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A GENERAL HISTORY AND COLLECTION OF VOYAGES AND TRAVELS.

ARRANGED IN SYSTEMATIC ORDER:

FORMING A COMPLETE HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF NAVIGATION,
DISCOVERY, AND COMMERCE, BY SEA AND LAND, FROM THE EARLIEST AGES TO THE
PRESENT TIME.

BY ROBERT KERR, F.R.S. & F.A.S. EDIN.

ILLUSTRATED BY MAPS AND CHARTS.

VOL. VII.

MDCCCXXIV.

CONTENTS OF VOL. VII.

PART II. BOOK III. CONTINUED.

CHAP. IV. Continued.

SECT. XIII. Account of an expedition of the Portuguese from India to
Madagascar in 1613.

XIV. Continuation of the transactions of the Portuguese in India, from
1617 to 1640: and the conclusion of the Portuguese Asia of Manuel de
Faria.

XV. Occurrences in Pegu, Martavan, Pram, Siam, and other places.

XVI. A short account of the Portuguese possessions between the Cape of
Good Hope and China.

CHAP. V. Voyages and Travels in Egypt, Syria, Arabia, Persia, and India.
By Ludovico Verthema, in 1503.

Introduction

SECT. I Of the Navigation from Venice to Alexandria in Egypt, and from
thence to Damascus in Syria.

II. Of the City of Damascus.

CHAP. V. SECT. III. Of the Journey from Damascus to Mecca, and of the
Manners of the Arabians.

IV. Observations of the Author during his residence at Mecca.

V. Adventures of the Author in various parts of Arabia Felix, or Yemen.

VI. Observations of the Author relative to some parts of Persia.

VII. Observations of the Author on various parts of India.

VIII. Account of the famous City and Kingdom of Calicut.

IX. Observations on various parts of India.

X. Continuation of the Authors Adventures, after his return to Calicut.

XI. Account of a memorable Battle between the Mahometan Navy of Calicut
and the Portuguese.

XII. Navigation of the Author to Ethiopia, and return to Europe by Sea.

CHAP. VI. Voyages and Travels of Cesar Frederick in India.

Introduction

SECT. I. Voyage from Venice to Bir in Asia Minor.

II. Of Feluchia and Babylon.

III. Of Basora.

IV. Of Ormuz.

V. Of Goa, Diu, and Cambaya.

VI. Of Damann, Bassen, Tana, Chaul, and some other places.

VII. Of Goa.

VIII. Of the City of Bijanagur.

IX. Of Cochin.

X. Of the Pearl Fishery in the Gulf of Manaar.

XI. Of the Island of Ceylon.

XII. Of Negapatam.

XIII. Of Saint Thome and other places.

XIV. Of the Island of Sumatra and the City of Malacca.

XV. Of the City of Siam.

XVI. Of the Kingdom of Orissa and the River Ganges.

XVII. Of Tanasserim and other places.

Sect. XVIII. Of Martaban and the Kingdom of Pegu.

XIX. Voyages of the Author to different parts of India.

XX. Some Account of the Commodities of India.

XXI. Return of the Author to Europe.

CHAP. VII. Early English Voyages to Guinea, and other parts of the West
Coast of Africa.

Introduction.

SECT. I. Second Voyage of the English to Barbary, in the year 1552, by
Captain Thomas Windham.

II. A Voyage from England to Guinea and Benin in 1553, by Captain
Windham and Antonio Anes Pinteado.

III. Voyage to Guinea, in 1554, by Captain John Lok.

IV. Voyage to Guinea in 1555, by William Towerson, Merchant of London.

V. Second Voyage to Guinea in 1556, by William Towerson.

VI. Third Voyage of William Towerson to Guinea in 1558.

VII. Notices of an intended Voyage to Guinea, in 1561.

VIII. Voyage to Guinea in 1562, written by William Rutter.

IX. Supplementary Account of the foregoing Voyage.

X. Voyage to Guinea in 1563 by Robert Baker.

XI. A Voyage to Guinea in 1564, by Captain David Carlet.

XII. A Voyage to Guinea and the Cape de Verd Islands in 1566, by George
Fenner.

XIII. Embassy of Mr Edmund Hogan to Morocco in 1577, written by himself.

XIV. Embassy of Henry Roberts from Queen Elizabeth to Morocco, in 1585,
written by himself.

SECT. XV. Voyage to Benin beyond Guinea in 1588, by James Welsh.

