawser to
the shore, under the first point on the starboard side as you come in from
sea, from which we were covered by the point.

In the morning of the 6th, I sent Lieutenant Pickersgill, accompanied by
the two Mr Forsters, to explore the second arm which turns in to the east,
myself being confined on board by a cold. At the same time I had every
thing got up from between decks, the decks well cleaned and well aired with
fires; a thing that ought never to be long neglected in wet moist weather.
The fair weather, which had continued all this day, was succeeded in the
night by a storm from north-west, which blew in hard squalls, attended with
rain, and obliged us to strike top-gallant and lower yards, and to carry
out another hawser to the shore. The bad weather continued the whole day
and the succeeding night, after which it fell calm with fair weather.

At seven in the morning, on the 8th, Mr Pickersgill returned, together with
his companions, in no very good plight, having been at the head of the arm
he was sent to explore, which he judged to extend in to the eastward about
eight miles. In it is a good anchoring-place, wood, fresh water, wild fowl,
and fish. At nine o'clock I set out to explore the other inlet, or the one
next the sea; and ordered Mr Gilbert, the master, to go and examine the
passage out to sea, while those on board were getting every thing in
readiness to depart. I proceeded up the inlet till five o'clock in the
afternoon, when bad weather obliged me to return before I had seen the end
of it. As this inlet lay nearly parallel with the sea-coast, I was of
opinion that it might communicate with Doubtful Harbour, or some other
inlet to the northward. Appearances were, however, against this opinion,
and the bad weather hindered me from determining the point, although a few
hours would have done it. I was about ten miles up, and thought I saw the
end of it: I found on the north side three coves, in which, as also on the
south side, between the main and the isles that lie four miles up the
inlet, is good anchorage, wood, water, and what else can be expected, such
as fish and wild fowl: Of the latter, we killed in this excursion, three
dozen. After a very hard row, against both wind and rain, we got on board
about nine o'clock at night, without a dry thread on our backs.

This bad weather continued no longer than till the next morning, when it
became fair, and the sky cleared up. But, as we had not wind to carry us to
sea, we made up two shooting parties; myself, accompanied by the two
Mr. Forsters and some others, went to the area I was in the day before;
and the other party to the coves and isles Mr Gilbert had discovered when
he was out, and where he found many wild fowl. We had a pleasant day, and
the evening brought us all on board; myself and party met with good sport;
but the other party found little.

All the forenoon of the 10th, we had strong gales from the west, attended
with heavy showers of rain, and blowing in such flurries over high land, as
made it unsafe for us to get under sail. The afternoon was more moderate,
and became fair; when myself, Mr Cooper, and some others, went out in the
boats to the rocks, which lie at this entrance of the bay, to kill seals.
The weather was rather unfavourable for this sport, and the sea ran high,
so as to make landing difficult; we, however, killed ten, but could only
wait to bring away five, with which we returned on board.

In the morning of the 11th, while we were getting under sail, I sent a boat
for the other five seals. At nine o'clock we weighed with a light breeze at
south-east, and stood out to sea, taking up the boat in our way. It was
noon before we got clear of the land; at which time we observed in 45 deg. 34'
30" S.; the entrance of the bay bore S.E. by E., and Break-sea Isles (the
outermost isles that lie at the south point of the entrance of the bay,)
bore S.S.E., distant three miles; the southernmost point, or that of Five
Fingers Point, bore south 42 deg. W., and the northernmost land N.N.E. In this
situation we had a prodigious swell from S.W., which broke with great
violence on all the shores that were exposed to it.

SECTION V.

_Directions for sailing in and out of Dusky Bay, with an Account of the
adjacent Country, its Produce, and Inhabitants: Astronomical and Nautical
Observations._

As there are few places where I have been in New Zealand that afford the
necessary refreshments in such plenty as Dusky Bay, a short description of
it, and of the adjacent country, may prove of use to some future
navigators, as well as acceptable to the curious reader. For although this
country be far remote from the present trading part of the world, we can,
by no means, tell what use future ages may make of the discoveries made in
the present. The reader of this journal must already know that there are
two entrances to this bay. The south entrance is situated on the north side
of Cape West, in latitude 45 deg. 48' S. It is formed by the land of the Cape
to the south, and Five Fingers Point to the north. This point is made
remarkable by several pointed rocks lying off it, which, when viewed from
certain situations, have some resemblance to the five fingers of a man's
hand; from whence it takes its name. The land of this point is still more
remarkable by the little similarity it bears to any other of the lands
adjacent; being a narrow peninsula lying north and south, of a moderate and
equal height, and all covered with wood.

To sail into the bay by this entrance is by no means difficult, as I know
of no danger but what shews itself. The worst that attends it, is the depth
of water, which is too great to admit of anchorage, except in the coves and
harbours, and very near the shores; and even, in many places, this last
cannot be done. The anchoring-places are, however, numerous enough, and
equally safe and commodious. Pickersgill Harbour, where we lay, is not
inferior to any other bay, for two or three ships: It is situated on the
south shore abreast of the west end of Indian island; which island may be
known from the others by its greater proximity to that shore. There is a
passage into the harbour on both sides of the isle, which lies before it.
The most room is on the upper or east side, having regard to a sunken rock,
near the main, abreast this end of the isle: Keep the isle close aboard,
and you will not only avoid the rock, but keep in anchoring-ground. The
next place, on this side, is Cascade Cove, where there is room for a fleet
of ships, and also a passage in on either side of the isle, which lies in
the entrance, taking care to avoid a sunken rock which lies near the south-
east shore, a little above the isle. This rock, as well as the one in
Pickersgill Harbour, may be seen at half-ebb It must be needless to
enumerate all the anchoring-places in this capacious bay.

The north entrance lies in the latitude of 45 deg. 38' S., and five leagues to
the north of Five Fingers Point. To make this entrance plain, it will be
necessary to approach the shore within a few miles, as all the land within
and on each side is of considerable height. Its situation may, however, be
known at a greater distance, as it lies under the first craggy mountains
which rise to the north of the land of Five Fingers Point. The southernmost
of these mountains is remarkable, having at its summit two small hillocks.
When this mountain bears S.S.E. you will be before the entrance, on the
south side of which are several isles. The westernmost and outermost is the
most considerable, both for height and circuit, and this I have called
Break sea Isle, because it effectually covers this entrance from the
violence of the southwest swell, which the other entrance is so much
exposed to. In sailing in you leave this isle as well as all the others to
the south. The best anchorage is in the first or north arm, which is on the
larboard hand going in, either in one of the coves, or behind the isles
that lie under the south-east shore.

The country is exceedingly mountainous, not only about Dusky Bay, but
through all the southern part of this western coast of Tavai Poenammoo. A
prospect more rude and craggy is rarely to be met with, for inland appears
nothing but the summits of mountains of a stupendous height, and consisting
of rocks that are totally barren and naked, except where they are covered
with snow. But the land bordering on the sea-coast, and all the islands,
are thickly clothed with wood, almost down to the water's edge. The trees
are of various kinds, such as are common to other parts of this country,
and are fit for the shipwright, house-carpenter, cabinet-maker, and many
other uses. Except in the river Thames, I have not seen finer timber in all
New Zealand; both here and in that river, the most considerable for size is
the Spruce-tree, as we called it, from the similarity of its foliage to the
American spruce, though the wood is more ponderous, and bears a greater
resemblance to the pitch-pine. Many of these trees are from six to eight
and ten feet in girt, and from sixty to eighty or one hundred feet in
length, large enough to make a main-mast for a fifty-gun ship.

Here are, as well as in all other parts of New Zealand, a great number of
aromatic trees and shrubs, most of the myrtle kind; but amidst all this
variety, we met with none which bore fruit fit to eat.

In many parts the woods are so over-run with supplejacks, that it is
scarcely possible to force one's way amongst them. I have seen several
which were fifty or sixty fathoms long.

The soil is a deep black mould, evidently composed of decayed vegetables,
and so loose that it sinks under you at every step; and this may be the
reason why we meet with so many large trees as we do, blown down by the
wind, even in the thickest part of the woods. All the ground amongst the
trees is covered with moss and fern, of both which there is a great
variety; but except the flax or hemp plant, and a few other plants, there
is very little herbage of any sort, and none that was eatable, that we
found, except about a handful of water-cresses, and about the same quantity
of cellery. What Dusky Bay most abounds with is fish: A boat with six or
eight men, with hooks and lines, caught daily sufficient to serve the whole
ship's company. Of this article the variety is almost equal to the plenty,
and of such kinds as are common to the more northern coast; but some are
superior, and in particular the cole fish, as we called it, which is both
larger and finer flavoured than any I had seen before, and was, in the
opinion of most on board, the highest luxury the sea afforded us. The
shell-fish are, muscles, cockles, scallops, cray-fish, and many other
sorts, all such as are to be found in every other part of the coast. The
only amphibious animals are seals: These are to be found in great numbers
about this bay on the small rocks and isles near the sea coast.

We found here five different kinds of ducks, some of which I do not
recollect to have any where seen before. The largest are as big as a
Muscovy duck, with a very beautiful variegated plumage, on which account we
called it the Painted Duck; both male and female have a large white spot on
each wing; the head and neck of the latter is white, but all the other
feathers as well as those on the head and neck of the drake are of a dark
variegated colour. The second sort have a brown plumage, with bright green
feathers in their wings, and are about the size of an English tame duck.
The third sort is the blue-grey duck, before mentioned, or the whistling
duck, as some called them, from the whistling noise they made. What is most
remarkable in these is, that the end of their beaks is soft, and of a
skinny, or more properly, cartilaginous substance. The fourth sort is
something bigger than a teal, and all black except the drake, which has
some white feathers in his wing. There are but few of this sort, and we saw
them no where but in the river at the head of the bay. The last sort is a
good deal like a teal, and very common, I am told, in England. The other
fowls, whether belonging to the sea and land, are the same that are to be
found in common in other parts of this country, except the blue peterel
before-mentioned, and the water or wood-hens. These last, although they
are numerous enough here, are so scarce in other parts, that I never saw
but one. The reason may be, that, as they cannot fly, they inhabit the
skirts of the woods, and feed on the sea-beach, and are so very tame or
foolish, as to stand and stare at us till we knocked them down with a
stick. The natives may have, in a manner, wholly destroyed them. They are a
sort of rail, about the size and a good deal like a common dunghill hen;
most of them are of a dirty black or dark-brown colour, and eat very well
in a pye or fricassee. Among the small birds I must not omit to
particularize the wattle-bird, poy-bird, and fan-tail, on account of their
singularity, especially as I find they are not mentioned in the narrative
of my former voyage.

The wattle-bird, so called, because it has two wattles under its beak as
large as those of a small dunghill-cock, is larger, particularly in length,
than an English black-bird. Its bill is short and thick, and its feathers
of a dark lead colour; the colour of its wattles is a dull yellow, almost
an orange colour.

The poy-bird is less than the wattle-bird. The feathers of a fine mazarine
blue, except those of its neck, which are of a most beautiful silver-grey,
and two or three short white ones, which are on the pinion joint of the
wing. Under its throat hang two little tufts of curled, snow-white
leathers, called its _poies_, which being the Otaheitean word for
earrings, occasioned our giving that name to the bird, which is not more
remarkable for the beauty of its plumage than for the sweetness of its
note. The flesh is also most delicious, and was the greatest luxury the
woods afforded us.

Of the fan-tail there are different sorts; but the body of the most
remarkable one is scarcely larger than a good filbert, yet it spreads a
tail of most beautiful plumage, full three quarters of a semi-circle, of at
least four or five inches radius.

For three or four days after we arrived in Pickersgill harbour, and as we
were clearing the woods to set up our tents, &c. a four-footed animal was
seen by three or four of our people; but as no two gave the same
description of it, I cannot say of what kind it is. All, however, agreed,
that it was about the size of a cat, with short legs, and of a mouse
colour. One of the seamen, and he who had the best view of it, said it had
a bushy tail, and was the most like a jackall of any animal he knew. The
most probable conjecture is, that it is of a new species. Be this as it
may, we are now certain that this country is not so destitute of quadrupeds
as was once thought.

The most mischievous animals here are the small black sand flies, which are
very numerous, and so troublesome, that they exceed every thing of the kind
I ever met with. Wherever they bite they cause a swelling, and such an
intolerable itching, that it is not possible to refrain from scratching,
which at last brings on ulcers like the small-pox.

