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A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels, Vol. VIII. by Robert Kerr

Part 6 out of 10

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Candahar.--E.]

In the morning, at break of day, the king is at his beads, praying, on
his knees, upon a Persian lambskin, having some eight rosaries, or
strings of beads, each containing 400. The beads are of rich pearl,
ballace rubies, diamonds, rubies, emeralds, aloes wood, _eshem_, and
coral. At the upper end of a large black stone on which he kneels, there
are figures graven in stone of the Virgin and Christ, so, turning his
face to the west, he repeats 3200 words, according to the number of his
beads. After this he shews himself to the people, receiving their salams
or good-morrows; a vast multitude resorting every morning to the palace
for that purpose. After this he takes two hours sleep, then dines, and
passes his time among his women till noon. From that time till three
o'clock he shews himself again to the people, looking at sports and
pastimes made by men, or at fights of various animals. At three o'clock,
all the nobles then in Agra, who are in health, resort to court, when
the king comes forth to open audience, sitting in his royal seat, and
all the nobles standing before him, each according to his degree. The
chiefs of the nobles standing within the red rail, and all the rest
without, all being properly placed by the lieutenant-general. The space
within the red rail is three steps higher than where the rest stand, and
within this red rail I was placed among the chiefest of the land. All
the rest are placed in their order by officers, and they likewise are
placed within another rail in a spacious place; and without the rail
stand all kinds of horsemen and foot-soldiers belonging to his captains,
and all other comers. At these rails there are many doors kept by a
great number of porters, who have white rods to keep every one in order.

In the middle of the place, right before the king, stands one of the
king's sheriffs or judges, together with the chief executioner, who is
attended by forty executioners, distinguished from all others by a
peculiar kind of quilted caps on their heads, some with hatchets on
their shoulders, and others with all sorts of whips, ready to execute
the king's commands. The king hears all manner of causes in this place,
staying about two hours every day for that purpose; for the kings in
India sit in judgment every day, and their sentences are put in
execution every Tuesday.

After this he retires to his private chamber for prayer, when four or
five kinds of finely-dressed roast meats are set before him, of which
he eats till his stomach is satisfied, drinking after this meal one cup
of strong drink. He then goes into a private room, into which no one
enters but such as are named by himself, where for two years I was one
of his attendants; and here he drinks other five cups of strong liquor,
being the quantity allowed by his physicians. This done, he chews opium,
and being intoxicated, he goes to sleep, and every one departs to his
home. He is awakened after two hours to get his supper, at which time he
is unable to feed himself, but has it thrust into his mouth by others,
which is about one o'clock in the morning; after which he sleeps the
rest of the night.

During the time that he drinks his six cups of strong liquor, he says
and does many idle things; yet whatsoever he does or says, whether drunk
or sober, there are writers who attend him in rotation, who set every
thing down in writing; so that not a single incident of his life but is
recorded, even his going to the necessary, and when he lies with his
wives. The purpose of all this is, that when he dies all his actions and
speeches that are worthy of being recorded may be inserted in the
chronicle of his reign. One of the king's sons, Sultan Shariar, a boy of
seven years old, was called by him one day when I was there, and asked
if he chose to accompany him to some place where he was going for
amusement. The boy answered he would either go or stay, as it pleased
his majesty to command. Because he had not said, that he would go with
all his heart along with his majesty, he was sore beaten by the king,
yet did not cry. The king therefore asked him, why he cried not?
Because, he said, his nurse had told him that it was the greatest
possible shame for a prince to cry when beaten; and that ever since he
had never cried, and would not though beaten to death. On this his
father struck him again, and taking a bodkin, thrust it through his
cheek; yet would he not cry, though he bled much. It was much wondered
at by all that the king should so treat his own child, and that the boy
was so stout-hearted as not to cry. There is great hopes that this child
will exceed all the rest.

SECTION VI.

_Observations of William Finch, Merchant, who accompanied Captain
Hawkins to Surat, and returned overland to Europe_.[208]

INTRODUCTION.

This article is said by Purchas to have been abbreviated out of the
larger journal kept by Finch during his voyage to India and residence
there, and seems a most useful supplement to the preceding section,
being in many circumstances more full and satisfactory than the relation
of Hawkins. In the Pilgrims of Purchas it does not follow the former
relation, but that was owing to its not reaching him in time, as is
stated in the following note, which is both characteristic of that early
collector of voyages and travels, and of the observations of William
Finch.

[Footnote 208: Purch. Pilg. I. 414.]

"This should have followed next after Master Hawkins, with whom William
Finch went into the _Mogolls_ country, if I then had had it. But better
a good dish, though not in duest place of service, than not at all:
Neither is he altogether born out of due time, which comes in due place,
while we are yet in India, and in time also, before the _Mogoll_ affairs
received any latter access or better maturity: And for that circumstance
failing, you shall find it supplied in substance, with more accurate
observations of men, beasts, plants, cities, deserts, castles,
buildings, regions, religions, than almost any other; as also of ways,
wares, and wars."--_Purchas_.

* * * * *

Sec. 1. _Remembrances respecting Sierra Leona, in August 1607, the Bay,
Country, Inhabitants, Rites, Fruits, and Commodities_.

The island, which we fell in with some ten leagues south from the bay of
Sierra Leona, in lat. 8 deg. N. has no inhabitants; neither did I learn its
name. It has some plantains, and, by report, good watering and wooding
for ships; but about a league from the shore there is a dangerous ledge
of rock, scarcely visible at high water. The bay of Sierra Leona is
about three leagues broad, being high land on the south side, full of
trees to the very edge of the water, and having several coves, in which
we caught plenty and variety of fish. On the farther side of the fourth
cove is the watering place, having excellent water continually running.
Here on the rocks we found the names of various Englishmen who had been
there. Among these was Sir Francis Drake, who had been there
twenty-seven years before; Thomas Candish, Captain Lister, and others.
About the middle of the bay, right out from the third cove, lieth a
sand, near about which there are not above two or three fathoms, but in
most other parts eight or ten close in shore. The tide flows E.S.E. the
highest water being six or eight feet, and the tide is very strong. The
latitude is 8 deg. 30' N.

The king of Sierra Leona resides at the bottom of the bay, and is called
by the Moors _Borea_, or Captain _Caran_, _caran_, _caran_, having other
petty kings or chiefs under him; one of whom, called Captain _Pinto_, a
wretched old man, dwells at a town within the second cove; and on the
other side of the bay is Captain _Boloone_. The dominions of _Borea_
stretch 40 leagues inland, from which he receives a tribute in
cotton-cloth, elephants teeth, and gold; and has the power of selling
his people as slaves, some of whom he offered to us. Some of them have
been converted to Christianity by the Portuguese priests and Jesuits,
who have a chapel, in which is a table inscribed with the days that are
to be observed as holy. The king and a few of his principal attendants
are decently clothed in jackets and breeches; but the common people have
only a slight cotton-cloth round their waists, while the women have a
kind of short petticoat or apron down to their knees; all the rest of
their bodies, both men and women, being quite naked; the young people of
both sexes having no dress whatever. All the people, both men and women,
have all parts of their bodies very curiously and ingeniously _traced
and pinked_ [tatooed], and have their teeth filed very sharp. They pull
off all the hair from their eye-lids. The men have their beards short,
black, and cropped, and the hair on their heads strangely cut into
crisped paths or cross alleys; while others wear theirs in strange
jagged tufts, or other foolish forms; the women's heads being all close
shaved.

Their town contains not more than thirty or forty houses, all
irregularly clustered together, all thatched with reeds; yet each has a
kind of yard inclosed with mud walls, like our hovels or hog-styles in
England. Instead of a locked and bolted door, the entrance is only
closed by a mat, having nothing to be stolen; and for bedsteads they
have only a few billets covered by a mat; yet some have hangings of
mats, especially about their beds. Their furniture consists of two or
three earthen pots to hold water, and to boil such provisions as they
can get; a gourd or two for palm-wine; half a gourd to serve as a
drinking cup; a few earthen dishes for their _loblolly_ or pottage; a
basket for the _maria_ [wife], to gather cockles; and a knapsack for the
man, made of bark, to carry his provisions, with his pipe and tobacco.
When a negro man goes from home, he has always his knapsack on his back,
in which he has his provisions and tobacco, his pipe being seldom from
his mouth; besides which, he has always his _do-little_ sword by his
side, made by themselves of such iron as they get from the Europeans;
his bow also, and quiver full of poisoned arrows, pointed with iron like
a snake's-tongue, or else a case of javelins or darts, having iron heads
of good breadth and made sharp, sometimes both.

The men of this country are large and well-made, strong and courageous,
and of civilized manners for heathens; as they keep most faithfully to
their wives, of whom they are not a little jealous. I could not learn
their religion; for though they have some idols, they seem to know that
there is a God in heaven, as, when we asked them about their wooden
puppets, they used to lift up their hands to heaven. All their children
are circumcised, but I could not learn the reason why. They are very
just and true in their dealings, and theft is punished with instant
death. When any one dies, a small thatched roof is erected over his
bier, under which are set earthen pots kept always full of water, and
some earthen plates with different kinds of food, a few bones being
stuck up around the body. To the south of this bay, some thirty or forty
leagues into the interior country, there are very fierce people, who are
cannibals, and sometimes infest the natives of Sierra Leona.

[Illustration: map]

The inhabitants of Sierra Leona feed on rice, of which they only
cultivate what is indispensibly needful for their subsistence, in small
patches near their dwellings, which they clear by burning the woods.
They likewise sow another very small grain, called _pene_, of which they
make bread, not much unlike winter savory. They rear a few poultry about
their houses, using no other animal food, except when they sometimes get
a fawn of the wild deer, a few of which are found in the mountains, or
some wild fowl. They feed also on cockles and oysters, of which there
are vast quantities on the rocks and trees by the sea-side, but these
have rather an insipid taste; and they catch plenty of excellent fish,
by means of wears and other devices. They also feed on herbs and roots,
cultivating about their dwellings many plantains, gourds, pumpkins,
potatoes, and guinea pepper. Tobacco likewise is planted by every one,
and seems to constitute half their food. The hole of their tobacco pipe
is very large, and made of clay well burnt into the lower end of which
they thrust a small hollow cane eighteen inches long, through which they
suck the smoke, both men and women swallowing most of it. Every man
carries a small bag called a _tuffio_, in his knapsack, in which is his
pipe and tobacco, and the women have their _tuffio_ in their wrappers,
carrying their pipes in their hands. They prepare their tobacco for
smoking by straining out its juice while quite green, and they informed
us by signs that it would otherwise make them drunk. They afterwards
shred it very small, and dry it on an earthen dish over the embers. On
an island in the bay we saw about half a dozen goats, and no where else
in this country.

They have innumerable kinds of fruits growing wild in the woods, in
which are whole groves of lemon trees, especially near the town and
watering-place, and some few orange trees. Their drink is mostly water,
yet the men use great quantities of _palmito_ wine, which they call
_moy_, giving little or none to the women. It is strange to see their
manner of climbing the palmito trees, which are of great size and
height, having neither boughs nor branches except near the top.
Surrounding the tree and his own, body by means of a _withe_, or band of
twisted twigs, on which he leans his back, and jerking up his withe
before him, he foots it up with wonderful speed and certainty, and comes
down again in the same manner, bringing his gourd full of liquor on his
arm. Among their fruits are many kinds of plumbs; one like a _wheaten_
plumb is wholesome and savoury; likewise a black one, as large as a
horse plumb, which is much esteemed, and has an aromatic flavour. A
kind called _mansamilbas_, resembling a wheaten plumb, is very
dangerous, as is likewise the sap of the boughs, which is perilous for
the sight, if it should chance to get into the eyes.[209] Among their
fruits is one called _beninganion_, about the size of a lemon, with a
reddish rind, and very wholesome; also another called _bequill_, as
large as an apple, with a rough knotty skin, which is pared off, when
the pulp below eats like a strawberry, which likewise it resembles in
colour and grain, and of which we eat many. There are abundance of wild
grapes in the woods, but having a woody and bitterish taste. The nuts of
the palmito are eaten roasted. They use but little pepper and _grains_,
the one in surgery and the other in cooking. There is a singular fruit,
growing six or eight together in a bunch, each as long and thick as
one's finger, the skin being of a brownish yellow colour, and somewhat
downy, and within the rind is a pulp of a pleasant taste; but I know not
if it be wholesome.

[Footnote 209: Probably the Manchencel--E.]

[Illustration: map]

I observed in the woods certain trees like beeches, bearing fruit
resembling beans, of which I noticed three kinds. One of these was a
great tall tree, bearing cods like those of beans, in each of which was
four or five squarish beans, resembling tamarind seeds, having hard
shells, within which is a yellow kernel, which is a virulent poison,
employed by the negroes to envenom their arrows. This they call _Ogon_.
The second is smaller, having a crooked pod with a thick rind, six or
seven inches long, and half that breadth, containing each five large
beans an inch long. The third, called _quenda_, has short leaves like
the former, and much bigger fruit, growing on a strong thick woody
stalk, indented on the sides, nine inches long and five broad, within
which are five long beans, which are also said to be dangerous. I
likewise saw trees resembling willows, bearing fruit like pease-cods.