The almost continual rains may be reckoned another evil attending this bay;
though perhaps this may only happen at this season of the year.
Nevertheless, the situation of the country, the vast height, and nearness
of the mountains, seem to subject it to much rain at all times. Our people,
who were daily exposed to the rain, felt no ill effects from it; on the
contrary, such as were sick and ailing when we came in, recovered daily,
and the whole crew soon became strong and vigorous, which can only be
attributed to the healthiness of the place, and the fresh provisions it
afforded. The beer certainly contributed not a little. As I have already
observed, we at first made it of a decoction of the spruce leaves; but
finding that this alone made the beer too astringent, we afterwards mixed
with it an equal quantity of the tea plant (a name it obtained in my former
voyage, from our using it as tea then as we also did now,) which partly
destroyed the astringency of the other, and made the beer exceedingly
palatable, and esteemed by every one on board. We brewed it in the same
manner as spruce-beer, and the process is as follows: First, make a strong
decoction of the small branches of the spruce and tea plants, by boiling
them three or four hours, or until the bark will strip with ease from off
the branches; then take them out of the copper, and put in the proper
quantity of molasses, ten gallons of which is sufficient to make a ton, or
two hundred and forty gallons of beer; let this mixture just boil, then pot
it into the casks, and to it add an equal quantity of cold water, more or
less, according to the strength of the decoction, or your taste: When the
whole is milk-warm, put in a little grounds of beer, or yeast, if you have
it, or any thing else that will cause fermentation, and in a few days the
beer will be fit to drink. After the casks have been brewed in two or three
times the beer will generally ferment itself, especially if the weather is
warm. As I had inspissated juice of wort on board, and could not apply it
to a better purpose, we used it together with molasses or sugar, to make
these two articles go farther. For of the former I had but one cask, and of
the latter little to spare for this brewing. Had I known how well this beer
would have succeeded, and the great use it was of to the people, I should
have come better provided. Indeed I was partly discouraged by an experiment
made during my former voyage, which did not succeed then, owing, as I now
believe, to some mismanagement.

Any one, who is in the least acquainted with spruce pines, will find the
tree which I have distinguished by that name. There are three sorts of it;
that which has the smallest leaves and deepest colour, is the sort we
brewed with; but doubtless all three might safely serve that purpose. The
tea-plant is a small tree or shrub, with five white petals, or flower-
leaves, shaped like those of a rose, having smaller ones of the same figure
in the intermediate spaces, and twenty or more filaments or threads. The
tree sometimes grows to a moderate height, and is generally bare on the
lower part, with a number of small branches growing close together towards
the top. The leaves are small and pointed, like those of the myrtle; it
bears a dry roundish seed-case, and grows commonly in dry places near the
shores. The leaves, as I have already observed, were used by many of us as
tea, which has a very agreeable bitter and flavour when they are recent,
but loses some of both when they are dried. When the infusion was made
strong, it proved emetic to some in the same manner as green tea.

The inhabitants of this bay are of the same race of people with those in
the other parts of this country, speak the same language, and observe
nearly the same customs. These indeed seem to have a custom of making
presents before they receive any, in which they come nearer to the
Otaheiteans than the rest of their countrymen. What could induce three or
four families (for I believe there are not more) to separate themselves so
far from the society of the rest of their fellow-creatures, is not easy to
guess. By our meeting with inhabitants in this place, it seems probable
that there are people scattered over all this southern island. But the many
vestiges of them in different parts of this bay, compared with the number
that we actually saw, indicates that they live a wandering life; and, if
one may judge from appearances and circumstances, few as they are, they
live not in perfect amity, one family with another. For, if they did, why
do they not form themselves into some society? a thing not only natural to
man, but observed even by the brute creation.

I shall conclude this account of Dusky Bay with some observations made and
communicated to me by Mr Wales. He found by a great variety of
observations, that the latitude of his observatory at Pickersgill Harbour,
was 45 deg. 47' 26" half south; and, by the mean of several distances of the
moon from the sun, that its longitude was 106 deg. 18' E., which is about half
a degree less than it is laid down in my chart constructed in my former
voyage. He found the variation of the needle or compass, by the mean of
three different needles, to be 13 deg. 49' E, and the dip of the south end 70 deg.
5' three quarters. The times of high water, on the full and change days, he
found to be at 10 deg. 57', and the tide to rise and fall, at the former eight
feet, at the latter five feet eight inches. This difference, in the rise of
the tides between the new and full moon, is a little extraordinary, and was
probably occasioned at this time by some accidental cause, such as winds,
&c., but, be it as it will, I am well assured there was no error in the
observations.

Supposing the longitude of the observatory to be as above, the error of Mr
Kendal's watch, in longitude, will be 1 deg. 48' minus, and that of Mr Arnold's
39 deg. 25'. The former was found to be gaining 6",461 a-day on mean time, and
the latter losing 99",361. Agreeably to these rates the longitude by them
was to be determined, until an opportunity of trying them again.

I must observe, that in finding the longitude by Mr Kendal's watch, we
suppose it to have gone mean time from the Cape of Good Hope. Had its cape
rate been allowed, the error would not have been so great.

SECTION VI.

_Passage from Dusky Bay to Queen Charlottes Sound, with an Account of
some Water Spouts, and of our joining the Adventure._

After leaving Dusky Bay, as hath been already mentioned, I directed my
course along shore for Queen Charlotte's Sound, where I expected to find
the Adventure. In this passage we met with nothing remarkable, or worthy of
notice, till the 17th at four o'clock in the afternoon. Being then about
three leagues to the westward of Cape Stephens; having a gentle gale at
west by south, and clear weather, the wind at once flattened to a calm, the
sky became suddenly obscured by dark dense clouds, and seemed to forebode
much wind. This occasioned as to clew up all our sails, and presently after
six water-spouts were seen. Four rose and spent themselves between us and
the land; that is, to the south-west of us, the fifth was without us, the
sixth first appeared in the south-west, at the distance of two or three
miles at least from us. Its progressive motion was to the north-east, not
in a straight but in a crooked line, and passed within fifty yards of our
stern, without our feeling any of its effects. The diameter of the base of
this spout I judged to be about fifty or sixty feet; that is, the sea
within this space was much agitated, and foamed up to a great height. From
this a tube, or round body, was formed, by which the water or air, or both,
was carried in a spiral stream up to the clouds. Some of our people said
they saw a bird in the one near us, which was whirled round like the fly of
a jack, as it was carried upwards. During the time these spouts lasted, we
had now and then light puffs of wind from all points of the compass, with
some few slight showers of rain, which generally fell in large drops; and
the weather continued thick and hazy for some hours after, with variable
light breezes of wind. At length the wind fixed in its old point, and the
sky resumed its former serenity. Some of these spouts appeared at times to
be stationary; and at other times to have a quick but very unequal
progressive motion, and always in a crooked line, sometimes one way and
sometimes another; so that, once or twice, we observed them to cross one
another. From the ascending motion of the bird, and several other
circumstances, it was very plain to us that these spouts were caused by
whirlwinds, and that the water in them was violently hurried upwards, and
did not descend from the clouds as I have heard some assert. The first
appearance of them is by the violent agitation and rising up of the water;
and, presently after, you see a round column or tube forming from the
clouds above, which apparently descends till it joins the agitated water
below. I say apparently, because I believe it not to be so in reality, but
that the tube is already formed from the agitated water below, and ascends,
though at first it is either too small or too thin to be seen. When the
tube is formed, or becomes visible, its apparent diameter increaseth till
it is pretty large; after that it decreaseth, and at last it breaks or
becomes invisible towards the lower part. Soon after the sea below resumes
its natural state, and the tube is drawn, by little and little, up to the
clouds, where it is dissipated. The same tube would sometimes have a
vertical, and sometimes a crooked or inclined direction. The most rational
account I have read of water-spouts, is in Mr Falconer's Marine Dictionary,
which is chiefly collected from the philosophical writings of the ingenious
Dr Franklin. I have been told that the firing of a gun will dissipate them;
and I am very sorry I did not try the experiment, as we were near enough,
and had a gun ready for the purpose; but as soon as the danger was past, I
thought no more about it, being too attentive in viewing these
extraordinary meteors At the time this happened, the barometer stood at 29,
75, and the thermometer at 56.[1]

In coming from Cape Farewell to Cape Stephens, I had a better view of the
coast than I had when I passed in my former voyage, and observed that about
six leagues to the east of the first-mentioned cape, is a spacious bay,
which is covered from the sea by a low point of land. This is, I believe,
the same that Captain Tasman anchored in on the 18th of December, 1642, and
by him called Murderer's Bay, by reason of some of his men being killed by
the natives. Blind Bay, so named by me in my former voyage, lies to the
S.E. of this, and seems to run a long way inland to the south; the sight,
in this direction, not being bounded by any land. The wind having returned
to the west, as already mentioned, we resumed our course to the east; and
at day-light the next morning (being the 18th,) we appeared off Queen
Charlotte's Sound, where we discovered our consort the Adventure, by the
signals she made to us; an event which every one felt with an agreeable
satisfaction. The fresh westerly wind now died away, and was succeeded by
light airs from the S. and S.W., so that we had to work in with our boats
a-head towing. In the doing of this we discovered a rock, which we did not
see in my former voyage. It lies in the direction of S. by E. 1/2 E.,
distant four miles from the outermost of the Two Brothers, and in a line
with the White Rocks, on with the middle of Long Island. It is just even
with the surface of the sea, and hath deep water all round it. At noon,
Lieutenant Kemp of the Adventure came on board; from whom I learnt that
their ship had been here about six weeks. With the assistance of a light
breeze, our boats, and the tides, we at six o'clock in the evening, got to
an anchor in Ship Cove, near the Adventure, when Captain Furneaux came on
board, and gave me the following account of his proceedings, from the time
we parted to my arrival here.

[1] "This afternoon we had an opportunity of observing, in as complete
a manner as could be wished, one of the most curious, and perhaps the
most extraordinary and powerful, of Nature's productions. The forenoon
had been in general pretty clear, but subject to heavy squalls of
wind, and some flying clouds, which were very black and heavy, and
moved with great velocity from the S.W. towards the N.E., (the
direction of the wind.) About four o'clock in the afternoon it became
calm, and the heavens were almost covered with very black clouds,
particularly towards the W. and N.W., and presently after we saw
several tail-like appearances, descending from the clouds in that
quarter: These appearances were whiter than the clouds they hung from,
which made them very conspicuous, and they increased gradually in
length, until they extended, as near as I could judge, about one-sixth
part of the distance between the clouds and the surface of the sea.
About this time, the water under them began to be violently agitated,
and lifted up with a whirling motion towards the impending part of the
cloud, which, on account of a motion they all had the contrary way to
that the wind had blown, was not directly over it, but a little
towards the south-west. As the water rose, the end of the cloud
descended, and in a little time they joined; after which the water
appeared to me to ascend out of the sea into the cloud, with great
velocity. I think that none of these spouts, as they are usually
called, continued entire more than ten minutes; perhaps not quite so
long. I saw four complete at one time; but there were great numbers
which began to form, and were dispersed by what cause I know not,
before the cloud and water joined. One of them came, I was told,
within thirty or forty yards of the ship, which lay becalmed; but I
was then below looking at the barometer; when I got upon deck, it was
about 100 fathoms from her. It is impossible to say what would have
been the consequences if it had gone over her; but I believe they
would have been very dreadful. At the time when this happened, the
barometer stood at 29,75 inches, and the thermometer at 56 deg.. The whole
of this passed within the space of an hour, or thereabouts; for at
five o'clock a small breeze of wind sprung up in the south-east
quarter, and dispersed every appearance of this kind, although the
black clouds remained until about ten, when the wind veered round to
the W.S.W., and settled there in a moderate steady gale, and the
weather cleared up."--W.

"The nature of water-spouts and their causes, being hitherto very
little known, we were extremely attentive to mark every little
circumstance attendant on this appearance. Their base, where the water
of the sea was violently agitated, and rose in a spiral form in
vapours, was a broad spot, which looked bright and yellowish when
illuminated by the sun. The column was of a cylindrical form, rather
increasing in width towards the upper extremity. These columns moved
forward on the surface of the sea, and the clouds not following them
with equal rapidity, they assumed a bent or incurvated shape, and
frequently appeared crossing each other, evidently proceeding in
different directions; from whence we concluded, that it being calm,
each of these water-spouts caused a wind of its own. At last they
broke one after another, being probably too much distended by the
difference between their motion and that of the clouds. In proportion
as the clouds came nearer to us, the sea appeared more and more
covered with short broken waves, and the wind continually veered all
round the compass without fixing in any point. We soon saw a spot on
the sea, within two hundred fathoms of us, in a violent agitation. The
water, in a space of fifty or sixty fathoms, moved towards the centre,
and there rising into vapour, by the force of the whirling motion,
ascended in a spiral form towards the clouds. Some hailstones fell on
board about this time, and the clouds looked exceedingly black and
louring above us. Directly over the whirl-pool, if I may so call the
agitated spot on the sea, a cloud gradually tapered into a long
slender tube, which seemed to descend to meet the rising spiral, and
soon united with it into a short column of a cylindrical form. We
could distinctly observe the water hurled upwards with the greatest
violence in a spiral, and it appeared that it left a hollow space in
the centre; so that we concluded the water only formed a hollow tube,
instead of a solid column. We were strongly confirmed in this belief
by the colour, which was exactly like any hollow glass-tube. After
some time the last water-spout was incurvated and broke like the
others, with this difference, that its disjunction was attended with a
flash of lightning, but no explosion was heard. Our situation during
all this time was very dangerous and alarming; a phenomenon which
carried so much terrific majesty in it, and connected, as it were, the
sea with the clouds, made our oldest mariners uneasy, and at a loss
how to behave; for most of them, though they had viewed water-spouts
at a distance, yet had never been so beset with them as we were; and
all without exception had heard dreadful accounts of their pernicious
effects, when they happened to break over a ship. We prepared, indeed,
for the worst, by clewing up our top-sails; but it was the general
opinion that our masts and yards must have gone to wreck if we had
been drawn into the vortex. It was hinted that firing a gun had
commonly succeeded in breaking water-spouts, by the strong vibration
it causes in the air; and accordingly a four-pounder was ordered to be
got ready, but our people, being, as usual, very dilatory about it,
the danger was past before we could try the experiment. How far
electricity may be considered as the cause of this phenomenon, we
could not determine with any precision; so much however seems certain,
that it has some connection with it, from the flash of lightning,
which was plainly observed at the bursting of the last column. The
whole time, from their first appearance to the dissolution of the
last, was about three quarters of an hour. It was five o'clock when
the latter happened, and the thermometer then stood at fifty-four
degrees, or two and a half degrees lower, than when they began to make
their appearance. The depth of water we had under us was thirty-six
fathom."--G.F.

The description which Mr F. has given, is very similar to the
preceding. Both these gentlemen seem to concur in opinion with Cook,
in maintaining Dr Franklin's theory. Mr Jones, in his Philosophical
Disquisitions, mentions a circumstance which is no less curious in
itself, than strongly demonstrative that the tube, as it has been
called, is formed from below, and ascends towards the clouds, and not
the contrary, as the appearances would indicate. "In the torrid zone,
(says he,) the water-spout is sometimes attended with an effect which
appears supernatural, and will scarcely find credit in this part of
the world; for who will believe that fish should fall from the sky in
a shower of rain? A gentleman of veracity, who spent many years in the
East Indies, declares to his friends that he has been witness to this
several times; but speaks of it with caution, knowing that it will be
thought incredible by those who are not acquainted with the cause. I
have a servant, a native of the West Indies, who assures me he was
once a witness to this fact himself, when small fish, about two or
three inches long, fell in great numbers during a storm of rain. The
spot where this happened was in the island of Jamaica, within about a
mile of the sea. When water is carried with violence from the sea up
the column of a spout, small fish, which are too weak to escape when
the column is forming, are conveyed up to the clouds, and fall from
them afterwards on land, not far distant from the sea." He had before
related an instance of one that passed over the town of Hatfield, in
Yorkshire, filling the air with the thatch it plucked off from the
houses, and rolling strangely together several sheets of lead on the
corner of the church.--E.

SECTION VII.

_Captain Furneaux's Narrative, from the Time the two Ships were
separated, to their joining again in Queen Charlotte's Sound, with some
Account of Van Diemen's Land._

On the 7th of February, 1773, in the morning, the Resolution being then
about two miles a-head, the wind shifting then to the westward, brought on
a very thick fog; so that we lost sight of her. We soon after heard a gun,
the report of which we imagined to be on the larboard beam; we then hauled
up S.E., and kept firing a four-pounder every half hour, but had no answer,
nor further sight of her; then we kept the course we steered on before the
fog came on. In the evening it began to blow hard, and was at intervals
more clear, but could see nothing of her, which gave us much uneasiness. We
then tacked and stood to the westward, to cruise in the place where we last
saw her, according to agreement, in case of separation; but next day came
on a very heavy gale of wind and thick weather, that obliged us to bring
to, and thereby prevented us reaching the intended spot. However, the wind
coming more moderate, and the fog in some measure clearing away, we cruised
as near the place as we could get, for three days; when giving over all
hopes of joining company again, we bore away for winter quarters, distant
fourteen hundred leagues, through a sea entirely unknown and reduced the
allowance of water to one quart per day.

We kept between the latitude of 52 deg. and 53 deg. S., had much westerly wind,
hard gales, with squalls, snow and sleet, with a long hollow sea from the
S.W., so that we judged there is no land in that quarter. After we reached
the longitude of 95 deg. E., we found the variation decrease very fast.

On the 26th, at night, we saw a meteor of uncommon brightness in the N.N.W.
It directed its course to the S.W., with a very great light in the southern
sky, such as is known to the northward by the name of Aurora Borealis, or
Northern Lights. We saw the light for several nights running; and, what is
remarkable, we saw but one ice island after we parted company with the
Resolution, till our making land, though we were most of the time two or
three degrees to the southward of the latitude we first saw it in. We were
daily attended by great numbers of sea birds, and frequently saw porpoises
curiously spotted white and black.

On the 1st of March we were alarmed with the cry of land by the man at the
mast-head, on the larboard beam; which gave us great joy. We immediately
hauled our wind and stood for it, but to our mortification were
disappointed in a few hours; for, what we took to be land, proved no more
than clouds, which disappeared as we sailed towards them. We then bore
away, and directed our course towards the land laid down in the charts by
the name of Van Diemen's Land, discovered by Tasman in 1642, and laid down
in the latitude 44 deg. S., and longitude 140 deg. E., and supposed to join to New
Holland.

On the 9th of March, having little wind and pleasant weather, about nine a.
m. being then in the latitude of 43 deg. 37' S. longitude, by lunar
observation, 145 deg. 36' E., and by account 143 deg. 10' E. from Greenwich, we saw
the land bearing N.N.E., about eight or nine leagues distance. It appeared
moderately high, and uneven near the sea; the hills farther back formed a
double land, and much higher. There seemed to be several islands, or broken
land, to the N.W., as the shore trenched; but by reason of clouds that hung
over them, we could not be certain whether they did not join to the main.
We hauled immediately up for it, and by noon were within three or four
leagues of it. A point much like the Ramhead off Plymouth, which I take to
be the same that Tasman calls South Cape, bore north four leagues off us.
The land from this cape runs directly to the eastward; about four leagues
along shore are three islands about two miles long, and several rocks,
resembling the Mewstone, (particularly one which we so named,) about four
or five leagues E.S.E 1/2 E. off the above cape, which Tasman has not
mentioned, or laid down in his draughts. After you pass these islands, the
land lies E. by N., and W. by S., by the compass nearly. It is a bold
shore, and seems to afford several bays or anchoring-places, but believe
deep water. From the S.W. cape, which is in the latitude of 43 deg. 39' S., and
longitude 145 deg. 50' E. to the S.E. cape, in the latitude 43 deg. 36' S.,
longitude 147 deg. E., is nearly sixteen leagues, and sounding from forty-eight
to seventy fathoms, sand and broken shells three or four leagues off shore.
Here the country is hilly and full of trees, the shore rocky and difficult
landing, occasioned by the wind blowing here continually from the westward,
which occasions such a surf that the sand cannot lie on the shore. We saw
no inhabitants here.

The morning, on the 10th of March, being calm, the ship then about four
miles from the land, sent the great cutter on shore with the second
lieutenant, to find if there was any harbour or good bay. Soon after, it
beginning to blow very hard, made the signal for the boat to return several
times, but they did not see or hear any thing of it; the ship then three or
four leagues off, that we could not see any thing of the boat, which gave
us great uneasiness, as there was a very great sea. At half-past one p.m.
to our great satisfaction, the boat returned on board safe. They landed,
but with much difficulty, and saw several places where the Indians had
been, and one they lately had left, where they had a fire, with a great
number of pearl escallop shells round it, which shells they brought on
board, with, some burnt sticks and green boughs. There was a path from this
place, through the woods, which in all probability leads to their
habitations; but, by reason of the weather, had not time to pursue it. The
soil seems to be very rich; the country well clothed with wood,
particularly on the lee side of the hills; plenty of water which falls from
the rocks in beautiful cascades, for two or three hundred feet
perpendicular into the sea; but they did not see the least sign of any
place to anchor in with safety. Hoisted in the boat, and made sail for
Frederick Henry Bay. From noon to three p.m. running along shore E. by N.,
at which time we were abreast of the westernmost point of a very deep bay,
called by Tasman, Stormy Bay. From the west to the east point of this bay
there are several small islands, and black rocks, which we called the
Friars. While crossing this bay we had very heavy squalls and thick
weather; at times, when it cleared up, I saw several fires in the bottom of
the bay, which is near two or three leagues deep, and has, I doubt not,
good places for anchoring, but the weather being so bad, did not think it
safe to stand into it. From the Friars the land trenches away about N. by
E. four leagues: We had smooth water, and kept in shore, having regular
soundings from twenty to fifteen fathoms water. At half-past six we hauled
round a high bluff point, the rocks whereof were like so many fluted
pillars, and had ten fathoms water, fine sand, within half a mile of the
shore. At seven, being abreast of a fine bay, and having little wind, we
came-to, with the small bower, in twenty-four fathoms, sandy bottom. Just
after we anchored, being a fine clear evening, had a good observation of
the star Antares and the moon, which gave the longitude of 147 deg. 34' E.,
being in the latitude of 43 deg. 20' S. We first took this bay to be that
which Tasman called Frederick Henry Bay; but afterwards found that his is
laid down five leagues to the northward of this.

At day-break the next morning, I sent the master in shore to sound the bay,
and to find out a watering-place; at eight he returned, having found a most
excellent harbour, clear ground from side to side, from eighteen to five
fathom water all over the bay, gradually decreasing as you go in shore. We
weighed and turned up into the bay; the wind being westerly, and very
little of it, which baffled us much in getting in. At seven o'clock in the
evening, we anchored in seven fathoms water, with a small bower, and moored
with the coasting anchor to the westward, the north point of the bay N.N.E.
1/2 E. (which we take to be Tasman's Head), and the easternmost point
(which we named Penguin Island, from a curious one we caught there) N.E. by
E 3/4 E.; the watering-place W. 1/2 N.; about one mile from the shore on
each side; Maria's Island, which is about five or six leagues off, shut in
with both points; so that you are quite land-locked in a most spacious
harbour.

We lay here five days, which time was employed in wooding and watering
(which is easily got), and over-hauling the rigging. We found the country
very pleasant; the soil a black, rich, though thin one; the sides of the
hills covered with large trees, and very thick, growing to a great height
before they branch off. They are all of the evergreen kind, different from
any I ever saw; the wood is very brittle, and easily split; there is a very
little variety of sorts, having seen but two. The leaves of one are long
and narrow; and the seed (of which I got a few) is in the shape of a
button, and has a very agreeable smell. The leaves of the other are like
the bay, and it has a seed like the white thorn, with an agreeable spicy
taste and smell. Out of the trees we cut down for fire-wood, there issued
some gum, which the surgeon called gum-lac. The trees are mostly burnt or
scorched, near the ground, occasioned by the natives setting fire to the
under-wood, in the most frequented places; and by these means they have
rendered it easy walking. The land birds we saw, are a bird like a raven;
some of the crow kind, black, with the tips of the feathers of the tail and
wings white, their bill long and very sharp; some paroquets; and several
kinds of small birds. The sea-fowl are ducks, teal, and the sheldrake. I
forgot to mention a large white bird, that one of the gentlemen shot, about
the size of a large kite of the eagle kind. As for beasts, we saw but one,
which was an opossom; but we observed the dung of some, which we judged to
be of the deer kind. The fish in the bay are scarce; those we caught were
mostly sharks, dog-fish, and a fish called by the seamen nurses, like the
dog-fish, only full of small white spots; and some small fish not unlike
sprats. The lagoons (which are brackish) abound with trout, and several
other sorts of fish, of which we caught a few with lines, but being much
encumbered with stumps of trees, we could not haul the seine.