There is a fruit called _Gola_, which grows in the interior. This fruit,
which is inclosed in a shell, is hard, reddish, bitter, and about the
size of a walnut, with many angles and corners. The negroes are much
given to chew this fruit along with the bark of a certain tree. After
one person has chewed it a while, he gives it to his neighbour, and so
from one to another, chewing it long before they cast it away; but
swallowing none of its substance. They attribute great virtues to this
for the teeth and gums; and indeed the negroes have usually excellent
teeth. This fruit passes also among them for money.[210] Higher within
the land they cultivate cotton, which they call _innumma_, and of which
they spin very good yarn with spindles, and afterwards very ingeniously
weave into cloths, three quarters of a yard broad, to make their girdles
or clouts formerly mentioned; and when sewed together it is made into
jackets and breeches for their great men. By means of a wood called
_cambe_, they dye their purses and mats of a red colour.

[Footnote 210: In a side-note; Purchas calls this the fruit of the
_carob tree_.--E.]

The tree on which the _plantains_ grow is of considerable height, its
body being about the thickness of a man's thigh. It seems to be an
annual plant, and, in my opinion, ought rather to be reckoned among
reeds than trees; for the stem is not of a woody substance, but is
compacted of many leaves wrapped close upon each other, adorned with
leaves from the very ground instead of boughs, which are mostly two
yards long and a yard broad, having a very large rib in the middle. The
fruit is a bunch of ten or twelve plantains, each a span long, and as
thick as a man's wrist, somewhat crooked or bending inwards. These grow
on a leafy stalk on the middle of the plant, being at first green, but
grow yellow and tender as they ripen. When the rind is stripped off, the
inner pulp is also yellowish and pleasant to the taste. Beneath the
fruit hangs down, from the same stalk, a leafy sharp-pointed tuft, which
seems to have been the flower. This fruit they call _bannana_, which
they have in reasonable abundance. They are ripe in September and
October. We carried some with us green to sea, which, were six weeks in
ripening. Guinea pepper grows wild in the woods on a small plant like
_privet_, having small slender leaves, the fruit being like our barberry
in form and colour. It is green at first, turning red as it ripens. It
does not grow in bunches like our barberry, but here and there two or
three together about the stalk. They call it _bangue_. The _pene_, of
which their bread is made, grows on a small tender herb resembling
grass, the stalk being all full of small seeds, not inclosed in any
bask. I think it is the same which the Turks call _cuscus_, and the
Portuguese _yfunde_.

The _palmito_ tree is high and straight, its bark being knotty, and the
wood of a soft substance, having no boughs except at the top, and these
also seem rather reeds than boughs, being all pith within, inclosed by a
hard rind. The leaf is long and slender, like that of a sword lilly, or
flag. The boughs stand out from the top of the tree on all sides, rather
more than a yard long, beset on both sides with strong sharp prickles,
like saw-teeth, but longer. It bears a fruit like a small cocoa-nut, the
size of a chesnut, inclosed in a hard shell, streaked with threads on
the outside, and containing a kernel of a hard horny substance, quite
tasteless; yet they are eaten roasted. The tree is called _tobell_, and
the fruit _bell_. For procuring the palmito wine, they cut off one of
the branches within a span of the head, to which they fasten a gourd
shell by the mouth, which in twenty-four hours is filled by a clear
whitish sap, of a good and strong relish, with which the natives get
drunk. The oysters formerly mentioned grow on trees resembling willows
in form, but having broader leaves, which are thick like leather, and
bearing small knobs like those of the cypress. From these trees hang
down many branches into the water, each about the thickness of a
walking-stick, smooth, limber, and pithy within, which are overflowed by
every tide, and hang as thick as they can stick of oysters, being the
only fruit of this tree.

They have many kinds of ordinary fishes, and some which seemed to us
extraordinary; as mullets, rays, thornbacks, old-wives with prominent
brows, fishes like pikes, gar-fish, _cavallios_ like mackerel,
swordfishes, having snouts a yard long, toothed on each side like a saw,
sharks, dogfish, _sharkers_, resembling sharks, but having a broad flat
snout like a shovel, shoe-makers, having pendents at each side of their
mouths like barbels, and which grunt like hogs, with many others. We
once caught in an hour 6000 fishes like bleaks. Of birds, there are
pelicans as large as swans, of a white colour, with long and large
bills. Herons, curlews, boobies, ox-eyes, and various other kinds of
waterfowl. On land, great numbers of grey parrots, and abundance of
pintados or Guinea fowls, which are very hurtful to their rice crops.
There are many other kinds of strange birds in the woods, of which I
knew not the names; and I saw among the negroes many porcupine quills.
There are also great numbers of monkeys leaping about the trees, and on
the mountains there are lions, tigers, and ounces. There are but few
elephants, of which we only saw three, but they abound farther inland.
The negroes told us of a strange beast, which our interpreter called a
carbuncle, which is said to be often seen, but only in the night. This
animal is said to carry a stone in his forehead, wonderfully luminous,
giving him light by which to feed in the night; and on hearing the
slightest noise he presently conceals it with a skin or film naturally
provided for the purpose. The commodities here are few, more being got
farther to the eastwards. At certain times of the year, the Portuguese
get gold and elephants teeth in exchange for rice, salt, beads, bells,
garlick, French bottles, copper kettles, low-priced knives, hats, linen
like barber's aprons, latten basins, edge-tools, bars of iron, and
sundry kinds of specious trinkets; but they will not give gold for toys,
only exchanging victuals for such things.

* * * * *

"This diligent observer hath taken like pains touching Saldanha bay: But
as we touch there often, and have already given many notices of that
place, we shall now double the Cape, and take a view along with him of
Cape St Augustine."--_Purch_.

* * * * *

Sec. 2. _Observations made at St Augustine in Madagascar, and at the Island
of Socotora_.

St Augustine, in the great island of St Lawrence or Madagascar, is
rather a bay than a cape or point, as it has no land much bearing out
beyond the rest of the coast. It is in 23 deg. 30' S. latitude, the
variation here being 15 deg. 40, and may be easily found, as it has
breaches[211] on either side some leagues off to the W.S.W. Right from
the bay to seaward the water is very deep; but within the bay the ground
is so very shelvy, that you may have one anchor to the north in 22
fathoms, and your other anchor in more than 60; while in some places
nearer shore you will not have two feet at low water, and deep water
still farther in; the whole ground a soft ooze. Within a mile or two of
the bay the land is high, barren, and full of rocks and stones, with
many small woods. Two rivers run into the bottom of the bay, the land
about them being low, sandy, and overflowed; and these rivers pour in so
much water into the bay that their currents are never stemmed by the
tide, which yet rises two fathoms, by which the water in the bay is very
thick and muddy. Great quantities of canes are brought down by these
rivers, insomuch that we have seen abundance of them twenty or thirty
leagues out at sea. This bay is open to a north-west wind, yet the force
of the sea is broken by means of a ledge of rocks. We caught here smelts
of a foot long, and shrimps ten inches: The best fishing is near the
sandy shore off the low land, where the natives catch many with strong
nets. Within the woods we found infinite numbers of water-melons growing
on the low lands, which yielded us good refreshment. But we had nothing
from the rivers, except that one of our men was hurt by an alligator.
The water also was none of the best; but we got wood in plenty.

[Footnote 211: Probably meaning breakers.--E.]

This place did not seem populous, as we never saw above twenty natives
at any one time. The men were comely, stout, tall, and well-made, of a
tawny colour, wearing no cloathing excepting a girdle or short apron
made of rind of trees. Their beards were black and reasonably long; and
the hair of their heads likewise black and long, plaited and frizzled
very curiously; neither had their bodies any bad smell. They carry many
trinkets fastened to their girdles, adorned with alligators teeth, some
of them being hollow, in which they carry tallow to keep their darts
bright, which are their chief weapons, and of which each man carries a
small bundle, together with a fair lance, artificially headed with iron,
and kept as bright as silver. Their darts are of a very formidable and
dangerous shape, barbed on both sides; and each man carries a dagger
like a butcher's knife, very well made. They therefore showed no regard
for iron, and would not barter their commodities for any thing but
silver, in which we paid twelve-pence for a sheep, and 3s. 6d. for a
cow. They asked beads into the bargain, for which alone they would give
nothing except a little milk, which they brought down very sweet and
good in gourds.

Their cattle have great bunches on their fore-shoulders, in size and
shape like sugar-loaves, which are of a gristly substance and excellent
eating. Their beef is not loose and flabby like that at Saldhana, but
firm and good, little differing from that of England. Their mutton also
is excellent, their sheep having tails weighing 28 pounds each, which
therefore are mostly cut off from the ewes, not to obstruct propagation.
In the woods near the river there are great numbers of monkeys of an
ash-colour with a small head, having a long tail like a fox, ringed or
barred with black and white, the fur being very fine.[212] We shot some
of these, not being able to take any of them alive. There are bats also,
as large almost in the bodies as rabbits, headed like a fox, having a
close fur, and in other respects resembling bats, having a loud shrill
cry. We killed one whose wings extended a full yard. There are plenty of
herons, white, black, blue, and divers mixed colours; with many
_bastard_ hawks, and other birds of an infinite variety of kinds and
colours, most having crests on their heads like peacocks. There are
great store of lizards and camelions also, which agree in the
description given by Pliny, only it is not true that they live on air
without other food; for having kept one on board for only a day, we
could perceive him to catch flies in a very strange manner. On
perceiving a fly sitting, he suddenly darts out something from his
mouth, perhaps his tongue, very loathsome to behold, and almost like a
bird-bolt, with which he catches and eats the flies with such speed,
even in the twinkling of an eye, that one can hardly discern the action.
In the hills there are many spiders on the trees, which spin webs from
tree to tree of very strong and excellent silk of a yellow colour, as if
dyed by art. I found also hanging on the trees, great worms like our
grubs with many legs, inclosed within a double cod of white silk.

[Footnote 212: Called the _beautiful beast_ in Keeling's
voyage.--_Purch._]

There grows here great store of the herb producing aloes, and also
tamarind trees by the water side. Here also is great abundance of a
strange plant which I deem a wild species of cocoa-nut, seldom growing
to the height of a tree, but of a shrubby nature, with many long prickly
stalks some two yards long. At the end of each foot-stalk is a leaf
about the size of a great cabbage-leaf, snipt half round like a
sword-grass. From the tops of this plant, among the leaves, there spring
out many woody branches, as thick set with fruit as they can stand,
sometimes forty of them clustering together on one branch. These are
about the size of a great katharine pear; at the first greenish, and
shaped almost like a sheep's bell, with a smooth rind flat at top;
within which rind is a hard substance almost like a cocoa-nut shell, and
within that is a white round hollow kernel of a gristly consistence, yet
eatable, and in the central hollow about a spoonful of cool sweet
liquor, like cocoa-nut milk. There is another tree, as big as a
pear-tree, thick set with boughs and leaves resembling those of the bay,
bearing a large globular fruit like a great foot-ball, hanging by a
strong stalk; The rind is divided by seams into four quarters, and being
cut green, yields a clammy substance like turpentine. The rind is very
thick, consisting of divers, layers of a brown substance like agaric,
but harder, and contains thirteen cells, in each of which is contained a
large kernel of a dirty white colour, hard, bitter, and ill tasted.

In Socotora[213] the natives of Guzerat and the English build themselves
slight stone-houses, with pieces of wood laid across and covered with
reeds and branches of the date palm, merely to keep out the sun, as they
fear no rain during the season of residing here. The stones are easily
procured for this purpose, as the whole island seems almost nothing but
stones; yet about the head of the river, and a mile farther inland,
there is a pleasant valley replenished with date trees. On the east side
of this vale is a small town called _Dibnee_, very little inhabited
except in the date harvest. In the months of June and July the wind
blows in this valley with astonishing violence; yet only a short
gun-shot off towards the town of _Delisha_, over against the road where
the ships ride, there is hardly there a breath of wind. About 100 years
ago [1500] this island was conquered by the King of _Caixem_, or
_Cushem_, as the Arabs pronounce it, a sovereign of no great force, as
his army does not exceed two or three thousand soldiers. Besides
Socotora, this king has likewise the two _Irmanas_ and _Abba del Curia_.
The _Irmanas_, or Two Brethren, are small uninhabited stony and barren
isles, having nothing but turtles. _Abba del Curia_ is large, having
great abundance of goats, and some fresh water, but not above three or
four inhabitants, as we were told. Amer Benzaid, son to the King of
Kissem, resides at Socotora, which he rules under his father. He trades
to the Comora islands and to Melinda, for which he has two good
frigates,[214] in which rice and _mello_ [millet] are brought from the
main, being their chief food.

[Footnote 213: In his abbreviation of Finch's observations Purchas has
not clearly distinguished where those respecting Madagascar end, and
those made at Socotora begin.--E.]

[Footnote 214: It has been formerly noticed, that, _frigates_, in these
early navigators, were only small barks, in opposition to tall ships,
galleons, and caraks: These frigates, and those frequently mentioned as
belonging to the Portuguese and Moors in India at this time, could only
be _grabs_, or open sewed vessels, already frequently mentioned in the
course of this collection.--E.]