While we lay here, we saw several smokes and large fires, about eight or
ten miles in shore to the northward, but did not see any of the natives;
though they frequently come into this bay, as there were several wigwams or
huts, where we found some bags and nets made of grass, in which I imagine
they carry their provisions and other necessaries. In one of them there was
the stone they strike fire with, and tinder made of bark, but of what tree
could not be distinguished. We found in one of their huts, one of their
spears, which was made sharp at one end, I suppose, with a shell or stone.
Those things we brought away, leaving in the room of them medals, gun-
flints, a few nails, and an old empty barrel with the iron hoops on it.
They seem to be quite ignorant of every sort of metal. The boughs, of which
their huts are made, are either broken or split, and tied together with
grass in a circular form, the largest end stuck in the ground, and the
smaller parts meeting in a point at the top, and covered with fern and
bark, so poorly done, that they will hardly keep out a shower of rain. In
the middle is the fire-place, surrounded with heaps of muscle, pearl,
scallop, and cray-fish shells, which I believe to be their chief food,
though we could not find any of them. They lie on the ground, on dried
grass, round the fire; and I believe they have no settled place of
habitation (as their houses seemed built only for a few days), but wander
about in small parties from place to place in search of food, and are
actuated by no other motive. We never found more than three or four huts in
a place, capable of containing three or four persons each only; and what is
remarkable, we never saw the least marks either of canoe or boat, and it is
generally thought they have none; being altogether, from what we could
judge, a very ignorant and wretched set of people, though natives of a
country capable of producing every necessary of life, and a climate the
finest in the world. We found not the least signs of any minerals or
metals.

Having completed our wood and water, we sailed from Adventure Bay,
intending to coast it up along shore, till we should fall in with the land
seen by Captain Cook, and discover whether Van Diemen's Land joins with New
Holland. On the 16th, we passed Maria's Islands, so named by Tassman; they
appear to be the same as the main land. On the 17th, having passed
Shouten's Islands, we hauled in for the main land, and stood along shore at
the distance of two or three leagues off. The country here appears to be
very thickly inhabited, as there was a continual fire along shore as we
sailed. The land hereabouts is much pleasanter, low, and even; but no signs
of a harbour or bay, where a ship might anchor with safety. The weather
being bad, and blowing hard at S.S.E., we could not send a boat on shore to
have any intercourse with the inhabitants. In the latitude of 40 deg. 50' S.,
the land trenches away to the westward, which I believe forms a deep bay,
as we saw from the deck several smokes arising a-back of the islands that
lay before it, when we could not see the least signs of land from the mast
head.

From the latitude of 40 deg. 50' S., to the latitude of 39 deg. 50' S., is nothing
but islands and shoals; the land high, rocky, and barren. On the 19th, in
the latitude of 40 deg. 30' S., observing breakers about half a mile within
shore of us, we sounded, and finding but eight fathoms, immediately hauled
off, deepened our water to fifteen fathoms, then bore away and kept along
shore again. From the latitude of 39 deg. 50' to 39 deg. S., we saw no land, but
had regular soundings from fifteen to thirty fathoms. As we stood on to the
northward, we made land again in about 39 deg.; after which we discontinued our
northerly course, as we found the ground very uneven, and shoal-water some
distance off. I think it a very dangerous shore to fall in with.

The coast, from Adventure Bay to the place where we stood away for New
Zealand, lies in the direction S. 1/2 W., and N. 1/2 E., about seventy-five
leagues; and it is my opinion that there are no straits between New Holland
and Van Diemen's Land, but a very deep bay.--I should have stood farther to
the northward, but the wind blowing strong at S.S.E., and looking likely to
haul round to the eastward, which would have blown right on the land, I
therefore thought it more proper to leave the coast and steer for New
Zealand.

After we left Van Diemen's Land, we had very uncertain weather, with rain
and very heavy gusts of wind. On the 24th, we were surprised with a very
severe squall, that reduced us from top-gallant sails to reefed courses, in
the space of an hour. The sea rising equally quick, we shipped many waves,
one of which stove the large cutter, and drove the small one from her
lashing in the waist; and with much difficulty we saved her from being
washed overboard. This gale lasted twelve hours, after which we had more
moderate weather, intermixed with calms. We frequently hoisted out the
boats to try the currents, and in general found a small drift to the W.S.W.
We shot many birds; and had, upon the whole, good weather; but as we got
near to the land, it came on thick and dirty for several days, till we made
the coast of New Zealand in 40 deg. 30' S., having made twenty-four degrees of
longitude, from Adventure Bay, after a passage of fifteen days.

We had the winds much southerly in this passage, and I was under some
apprehensions of not being able to fetch the straits, which would have
obliged us to steer away for George's Island; I would therefore advise any
who sail to this part, to keep to the southward, particularly in the fall
of the year, when the S. and S.E. winds prevail.

The land, when we first made it, appeared high, and formed a confused
jumble of hills and mountains. We steered along shore to the northward, but
were much retarded in our course by reason of the swell from the N.E. At
noon, on the 3rd of April, Cape Farewell, which is the south point of the
entrance of the west side of the straits, bore E. by N. 1/2 N. by the
compass, three or four leagues distant. About eight o'clock we entered the
straits, and steered N.E. till midnight; then brought-to till day-light,
and had soundings from forty-five to fifty-eight fathoms, sand and broken
shells. At day-light, made sail and steered S.E. by E.; had light airs;
Mount Egmont N.N.E. eleven or twelve leagues, and Point Stephens S.E. 1/2
E. seven leagues. At noon, Mount Egmont N. by E. twelve leagues; Stephens
Island S.E. five leagues. In the afternoon we put the dredge over-board in
sixty-five fathoms; but caught nothing except a few small scallops, two or
three oysters, and broken shells.

Standing to the eastward for Charlotte's Sound, with a light breeze at
N.W., in the morning on the 5th, Stephens Island bearing S.W. by W. four
leagues, we were taken a-back with a strong easterly gale, which obliged us
to haul our wind to the S.E. and work to windward up under Port Jackson.
The course from Stephens Island to Point Jackson, is nearly S.E. by the
compass, eleven leagues distant, depth of water from forty to thirty-two
fathoms, sandy ground. As we stood off and on, we fired several guns, but
saw no signs of any inhabitants. In the afternoon, at half-past two,
o'clock, finding the tide set the ship to the westward, we anchored with
the coasting anchor in thirty-nine fathoms water, muddy ground; Point
Jackson S.E. 1/2 E. three leagues; the east point of an inlet (about four
leagues to the westward of Point Jackson, and which appears to be a good
harbour) S.W. by W. 1/2 W. At eight p.m. the tide slackening, we weighed
and made sail (having while at anchor caught several fish with hook and
line), and found the tide to run to the westward, at the rate of two and a
half knots per hour. Standing to the east, we found no ground at seventy
fathoms, off Point Jackson N.N.W., two leagues. At eight the next morning,
had the sound open; but the wind being down, it obliged us to work up under
the western shore, as the tide sets up strong there, when it runs down in
mid channel. At ten, the tide being done, was obliged to come-to with the
best bower in thirty-eight fathoms, close to some white rocks, Point
Jackson bearing N.W. 1/2 N.; the northernmost of the Brothers E. by S.; and
the middle of Entry Island (which lies on the north side of the straits)
N.E. We made 15 deg. 30' E., variation in the straits. As we sailed up the
sound we saw the tops of high mountains covered with snow, which remains
all the year. When the tide slackened, we weighed and sailed up the sound;
and about five o'clock on the 7th, anchored in Ship Cove, in ten fathoms
water, muddy ground, and moored the best bower to the N.N.E., and small to
S.S.W. In the night, we heard the howling of dogs, and people hallooing on
the east shore.

The two following days were employed in clearing a place on Motuara Island
for erecting our tents for the sick (having then several on board much
afflicted with the scurvy), the sail-makers and coopers. On the top of the
island was a post erected, by the Endeavour's people, with her name and
time of departure on it.

On the 9th, we were visited by three canoes with about sixteen of the
natives; and to induce them to bring us fish and other provisions, we gave
them several things, with which they seemed highly pleased. One of our
young gentlemen seeing something wrapt up in a better manner than common,
had the curiosity to examine what it was; and to his great surprise found
it to be the head of a man lately killed. They were very apprehensive of
its being forced from them; and particularly the man who seemed most
interested in it, whose very flesh crept on his bones, for fear of being
punished by us, as Captain Cook had expressed his great abhorrence of this
unnatural act. They used every method to conceal the head, by shifting it
from one to another; and by signs endeavouring to convince us, that there
was no such thing amongst them, though we had seen it but a few minutes
before. They then took their leave of us, and went on shore.

They frequently mentioned Tupia, which was the name of the native of
George's Island (or Otaheite), brought here by the Endeavour, and who died
at Batavia; and when we told them he was dead, some of them seemed to be
very much concerned, and, as well as we could understand them, wanted to
know whether we killed him, or if he died a natural death. By these
questions, they are the same tribe Captain Cook saw. In the afternoon, they
returned again with fish and fern roots, which they sold for nails and
other trifles; though the nails are what they set the most value on. The
man and woman who had the head, did not come off again. Having a catalogue
of words in their language, we called several things by name, which
surprised them greatly. They wanted it much, and offered a great quantity
of fish for it.

Next morning, they returned again, to the number of fifty or sixty, with
their chief at their head (as we supposed), in five double canoes. They
gave us their implements of war, stone hatchets, and clothes, &c. for nails
and old bottles, which they put a great value on. A number of the head men
came on board us, and it was with some difficulty we got them out of the
ship by fair means; but on the appearance of a musket with a fixed bayonet,
they all went into their canoes very quickly. We were daily visited by more
or less, who brought us fish in great plenty for nails, beads, and other
trifles, and behaved very peaceably.

We settled the astronomer with his instruments, and a sufficient guard, on
a small island, that is joined to Motuara at low water, called the Hippa,
where there was an old fortified town that the natives had forsaken. Their
houses served our people to live in; and, by sinking them about a foot
inside, we made them very comfortable. Having done this, we struck our
tents on the Motuara, and having removed the ship farther into the cove on
the west shore, moored her for the winter. We then erected our tents near
the river or watering-place, and sent ashore all the spars and lumber off
the decks, that they might be caulked; and gave her a winter coat to
preserve the hull and rigging. On the 11th of May, we felt two severe
shocks of an earthquake, but received no kind of damage. On the 17th, we
were surprised by the people firing guns on the Hippa, and having sent the
boat, as soon as she opened the sound, had the pleasure of seeing the
Resolution off the mouth of it. We immediately sent out the boats to tow
her in, it being calm. In the evening she anchored about a mile without us;
and next morning weighed and warped within us. Both ships felt uncommon joy
at our meeting, after an absence of fourteen weeks.[1]

[1] It is, perhaps, unnecessary to state, that the opinion expressed
in this section, as to there being no straits between New Holland and
Diemen's Land, is erroneous. The reader must have previously known
this.--E.

SECTION VIII.

_Transactions in Queen Charlotte's Sound, with some Remarks on the
Inhabitants._

Knowing that scurvy-grass, celery, and other vegetables, were to be found
in this sound, I went myself the morning after my arrival, at day-break, to
look for some, and returned on board at breakfast with a boat-load. Being
now satisfied, that enough was to be got for the crews of both ships, I
gave orders that they should be boiled, with wheat and portable broth,
every morning for breakfast; and with peas and broth for dinner; knowing
from experience, that these vegetables, thus dressed, are extremely
beneficial, in removing all manner of scorbutic complaints.

I have already mentioned a desire I had of visiting Van Diemen's Land, in
order to inform myself if it made a part of New Holland; and I certainly
should have done this, had the winds proved favourable. But as Captain
Furneaux had now, in a great measure, cleared up that point, I could have
no business there; and therefore came to a resolution to continue our
researches to the east, between the latitudes of 41 deg. and 46 deg.. I acquainted
Captain Furneaux therewith, and ordered him to get his ship in readiness to
put to sea as soon as possible.

In the morning of the 20th, I sent ashore, to the watering-place near the
Adventure's tent, the only ewe and ram remaining, of those which I brought
from the Cape of Good Hope, with an intent to leave them in this country.
Soon after I visited the several gardens Captain Furneaux had caused to be
made and planted with various articles; all of which were in a flourishing
state, and, if attended to by the natives, may prove of great utility to
them. The next day I set some men to work to make a garden on Long Island,
which I planted with garden seeds, roots, &c.