All the Arabs in this island are soldiers, being in a manner slaves to
the _snakee_ or prince, whom they attend and obey all his commands, some
few of them having fire-arms. Every one of them wears a crooked dagger
at his left side, like a wood-cutter's knife, without which they must
not be seen abroad. They have also thin broad targets, painted. The
dagger-handles and sheaths of the better sort are ornamented with
silver, and those of the ordinary people with copper or red latten.
These Arabs are tawny, industrious, and civil, of good stature, and
well-proportioned in their limbs, having their hair long, and covered
with turbans like the Turks, and a cloth round their waist hanging to
their knees; having seldom any other apparel, except sometimes sandals
on their feet fastened with thongs. They either carry their sword naked
on their shoulder, or hanging at their side in a sheath. They are fond
of tobacco, yet are unwilling to give any thing for it. Some of them
wear a cloth of painted calico, or some other kind, over their
shoulders, after the fashion of an Irish mantle or plaid; while others
have shirts and surplices, or wide gowns, of white calico, and a few
have linen breeches like the Guzerats. Some of their women are tolerably
fair and handsome, like our sun-burnt country girls in England; and they
are all dressed in long wide smocks down to the ground, made of red,
blue, or black calico, having a cloth over their heads, with which they
usually hide their faces, being very dainty to let themselves be seen,
yet are scarcely honest. Though the men be very poor, and have, hardly
enough to serve their needs, yet their women, of whom some men have
four, five, or six, are much laden with silver ornaments, and some with
gold. I have seen one, not of the best, who had in each ear at least a
dozen great silver rings, almost like curtain rings, with as many of a
smaller kind; two _carkanets_ or chains of silver about her neck, and
one of gold bosses; ten or twelve silver _manillias_ or bracelets on
each arm, each as thick as a little-finger, but hollow; almost every
finger covered with rings, and the small of her legs covered with silver
rings like horse-fetters. In all these ornaments they jingle like
morrice-dancers on the slightest motion. They are, however, seldom seen,
being kept very close by their jealous husbands. They delight in beads
of amber, crystal, and coral; but, having little wherewith to buy them,
they either beg them, or deal for them privately. The children, except
those of the better sort, usually, go entirely naked till of some age.
They are married at ten or twelve years old.

They call themselves _mussulmen_, that is, true believers in the faith
of Mahomet; and they alledge this reason for themselves, that all the
world are of their religion, and only a handful of ours. They eat their
meat on mats spread on the ground, using their hands in a very
unmannerly fashion, having neither spoons, knives, nor forks. Their
usual drink is water, yet do they drink wine in private when they can
get it; and they make at the proper season some wine of dates which is
strong and pleasant.

So much for the Arab conquerors of Socotora. They call the native
inhabitants, whom they have conquered, _cafrs_, or misbelievers, or
heretics, if you will, who are subjected to slavery, except some who
live in the mountains in a kind of savage liberty like wild beasts;
those who live under subjection to the Arabs not being allowed to carry
weapons of any kind. These are well-shaped, but much darker than the
Arabs, wearing nothing on their heads but their long hair, which seems
to be never cut, and staring all round as if frightened. They have a
coarse cloth of goats hair woven by themselves about their middles, and
slight sandals on their feet. The women are all dressed in smocks of
coloured calico or other coarse stuff, hanging to their feet, having
seldom any thing on their heads; but, in imitation of the Arab women,
they have manillias of iron or painted earthen ware about their legs and
arms, and strings of beads instead of carkanets about their necks,
painting their faces with yellow and black spots in a frightful manner.
According to the report of the Arabs, they are all mere heathens,
observing no marriage rites, but have their women in common. Their
native language is quite different from Arabic, which however most of
them understand. They live very miserably, many of them being famished
with hunger. They are not permitted to kill any flesh, so that they are
forced to live on such fish as they can catch in the sea, and what dates
they may procure, having no means to purchase rice, except by means of
their women prostituting themselves to the Guzerats when they reside
here. Such as are employed to keep the cattle belonging to the Arabs
maintain themselves on milk.

I could not learn of any merchandize produced in this island, except
aloes and dragon's blood; and some black ambergris is said to be got on
the shores of _Abba del Curia_. They could make, in my opinion, more
aloes than could be used in all Christendom, as the plant from which it
is procured grows every where in great abundance, being no other than
the _semper vivum_ of Dioscorides, with whose description it agrees in
seed, stalk, &c. It is all of the red prickly sort, much chamferred in
the leaves, and so full of resinous juice as to be ready to burst. The
chief time of preparing the aloes is in September, when the north winds
blow, after the fall of some rain. Being gathered, it is cut in small
pieces, and cast into a pit in the ground, which is paved and cleaned
from all filth. It lies here to ferment in the heat of the sun, which
causes the juice to flow out; which is put into skins that are hung up
in the wind to dry and grow hard. They sold it to us for twenty ryals
the quintal, or 103 pounds English; but we were told afterwards that
they sold it to others for twelve, which may very well be, considering
its abundance, and the ease with which it is made. The date tree
produces ripe fruit twice a-year, one harvest being in July while we
were there. Dates are a principal part of their sustenance, being very
pleasant in taste. When thoroughly ripe, the dates are laid in a heap on
a sloping skin, whence runs a liquor into earthen pots set in the earth
to receive it. This is their date wine, with which they sometimes get
drunk. When thus drained, the stones are taken out, and the dates are
packed up very hard in skins, in which they will keep a long time. They
sometimes gather them before they are completely ripe, and dry them
after taking out the stones. These are the best of all, and eat as if
they were candied. They will not keep whole. In every valley where dates
grow, the king has a deputy during the harvest, who sees all gathered
and brought to an appointed place, no one daring to touch a date on pain
of death without order, or other severe punishment. After all are
gathered, the deputy divides the produce in three equal parts; one for
the king, one for the Arabs, and one for the _cafrs_; which are
distributed, but not alike to each.

Socotora has abundance of civet cats,[215] which are taken in traps in
the mountains by the cafrs, who sell them for twelve-pence each. Flesh
is dear in this island; a cow costing ten dollars, and one goat or two
sheep a dollar. Their cattle have good firm and fat beef, like those in
England. The goats are large, and have good flesh; and the sheep are
small with coarse wool. The goats and sheep are very abundant. They make
very good butter, but it is always soft like cream, and is sold for
four-pence or six-pence a pound. Goat's milk may be bought for
three-pence the quart. Plenty of hens may be had, at the rate of five
for a dollar, or about twelve-pence each. In the whole island there are
not above two or three small horses of the Arab breed, and a few camels.
At _Delisha_ they take great quantities of lobsters and other good fish.
A few cotton plants are found growing on the strand; where likewise
there grows among the stones a shrubby plant, having large thick round
green leaves, as big as a shilling, with a fruit like capers, of which
it is a kind, called _eschuc_, and is eaten in sallads. Oranges are
scarce and dear. There is very fine sweet bazil. On the shore, many fine
shells are found, mixed with cuttle-fish bones, and vast quantities of
pearl-oyster shells, which the people say are driven thither by the
winds and waves, as no pearl-oysters are to be found here-about. The
people are very poor, and rank beggars, who buy what they are able and
beg all they can get, yet are honest and give civil usage. Their best
entertainment is a china dish of _coho_, a black bitterish drink, made
of a berry like that of the bay tree, which is brought from Mecca. This
drink is sipped hot, and is good for the head and stomach.[216]

[Footnote 215: The Civet, or Vierra Civetta of naturalists, is an animal
somewhat allied to the weazel; but the genus is peculiarly distinguished
by an orifice or folicle beneath the anus, containing an unctuous
odorant matter, highly fetid in most of the species; but in this and the
_Zibet_ the produce is a rich perfume, much esteemed in the east.--E.]

[Footnote 216: This _Coho_ of Finch is evidently coffee.--E.]

At our first landing in Socotora, the people all fled from us for fear
into the mountains, having formerly received injurious treatment from
the Portuguese, who they said had carried off some of them forcibly.
Their town which they left, is all built of stone covered with spars and
palm branches, with wooden doors, and very ingenious wooden locks. Near
the sea-side stands their church, enclosed by a wall like that of a
church-yard, having within a couple of crosses and an altar, on which
lay frankincense, with sweet wood and gums. When we first got speech of
them, they pretended this was _Abba del Curia_, and not Socotora, which
we afterwards found to be false. We walked up two or three miles into
the country, not seeing a single pile of green grass, but many date
trees. We saw one other very strange tree or plant, something more than
the height of a man, very thick at the root, and tapering upwards almost
to a point. The trunk was very smooth and without bark, and near the top
some long branches without leaves, bearing reddish flowers, which change
afterwards to a fruit not unlike the date in form and size, which is at
first green. It contains many small whitish kernels, which as well as
the branches are very bitter, and full of a resinous substance. We also
saw another church having a cross on its top.[217]

[Footnote 217: Of this church and the whole island, see the voyage of
Juan de Castro. For, in times past, the natives were Christians; which,
as all others not of their faith, the Mahometans call _cafrs_. Being
rude and brutish, they were the easier prey to the Arabs.--_Purch_.]

Sec. 3. _Occurrences in India, respecting the English, Dutch, Portuguese,
and Moguls_.

The 28th August, 1608, Captain Hawkins with the merchants and some
others landed at Surat. He was received into a coach and carried before
the _dawne,_ [or dewan.] We had very poor lodgings allotted to us, being
only the porter's lodge of the custom-house; where next morning the
customers came and tumbled about our trunks to our great displeasure,
though we had only brought our necessaries on shore. We were invited to
dinner by a merchant, who gave us good chear, but we had sour sauce to
our banquet, for he was the person who had sustained almost the whole
loss in the ship taken by Sir Edward Michelburne. The captain also of
that ship dined with us. When that affair was told us, our captain said
he had never heard of any such matter, and supposed it must have been
done by a Hollander; but they affirmed it was to their certain knowledge
an English ship, and deplored their hard fortunes, affirming there were
thieves of all nations, yet they were not disposed to impute that fault
to honest merchants. This liberal sentiment somewhat revived us; and we
were invited the day after to supper by _Mede Colee_, the captain of
that ship.

The 2d October we embarked our goods and provisions, gave a present to
_Schekh Abdel-reheime_, and got a dispatch for our departure; but the
customers refused a licence till they should search our ship, yet
meeting with some frigates in their own river, which they supposed to be
Malabars, they durst not venture down to our ship. These frigates
[grabs] were Portuguese, who desired that no one should come to talk
with them; yet Mr Buck rashly went on board and was detained.[218]

[Footnote 218: At this place is given a confused relation of several
incidents at Surat, obviously garbled and abbreviated by Purchas, so as
to be difficultly intelligible. As these are already contained in the
journal of Hawkins, they are here omitted.--E.]

At this time I was ill of the bloody flux, of which Mr Dorchester died,
but I was cured under God by an Englishman, named Careless.[219] From
him I learnt many things respecting India; and particularly of the great
spoil done by the Hollanders to the Portugals at Malacca the last year.
The Hollanders were lying before Malacca with sixteen ships, besieging
that place by sea and land, in conjunction with several native kings,
when news were sent to the Portuguese viceroy, then before Acheen with
all the gallants of India, having with him a very great fleet of ships,
gallies, and frigates, with 4000 soldiers, having been commanded to
conquer Acheen and to build a castle there, and afterwards to plunder
Johor, and to chastise the Moluccas for trading with the Hollanders.
Upon notice from Andrea Hurtado, who then commanded at Malacca, of the
distress to which that place was reduced, the viceroy set sail from
Acheen to attack the Hollanders. The Dutch general got timely notice of
his motions, and having re-embarked his men and artillery, went forth to
meet the viceroy. After a long and bloody fight, the Dutch had to draw
off to stop the leaks of their admiral; on which the Portuguese let slip
the opportunity, and fell to rioting and merriment, with great boasts of
their victory, not looking any more for the Hollanders. But they, having
stopped their leaks and refitted at Johor, came unexpectedly on the
Portuguese, most of whom were feasting ashore, and sunk and burnt all
their ships; insomuch, if the viceroy had not previously detached six
ships on some other service, the Portuguese naval power in India had
been all utterly destroyed. After this, the Portuguese in Malacca were
infected by a heavy sickness, in which most of them died, among whom was
the viceroy, and the governor of Manilla, who had brought a
reinforcement of 2000 Spanish troops, so that their power was laid in
the dust.

[Footnote 219: He seems to have been resident in Surat; but the
particulars are omitted by Purchas.--E.]

This year a new viceroy was expected from Portugal with a strong fleet,
to drive the Hollanders out of India. This fleet consisted of nine ships
of war, and six others for trade; which were all separated in the gulf
of Guinea, and never met again afterwards. Two of them came to
Mosambique, where they were fired by the Hollanders, who likewise much
distressed the castle, but could not take it; and the season, requiring
their departure, they set sail for Goa, being fifteen ships and a
pinnace, where they rode at the bar, defying the great Captain Hurtado,
who durst not meet them. Another of the Portuguese commercial ships,
having advice that the Dutch lay off Goa, went to the northwards, where
they landed their money and goods, and set their ship on fire, and the
soldiers fell together by the ears for sharing the money. The Dutch
fleet, leaving Goa, sailed all along the Malabar coast, plundering and
burning every thing, they could meet, and it was reported they had leave
from the Samorin to build a castle at Chaul.[220]

[Footnote 220: This must be an error, as the country of the Samorin, at
Calicut, is in the south of Malabar, and Chaul is far to the north in
the Concan.--E.]

The 1st of February, 1609, our captain, Mr Hawkins, departed from
Surat, with an escort of fifty peons and some horse. About this time
there was a great stir about the queen mother's ship, which was to be
laden for Mocha.[221] The Portuguese fleet of twenty-two frigates then
rode off the bar of Surat, and demanded 100,000 mamudies for her pass,
and at last agreed to take somewhat more than 1000 dollars, with sundry
presents, which the Moguls were forced to give them. At this time Mucrob
Khan gave me fair words, but the devil was in his heart, for he minded
nothing less than payment of his debts, striking off 17,000 from 41,000
to which our accounts extended. At last he gave me his _cheet_ for a
part, though with great abatements, which I was glad to get, esteeming
it better to secure some than lose all. In the beginning of April I was
seized with a burning fever, of which I recovered by losing a great deal
of blood, and ten days fasting, and on the fever, leaving me I was
tormented with miserable stitches. Next month also I had another severe
fever.

[Footnote 221: Mecca is probably here meant; this ship being destined to
carry the Mogul pilgrims. The queen mother of the Moguls, mother to the
reigning emperor.--E.]

The 12th May, news came that _Malek Amber_, King of the Deccan, had
besieged _Aurdanagur_[222] with 22,000 horse; which place had been the
metropolis of the Deccan, formerly conquered by Akbar; and that, after
several assaults, the Moguls had offered to surrender the city, on
condition that he would withdraw his army four or five _coss_[223] from
the city, that they might remove with bag and baggage in security. This
being done, they issued out with all their forces, and making an
unexpected assault on the unprovided enemy, gave them a total defeat
with great slaughter. As it was feared that Malek Amber might revenge
this defeat upon the other parts of the country, the Khan-Khana raised
numerous forces, and demanded 300,000 mamudies[224] towards the charges,
sending also an experienced Deccan leader to govern the city.

[Footnote 222: Probably a corruption of Aurungabad.--E.]

[Footnote 223: In this and other early voyages, the _coss_ is always
named _course_. It is rated by Purchas at a mile and a half English.
There are two cosses, the Hindoostanee, and the Rajeput, the former
being 44-4/9 to a degree, and the latter 32. The Hindoostanee is equal
to 1.56, and the Rajeput coss to 2.18 English miles.--E.]

[Footnote 224: This demand is inexplicable, as it is no where stated of
whom it was demanded: Besides, the sum, only L15,000, is quite
inadequate for the maintenance of numerous forces.--E.]

The 20th July, Shah Selim, the great Mogul, commanded his generals,
Khan-Khana and Rajah Mansing, two great commanders, to invade and
conquer all the kingdoms of the south to Cape Comorin, for which purpose
a prodigious army was assembled. In order to resist this invasion, the
three great kings of the south combined their troops, making head near
_Bramport_, (Burhampoor or Boorhanpoor,) on the Mogul frontiers, where
both armies were in camp, waiting the end of winter. These three kings,
Malek Amber, King of the Deccan, whose chief city is _Genefro_;[225] the
King of Visiapour; and the King of Golconda, whose chief city is
_Braganadar_.[226]

[Footnote 225: This name is so inexplicably corrupt as not even to admit
of conjectural amendment--E.]

[Footnote 226: This name is in the same unintelligible predicament with
Genefro.--E.]

In August, I received a flying report of on English pinnace being on the
coast at Gandooe[227] (Gundavee,) which, on departing from thence, was
forced in again by three Portuguese frigates. I supposed this might
belong to some of our shipping, which, standing for Socotora, had not
been able to fetch that place, and had been forced to this coast. This
was actually the case, as the pinnace belonged to the Ascension, manned
by the master, John Elmer, with five men and two boys, and was in want
of wood and water. The master and four of his company came to Surat on
the 28th of August; but I had much ado to get leave to bring them into
the town, as the people pretended we were merely allowed to trade. The
truth was, they stood in fear of the Portuguese, and detained these men
till they should send for instructions to the nabob, who was at the
distance of four coss. What was still worse, five Portuguese frigates or
grabs went into the Gundavee river and captured our pinnace, weighing up
its two falcons,[228] which had been thrown overboard. We received worse
news on the 5th September, the Ascension having been cast away; and next
day about seventy of her company who were saved came to Surat, whom the
people of the town obliged to remain outside of the walls among the
trees and tombs. I was not even able to procure leave for the general
himself to enter the city, though he brought letters of recommendation
from Mocha, besides letters for the great Mogul from the King of
England. Such was their fear of the Portuguese, in whose names two
jesuits threatened fire, faggots, and utter desolation, if any more
English were received. All I could do for them was sending them
necessary provisions, and carrying them to the _tank,_ where they were
more conveniently lodged, yet still among the tombs. At length the
governor appointed them better lodgings, at a small _aldea_ two coss
from Surat; and with much difficulty I obtained leave for Mr Rivet, Mr
Jordan, and the surgeon to come to Surat, to provide necessaries for the
rest. I had other trouble, occasioned by the disorderly and riotous
conduct of some of the Ascension's people; more especially owing to one
William Tucker, who when in liquor killed a calf, a crime held worse
than murdering a man among the Banians. I was therefore glad of their
departure for Agra, except fifteen who were sick and unwilling to go so
far, and some who returned again.

[Footnote 227: Gundavee, a small river about 20 miles south of the
Taptee, or river of Surat.--E.]

[Footnote 228: Small cannon of about two libs, ball--E.]

The 6th of October, came letters from Mr Hawkins, informing us that he
had married an Armenian woman; and other letters at the end of next
month, desiring me to go up to Agra. In December we were in much fear of
Badur, a descendant of the Kings of Cambaya, who lay within two days
march of Surat, with 600 horse and many foot. Owing to this, the
governor cessed all the inhabitants according to their abilities, with
the lodgement and entertainment of soldiers, rating me at ten men. I
went immediately to wait upon him, and told him that I had twenty
English at his service, for which he thanked me, and freed me of all
farther charges. The Banians were forced to labour hard to barricade all
the streets of the city, great guards were stationed at the gates, and
some cannon were drawn from the castle. A reinforcement of fifty horse
was sent from the garrison of _Carode_,[229] which had been very
insufficient to protect the town; but the governor of Ahmedabad sent
1000 horse and 2000 foot to our succour, on which Badur withdrew to his
strong-holds. Two years before our arrival, this chief had sacked
Cambay, of which his grandfather had been king. The 18th January, 1610,
I went from Surat on my way to Agra; but it is proper I should give here
some account of Surat.

[Footnote 229: Currode is a small place about 12 miles S.S.E. from
Surat.--E.]

This city stands about twenty miles from the sea, on the bank of a fair
river, [the _Taptee_,] and is of considerable size, with many good
houses belonging to merchants. About three miles from the mouth of the
river, where on the south side is a small low island overflowed in the
rainy season, is the bar where ships load and unload, having three
fathoms water at spring tides;[230] and above this is a fair channel all
the way to the city, capable of receiving loaded vessels of fifty tons.
This river extends upwards to beyond _Bramport_, [Boorhanpoor;] and from
thence, as some say, all the way to _Mussel Patem_.[231] In coming up
the river, the castle of Surat is on the right hand or south side of the
river, being moderately large, handsome, well walled, and surrounded by
a ditch. The ramparts are provided with many good cannons, some of which
are of vast size. It has one gate on the inland side with a draw-bridge,
and a small postern to the river. The captain of this castle has a
garrison of 200 horse. In front of the castle is the Medon, [Meidan, or
esplanade,] being a pleasant green, having a may-pole in the middle, on
which they hang a light and other decorations on great festivals. On
this side, the city of Surat is open to the green, but is fenced on all
other sides by a ditch and thick hedges, having three gates, one of
which leads to _Variaw_, a small village at the ford of the Taptee
leading to Cambay. Near this village on the left hand is a small
_aldea_, pleasantly situated on the bank of the river, where is a great
pagoda much resorted to by the Indians. A second gate leads to
Boorbanpoor; and a third to _Nonsary_,[232] a town ten coss from Surat,
where much calico is manufactured, standing near a fine stream or small
river. About ten coss farther in the same direction is _Gondoree_,
[Gundavee,] and a little further _Belsaca_, [Bulsaur,] the frontier town
towards Damaun. Just without _Nunsary_ gate is a handsome tank of
sixteen sides, surrounded on all sides by stone steps, three quarters
of an English mile in circuit, and having a small house in the middle.
On the farther side of this tank are several fine tombs with a handsome
paved court, behind which is a small grove of Mango trees, to which the
citizens resort to banquet. About half a coss beyond this, is a great
tree much venerated by the Banians, who alledge that it is under the
protection of a _dew_, or guardian spirit, and that although often cut
down and grubbed up from the roots by order of the Moors, it has yet
constantly sprung up again.

[Footnote 230: This depth probably refers to the anchorage below the
bar.--E.]

[Footnote 231: Masulipatam, or, more correctly, Mutshelipatnam, is at
the mouth of the Kistna, on the opposite coast of India.--E.]

[Footnote 232: Nunsary is a small river, with a town of the same name,
16 or 18 miles south of the Taptee.--E.]

Near the castle of Surat is the _Alphandica_, where are stairs down to
the river for landing and shipping goods, and within the alphandica are
store-rooms for keeping goods till they are cleared; the customs being
two and a half per centum for goods, three for provisions, and two for
money. Without the gate of the alphandica is the great _Gondoree_ or
_Bazar_, being the market-place for all kinds of merchandize. Right
before this gate is a tree with an arbour, where the _fokeers_,
[faquiers,] or Indian holy men, sit in state. Between this and the
castle, at the entrance of the green, or _atmeidan_, is the market for
horses and cattle. A little lower, and on the opposite side of the
river, is a pleasant small town named _Ranele_, inhabited by a people
called _Naites_, who speak a different language, and are mostly seamen.
The streets of this town are narrow, with good houses, each of which has
a high flight of steps to its door. The people are very friendly to the
English, and have many pleasant gardens, which attract many to pass much
of their time there. On the trees round this village there are an
infinite number of those great bats we saw at St Augustine in
Madagascar, which hang by their claws from the boughs, and make a shrill
noise. This bird is said by the people to engender by the ear, and to
give suck to their young.

The winter begins here about the 1st of June, and continues till the
20th September, but not with continual rains as at Goa; having only
heavy rain for six or seven days every full and change of the moon, with
much wind, thunder and lightning. At the breaking up of the winter,
there is always a cruel storm, called _tuffoon_, fearful even to men on
land. This is not equally severe every year, but once in two or three
years at the most. The monsoons, or periodical winds, serve here for
going to the south in April and September, and for Mocha in February and
March. From the south, ships come here in December, January, and
February, and from Mocha about the 5th September, after the rains. From
Ormus they sail for the coast of India in November: But none dare pass
without a licence of the Portuguese, for which they exact whatever they
think proper, erecting, by their own authority, a custom-house on the
seas, confiscating both ship and goods to the taker, if they do not
produce a regular pass.

Sec. 4. _Journey to Agra, and Observations by the Way; with some Notices of
the Deccan Wars._

The 18th January, 1610,[233] I departed from _Comuariaw_, or Cumraie, a
small village 3 _coss_ from Surat, to Mutta, a great _aldea_, 7 coss.
The 21st to _Carode_, 8 coss, a large country town, having the Surat
river on the north. This place has a castle, with a garrison of 200
Patan horse, who are good soldiers. The 22d to _Curka_, 12 c. a great
village with a river on its south side. In the way between Carode and
Curka, or Kirkwah, is _Beca_, or Behara, a castle with a great tank and
a pleasant grove. 23d to _Necampore_, a large town under the
_Pectopshaw_, 10 c. In this way begins a great ridge of mountains on the
right hand,[234] reaching towards Ahmedabad, among which Badur occupies
several strong-holds, which all the force of the king of the Moguls has
not been able to reduce. These mountains extend to Boorhanpoor, and on
them breed many wild elephants. The 24th to _Dayta_, 8 c. a great town,
having to pass in the midway a troublesome stony rivulet. This town has
a castle, and is almost encompassed by a river, being situated in a
fertile soil. The 25th to _Badur_, 10 c. a filthy town full of thieves,
where is made a kind of wine of a sweet fruit called _mewa_, but I found
it unwholesome except it be burnt.

[Footnote 233: In this journal, conjectural emendations of names from
Arrowsmith's excellent map of India, are given in the text as synonima,
to avoid perpetual notes; and the distances are always to be understood
as _cosses_, given exactly as in the original, without correction. It
must, however, be noticed that the names in the text are often so
corrupt, or different from those now in use, that it is often impossible
to trace the route.--E.]

[Footnote 234: The Vindhaya mountains are obviously here meant; but they
are on the _left_ hand of the route between Surat and Boorhanpoor.--E.]

This is the last town of note in the land of _Pectopshaw_, who is a
small king or rajah of the Gentiles, keeping on the tops of inaccessible
mountains, which begin at _Curka_, and extend to many cosses distance.
He holds possession of two fair cities, _Salere_ and _Muliere_, where
the mamudies are coined. Each of these towns has two mighty castles, the
roads to which only admit of two men abreast, or an elephant at most;
having also on the way eighty small fortresses dispersed among the
mountains to guard the passage. On the tops of these mountains there is
good pasture and abundance of grain, with numerous fountains or streams,
which run thence into the plains. Akbar besieged him for seven years,
and was in the end obliged to compound with him, giving him Narampore
Dayta and Badur, with several other _aldeas_, for safely conducting his
merchants along this plain; so that he is now in peace with the king, to
whom he sends presents yearly, and leaves one of his sons in Boorhanpoor
as a pledge of his fealty. He is said to have always in readiness 4000
mares of an excellent breed, and 100 elephants.