On the 22d in the morning, the ewe and ram, I had with so much care and
trouble brought to this place, were both found dead, occasioned, as was
supposed, by eating some poisonous plant. Thus my hopes of stocking this
country with a breed of sheep, were blasted in a moment. About noon, we
were visited, for the first time since I arrived, by some of the natives,
who dined with us; and it was not a little they devoured. In the evening
they were dismissed with presents.[1]

Early in the morning of the 24th, I sent Mr Gilbert the master to sound
about the rock we had discovered in the entrance of the sound. Myself,
accompanied by Captain Furneaux and Mr Forster, went in a boat to the west
bay on a shooting party. In our way, we met a large canoe in which were
fourteen or fifteen people. One of the first questions they asked was for
Tupia, the person I brought from Otaheite on my former voyage; and they
seemed to express some concern when we told them he was dead. These people
made the same enquiry of Captain Furneaux when he first arrived; and, on my
return to the ship in the evening, I was told that a canoe had been along-
side, the people in which seemed to be strangers, and who also enquired for
Tupia.[2] Late in the evening Mr Gilbert returned, having sounded all round
the rock, which he found to be very small and steep.

Nothing worthy of notice happened till the 29th, when several of the
natives made us a visit, and brought with them a quantity of fish, which
they exchanged for nails, &c. One of these people I took over to Motuara,
and shewed him some potatoes planted there by Mr Fannen, master of the
Adventure. There seemed to be no doubt of their succeeding; and the man was
so well pleased with them, that he, of his own accord, began to hoe the
earth up about the plants. We next took him to the other gardens, and
shewed him the turnips, carrots, and parsnips; roots which, together with
the potatoes, will be of more real use to them than all the other articles
we had planted. It was easy to give them an idea of these roots, by
comparing them with such as they knew.

Two or three families of these people now took up their abode near us,
employing themselves daily in fishing, and supplying us with the fruits of
their labour; the good effects of which we soon felt. For we were, by no
means, such expert fishers as they are; nor were any of our methods of
fishing equal to theirs.

On the 2d of June, the ships being nearly ready to put to sea, I sent on
shore on the east side of the sound, two goats, male and female. The former
was something more than a year old; but the latter was much older. She had
two fine kids, some time before we arrived in Dusky Bay, which were killed
by cold, as hath been already mentioned. Captain Furneaux also put on
shore, in Cannibal Cove, a boar and two breeding sows; so that we have
reason to hope this country will in time be stocked with these animals, if
they are not destroyed by the natives before they become wild; for,
afterwards, they will be in no danger. But as the natives knew nothing of
their being left behind, it may be some time before they are discovered.

In our excursion to the east, we met with the largest seal I had ever seen.
It was swimming on the surface of the water, and suffered us to come near
enough to fire at it; but without effect; for, after a chase of near an
hour, we were obliged to leave it. By the size of this animal, it probably
was a sea-lioness. It certainly bore much resemblance to the drawing in
Lord Anson's voyage; our seeing a sea-lion when we entered this sound, in
my former voyage, increaseth the probability; and I am of opinion, they
have their abode on some of the rocks, which lie in the strait, or off
Admiralty Bay.

On the 3d, I sent a boat with the carpenter over to the east side of the
sound, to cut down some spars which we were in want of. As she was
returning, she was chased by a large double canoe full of people; but with
what intent is not known. Early the next morning, some of our friends
brought us a large supply of fish. One of them agreed to go away with us;
but afterwards, that is, when it came to the point, he changed his mind; as
did some others who had promised to go with the Adventure.

It was even said that some of them offered their children to sale. I
however found that this was a mistake. The report first took its rise on
board the Adventure, where they were utter strangers to their language and
customs. It was very common for these people to bring their children with
them, and present them to us, in expectation that we would make them
presents; this happened to me the preceding morning. A man brought his son,
a boy about nine or ten years of age, and presented him to me. As the
report of selling their children was then current, I thought, at first,
that he wanted me to buy the boy. But at last I found that he wanted me to
give him a white shirt, which I accordingly did. The boy was so fond of his
new dress, that he went all over the ship, presenting himself before every
one that came in his way. This freedom used by him offended Old Will, the
ram goat, who gave him a butt with his horns, and knocked him backward on
the deck. Will would have repeated his blow, had not some of the people
come to the boy's assistance. The misfortune, however, seemed to him
irreparable. The shirt was dirtied, and he was afraid to appear in the
cabin before his father, until brought in by Mr Forster; when he told a
very lamentable story against goury the great dog (for so they call all the
quadrupeds we had aboard), nor could he be reconciled, till his shirt was
washed and dried. This story, though extremely trifling in itself, will
shew how liable we are to mistake these people's meaning, and to ascribe to
them customs they never knew even in thought.

About nine o'clock, a large double canoe, in which were twenty or thirty
people, appeared in sight. Our friends on board seemed much alarmed,
telling us that these were their enemies. Two of them, the one with a
spear, and the other with a stone-hatchet in his hand, mounted the arm-
chests on the poop, and there, in a kind of bravado, bid those enemies
defiance; while the others, who were on board, took to their canoe and went
ashore, probably to secure the women and children.

All I could do, I could not prevail on the two that remained to call these
strangers along-side; on the contrary, they were displeased at my doing it,
and wanted me to fire upon them. The people in the canoe seemed to pay very
little regard to those on board, but kept advancing slowly towards the
ship, and after performing the usual ceremonies, put along-side. After this
the chief was easily prevailed upon to come on board, followed by many
others, and peace was immediately established on all sides. Indeed, it did
not appear to me that these people had any intention to make war upon their
brethren. At least, if they had, they were sensible enough to know, that
this was neither the time nor place for them to commit hostilities.

One of the first questions these strangers asked, was for Tupia; and when I
told them he was dead, one or two expressed their sorrow by a kind of
lamentation, which to me appeared more formal than real. A trade soon
commenced between our people and them. It was not possible to hinder the
former from selling the clothes from off their backs for the merest
trifles, things that were neither useful nor curious. This caused me to
dismiss the strangers sooner than I would have done. When they departed,
they went to Motuara, where, by the help of our glasses, we discovered four
or five canoes, and several people on the shore. This induced me to go over
in my boat, accompanied by Mr Forster and one of the officers. We were well
received by the chief and the whole tribe, which consisted of between
ninety and a hundred persons, men, women, and children, having with them
six canoes, and all their utensils; which made it probable that they were
come to reside in this sound. But this is only conjecture; for it is very
common for them, when they go but a little way, to carry their whole
property with them; every place being alike, if it affords them the
necessary subsistence; so that it can hardly be said they are ever from
home. Thus we may easily account for the emigration of those few families
we found in Dusky Bay.

Living thus dispersed in small parties, knowing no head but the chief of
the family or tribe, whose authority may be very little, they feel many
inconveniences, to which well-regulated societies, united under one head or
any other form of government, are not subject. These form laws and
regulations for their general good; they are not alarmed at the appearance
of every stranger; and, if attacked or invaded by a public enemy, have
strong-holds to retire to, where they can with advantage defend themselves,
their property, and their country. This seems to be the state of most of
the inhabitants of Eahei-nomauwe; whereas those of Tavai-poenammoo, by
living a wandering life in small parties, are destitute of most of these
advantages, which subjects them to perpetual alarms. We generally found
them upon their guard, travelling and working, as it were with their arms
in their hands. Even the women are not exempted from bearing arms, as
appeared by the first interview I had with the family in Dusky Bay; where
each of the two women was armed with a spear, not less than 18 feet in
length.

I was led into these reflections, by not being able to recollect the face
of any one person I had seen here three years ago: Nor did it once appear,
that any one of them had the least knowledge of me, or of any person with
me that was here at that time. It is therefore highly probable that the
greatest part of the people which inhabited this sound in the beginning of
the year 1770, have been since driven out of it, or have, of their own
accord, removed somewhere else. Certain it is, that not one third of the
inhabitants were here now, that were then. Their stronghold on the point of
Motuara hath been long deserted; and we found many forsaken habitations in
all parts of the sound. We are not, however, wholly to infer from this,
that this place hath been once very populous; for each family may, for
their own convenience, when they move from place to place, have more huts
than one or two.

It may be asked, if these people had never seen the Endeavour, nor any of
her crew, how could they become acquainted with the name of Tupia, or have
in their possession (which many of them had) such articles, as they could
only have got from that ship? To this it may be answered, that the name of
Tupia was so popular among them when the Endeavour was here, that it would
be no wonder if, at this time, it was known over great part of New Zealand,
and as familiar to those who never saw him, as to those who did. Had ships,
of any other nation whatever, arrived here, they would have equally
enquired of them for Tupia. By the same way of reasoning, many of the
articles left here by the Endeavour, may be now in possession of those who
never saw her. I got from one of the people, now present, an ear ornament,
made of glass very well formed and polished. The glass they must have got
from the Endeavour.

After passing about an hour on Motuara with these people, and having
distributed among them some presents, and shewed to the chief the gardens
we had made, I returned on board, and spent the remainder of our royal
master's birth-day in festivity; having the company of Captain Furneaux and
all his officers. Double allowance enabled the seamen to share in the
general joy.

Both ships being now ready for sea, I gave Captain Furneaux an account in
writing of the route I intended to take; which was to proceed to the east,
between the latitudes of 41 deg. and 46 deg. S., until I arrived in the longitude
of 140 deg. or 135 deg. W., then, provided no land was discovered; to proceed to
Otaheite; from thence back to this place, by the shortest route; and after
taking in wood and water, to proceed to the south, and explore all the
unknown parts of the sea between the meridian of New Zealand and Cape Horn.
Therefore, in case of separation before we reached Otaheite, I appointed
that island for the place of rendezvous, where he was to wait till the 20th
of August: If not joined by me before that time, he was then to make the
best of his way back to Queen Charlotte's Sound, where he was to wait until
the 20th of November: After which (if not joined by me,) he was to put to
sea, and carry into execution their lordships' instructions.

Some may think it an extraordinary step in me to proceed on discoveries as
far south at 46 deg. degrees of latitude, in the very depth of winter. But
though it most be owned, that winter is by no means favourable for
discoveries, it nevertheless appeared to me necessary that something should
be done in it, in order to lessen the work I was upon; lest I should not be
able to finish the discovery of the southern part of the South Pacific
Ocean the ensuing summer. Besides, if I should discover any land in my
route to the east, I should be ready to begin, with the summer, to explore
it. Setting aside all these considerations, I had little to fear; having
two good ships well provided; and healthy crews. Where then could I spend
my time better? If I did nothing more, I was at least in hopes of being
able to point out to posterity, that these seas may be navigated, and that
it is practicable to go on discoveries; even in the very depth of winter.

During our stay in the sound, I had observed that this second visit made to
this country, had not mended the morals of the natives of either sex. I had
always looked upon the females of New Zealand to be more chaste than the
generality of Indian women. Whatever favours a few of them might have
granted to the people in the Endeavour, it was generally done in a private
manner, and the men did not seem to interest themselves much in it. But
now, I was told, they were the chief promoters of a shameful traffic, and
that for a spike-nail, or any other thing they value, they would oblige the
women to prostitute themselves, whether they would or no; and even without
any regard to that privacy which decency required.[3]

During our stay here, Mr Wales lost no opportunity to observe equal
altitudes of the sun, for obtaining the rates of the watches. The result of
his labours proved, that Mr Kendal's was gaining 9", 5 per day, and Mr
Arnold's losing 94", 15s per day, on mean time.[4]

[1] Mr G.F. represents these people as very like those which had been
seen at Dusky Bay, only much more familiar. At dinner, it is said,
they would not drink either wine or brandy, but took large quantities
of water sweetened with sugar, of which they were very fond. They
shewed extreme covetousness, but were readily induced to lay down what
they had seized on. They seemed to have acquaintance with the value of
iron, and highly prized any thing made of it.--E.

[2] "When they were told that he was dead, they seemed much concerned,
and pronounced some words in a plaintive voice. So much had this man's
superior knowledge, and his ability to converse in their language,
rendered him valuable and beloved, even among a nation in a state of
barbarism. Perhaps with the capacity which Providence had allotted to
him, and which had been cultivated no farther than the simplicity of
his education would permit, he was more adapted to raise the New
Zealanders to a state of civilization similar to that of his own
islands than ourselves, to whom the want of the intermediate links,
which connect their narrow views to our extended sphere of knowledge,
must prove an obstacle in such an undertaking."--G.F.

This is a liberal observation in respect of Tupia, but it is liable to
much objection as a general maxim. Besides the greater number of
impracticable prejudices which attach themselves to imperfectly
cultivated minds when placed in new situations, and which often render
well-meant exertions unavailing, it is certain, that superior
knowledge both affords greater aptitude of accommodation to unusual
circumstances by the speedy discovery it enables the person to make of
the principles on which they depend, and, at the same time,
facilitates the management and direction of them when known, by the
accustomed exercise of the faculties which it implies. Mr F. seems to
have imposed on himself by the gratuitous use of figurative language.
Where there is a want of intermediate links, there is certainly no
connection; but admitting that all mankind is made up of the same
materials, it may be very safely inferred, that the most civilized and
best educated European carries about with him the whole chain, betwixt
the "narrow views" of the New Zealanders and his own "extended sphere
of knowledge." The physical wants of our species are the same in all
regions of the globe, and so are our passions. These are grand
levellers of the proud distinctions, by which some of us exalt
ourselves so much above others; and they have never yet been set aside
or eradicated by any process which human ingenuity has contrived.
Often, indeed, savages excel in the knowledge and dexterous attainment
of the means necessary to supply and gratify them. Our judicious
Shakespeare seems to have been aware of this, when he causes the
brutish Caliban to address Triaculo thus,--

"I'll shew thee the best springs; I'll pluck thee berries; I'll fish
for thee, and get thee wood enough," &c.

Mr F. himself, as we shall soon see, has specified one link large and
strong enough to answer for a chain in holding together British
sailors at least, and New Zealanders, or, indeed, any other savages,
however degenerate and abominable, to the end of the chapter!--E.

[3] "Our crews, who had not conversed with women since our departure
from the Cape, found these ladies very agreeable, and from the manner
in which their advances were received, it appeared very plainly that
chastity was not rigorously observed here, and that the sex were far
from being impregnable. However, their favours did not depend upon
their own inclination, but the men, as absolute masters, were always
to be consulted upon the occasion; if a spike-nail, or a shirt, or a
similar present, had been given for their connivance, the lady was at
liberty to make her lover happy, and to exact, if possible, the
tribute of another present for herself. Some among them, however,
submitted with reluctance to this vile prostitution: and but for the
authority and menaces of the men, would not have complied with the
desires of a set of people, who could, with unconcern, behold their
tears and hear their complaints. Whether the members of a civilized
society, who could act such a brutal part, or the barbarians who could
force their own women to submit to such indignity, deserve the
greatest abhorrence, is a question not easily to be decided.
Encouraged by the lucrative nature of this infamous commerce, the New
Zealanders went through the whole vessel, offering their daughters and
sisters promiscuously to every person's embraces, in exchange for our
iron tools, which they knew could not be purchased at an easier rate.
It does not appear, that their married women were ever suffered to
have this kind of intercourse with our people. Their ideas of female
chastity are, in this respect, so different from ours, that a girl may
favour a number of lovers without any detriment to her character; but
if she marries, conjugal fidelity is exacted from her with the
greatest rigour. It may therefore be alleged, that as the New
Zealanders place no value on the continence of their unmarried women,
the arrival of Europeans among them does not injure their moral
characters in this respect; but we doubt whether they ever debased
themselves so much as to make a trade of their women, before we
created new wants by shewing these iron tools, for the possession of
which they do not hesitate to commit an action, that, in our eyes,
deprives them of the very shadow of sensibility. It is unhappy enough,
that the unavoidable consequence of all our voyages of discovery has
always been the loss of a number of innocent lives; but this heavy
injury done to the little uncivilized communities which Europeans have
visited, is trifling when compared to the irretrievable harm entailed
upon them by corrupting their morals. If these evils were compensated
in some measure by the introduction of some real benefit in these
countries, or by the abolition of some other immoral custom among
their inhabitants, we might at least comfort ourselves, that what they
lost on one hand, they gained on the other; but I fear that hitherto
our intercourse has been wholly disadvantageous to the natives of the
South Seas; and that those communities have been the least injured,
who have always kept aloof from us, and whose jealous disposition did
not suffer our sailors to become too familiar among them, as if they
had perceived in their countenances that levity of disposition, and
that spirit of debauchery, with which they are generally reproached."

A little afterwards, relating a trip over to Long Island, it is said,
"In the afternoon, many of our sailors were allowed to go on shore,
among the natives, where they traded for curiosities, and purchased
the embraces of the ladies, notwithstanding the disgust which their
uncleanliness inspired. Their custom of painting their cheeks with
ochre and oil, was alone sufficient to deter the more sensible from
such intimate connections with them; and if we add to this a certain
stench which announced them even at a distance, and the abundance of
vermin which not only infested their hair, but also crawled on their
clothes, and which they occasionally cracked between their teeth, it
is astonishing that persons should be found, who could gratify an
animal appetite with such loathsome objects, whom a civilized
education and national customs should have taught them to hold in
abhorrence."--G.F.

May this sad picture have the same effect, which the fathers of Sparta
expected from the exhibition of their drunken slaves!--E.

[4] A few miscellaneous observations respecting New Zealand, collected
from Mr G.F.'s work, may be given here with interest to some
readers:--The arrival at New Zealand, was most delightful to men who
had so long suffered the inclemencies and hardships of a navigation in
the southern sea. Every object seen on the land afforded some
agreeable sensation, heightened in no ordinary degree by the contrast
which memory presented. No wonder then, that the description given of
the scenery should be somewhat enthusiastic; besides, for every
obvious reason, one might be inclined to expect, that Mr G. Forster
should exceed even Cook in the warmth of colouring. It is so. He
speaks in evidently poetical feeling of the delightfully fair weather,
the lightly wafting airs, the numerous evergreens mingling with the
various shades of autumnal yellow, the wild notes of the feathered
tribe, &c. This was on getting sight of Dusky Bay. The effects of such
charming panorama were visible on all the crew; "emotions of joy and
satisfaction," he tells us, "were strongly marked in the countenance
of every individual." He is quite aware of the magic at work in his
own mind, when contemplating the picture, and accordingly very
candidly and very justly says, "So apt is mankind, after a long
absence from land, to be prejudiced in favour of the wildest shore,
that we looked upon the country at that time, as one of the most
beautiful which nature, unassisted by art, could produce. Such are the
general ideas of travellers and voyagers long exhausted by distresses;
and with _such_ warmth of imagination they have viewed the rude cliffs
of Juan Fernandez, and the impenetrable forests of Tinian!" So much,
by the bye, as a hint for understanding the works of some other
painters! But all was not mere semblance of good. Several substantial
advantages were enjoyed, abundance of excellent fish and water-fowl,
plenty of wood and water, &c. To a naturalist besides, there was much
to occupy attention and excite curiosity, as a store of animal and
vegetable bodies was perceived, bearing little or no resemblance to
known species. But the dream of pleasure, and the hopes of much
additional science, were not of very long duration. The necessary
occupations of the different artificers, soon involved the people in
very embarrassing intricacies and much bodily labour, occasioned by
the prodigious variety and numbers of climbers, briars, shrubs, and
ferns, interwoven through the forests, and almost totally precluding
access to the interior of the country. From the appearance of these
impediments, and the quantity of rotten trees which had been either
felled by the winds, or brought low from age, it is conjectured, and
plausibly enough, that the forests in the southern parts of New
Zealand had escaped the hand of human industry since the origin of
their existence. But nature, we may often see, is prodigal of life,
and in the very act of dissolving one generation, seems to rejoice in
providing for another that is to succeed it. Thus, we are told, there
sprouted out young trees from the rich mould, to which the old ones
were at last reduced. A deceitful bark, it is added, sometimes still
covered the interior rotten substance, in which a person attempting to
step on it, might sink to the waist. Such were the common
disappointments in this Utopia. The naturalists had to add to them,
the appropriate mortification of seeing numerous trees and shrubs, of
which, as the time of flowering was past, it was impossible to make
any scientific examination, and which, accordingly, only tantalized
them with the idea of the profusion of new vegetables in this
interesting country. A short residence here, especially during wet
gloomy weather, proved that all was not so perfect in this climate as
had been fondly imagined. The land about Dusky Bay, and indeed
throughout most of the southern extremity of this island, was found to
consist of steep rocky mountains, with craggy precipices, either clad
with impenetrable forests, or quite barren, and covered with snow on
the tops. No meadows or lawns were to be seen, and the only spot of
flat land that was found, presented so much wood and briars as to be
useless for either garden ground or pasture, without very considerable
toil. This heartless description is somewhat relieved by a glowing
picture of the scenery about what was called Cascade Cove, which seems
to have arrested the attention of Mr F., and which, he says, could
only have justice done it by the very successful pencil of Mr Hodges.
The soil here was found to be quite like to what had elsewhere been
found, and the rocks and stones consisted of granite, moor-stone, and
brown talcous clay-stone. In one of the excursions to the country, it
was observed, that as they receded from the sea, the mountains became
much higher, and were more steep and barren, and that the trees
dwindled in size, so as to resemble shrubs, circumstances rather the
reverse of what is usually noticed in other countries. The climate of
Dusky Bay is spoken unfavourably of, as its greatest inconvenience,
and to this must be added its being deficient in celery, scurvy-grass,
and other antiscorbutics. But with all its defects, Mr G.F. admits,
that Dusky Bay is one of the finest places in New Zealand, for a crew
to touch at in such a situation as that of his companions. The land
about Cape Traveller appeared low and sandy near the shore, but rising
into high snow-capt mountains interiorly. In one respect, according to
this gentleman, Queen Charlotte's Sound has greatly the advantage of
Dusky Bay, viz. its abounding in salutary vegetables. This it no doubt
owes to the superior mildness of the climate, which is represented as
highly favourable to botanical pursuits. The tea-tree and spruce, as
they were called, were found here in great plenty, as well as at Dusky
Bay; besides several species of plants in flower, which had not been
seen before. The hills consisted chiefly of argillaceous stone,
running in oblique strata, commonly dipping a little towards the
south, of a greenish-grey, or bluish, or yellowish-brown colour,
sometimes containing veins of white quartz, and sometimes a green
talcous or nephritic stone, which, as it was capable of a good polish
from its hardness, the natives used for chissels, &c. Mr F. specifies
several other mineral substances found in this neighbourhood,
particularly argillaceous strata of a rusty colour, which is inferred
to contain iron, and a black compact and ponderous basalt, of which
the natives form their pattoo-pattoos. It is unnecessary to make
remarks on the subjects now mentioned, as they must be resumed in our
account of Cook's third voyage, where we shall have to consider Mr
Anderson's report respecting them and other topics, with greater
attention, than was required for the present imperfect though valuable
notices.--E.

SECTION IX.

_Route from New Zealand to Otaheite, with an Account of some low Islands,
supposed to be the same that were seen by M. de Bougainville._

On the 7th of June, at four in the morning, the wind being more favourable,
we unmoored, and at seven weighed and put to sea, with the Adventure in
company. We had no sooner got out of the sound, than we found the wind at
south, so that we had to ply through the straits. About noon the tide of
ebb setting out in our favour, made our boards advantageous; so that, at
five o'clock in the evening. Cape Palliser, on the island of Eahei-nomauwe,
bore S.S E. 1/2 S., and Cape Koamaroo, or the S.E. point of the sound, N by
W. 3/4 W.; presently after it fell calm, and the tide of flood now making
against us, carried us at a great rate back to the north. A little before
high-water, the calm was succeeded by a breeze from the north, which soon
increased to a brisk gale. This, together with the ebb, carried us by eight
o'clock the next morning quite through the strait. Cape Palliser at this
time bore E.N.E., and at noon N. by W. distant seven leagues.[1]

This day at noon, when we attended the winding-up of the watches, the fusee
of Mr Arnold's would not turn round, so that after several unsuccessful
trials we were obliged to let it go down.

After getting clear of the straits, I directed my course S.E. by E., having
a gentle gale, but variable between the north and west. The late S.E. winds
having caused a swell from the same quarter, which did not go down for some
days, we had little hopes of meeting with land in that direction. We
however continued to steer to the S.E., and on the 11th crossed the
meridian of 180 deg., and got into the west longitude, according to my way of
reckoning.

On the 16th, at seven in the morning, the wind having veered round to S.E.,
we tacked and stretched to N.E., being at this time in the latitude of 47 deg.
7', longitude 173 deg. W. In this situation we had a great swell from N.E.[2]

The wind continued at S.E. and S.S.E., blew fresh at intervals, and was
attended with sometimes fair, and at other times rainy weather, till the
20th, on which day, being in the latitude of 44 deg. 30', longitude 165 deg. 45'
W., the wind shifted to the west, blew a gentle gale, and was attended with
fair weather. With this we steered E. by N., E. by S., and E., till the 23d
at noon, when, being in the latitude of 44 deg. 38' S., longitude 161 deg. 27' W.,
we had a few hours calm. The calm was succeeded by a wind at east, with
which we stood to the north. The wind increased and blew in squalls,
attended with rain, which at last brought us under our courses; and at two
o'clock in the afternoon of the next day, we were obliged to lie-to under
the foresail, having a very hard gale from E.N.E., and a great sea from the
same direction.[3]

At seven o'clock in the morning of the 25th, the gale being more moderate,
we made sail under the courses, and in the afternoon set the top-sails
close-reefed. At midnight, the wind having veered more to the north, we
tacked and stretched to the S.E., being at this time in the latitude of 42 deg.
53' S., longitude 163 deg. 20' W.