Leaving Badur on the 26th, I went 7 coss to _Nonderbar_, or Nundabar, a
city, short of which are many tombs and houses of pleasure, with a
castle and a fair tank. The 27th to _Lingull_, 10 c. a beastly town,
with thievish inhabitants, a dirty castle, and a deep sandy road near
the town. 28th 10 c. to _Sindkerry_, or Sindkera, a great dirty town. On
the way, the governor of Lingull, with others as honest as himself,
would have borrowed some money of me; but finding I would only give him
powder and shot, he desisted, and allowed our carts to pass without
farther trouble. Beyond Sindkera runs a small river of brackish water,
by drinking of which I got the bloody flux, which continued with me all
the way to Boorhanpoor. The 29th 10 c. to _Taulneere_, or Talnere, a
thievish road, but a fair town with a castle and river, which is not
passable in the rains without a boat.[235] The 30th 15 c. to _Chupra_,
or Choprah, a great town. I rested here two days on account of the
rains; in which time came the governor of Nundabar with 400 horse,
without whose company I could not have continued my journey without
danger, as Khan-Khana had been defeated and obliged to retire to
Boorhanpoor, after losing the strong and rich town of _Joulnapore_, or
Jalnapoor, on which the Deccaners became so insolent, that they made
inroads as far as the Taptee, plundering many of the passengers.

[Footnote 235: The author seems not to have been aware that this was the
Taptee, or river of Surat.--E.]

The 2d February we went 6 c. to _Rawel_, or Arawul, a country village,
where unseasonable thunder, wind, and rain, combining with my disease,
had nearly made an end of me, so that we made _mukom_, or halted, on the
3d and 4th. The 5th I went to _Beawle_, or Beawull, 10 c. a large town
with a good castle. Next day we were again stopt by bad weather. The
7th, 16 c. to _Ravere_, a great town; and the 8th, 10 c. to Boorhanpoor,
where I pitched my tent in a yard belonging to the Armenians, not being
able to get a house for money, the city being so full of soldiers. About
2 c. short of Boorhanpoor is _Babuderpoor_ a fair city; and between the
two the army of Khan-Khana was encamped on the north side of the road,
consisting of about 15,000 horse, 200 elephants, and 100 cannon of
different sizes, the encampment extending two coss in length. Within
twenty or thirty coss to the south, Amber chapon, an _Abashed_,[236] who
was general of the army of the king of Deccan, lay encamped at the head
of 10,000 of his own cast, all brave soldiers, and about 40,000
Deccaners; so that the Moguls had certainly lost the city of
Boorhanpoor, had not the prince Sultan Parvis with Rajah Mausing come
down with great forces; as Amber chapon had sent to demand the surrender
of Boorhanpoor, deeming that Khan-Khana was unable to hold it against
him.

[Footnote 236: Assuredly meaning an Abyssinian.--E.]

Boorhanpoor is a very large but beastly city, situated in a low damp
place, and consequently very unhealthy, which is farther augmented by
the water being bad. The castle is on the N.E. of the city, on the banks
of the river which runs by Surat. In the river beside the castle, there
is an image of an elephant in stone, so naturally made, that an elephant
one day, coming to the river to drink, ran against it with all his
force, and broke both his teeth. The forehead of this image is painted
red, and many simple Indians worship it. About two coss from the castle
is a garden belonging to Khan-Khana, called the _Loll baug_, all the way
between being pleasantly shaded by rows of trees. The garden has many
fine walks, with a beautiful small tank shaded by trees; and at the
entrance is a fine lofty banqueting-house, likewise among trees.

I rested till the 12th under my tent, for the recovery of my health,
which God was pleased to grant. Two days after my arrival, news came
that Ravere and other neighbouring places had been sacked by 1500 Deccan
horse, so that we were thankful to God for our safe arrival, as the way
was not now passable for 1000 horse. I was here informed, by letters
from an Armenian, of a prodigious disaster sustained by the Portuguese
armada on the Malabar coast, consisting of fifty frigates or grabs, and
two gallies, which being dispersed by a storm, was suddenly assailed by
the Malabar pirates issuing from many creeks, who took many of their
fleet and burnt most of the rest. On the 12th I rode out to visit the
prince, and on the 13th I made him a present. He received me very
courteously, and promised me every thing I asked. The prince was
attended by 20,000 horse and 300 elephants; having along with him Asaph
Khan with about 3000, and Emersee Rastein, late King of Candahar, with
some thousand veterans. While I remained in the camp, Rajah Mansing
joined with 10,000 horse, all Rajaputs, and near 1000 elephants; so that
all the plains for a vast distance were covered with tents, making a
most splendid appearance. Along with the army were many large boats, for
transporting the troops across large rivers. On the prince removing, I
returned to Boorhanpoor; and as he advanced three coss towards the
enemy, I went on the 26th to take my leave, when news were brought of
the defeat of some of Rajah Mansing's troops.

The 1st of March I departed for Agra along with the governor of
Boorhanpoor and that day we travelled 12 c. to _Barre_, a great village,
having passed by a very steep and stony road across the great ridge of
mountains, [Callygong hills,] which come from Ahmedabad.[237] On this
way, and about four coss from Boorhanpoor, we passed the strong and
invincible castle of _Hasser_, seated on the top of a high mountain, and
said to be large enough to contain forty or fifty thousand horse. On the
top are many tanks and fine pasture grounds. In the time of its former
sovereign, Badur Shah, it is said to have been defended by 600 pieces
of cannon. Akbar besieged it for a long time, surrounding it on all
sides, and at length took it by composition. For it is said there bred
such innumerable quantities of small worms in the waters of the fort,
that the people swelled and burst, by which mortality the king was
forced to submit and surrender, the place being impregnable by any human
force. The 3d we came to _Candah_, eleven c. a small aldea, the road
being stony and very troublesome. The 4th to _Magergom_, four c. a large
aldea, and by a very bad road. The 5th ten c. to _Kergom_, or Kargaw, a
large village and a steep road. The 6th thirteen c. to _Bircool_, a
small village. The 7th eight c. to _Taxapore_, or Tarrapoor, a small
town, within two coss of which we passed a fine river called _Nervor_,
[Nerbuddah,] which runs into the sea at Broach. On the bank of this
river is a pretty town with a good castle, immediately under which is
the ferry. About a coss lower down is an overfall where the water is not
above three feet deep, but a mile in breadth, by which camels usually
pass. The 8th five c. to _Mandow_, three coss of which the road goes up
a steep mountain, having no more than breadth for a coach.

[Footnote 237: This is an error of Finch. The Vindhaya mountains, which
run from Guzerat eastwards, are on the north of the Nerbuddah river;
whereas the mountain ridge in the text divides the valley of the
Nerbuddah from that of the Taptee, and joins the western Gauts near
Surat.--E.]

This ridge of mountains, [the Vindhaya,] extends E. and W.[238] On the
top, and at the very edge of the table land, stands the gate of the
city, over which is built a handsome fort and pleasure-house. The walls
extend all along the side of the mountain for many cosses. On the left
hand of the entrance, at two or three miles distance from the gate, is a
strong fort on the top of a pointed mountain, and some ten or twelve
more dispersed in other places. For two coss or better within the outer
gate, this city is all ruined, except many tombs and mosques which yet
remain, interspersed among the tottering walls of many large houses. The
old city of Mandow is four coss from the S. to the N. gate, and measures
ten or twelve coss from east to west, beyond which to the east are good
pasture grounds for many cosses. On the top of the mountain are some
fifteen or sixteen tanks, dispersed about the city. What still remains
of this city is very well built, but small in comparison with its
former greatness, yet has many goodly buildings, all of stone, and very
lofty gates, the like of which, I believe, is not to be seen in
Christendom. At the entrance on the south, within the gate of the city
now inhabited, as you pass along, there stands a goodly mosque on the
left hand, and over against it a splendid sepulchre, in which are
interred the bodies of four kings in exceedingly rich tombs. By the side
of which stands a high tower of 170 steps in height, built round with
windows and galleries to each room, with many fine arches and pillars,
the walls being all inlaid in a most beautiful manner with green marble
or some other rich stone. On the north side, where we came forth from
this city; there lay a cannon, the bore of which was eighteen inches
diameter. The gate is very strong, having six others within, all very
strong, with large walled courts of guard between gate and gate. All
along the side of the mountains runs a strong wall, with turrets or
flankers at intervals, although the hill is so steep in itself that it
is hardly possible for a man to creep upon all fours in any part of it,
so that it appears absolutely impregnable; yet was taken, partly by
force and partly by treason, by Humaion, grandfather of the present
Great Mogul, from Sheic Shah Selim, whose ancestors conquered it from
the Indians about 400 years ago. This Shah Selim was a powerful King of
Delhi, who once forced Humaion to flee into Persia for aid; and,
returning from Persia, put Selim to the worst, yet was unable to conquer
him. He even held out during the whole reign of Akbar, keeping upon the
mountains. Beyond the walls, the suburbs formerly extended four coss to
the north, but are now all in ruins, except a few tombs, mosques, and
goodly _serais_, in which no persons now dwell.

[Footnote 238: The original says N.E. and S.W. but in our best and
latest map of Hindoostan, the direction is nearly E. and W. or perhaps
E. by N. and W. by S.--E.]

The 9th we went four coss by a very bad stony road to _Luneheira_.
Between this and the ruins, at three c. from Mandow, is a fine tank
inclosed with stone, having a banqueting-house in the middle, and a fair
house on the south side, now in ruins, from which to the
banqueting-house is an arched bridge. The 10th to _Dupalpore_, fourteen
c. a small town and the road good. The 11th twelve long cosses to
_Ouglue_, or Oojain, a fair city, in the country called Malwah, a
fertile soil abounding with opium. In this country the coss is two
English miles. We halted the 12th. The 13th to _Conoscia_ eleven c.
14th, eight c. to _Sunenarra_, or Sannarea, by a bad stony way, among a
thievish people, called _graciae_, inhabiting the Hills on our left
hand, who often plunder the _caffilas_, or caravans, and a hundred of
them had done so now to a caravan, if we had not prevented them by our
arrival. This is a small town, short of which we passed a great tank
full of wild fowl. The 15th ten c. to _Pimelegom_, a shabby _aldea_. At
the end of the fourth coss we passed _Sarampore_, or Sarangpoor, a great
town with a castle on its south side, and a handsome town-house. Here
are manufactured much good cotton cloth and handsome turbans. Short of
this town we met Khan Jehan, a great favourite of the king, with 10,000
horse, many elephants, and a number of boats, going to join the army at
Boorhanpoor. On the way also we met many of Rajah Mansing's Rajapoots,
he having in all about 20,000, so that it was thought the army would
amount to 100,000 horse when all assembled.

From the 16th to the 26th of March, we travelled 74 coss to _Qualeres_,
or Colarass, a small pretty town, encompassed with tamarind and mango
trees.[239] The 27th to _Cipry_, or Shepoory, seven Surat cosses of a
mile and a half each, by a desert road. Two nights before, some sixty or
seventy thieves assailed in the dark a party of 150 Patan soldiers,
mistaking them for a caffila that had just gone before, by whom ten of
them were slain and as many taken, the rest escaping in the dark. The
28th to _Narwar_ twelve c. through a rascally desert full of thieves. In
the woods we saw many _chuckees_, stationed there to prevent robbery;
but they alledge that the fox is oft times set to herd the geese. This
town stands at the foot of a steep stony mountain, and on the top is a
castle having a steep ascent rather more than a mile, which is
intersected by three strong gates. The fourth gate is at the top of the
ascent, where no one is allowed to enter without an order from the king.
Within, the town is large and handsome, being situated in a curious
valley on the top of the mountain. This fortified summit is said to be
five or six coss in circuit, walled all round, and having towers and
flankers every here and there, so that it is impregnable unless by
treachery. This was formerly the gate or barrier of the kingdom of
Mandow, and has been very beautiful, and secured by means of strong
works with abundance of cannon, but is now much gone to ruin.

[Footnote 239: It has been thought better to omit the minute enumeration
of stages in the sequel, where no other information occurs; more
especially as their names can seldom be referred to those in modern maps
of India.--E.]

The 29th we went seven c. to _Palacha_, or Pelaiche; 80th, twelve c. to
_Antro_, or Anter; 31st, six c. to _Gualior,_ a pleasant city with
castle; and on the top of a pyramidal hill, is a ruined building in
which several great men have been interred. The castle of Gualior is on
the west side of the town, on a steep craggy cliff, six coss in circuit,
or, as some say, eleven, which is all enclosed with a strong wall. On
going up to the castle from the city, the entry is by a strong gate into
a handsome court enclosed with strong walls, where a numerous guard is
always kept, no person being allowed to enter without a public order.
From thence a narrow stone causeway leads to the top, with walls on both
sides, having three gates at intervals on the ascent, all strongly
fortified, with courts of guard at each. At the top of all is another
strong gate, at which is a curious colossal figure of an elephant in
stone. This gate is highly ornamented, and has a stately house
adjoining, the walls of which are curiously adorned with green and blue
stones, and the roof with sundry gilded turrets. This is the house of
the governor, in which is a place for the confinement of nobles who have
fallen under the displeasure of the King of the Moguls. He is said to
have two other castles devoted as prisons for the nobles. _Rantipore_,
or Rantampoor, is one of these, forty c to the W. to which are sent such
nobles as are intended to be put to death, which is generally done two
months after their arrival; when the governor brings them to the top of
the wall, and giving them a bowl of milk, causes them to be thrown over
the rocks. The other is _Rotas_, in Bengal, to which are sent those
nobles who are condemned to perpetual imprisonment, and from whence very
few return. On the top of the mountain of Gualior is a considerable
extent of very good ground, with many fair buildings, and three or four
good _tanks_ or reservoirs of water. Below, on the same side with the
town, there are many houses cut out of the solid rock, serving both as
habitations, and as shops and warehouses; and at the foot of the hill on
the north-west side, is a spacious park inclosed with a stone wall,
within which are several fine gardens and pleasure-houses, and which is
also useful for securing horses in time of war from marauders. This
castle of Gualior was the main frontier of the kingdom of Delhi towards
Mandow, and the ascent from the petah, or town, to the top of the rock,
is near a mile.

Leaving Gualior on the 1st April, 1610, we arrived at _Doolpoor_ on the
2d, being nineteen c. Within two c. before reaching that place, we
passed a fine river, called the _Cambue_, or Chumbull, as broad as the
Thames, a little short of which we went through a narrow and dangerous
pass between two hills. The castle of Doolpoor is very strong, having
four walls within each other, with steep ascents to each, the outermost
having a deep and broad ditch. This castle is three quarters of a mile
through, and has similar walls and gates to be passed on going out Its
inhabitants are mostly Gentiles. The 3d April we went to _Jahjaw_, nine
c. and next day other nine c. to _Agra_. In the afternoon the captain
carried me before the king, where I found Mr Thomas Boys, three French
soldiers, a Dutch engineer, and a Venetian merchant, with his son and
servant, all newly come by land from Christendom.

In May and part of June, the city of Agra was much distressed with
frequent fires by day and night, some part or other of the city being
almost ever burning, by which many thousand houses were consumed, with
great numbers of men, women, children, and cattle, so that we feared the
judgment of Sodom and Gomorrah had gone forth against the place. I was
long and dangerously ill of a fever, and in June the heat was so
excessive that we thought to have been broiled alive. The 28th June
arrived _Padre Peneiro_, an arch knave, a jesuit I should say, who
brought letters from the Portuguese viceroy with many rich presents,
tending entirely to thwart our affairs. In this time Mucrob Khan[240]
was complained against to the king by our captain, Mr Hawkins, when
Abdal Hassan, the grand vizier, was ordered to see that we had justice:
But birds of a feather flock together, and Mucrob Khan, partly by
misstatements and partly by turning us over to a bankrupt banyan, would
only pay us with 11,000 mamudies instead of 32,501-1/2 which he was due,
and even that was not paid for a long time.

[Footnote 240: Finch uniformly calls this person _Mo. Bowcan_, but we
have substituted the name previously given him by Hawkins.--E.]

In July news came of the bad fortune of the king's army in the Deccan;
which, when within four days march of Aumednagur, hoping to raise the
siege of that place, was obliged by famine and drought to retreat to
Boorhanpoor, on which the garrison was forced to surrender after
enduring much misery. The royal army in the Deccan consisted of at least
100,000 horse, with an infinite number of elephants and camels; so that,
including servants, people belonging to the baggage, and camp followers
of all kinds, there could not be less than half a million, or 600,000
persons in the field. The water in the country where they were, became
quite insufficient for the consumption of so vast a multitude, with all
their horses, elephants, camels, and draught cattle, insomuch that a
_mussock_ of water was sold in camp for a rupee, and all kinds of
victuals were sold excessively dear. The army of the King of Deccan
spoiled the whole country around, and getting between the Moguls and
their supplies from Guzerat and Boorhanpoor, prevented the arrival of
any provisions at the camp, daily vexing them with perpetual and
successful skirmishes, and by cutting off all foraging parties and
detachments; so that the whole army was in imminent danger, and was only
extricated by a speedy retreat to Boorhanpoor; at their return to which
they did not muster above 30,000 horse, having lost an infinite number
of elephants, camels, and other cattle, that had died for want of forage
and water.

This month also, news came of the sacking of a great city called _Putana
in the Purrop_,[241] and the surprisal of its castle, where a
considerable treasure belonging to the king was deposited, the citizens
having fled without making any resistance. But the successful insurgent
was almost immediately besieged and taken in the castle by a
neighbouring great omrah; and on the return of the fugitive citizens, he
sent twelve of their chiefs to the king, who caused them to be shaven,
and to be carried on asses through the streets of Agra in the garb of
women, and it is said that next day they were beheaded.

[Footnote 241: This name and province are difficultly ascertainable. The
_Purrop_ has possibly a reference to the kingdom of _Porub_, the Indian
name of Porus, so celebrated in the invasion of India by Alexander. If
this conjecture be right, the Potana of the text was Pattan or Puttan,
in the north of Guzerat, the ancient Naherwalch.--E.]

Likewise this same month, the king made a great stir about Christianity,
affirming before his nobles that it was the true religion, while that of
Mahomet was all lies and fables. He had ordered all the three sons of
his deceased brother to be instructed by the jesuits, and christian
apparel to be given them, to the great wonderment of the whole city; and
finally these princes were baptized solemnly, being conducted to the
church by all the Christians in the city, to the number of about sixty
horse, Captain Hawkins being at their head, with St George's ensign
carried before him, in honour of England, displaying them in the court
in the presence of the king. The eldest was named Don Philippo, the
second Don Carlo, and the third Don Henrico. On the 3d September
following, another young prince was christened by the name of Don
Duarte, being grandson to a brother of the Emperor Akbar. This king gave
frequent charges to the fathers to instruct all these princes in the
Christian religion; yet all this has since clearly appeared to have been
mere dissimulation.[242]

[Footnote 242: It is possible that Selim, unwilling to put to death such
near relations, fell upon this device to render them ineligible among
the Moguls to the succession, by which to secure the throne to himself
and his sons.--E.]

Sec. 5. _Description of Futtipoor, Biana, &c.; of Nill, or Indigo; and of
other Matters._

The 1st of November I was sent to Biana to buy _nill_, or indigo. I
lodged the first night at _Menhapoor_, a great serai or public inn,
seven c. from Agra, near which the queenmother has a garden, and
_Moholl_, or summer-house, very curiously contrived. The 2d I halted at
_Kanowa_, or Kanua, eleven c. At every coss from Agra to Ajmeer, 130
coss, there is erected a stone pillar, owing to the following
circumstance. At Ajmeer is the tomb of a celebrated Mahometan saint,
called Haji Mondee; and as Akbar had no children, he made a pilgrimage
on foot to that famous shrine, ordering a stone pillar to be erected at
every coss, and a Moholl, with lodgings for sixteen of his principal
women, at the end of every eight coss; and after his return he had three
sons.

At twelve coss from Agra, on this road, is the famous city of
_Futtipoor_, built by Akbar, and inclosed by a fair stone wall, still
quite fresh, having four great gates, some three English miles between
each. Within the walls, the whole extent of the city lies waste like a
desert and uninhabited, being very dangerous to pass through in the
night time. Much of the ground is now occupied as gardens, and much of
it is sown with _nill_, or different kinds of grain, so that, one could
hardly suppose he were in the middle of what was so lately a great and
populous city. Before the gate towards Agra, in a stony ascent near a
coss in length, are the ruins of an extensive suburb. At the S.W. gate,
for two English miles from the city, there are ruins of many fine
buildings; and on the left are many fine walled gardens, to the distance
of three miles from the city. At the entrance of the N.E. gate is a
goodly bazar, or market, all of stone, being a spacious straight-lined
and paved street, with handsome houses on both sides, half a mile long.
Close, within the gate is the king's serai, consisting of extensive
stone buildings, but much ruined. At the head of this street stands the
king's house, or Moholl, with much curious building; beyond which, on an
ascent, is the goodliest mosque in all the east. It has a flight of some
twenty-four or thirty steps to the gate, which is, in my opinion, one of
the loftiest and handsomest in the world, having a great number of
clustering pyramids on the top, very curiously disposed. The top of this
gate may be distinctly seen from the distance of eight or ten miles.
Within the gate, is a spacious court curiously paved with stone, about
six times the size of the exchange of London, with a fine covered walk
along the sides, more than twice as broad and double the height of those
in our London exchange, supported by numerous pillars all of one stone;
and all round about are entrances into numerous rooms, very ingeniously
contrived. Opposite the grand gate stands a fair and sumptuous tomb,
most artificially inlaid with mother-of-pearl, and inclosed by a stone
ballustrade curiously carved; the ceiling being curiously plastered and
painted. In this tomb is deposited the body of a _calender_, or
Mahometan devotee, at whose cost the whole of this splendid mosque was
built. Under the court-yard is a goodly tank of excellent water; none
other being to be had in the whole extent of the city, except brackish
and corroding, by the use of which so great a mortality was occasioned
among the inhabitants of this city, that Akbar left it before it was
quite finished, and removed his seat of empire to Agra, so that this
splendid city was built and ruined in the space of fifty or sixty years.

The name of this place at first was _Sykary_, signifying seeking or
hunting: But on his return from his pilgrimage to Ajmeer, and the
subsequent birth of his son Selim, the present emperor, Akbar, changed
its name to _Futtipoor_, or the city of content, or _heart's desire
obtained_. Without the walls, on the N.N.W. side of the city, there is a
goodly lake of two or three coss in length, abounding with excellent
fish and wild-fowl; all over which grows the herb producing the
_hermodactyle_, and another bearing a fruit like a goblet, called
_camolachachery_, both very cooling fruits. The herb which produces the
_hermodactyle_, is a weed abounding in most tanks near Agra, which
spreads over the whole surface of the water. I did not observe its leaf;
but the fruit is enclosed in a three-cornered hard woody shell, having
at each angle a sharp prickle, and is a little indented on the flat
sides, like two posterns or little doors. The fruit while green is soft
and tender, and of a mealy taste, and is much eaten in India; but, in my
opinion, it is exceedingly cold on the stomach, as I always after eating
it was inclined to take spirits. It is called _Singarra_. The
_camolachachery_, or other fruit resembling a goblet, is flat on the
top, of a soft greenish substance, within which, a little eminent, stand
six or eight fruits like acorns, divided from each other, and enclosed
in a whitish film, at first of a russet green, having the taste of nuts
or acorns, and in the midst is a small green sprig, not fit to be eaten.

_Canua_ is a small country town, eighteen c. from Agra, W. by S. around
which very good indigo is made, owing to the strength of the soil and
brackishness of the water. It makes yearly about 500 M.[243] _Ouchen_,
three c. distant, makes very good indigo; besides which no town but
Biana is comparable to Canua. The country which produces the excellent
indigo, which takes its name from Biana, is not more than twenty or
thirty coss long. The herb _nill_, from which indigo is made, grows in
form not much unlike chives or chick-pease, having a small leaf like
that of senna, but shorter and broader, set on very short foot-stalks.
The branches are hard and woody, like those of broom. The whole plant
seldom exceeds a yard high, and its stem, at the biggest in the third
year, does not much exceed the size of a man's thumb. The seed is
enclosed in a small pod about an inch long, and resembles fenugreek,
only that it is blunter at both ends, as if cut off with a knife. The
flower is small, and like hearts-ease. The seed is ripe in November, and
is then gathered. When sown, the herb continues three years on the
ground, and is cut every year in August or September, after the rains.
The herb of the first year is tender, and from it is made _notee_, which
is a heavy reddish indigo, which sinks in water, not being come to
perfection. That made from the plant of the second year, called _cyree_,
is rich, very light, of a perfect violet colour, and swims in water. In
the third year the herb is declining, and the indigo it then produces,
called _catteld_, is blackish and heavy, being the worst of the three.
When the herb is cut, it is thrown into a long cistern, where it is
pressed down by many stones, and the water is then let in so as to cover
it all over. It remains thus certain days, till all the substance of the
herb is dissolved in the water. The water is then run off into another
cistern which is round, having another small cistern in the centre. It
is here laboured or beaten with great staves, like batter or white
starch, when it is allowed to settle, and the clear water on the top is
scummed off. It is then beaten again, and again allowed to settle,
drawing off the clear water; and these alternate beatings, settlings,
and drawing off the clear water, are repeated, till nothing remain but a
thick substance. This is taken out and spread on cloths in the sun, till
it hardens to some consistence, when it is made up by hand into small
balls, laid to dry on the sand, as any other thing would drink up the
colour, and which is the cause of every ball having a sandy foot. Should
rain fall while in this situation, the indigo loses its colour and
gloss, and is called _aliad_. Some deceitfully mix the crops of all the
three years, steeping them together, which fraud is hard to be
discovered, but is very knavish. Four things are required in good
indigo; a pure grain, a violet colour, a gloss in the sun, and that it
be light and dry, so that either swimming in water or burning in the
fire it casts forth a pure light violet vapour, leaving few ashes.

[Footnote 243: The meaning of this quantity is quite unintelligible; but
may possibly mean 500 _maunds_.--E.]