We continued to stretch to the S.E., with a fresh gale and fair weather,
till four o'clock in the afternoon of the next day, when we stood again to
the N.E., till midnight between the 27th and 28th. Then we had a few hours
calm, which was succeeded by faint breezes from the west. At this time we
were in the latitude of 42 deg. 32', longitude 161 deg. 15' W. The wind remained
not long at west, before it veered back to the E. by the N., and kept
between the S.E. and N.E., but never blew strong.

On July 2d, being in the latitude of 53 deg. 3', longitude 156 deg. 17' W., we had
again a calm, which brought the wind back to the west; but it was of no
longer continuance than before. For the next day it returned to the E. and
S.E., blew fresh at times, and by squalls, with rain.

On the 7th, being in the latitude of 41 deg. 22', longitude 156 deg. 12' W., we had
two hours calm; in which time Mr Wales went on board the Adventure to
compare the watches, and they were found to agree, allowing for the
difference of their rates of going: A probable, if not a certain proof,
that they had gone well since we had been in this sea.

The calm was succeeded by a wind from the south; between which point and
the N.W., it continued for the six succeeding days, but never blew strong.
It was, however, attended with a great hollow swell from the S.W. and W., a
sure indication that no large land was near in those directions. We now
steered east, inclining to the south, and on the 10th, in the latitude of
43 deg. 39', longitude 144 deg. 43' W., the variation was found, by several
azimuths, to be more than 3 deg. E., but the next morning it was found to be 4 deg.
5' 30", and in the afternoon, 5 deg. 56' E. The same day, at noon, we were in
the latitude of 43 deg. 44', longitude 141 deg. 56' W.

At nine o'clock in the morning of the 12th, the longitude was observed as
follows, viz.

Self 1st set 139 deg. 47' 15"
Ditto, 2d set 140 7 30
Mr Wales 1st set 141 22 15
Mr Wales 2d set 140 10 0
Mr Clerke 140 56 45
Mr Gilbert 140 2 0
--------------
Mean 140 24 17-1/2 West.

This differed from my reckoning only 2 deg. 1/2. The next morning, in the
latitude of 43 deg. 3', longitude 139 deg. 20' W., we had several lunar
observations, which were consonant to those made the day before, allowing
for the ship's run in the time. In the afternoon we had, for a few hours,
variable light airs next to a calm; after which we got a wind from the
N.E., blowing fresh and in squalls, attended with dark gloomy weather, and
some rain.

We stretched to the S.E. till five o'clock in the afternoon on the 14th, at
which time, being in the latitude of 43 deg. 15', longitude 137 deg. 39' W., we
tacked and stood to the north under our courses, having a very hard gale
with heavy squalls, attended with rain, till near noon the next day, when
it ended in a calm. At this time we were in the latitude of 42 deg. 39',
longitude 137 deg. 58' W. In the evening, the calm was succeeded by a breeze
from S.W., which soon after increased to a fresh gale; and fixing at S.S.W,
with it we steered N.E. 1/2 E. in the latitude of 41 deg. 25', longitude 135 deg.
58' W., we saw floating in the sea a billet of wood, which seemed to be
covered with barnacles; so that there was no judging how long it might have
been there, or from whence or how far it had come.

We continued to steer N.E. 1/2 E., before a very strong gale which blew in
squalls, attended with showers of rain and hail, and a very high sea from
the same quarter, till noon, on the 17th. Being then in the latitude of 39 deg.
44', longitude 133 deg. 32' W., which was a degree and a half farther east than
I intended to run; nearly in the middle between my track to the north in
1769, and the return to the south in the same year, and seeing no signs of
land, I steered north-easterly, with a view of exploring that part of the
sea lying between the two tracks just mentioned, down as low as the
latitude of 27 deg., a space that had not been visited by any preceding
navigator that I knew of.[4]

On the 19th, being in the latitude of 36 deg. 34', longitude 133 deg. 7' W., we
steered N. 1/2 W., having still the advantage of a hard gale at south,
which the next day veered to S.E. and E., blew hard and by squalls,
attended with rain and thick hazy weather. This continued till the evening
of the 21st, when the gale abated, the weather cleared up, and the wind
backed to the S. and S.E.

We were now in the latitude of 32 deg. 30', longitude 133 deg. 40' W., from this
situation we steered N.N.W. till noon the next day, when we steered a point
more to the west; being at this time in the latitude of 31 deg. 6', longitude
134 deg. 12' W. The weather was now so warm, that it was necessary to put on
lighter clothes; the mercury in the thermometer at noon rose to 63. It had
never been lower than 46, and seldom higher than 54, at the same time of
the day, since we left New Zealand.[5]

This day was remarkable by our not seeing a single bird. Not one had passed
since we left the land, without seeing some of the following birds, viz.
albatrosses, sheerwaters, pintadoes, blue peterels, and Port Egmont hens.
But these frequent every part of the Southern Ocean in the higher
latitudes: Not a bird, nor any other thing, was seen that could induce us
to think that we had ever been in the neighbourhood of any land.

The wind kept veering round from the S. by the W. to N.N.W., with which we
stretched north till noon the next day, when, being in the latitude of 29 deg.
22', we tacked and stretched to the westward. The wind soon increased to a
very hard gale, attended with rain, and blew in such heavy squalls as to
split the most of our sails. This weather continued till the morning of the
25th, when the wind became more moderate, and veered to N.W. and W.N.W.,
with which we steered and stretched to N.E., being at that time in the
latitude of 29 deg. 51', longitude 130 deg. 28' W. In the afternoon the sky cleared
up, and the weather became fair and settled. We now met the first tropic
bird we had seen in this sea.

On the 26th, in the afternoon, being in the latitude of 28 deg. 44', we had
several observations of the sun and moon, which gave the longitude 135 deg. 30'
W. My reckoning at the same time was 135 deg. 27', and I had no occasion to
correct it since I left the land. We continued to stretch to the north,
with light breezes from the westward, till noon, the next day, when we were
stopped by a calm; our latitude at this time being 27 deg. 53', longitude 135 deg.
17' W. In the evening, the calm was succeeded by a breeze from the N. and
N.W., with which we plied to the N.

On the 29th I sent on board the Adventure to enquire into the state of her
crew, having heard that they were sickly; and this I now found was but too
true. Her cook was dead, and about twenty of her best men were down in the
scurvy and flux. At this time _we_ had only three men on the sick list, and
only one of them attacked with the scurvy. Several more, however, began to
shew symptoms of it, and were accordingly put upon the wort, marmalade of
carrots, rob of lemons and oranges.

I know not how to account for the scurvy raging more in the one ship than
the other, unless it was owing to the crew of the Adventure being more
scorbutic when they arrived in New Zealand than we were, and to their
eating few or no vegetables while they lay in Queen Charlotte's Sound,
partly for want of knowing the right sorts, and partly because it was a new
diet, which alone was sufficient for seamen to reject it. To introduce any
new article of food among seamen, let it be ever so much for their good,
requires both the example and authority of a commander; without both, of
which it will be dropt before the people are sensible of the benefits
resulting from it. Were it necessary, I could name fifty instances in
support of this remark. Many of my people, officers as well seamen, at
first disliked celery, scurvy-grass, &c., being boiled in the peas and
wheat; and some refused to eat it. But, as this had no effect on my
conduct, this obstinate kind of prejudice by little and little wore off;
they began to like it as well as the others; and now, I believe, there was
hardly a man in the ship that did not attribute our being so free from the
scurvy, to the beer and vegetables we made use of at New Zealand. After
this I seldom found it necessary to order any of my people to gather
vegetables, whenever we came where any were to be got, and if scarce, happy
was he who could lay hold on them first. I appointed one of my seamen to be
cook of the Adventure, and wrote to Captain Furneaux, desiring him to make
use of every method in his power to stop the spreading of the disease
amongst his people, and proposing such as I thought might tend towards it.
But I afterwards found all this unnecessary, as every method had been used
they could think of.[6]

The wind continued in the N.W. quarter, and blew fresh at times, attended
with rain; with which we stood to the N.E. On the 1st of August, at noon,
we were in the latitude of 25 deg. 1', longitude 134 deg. 6' W., and had a great
hollow swell from N.W. The situation we were now in, was nearly the same
that Captain Carteret assigns for Pitcairn's Island, discovered by him in
1767. We therefore looked well out for it, but saw nothing. According to
the longitude in which he has placed it, we must have passed about fifteen
leagues to the west of it. But as this was uncertain, I did not think it
prudent, considering the situation of the Adventure's people, to lose any
time in looking for it. A sight of it would, however, have been of use in
verifying, or correcting, not only the longitude of this isle, but of the
others that Captain Carteret discovered in this neighbourhood; his
longitude not being confirmed, I think, by astronomical observations, and
therefore liable to errors, which he could have no method to correct.

As we had now got to the northward of Captain Carteret's tracks, all hopes
of discovering a continent vanished. Islands were all we were to expect to
find, until we returned again to the south. I had now, that is on this and
my former voyage, crossed this ocean in the latitude of 40 deg. and upwards,
without meeting any thing that in the least induced me to think I should
find what I was in search after. On the contrary, every thing conspired to
make me believe there is no southern continent, between the meridian of
America and New Zealand; at least, this passage did not produce any
indubitable signs of any, as will appear by the following remarks. After
leaving the coasts of New Zealand, we daily saw floating on the sea rock-
weed, for the space of 18 deg. of longitude. In my passage to New Zealand in
1769, we also saw this weed, for the space of 12 or 14 deg. of longitude before
we made the land. The weed is undoubtedly the produce of New Zealand;
because the nearer the coast, the greater quantity you see. At the greatest
distance from the coast, we saw it only in small pieces, generally more
rotten, and covered with barnacles, an indubitable sign that it had been
long at sea. Were it not for this, one might be led to conjecture that some
other large land lay in the neighbourhood; for it cannot be a small extent
of coast to produce such a quantity of weed, as to cover so large a space
of sea. It hath been already mentioned, that we were no sooner clear of the
straits, than we met with a large hollow swell from the S.E., which
continued till we arrived in the longitude of 177 deg. W., and latitude 46 deg..
There we had large billows from the N. and N.E., for five days
successively, and until we got 5 deg. of longitude more to the east, although
the wind, great part of the time, blew from different directions. This was
a strong indication that there was no land between us and my track to the
west in 1769. After this, we had, as is usual in all great oceans, large
billows from every direction in which the wind blew a fresh gale, but more
especially from the S.W. These billows never ceased with the cause that
first put them in motion; a sure indication that we were not near any large
land, and that there is no continent to the south, unless in a very high
latitude. But this was too important a point to be left to opinions and
conjectures. Facts were to determine it, and these could only be obtained
by visiting the southern parts; which was to be the work of the ensuing
summer, agreeable to the plan I had laid down. As the winds continued to
blow from the N.W. and W., we had no other choice but to stand to the
north, inclining more or less every day to the east. In the latitude of 21 deg.
we saw flying-fish, gannets, and egg-birds. On the sixth, I hoisted a boat
out, and sent for Captain Furneaux to dinner, from whom I learnt that his
people were much better, the flux having left them, and the scurvy was at a
stand. Some cyder which he happened to have, and which he gave to the
scorbutic people, contributed not a little to this happy change. The
weather to-day was cloudy, and the wind very unsettled. This seemed to
announce the approach of the so-much-wished-for trade-wind; which, at eight
o'clock in the evening, after two hours calm, and some heavy showers of
rain, we actually got at S.E. We were, at this time, in the latitude of 19 deg.
36' S., longitude 131 deg. 32" W. The not meeting with the S.E. trade-wind
sooner, is no new thing in this sea. As we had now got it, I directed my
course to the W.N.W., as well to keep in the strength of it, as to get to
the north of the islands discovered in my former voyage; that if any other
islands lay in the way, I might have a chance to discover them.[7] During
the day-time we made all the sail we could; but, in the night, either run
an easy sail, or lay-to. We daily saw flying-fish, albacores, dolphins,
&c., but neither by striking, nor with hook and line, could we catch any of
them. This required some art, which none of my people were masters of.