The king's manner of hunting is thus. About the beginning of November,
he goes from Agra accompanied by many thousands, and hunts all the
country for thirty or forty coss round about, and so continues till the
end of March, when the great heats drive him home again. He causes a
tract of wood or desert to be encompassed about by chosen men, who
contract themselves to a near compass, and whatever is taken in this
enclosure, is called the king's _sykar_, or game, whether _men_! or
beasts, and who ever lets aught escape loses his life, unless pardoned
by the king. All the beasts thus taken, if man's meat, are sold, and the
money given to the poor: If men, they become the king's slaves, and are
sent yearly to Cabul, to be bartered for horses and dogs; these being
poor miserable and thievish people, who live in the woods and deserts,
differing little from beasts. One day while the king was hunting, about
the 6th January, 1611, he was assaulted by a lion[244] which he had
wounded with his matchlock. The ferocious animal came upon him with such
sudden violence, that he had in all probability been destroyed, had not
a Rajaput captain interposed, just as the enraged animal had _ramped_
against the king, thrusting his arm into the lion's mouth. In this
struggle, Sultan Chorem, Rajah Ranidas, and others, came up and slew the
lion, the Rajaput captain, who was tutor to the lately baptized princes,
having first received thirty-two wounds in defence of the king; who took
him into his own palanquin, and with his own hands wiped away the blood
and bound up his wounds, making him an omrah of 3000 horse, in
recompence of his valorous loyalty.

[Footnote 244: The lion of these early travellers in India was almost
certainly the tyger.--E.]

This month of January 1611, the king was providing more forces for the
Deccan war, although the king of that country offered to restore all his
conquests as the price of peace. Azam Khan was appointed general, who
went off at the head of 20,000 horse, with whom went Mohabet Khan,
another great captain, together with a vast treasure. With these forces
went _John Frenchman_ and Charles Charke[245], engaged in the king's
service for these wars.

[Footnote 245: This Charles Charke I have spoken with since in London,
after having served several years in India.--_Purch._]

The 9th January, 1611, I departed from Agra for Lahore, to recover some
debts, and carried with me twelve carts laden with indigo, in hopes of a
good price.[246] In seven days journey, I arrived at Delhi, eighty-one
coss from Agra. On the left hand is seen the ruins of old Delhi,[247]
called the Seven Castles and Fifty-two Gates, now only inhabited by
_Gogars_, or cattle herds. A short way from Delhi is a stone bridge of
eleven arches, over a branch of the Jumna, whence a broad way, shaded on
each side with great trees, leads to the tomb of Humaion, grandfather of
the present king. In a large room spread with rich carpets, this tomb is
covered by a pure white sheet, and has over it a rich _semiane_, or
canopy. In front are certain books on small tressels, beside which stand
his sword, turban, and shoes; and at the entrance are the tombs of his
wives and daughters. Beyond this, under a similar shaded road, you come
to the king's house and moholl, now ruinous. The city is two coss in
extent, between gate and gate, being surrounded by a wall which has been
strong, but is now ruinous, as are many goodly houses. Within and around
the city, are the tombs of twenty Patan kings, all very fair and
stately. All the kings of India are here crowned, otherwise they are
held usurpers. Delhi is situated in a fine plain; and about two coss
from thence are the ruins of a hunting seat, or _mole_, built by _Sultan
Bemsa_, a great Indian sovereign. It still contains much curious
stone-work; and above all the rest is seen a stone pillar, which, after
passing through three several stories, rises twenty-four feet above them
all, having on the top a globe, surmounted by a crescent. It is said
that this stone stands as much below in the earth as it rises above, and
is placed below in water, being all one stone. Some say Naserdengady, a
Patan king, wanted to take it up, but was prevented by a multitude of
scorpions. It has inscriptions.[248] In divers parts of India the like
are to be seen.

[Footnote 246: It has not been deemed necessary to retain the itinerary
of this journey, consisting of a long enumeration of the several stages
and distances, the names of which are often unintelligible. Any
circumstances of importance are however retained.--E.]

[Footnote 247: There are said to be four Delhis within five coss. The
_oldest_ was built by _Rase_; who, by advice of his magicians, tried the
ground by driving an iron stake, which came up bloody, having wounded a
snake. This the _ponde_ or magician said was a fortunate sign. The last
of this race was Rase Pethory; who, after seven times taking a Patan
king, was at last by him taken and slain. He began the Patan kingdom of
Delhi. The Patans came from the mountains between Candahar and Cabul.
The _second_ Delhi was built by Togall Shah, a Patan king. The _third_
was of little note. The _fourth_ by Sher-shah-selim, and in it is the
tomb of Humaion.--_Purchas_.]

[Footnote 248: Purchas alleges that these inscriptions are in Greek and
Hebrew and that some affirm it was erected by Alexander the Great--E.]

It is remarkable, that the quarries of India, and especially those near
Futtipoor, are of such a nature that the rock may be cleft like logs,
and sawn like planks of great length and breadth, so as to form the
ceilings of rooms and the roofs of houses. From this monument, which is
two coss from Delhi, there is said to be a subterraneous passage all the
way to Delhi castle. This place is now all in ruins, and abounds in
deer. From Delhi, in nine stages, I reached _Sirinam_, or Sirhind, where
is a fair tank with a pleasure-house in the middle, to which leads a
stone bridge of fifteen arches. From thence is a canal to a royal
garden, at the distance of a coss, with a paved road forty feet broad,
overshaded by trees on both sides. This garden is square, each side a
coss or more in length, enclosed with a brick wall, richly planted with
all kinds of fruits and flowers, and was rented, as I was told, at
40,000 rupees. It is crossed by two main walks forty feet broad, raised
on mounds eight feet high, having water in the middle in stone channels,
and thickly planted on both sides with cypress trees. At the crossing of
these walks is an octagon moholl, with eight chambers for women, and a
fair tank in the middle, over which are other eight rooms, with fair
galleries all round. The whole of this building is of stone, curiously
wrought, with much fine painting, rich carving, and stucco work, and
splendid gilding. On two sides are two other fine tanks, in the midst of
a fair stone _chounter?_ planted round with cypress trees; and at a
little distance is another moholl, but not so curious.

From Sirhind, in five stages, making forty-eight coss, I came to a
_serai_ called Fetipoor, built by the present king Shah Selim, in memory
of the overthrow of his eldest son, Sultan Cussero, on the following
occasion. On some disgust, Shah Selim took up arms in the life of his
father Akbar, and fled into _Purrop_, where he kept the strong castle of
_Alobasse_,[249] but came in and submitted about three months before his
father's death. Akbar had disinherited Selim for his rebellion, giving
the kingdom to Sultan Cussero, Selim's eldest son. But after the death
of Akbar, Selim, by means of his friends, got possession of the castle
and treasure. Cussero fled to Lahore, where he raised about 12,000
horse, all good Mogul soldiers, and getting possession of the suburbs,
was then proclaimed king, while his father was proclaimed in the castle.
After twelve days came Melek Ali the Cutwall against him, beating the
king's drums, though Selim was some twenty coss in the rear; and giving
a brave assault, shouting _God save King Selim_, the prince's soldiers
lost heart and fled, leaving only five attendants with the prince, who
fled and got thirty coss beyond Lahore, in his way to Cabul. But having
to pass a river, and offering gold _mohors_ in payment of his passage,
the boatman grew suspicious, leapt overboard in the middle of the river,
and swam on shore, where he gave notice to the governor of a
neighbouring town. Taking fifty horse with him, the governor came to the
river side, where the boat still floated in the stream; and taking
another boat, went and saluted Cussero by the title of King,
dissemblingly offering his aid and inviting him to his house, where he
made him prisoner, and sent immediate notice to the king, who sent to
fetch him fettered on an elephant. From thence Selim proceeded to Cabul,
punishing such as had joined in the revolt; and on his return with his
son a prisoner, at this place, _Fetipoor_, where the battle was fought,
as some say, he caused the eyes of Cussero to be burnt out with a glass,
while others say he only caused him to be blindfolded with a napkin,
tied behind and sealed with his own seal, which yet remains, and carried
him prisoner to the castle of Agra. Along all the way from Agra to
Cabul, the king ordered trees to be planted on both sides; and in
remembrance of the exploit at this place, he caused it to be named
Fetipoor, or _Heart's Content_, as the city formerly mentioned had been
named by Akbar in memory of his birth.[250]

[Footnote 249: Purrop, or Porub, has been formerly supposed the ancient
kingdom of Porus in the Punjab, and Attobass, here called Alobasse, to
have been Attock Benares--E.]

[Footnote 250: There are several places in India of this name, but that
in the text at this place is not now to be found in our maps, on the
road between Delhi and Lahore.--E.]

From hence I went to Lahore, twenty-nine coss, in three stages, arriving
there on the 4th of February, 1611. The 28th there arrived here a
Persian ambassador from Shah Abbas, by whom I learnt that the way to
Candahar was now clear, having been impassable in consequence of the
war occasioned by Gelole, a Turk, who had tied to Persia with 10,000
Turks, when, having got a jagheer on the frontiers, he endeavoured to
make himself independent, but was overthrown, and lost his head.

Sec. 6. _Description of Lahore, with other Observations_.

Lahore is one of the greatest cities of the east, being near twenty-four
coss in circuit, round which a great ditch is now digging, the king
having commanded the whole city to be surrounded by a strong wall. In
the time of the Patan empire of Delhi, Lahore was only a village,
Mooltan being then a flourishing city, till Humaion thought proper to
enlarge Lahore, which now, including its suburbs, is about six coss in
extent. The castle or royal town is surrounded by a brick wall, which is
entered by twelve handsome gates, three of which open to the banks of
the river, and the other nine towards the land. The streets are well
paved, and the inhabitants are mostly Banyan handicrafts, all white men
of any note living in the suburbs. The buildings are fair and high of
brick, with much curious carvings about the doors and windows; and most
of the Gentiles have their house doors raised six or seven steps from
the street, and of troublesome ascent, partly for greater security, and
to prevent passengers from seeing into their houses. The castle is built
on the S.E. bank of the _Rauvee_, a river that flows into the Indus, and
down which many barges of sixty tons and upwards navigate to Tatta in
Sindy, after the falling of the rains, being a voyage of about forty
days, passing by Mooltan, Sidpoor, Backar, &c.

The river Rauvee comes from the N.E. and passing the north side of the
city, runs W.S.W. to join the Indus. Within the castle is the king's
palace, which is on the side towards the river, and is entered by the
middle gate on that side, after entering which, you go into the palace
by a strong gate on the left hand, and a musket-shot farther by a
smaller gate, into a large square court, surrounded by _atescanna_, in
which the king's guard keeps watch. Beyond this, and turning again to
the left, you enter by another gate into an inner court, in which the
king holds his _durbar_, or court, all round which are _atescannas_,[251]
in which the great men keep watch, and in the middle of the court is a
high pole on which to hang a light. From thence you go up to a fair stone
_jounter_, or small court, in the middle of which stands a fair
_devoncan_,[252] with two or three retiring rooms, in which the king
usually spends the early part of the night, from eight to eleven o'clock.
On the walls is the king's picture, sitting cross-legged on a chair of
state, on his right hand Sultan Parvis, Sultan Chorem, and Sultan Timor,
his sons; next whom are Shah Morat and Don Shah, his brothers, the three
princes who were baptized being sons of this last. Next to them is the
picture of Eemersee Sheriff, eldest brother to Khan Azam, with those of
many of the principal people of the court. It is worthy likewise of notice,
that in this hall are conspicuously placed the pictures of our Saviour and
the Virgin Mary.

[Footnote 251: This unexplained word probably signifies a corridore, or
covered gallery.--E.]

[Footnote 252: Perhaps a divan, or audience hall.--E.]

From this _devoncan_, or hall of audience, which is pleasantly situated,
overlooking the river, passing a small gate to the west, you enter
another small court, where is another open stone _chounter_ to sit in,
covered with rich _semianes_, or canopies. From hence you enter a
gallery, at the end of which nest the river is a small window, from
which the king looks forth at his _dersanee_, to behold the fights of
wild beasts on a meadow beside the river. On the walls of this gallery
are the pictures of the late Emperor Akbar, the present sovereign, and
all his sons. At the end is a small _devoncan_, where the king usually
sits, and behind it is his bed-chamber, and before it an open paved
court, along the right-hand side of which is a small _moholl_ of two
stories, each containing eight fair chambers for several women, with
galleries and windows looking both to the river and the court. All the
doors of these chambers are made to be fastened on the outside, and not
within. In the gallery, where the king usually sits, there are many
pictures of angels, intermixed with those of banian _dews_, or devils
rather, being of most ugly shapes, with long horns, staring eyes, shaggy
hair, great paws and fangs, long tails, and other circumstances of
horrible deformity, that I wonder the poor women are not frightened at
them.

Returning to the former court, where the _adees_, or guards, keep
watch, you enter by another gate into the new durbar, beyond which are
several apartments, and a great square moholl, sufficient to lodge two
hundred women in state, all having several apartments. From the same
court of guard, passing right on, you enter another small paved court,
and thence into another moholl, the stateliest of all, containing
sixteen separate suites of large apartments, each having a _devoncan_,
or hall, and several chambers, each lady having her tank, and enjoying a
little separate world of pleasures and state to herself, all pleasantly
situated, overlooking the river. Before the moholl appropriated to the
mother of Sultan Cussero, is a high pole for carrying a light, as before
the king, as she brought forth the emperor's first son and heir.