On the 11th at day-break, land was seen to the south. This, upon a nearer
approach, we found to be an island of about two leagues in extent, in the
direction of N.W. and S.E., and clothed with wood, above which the cocoa-
nut trees shewed their lofty heads. I judged it to be one of those isles
discovered by Mr Bougainville. It lies in the latitude of 17 deg. 24',
longitude 141 deg. 39' W., and I called it after the name of the ship,
Resolution Island. The sickly state of the Adventure's crew made it
necessary for me to make the best of my way to Otaheite, where I was sure
of finding refreshments. Consequently I did not wait to examine this
island, which appeared too small to supply our wants, but continued our
course to the west, and at six o'clock in the evening, land was seen from
the mast-head, bearing W. by S. Probably this was another of Bougainville's
discoveries. I named it Doubtful Island, and it lies in the latitude of 17 deg.
20', longitude 141 deg. 38' W. I was sorry I could not spare time to haul to
the north of Mr Bougainville's track; but the getting to a place where we
could procure refreshments, was more an object at this time than
discovery.[8]

During the night we steered W. by N., in order to pass the north of the
island above-mentioned. At day-break the next morning, we discovered land
right a-head, distant about two miles; so that day-light advised us of our
danger but just in time. This proved another of these low or half-drowned
islands, or rather a large coral shoal of about twenty leagues in circuit.
A very small part of it was land, which consisted of little islets ranged
along the north side, and connected by sand-banks and breakers. These
islets were clothed with wood, among which the cocoa-nut trees were only
distinguishable. We ranged the south side of this isle or shoal at the
distance of one or two miles from the coral-bank, against which the sea
broke in a dreadful surf. In the middle is a large lake or inland sea, in
which was a canoe under sail.

This island, which I named after Captain Furneaux, lies in the latitude of
17 deg. 5', longitude 143 deg. 16' W. The situation is nearly the same that is
assigned for one of those discovered by Bougainville. I must here observe,
that amongst these low and half-drowned isles (which are numerous in this
part of the ocean,) Mr Bougainville's discoveries cannot be known to that
degree of accuracy which is necessary to distinguish them from others. We
were obliged to have recourse to his chart for the latitudes and longitudes
of the isles he discovered, as neither the one nor the other is mentioned
in his narrative. Without waiting to examine this island we continued to
steer to the west, all sails set, till six o'clock in the evening, when we
shortened sail to three top-sails, and at nine brought-to.

The next morning at four a.m. we made sail, and at daybreak saw another of
these low islands, situated in the latitude of 17 deg. 4', longitude 144 deg. 30'
W., which obtained the name of Adventure Island. M. de Bougainville very
properly calls this cluster of low overflowed isles the Dangerous
Archipelago. The smoothness of the sea sufficiently convinced us that we
were surrounded by them, and how necessary it was to proceed with the
utmost caution, especially in the night.

At five o'clock p.m. we again saw land, bearing S.W. by S., which we
afterwards found to be Chain Island, discovered in my former voyage. But as
I was not sure of it at this time, and being desirous of avoiding the delay
which lying by in the night occasioned, I hoisted out the cutter, and
manned her with an officer and seven men, with orders to keep as far a-head
of the ships, with a light at her masthead, as a signal could be
distinguished, which she was to make in case she met with any danger. In
this manner we continued to run all night; and, at six o'clock the next
morning, I called her on board, and hoisted her in. For it did not appear
she would be wanted again for this purpose, as we had now a large swell
from the south, a sure sign that we were clear of the low islands;
therefore I steered for Otaheite without being apprehensive of meeting with
any danger.[9]

[1] Great shoals of cetaceous fish, of a perfectly black colour, with
a white spot before the back-fin, passed by us. They were fired at
from our vessel, and one of them being shot through the head, could no
longer plunge under water, but began to beat about furiously on the
surface, and tinged the sea with its blood. It seemed to be about
three yards long, and was slender and blunt-headed, from whence our
sailors called it the Bottle-nose, a name which Dale applies to a very
different fish, the beaked whale, of which the beak or nose resembles
the neck of a bottle."--G.F.

[2] "Beds of sea-weeds frequently were seen floating on the sea, but
we were now too much accustomed to their appearance, to attempt to
draw any conclusions from it. The thermometer, which at our departure
from New Zealand, stood at 51 deg. at eight o'clock in the morning, sunk
in proportion as we came to the southward to 48 deg., and sometimes to
47 deg., at the same time of day; but the temperature of the air upon the
whole was extremely variable, and the weather equally unsettled. From
thence it arose, that we daily observed rainbows, or parts of them
about the horizon, especially in the morning. The wind during this
time was likewise very changeable, and veered round the compass in a
direction contrary to the course of the sun, that is, from west round
by the north towards east, and so further on; but it chiefly prevailed
from the easterly quarter, where we least expected it, so that our
situation became tedious, and was made more irksome by frequent fogs,
rains, and heavy swells."--G.F.

[3] According to Sir G.F., it seems that the venereal disease made its
appearance on some of the Adventure's crew, as was intimated by
Captain Furneaux to Captain Cook, during a visit paid to the latter.
In the opinion of Mr F., who is at some pains to investigate the
subject, this disease was indigenous in New Zealand where the sailors
contracted it, and not imported there by Europeans. This opinion is,
no doubt, in confirmation of what the writer has elsewhere stated to
be his own as to the general question respecting the origin of the
disease; but he is bound in candour to admit, that it seems to rest on
rather slender evidence and insufficient reasoning, in the present
instance--so that he is less disposed to avail himself of it. Mr F.
himself is not positive as to the facts on which he founds his
opinion, and consequently is not so as to the opinion. This is to be
inferred from his concluding remarks, which, besides, exhibit so fair
a specimen of just indignation and regret, as may deserve to be
offered to the reader's notice. "If," says he, "in spite of
appearances, our conclusions should prove erroneous, it is another
crime added to the score of civilized nations, which must make their
memory execrated by the unhappy people, whom they have poisoned.
Nothing can in the least atone for the injury they have done to
society, since the price at which their libidinous enjoyments were
purchased, instils another poison into the mind, and destroys the
moral principles, while the disease corrupts and enervates the body. A
race of men, who, amidst all their savage roughness, their fiery
temper, and cruel customs, are brave, generous, hospitable, and
incapable of deceiving, are justly to be pitied, that love, the source
of their sweetest and happiest feelings, is converted into the origin
of the most dreadful scourge of life." In this last paragraph, there
is reason to imagine Mr F. has somewhat overstepped the modesty of
both history and nature--the former, by too high commendation of the
New Zealanders, who, whatever merit they may claim on other grounds,
can scarcely be said, at least if facts are to be trusted, to be
incapable of deceiving; and the latter, in ascribing greater influence
to _love_ among these savages, than perhaps will ever be found
realised in such a condition of our nature. One cannot believe, that
so philosophical an enquirer should impute much efficacy as a source
of happiness to the mere brute passion; and it is equally unlikely
that so acute an observer should discover any thing more refined than
such an appetite in the sexual intercourse among so rude a tribe.
Probably then his language is fully more poetic than becomes the sober
narrator. This, indeed, is nowise uncommon with him, as the reader
perhaps is already convinced. But this very circumstance, it is
obvious, is to his advantage as a writer.--E.

[4] "The uncomfortable season of the year, the many contrary winds,
and the total want of interesting incidents, united to make this run
extremely tedious to us all, and the only point we gained by it, was
the certainty that no great land was situated in the South Sea about
the middle latitudes."--G.F.

[5] "The spirits of all our people were much exhilarated in proportion
as we approached to the tropics, and our sailors diverted themselves
with a variety of plays every evening. The genial mildness of the air
was so welcome to us, after a long absence from it, that we could not
help preferring the warm climates as the best adapted for the abode of
mankind."--G.F.

An observation of this sort, the evident result of experience, is
worth a thousand treatises, in shewing how much man is the creature of
circumstances and situation, and how justly his feelings, and of
consequence his thoughts, are modified by climate and weather. Some
philosophers, and, perhaps, more religionists, have endeavoured to
devise means to render the human mind and character independent of
physical elements. The attempt is just about as rational, and not a
bit less presumptuous, than that of making them free of the Divine
cognizance and authority, to which these elements are subjected. Such
attempts, it seems pretty evident, have been the source of delusive
self-congratulation in all ages of the world, and may be ascribed,
with no very mighty stretch of fancy, to the same busy agent, by whom,
in the earliest stage of our nature, man was tempted with the alluring
hope of becoming "as God." A wiser and more benevolent instructor
would teach him, on the contrary, to acknowledge his dependences and
avoiding forbidden things, to partake with cheerfulness of the
material blessings which surround him. This is genuine confidence in
the Supreme Ruler, though, to be sure, it has little or no charms for
the obstinate stoic, or the conceited pharisee. But "wisdom, it is
certain, will be justified of all who are under its influence."--E.

[6] "The difference between the salubrity of the two vessels probably
arose from the want of fresh air in the Adventure, our sloop being
higher out of the water, so that we could open more scuttles in bad
weather than our consort. Our people likewise made a greater
consumption of sour-krout and wort, and particularly applied the
grains of the latter to all blotches and swelled parts, a regimen
which had been omitted by those in the Adventure."--G.F.

[7] "After many wishes, and long expectation, we this day, (6th
August,) got the S.E. trade-wind. Its manner of coming on was rather
remarkable. About ten o'clock in the morning, a thick haze began to
rise in the eastern quarter, which by noon was become so thick, and
had spread so far, that it was with difficulty we got the sun's
meridian altitude; but the N.W. wind, which we had had for about a
fortnight, during which time the weather was generally fine and
pleasant, still continued to blow. In the afternoon we had some pretty
brisk showers, with which the N.W. wind died away, and it was calm
till eight o'clock in the evening, when a brisk steady gale sprung up
at S.E., and proved permanent."--W.

Mr F. has given some very valuable remarks respecting the trade-winds
but they are too long for this place.--E.

[8] "Our thermometer was now constantly between 70 and 80 degrees in
the morning; but the heat was far from being troublesome, as the fair
weather was accompanied by a strong pleasant trade-wind,"--G.F.

[9] This is a very fit place for the following curious observations on
the formation of the low islands spoken of in the text. "All the low
isles seem to me to be a production of the sea, or rather its
inhabitants, the polype-like animals forming the lithophytes. These
animalcules raise their habitation gradually from a small base, always
spreading more and more, in proportion as the structure grows higher.
The materials are a kind of lime mixed with some animal substance. I
have seen these large structures in all stages, and of various extent.
Near Turtle-Island, we found, at a few miles distance, and to leeward
of it, a considerable large circular reef, over which the sea broke
every where, and no part of it was above water; it included a large
deep lagoon. To the east and north-east of the Society-Isles, are a
great many isles, which, in some parts, are above water; in others,
the elevated parts are connected by reefs, some of which, are dry at
low-water, and others are constantly under water. The elevated parts
consist of a soil formed by a sand of shells and coral rocks, mixed
with a light black mould, produced from putrified vegetables, and the
dung of sea-fowls; and are commonly covered by cocoa-nut trees and
other shrubs, and a few antiscorbutic plants. The lower parts have
only a few shrubs, and the above plants; others still lower, are
washed by the sea at high-water. All these isles are connected, and
include a lagoon in the middle, which is full of the finest fish; and
sometimes there is an opening, admitting a boat, or canoe, in the
reef, but I never saw or heard of an opening that would admit a ship.
The reef, or the first origin of these cells, is formed by the
animalcules inhabiting the lithophytes. They raise their habitation
within a little of the surface of the sea, which gradually throws
shells, weeds, sand, small bits of corals, and other things, on the
tops of these coral rocks, and at last fairly raises them above water;
where the above things continue to be accumulated by the sea, till by
a bird, or by the sea, a few seeds of plants, that commonly grow on
the sea-shore, are thrown up, and begin to vegetate; and by their
annual decay and reproduction from seeds, create a little mould,
yearly accumulated by the mixture from sand, increasing the dry spot
on every side; till another sea happens to carry a cocoa-nut hither,
which preserves its vegetative power a long time in the sea, and
therefore will soon begin to grow on this soil, especially as it
thrives equally in all kinds of soil; and thus may all these low isles
have become covered with the finest cocoa-nut trees. The animalcules
forming these reefs, want to shelter their habitation from the
impetuosity of the winds, and the power and rage of the ocean; but as
within the tropics, the winds blow commonly from one quarter, they, by
instinct, endeavour to stretch only a ledge, within which is a lagoon,
which is certainly entirely screened against the power of both; this,
therefore, might account for the method employed by the animalcules in
building only narrow ledges of coral rocks, to secure in this middle a
calm and sheltered place, and this seems to me to be the most probable
cause of the origin of all the tropical low isles, over the whole
South Sea."--F.

This theory has been pretty generally adopted by scientific men, and

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