Before this gallery is a fair paved court, with stone gratings and
windows along the water; beneath which is a pleasure garden; and behind
are the king's principal lodgings, most sumptuously decorated, all the
walls and ceilings being laid over with pure gold, and along the sides,
about man's height, a great number of Venetian mirrors, about three feet
asunder, and in threes over each other; and below are many pictures of
the king's ancestors, as Akbar his father, Humaion his grandfather,
Babur his great-grandfather, the first of the race who set foot on
India, together with thirty of his nobles, all clad as calenders or
fakiers. In that disguise Babur and his thirty nobles came to Delhi to
the court of Secunder, then reigning, where Babur was discovered, yet
dismissed under an oath not to attempt any hostilities during the life
of Secunder, which he faithfully performed. On the death of Secunder,
Babur sent his son Humaion against his successor Abram, from whom he
conquered the whole kingdom. There afterwards arose a great captain, of
the displaced royal family in Bengal, who fought a great battle against
Humaion near the Ganges, and having defeated him, continued the pursuit
till he took refuge in the dominions of Persia; where he procured new
forces, under the command of Byram, father to the Khan Khana, and
reconquered all, living afterwards in security. On the death of Humaion,
Akbar was very young, and Byram Khan was left protector of the realm.
When Akbar grew up, and assumed the reins of government, he cast off
Byram, and is said to have made away with him, when on a _roomery_, or
pilgrimage to Mecca. The son of Byram, Khan-khana, or khan of the
khans, in conjunction with his friends and allies, is a great curb on
Shah Selim, being able to bring into the field upwards of 100,000 horse.
Shah Selim affirms himself to be the ninth in lineal male descent from
Tamerlane, or Timur the Great, emperor of the Moguls.[253]

[Footnote 253: We have here left out a farther description of the palace
and other buildings at Lahore, which in fact convey little or no
information.--E.]

The 17th of May came news that the Patan thieves had sacked the city of
Cabul, having come suddenly against it from their mountains with 11,000
foot and 1000 horse, while the governor was absent on other affairs at
Jalalabad, and the garrison so weak that it was only able to defend the
castle. In six hours they plundered the city, and retired with their
booty. For the better keeping these rebels in order, the king has
established twenty-three omrahs between Lahore and Cabul, yet all will
not do, as they often sally from their mountains, robbing caravans and
plundering towns. The 18th of August, there arrived a great caravan from
Persia, by whom we had news of the French king's death, from an Armenian
who had been in the service of Mr Boys.

On the west side of the castle of Lahore is the ferry for crossing over
the Rauvee on the way to Cabul, which is 271 cosses, and thence to
Tartary and Cashgar. Cabul is a large and fair city, the first seat of
the present king's great-grandfather Babur. At forty cosses beyond is
_Gorebond_, or Gourhund, a great city bordering on Usbeck Tartary; and
150 coss from Cabul is _Taul Caun_, a city in _Buddocsha_, or Badakshan
of Bucharia. From Cabul to Cashgar, with the caravan, it is two or three
months journey, Cashgar being a great kingdom under the Tartars. A chief
city of trade in that country is _Yarcan_, whence comes much silk,
porcelain, musk, and rhubarb, with other commodities; all or most of
which come from China, the gate or entrance into which is some two or
three months farther. When the caravan comes to this entrance, it must
remain under tents, sending by licence some ten or fifteen merchants at
once to transact their business, on whose return as many more may be
sent; but on no account can the whole caravan be permitted to enter at
once.

From Lahore to Cashmere, the road goes first, part of the way to Cabul,
to a town called Gojrat, forty-four coss; whence it turns north and
somewhat easterly seventy coss, when it ascends a high mountain called
_Hast-caunk-gaut_, on the top of which is a fine plain, after which is
twelve coss through a goodly country to Cashmere, which is a strong city
on the river Bebut, otherwise called the Ihylum, or Collumma. The
country of Cashmere is a rich and fertile plain among the mountains,
some 150 coss in length, and 50 broad, abounding in fruits, grain, and
saffron, and having beautiful fair women. This country is cold, and
subjected to great frosts and heavy falls of snow, being near to
Cashgar, yet separated by such prodigious mountains that there is no
passage for caravans. Much silk and other goods are however often
brought this way by men, without the aid of animals, and the goods have
in many places to be drawn up or let down over precipices by means of
ropes. On these mountains dwells a small king called Tibbet,[254] who
lately sent one of his daughters to Shah Selim, by way of making
affinity.

[Footnote 254: Little Thibet, a country hardly known in geography, is on
the north-west of Cashmere, beyond the northern chain of the Vindhia
mountains.--E.]

Nicholas Uphet, [or Ufflet] went from Agra to Surat by a different way
from that by which I came, going by the mountains of Narwar, which
extend to near Ahmedabad in Guzerat. Upon these mountains stands the
impregnable castle of _Gur Chitto_, or Chitore, the chief seat of the
_Ranna_, a very powerful rajah, whom neither the Patans, nor Akbar
himself, was ever able to subdue. Owing to all India having been
formerly belonging to the Gentiles, and this prince having always been,
and is still, esteemed in equal reverence as the pope is by the
catholics, those rajahs who have been sent against him have always made
some excuses for not being able to do much injury to his territories,
which extend towards Ahmednagur 150 great cosses, and in breadth 200
cosses towards Oogain, mostly composed of, or inclosed by inaccessible
mountains, well fortified by art in many places. This rajah is able on
occasion to raise 12,000 good horse, and holds many fair towns and
goodly cities.

Ajmeer, the capital of a kingdom or province of that name, west from
Agra, stands on the top of an inaccessible mountain, three coss in
ascent, being quite impregnable. The city at the foot of the hill is not
great, but is well built and surrounded by a stone wall and ditch. It is
chiefly famous for the tomb of Haji Mundee, a saint much venerated by
the Moguls, to which, as formerly mentioned, Akbar made a _roomery_, or
pilgrimage on foot, from Agra, to obtain a son. Before coming to this
tomb, you have to pass through three fair courts; the first, covering
near an acre of ground, all paved with black and white marble, in which
many of Mahomet's cursed kindred are interred. In this court is a fair
tank all lined with stone. The second court is paved like the former,
but richer, and is twice as large as the Exchange at London, having in
the middle a curious candlestick with many lights. The third court is
entered by a brazen gate of curious workmanship, and is the fairest of
all, especially near the door of the sepulchre, where the pavement is
curiously laid in party-coloured stones. The door is large, and all
inlaid with mother-of-pearl, and the pavement about the tomb is all
mosaic of different-coloured marbles. The tomb itself is splendidly
adorned with mother-of-pearl and gold, having an epitaph in Persian. At
a little distance stands his seat in an obscure corner, where he used to
sit foretelling future events, and which is highly venerated. On the
east side are three other fair courts with each a fair tank; and on the
north and west are several handsome houses, inhabited by _sidees_, or
Mahometan priests. No person is allowed to enter any of these places
except bare-footed.

Beyond Ajmeer to the west and south-west, are Meerat Joudpoor and
Jalour, which last is a castle on the top of a steep mountain, three
coss in ascent, by a fair stone causeway,[255] broad enough for two men.
At the end of the first coss is a gate and court of guard, where the
causeway is enclosed on both sides with walls. At the end of the second
coss is a double gate strongly fortified; and at the third coss is the
castle, which is entered by three successive gates. The first is very
strongly plated with iron; the second not so strong, with places above
for throwing down melted lead or boiling oil; and the third is thickly
beset with iron spikes. Between each of these gates are spacious places
of arms, and at the inner gate is a strong portcullis. A bow-shot within
the castle is a splendid pagoda, built by the founders of the castle,
ancestors of Gidney Khan, who were Gentiles. He turned Mahometan, and
deprived his elder brother of this castle by the following stratagem:
Having invited him and his women to a banquet, which his brother
requited by a similar entertainment, he substituted chosen soldiers well
armed instead of women, sending them two and two in a _dowle_,[256] who,
getting in by this device, gained possession of the gates, and held the
place for the Great Mogul, to whom it now appertains, being one of the
strongest situated forts in the world.

[Footnote 255: This is probably a stair.--E.]

[Footnote 256: A dowle, dowly, or dooly, is a chair or cage, in which
their women are carried on men's shoulders.--_Purch._]

About half a coss within the gate is a goodly square tank, cut out of
the solid rock, said to be fifty fathoms deep, and full of excellent
water. A little farther on is a goodly plain, shaded with many fine
trees, beyond which, on a small conical hill, is the sepulchre of King
_Hasswaard_, who was a great soldier in his life, and has been since
venerated as a great saint by the people in these parts. Near this place
is said to be kept a huge snake, twenty-five feet long, and as thick as
the body of a man, which the people will not hurt. This castle, which is
eight coss in circuit, is considered as the gate or frontier of Guzerat.
Beyond it is Beelmahl, the ancient wall of which is still to be seen,
near twenty-four coss in circuit, containing many fine tanks going to
ruin. From thence to Ahmedabad or Amadaver, by Rhadunpoor, is a deep
sandy country.

Ahmedabad is a goodly city on a fine river, the Mohindry, inclosed with
strong walls and fair gates, with many beautiful towers. The castle is
large and strong, in which resides the son of Azam Khan, who is viceroy
in these parts. The streets are large and well paved, and the buildings
are comparable to those of any town in Asia. It has great trade; for
almost every ten days there go from hence 200 _coaches_[257] richly
laden with merchandize for Cambay. The merchants here are rich, and the
artisans very expert in carvings, paintings, inlaid works, and
embroidery in gold and silver. At an hour's warning this place has 6000
horse in readiness: The gates are continually and strictly guarded, no
person being allowed to enter without a licence, or to depart without a
pass. These precautions are owing to the neighbourhood of Badur, whose
strong-hold is only fifty coss to the east, where nature, with some aid
from art, has fortified him against all the power of the Moguls, and
whence some four years ago, proclaiming liberty and laws of good
fellowship,[258] he sacked Cambaya by a sudden assault of 100,000 men,
drawn together by the hope of plunder, and with whom he retained
possession for fourteen days.

[Footnote 257: Perhaps camels ought to be substituted for coaches; or at
least _carts_ drawn by bullocks.--E.]

[Footnote 258: This is very singular, to find _liberty and equality_ in
the mouths of Indian despots and slaves.--E.]

Between Ahmedabad and _Trage_, there is a rajah in the mountains, who is
able to bring 17,000 horse and foot into the field, his people, called
_Collees_ or _Quuliees_, inhabiting a desert wilderness, which preserves
him from being conquered. On the right hand is another rajah, able to
raise 10,000 horse, who holds an impregnable castle in a desert plain.
His country was subject to the government of Gidney Khan, but he has
stood on his defence for seven years, refusing to pay tribute. This
rajah is reported to have a race of horses superior to all others in the
east, and said to be swifter than those of Arabia, and able to continue
at reasonable speed a whole day without once stopping; of which he is
said to have a stud of 100 mares. From _Jalore_ to the city of
Ahmedabad, the whole way is through a sandy and woody country, full of
thievish beastly men, and savage beasts, as lions, tygers, &c. About
thirty coss round Ahmedabad, indigo is made, called _cickell_, from a
town of that name four coss from Ahmedabad, but this is not so good as
that of Biana.

Cambaya is thirty-eight coss from Ahmedabad, by a road through sands and
woods, much infested by thieves. Cambay is on the coast of a gulf of the
same name, encompassed by a strong brick wall, having high and handsome
houses, forming straight paved streets, each of which has a gate at
either end. It has an excellent bazar, abounding in cloth of all kinds,
and valuable drugs, and is so much frequented by the Portuguese, that
there are often 200 frigates or grabs riding there. The gulf or bay is
eight coss over, and is exceedingly dangerous to navigate on account of
the great _bore_, which drowns many, so that it requires skilful pilots
well acquainted with the tides. At neap tides is the least danger.
Thieves also, when you are over the channel, are not a little dangerous,
forcing merchants, if not the better provided, to quit their goods, or
by long dispute betraying them to the fury of the tide, which comes
with such swiftness that it is ten to one if any escape. Cambay is
infested with an infinite number of monkies, which are continually
leaping from house to house, doing much mischief and untiling the
houses, so that people in the streets are in danger of being felled by
the falling stones.

Five coss from Cambay is _Jumbosier_, now much ruined, and thence
eighteen coss to Broach, a woody and dangerous journey, in which are
many peacocks. Within four coss of Broach is a great mine of agates.
Broach is a fair castle, seated on a river twice as broad as the Thames,
called the _Nerbuddah_, the mouth of which is twelve coss from thence.
Here are made rich _baffatas_, much surpassing Holland cloth in
fineness, which cost fifty rupees the _book_, each of fourteen English
yards, not three quarters broad. Hence to _Variaw_, twenty coss, is a
goodly country, fertile, and full of villages, abounding in wild date
trees, which are usually plentiful by the sea-side in most places, from
which they draw a liquor called _Tarrie, Sure_, or _Toddic_, as also
from a wild cocoa-tree called _Tarrie_. Hence to Surat is three coss,
being the close of the itinerary of Nicolas Ufflet.

The city of Agra has not been in repute above 50 years,[259] having only
been a village till the reign of Akbar, who removed his residence to
this place from Futtipoor, as already mentioned, for want of good water.
It is now a large city, and populous beyond measure, so that it is very
difficult to pass through the streets, which are mostly narrow and
dirty, save only the great Bazar and a few others, which are large and
handsome. The city is somewhat in the form of a crescent, on the
convexity of a bend of the Jumna, being about five coss in length on the
land side, and as much along the banks of the river, on which are many
goodly houses of the nobles, overlooking the Jumna, which runs with a
swift current from N.W. to S.E. to join the Ganges. On the banks of the
river stands the castle, one of the fairest and most admirable buildings
in all the East, some three or four miles in circuit, inclosed by a fine
and strong wall of squared stones, around which is a fair ditch with

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