XVI. Supplement to the foregoing Voyage, in a Letter from Anthony Ingram
the chief factor, written from Plymouth to the Owners, dated 9th
September, the day of arriving at Plymouth.

XVII. Second Voyage of James Welsh to Benin, in 1590.

VIII. Voyage of Richard Rainolds and Thomas Dassel to the Rivers Senegal
and Gambia adjoining to Guinea, in 1591.

CHAP. VIII. Some miscellaneous early Voyages of the English.

Introduction.

SECT. I. Gallant escape of the Primrose from Bilboa in Spain, in 1585.

II. Voyage of Sir Francis Drake, in 1585, to the West Indies.

III. Cruising Voyage to the Azores by Captain Whiddon, in 1586, written
by John Evesham.

IV. Brief relation of notable service performed by Sir Francis Drake in
1587.

V. Brief account of the Expedition of the Spanish Armada in 1588.

VI. Account of the Relief of a part of the Spanish Armada, at Anstruther
in Scotland, in 1588.

VII. A cruising Voyage to the Azores in 1589, by the Earl of Cumberland.

VIII. Valiant Sea Fight by Ten Merchant Ships of London against Twelve
Spanish Gallies, in the Straits of Gibraltar, on the 24th April 1590.

IX. A valiant Sea Fight in the Straits of Gibraltar, in April 1591, by
the Centurion of London, against five Spanish Gallies.

X. Sea-Fight near the Azores, between the Revenge man of war, commanded
by Sir Richard Granville, and fifteen Spanish men of war, 31st August
1591. Written by Sir Walter Raleigh.

SECT. XI. Note of the Fleet of the Indies, expected in Spain this year
1591; with the number that perished, according to the examination of
certain Spaniards, lately taken and brought to England.

XII. Report of a Cruizing Voyage to the Azores in 1581, by a fleet of
London ships sent with supplies to the Lord Thomas Howard. Written by
Captain Robert Flicke.

XIII. Exploits of the English in several Expeditions and cruizing
Voyages from 1589 to 1592; extracted from John Huighen van Linschoten.

XIV. Cruising voyage to the Azores, in 1592, by Sir John Burrough,
knight.

XV. The taking of two Spanish Ships, laden with quicksilver and the
Popes bulls, in 1592, by Captain Thomas White.

XVI. Narrative of the Destruction of a great East India Carak in 1584,
written by Captain Nicholas Downton.

XVII. List of the Royal Navy of England at the demise of Queen
Elizabeth.

CHAP IX. Early Voyages of the English to the East Indies, before the
establishment of an exclusive company.

SECT. I. Voyage to Goa in 1579, in the Portuguese fleet, by Thomas
Stevens.

Introduction.

II. Journey to India over-land, by Ralph Fitch, Merchant of London, and
others, in 1583.

III. Supplement to the Journey of Fitch No. 1.--Letter from Mr John
Newbery to Mr Richard Hakluyt of Oxford, Author of the Voyages, &c.

No. 2,--Letter from Mr John Newbery to Mr Leonard Poore of London.

3.--Letter from Mr John Newbery to the same.

4.--Letter from John Newbery to Messrs John Eldred and William Scales at
Basora.

5.--Letter from Mr John Newbery to Messrs Eldred and Scales.

6.--Letter from Mr Newbery to Mr Leonard Poore.

7.--Letter from Mr Ralph Fitch to Mr Leonard Poore.

8.--The Report of John Huighen, &c.

A
GENERAL HISTORY AND COLLECTION
OF VOYAGES AND TRAVELS.

* * * * *

PART II. BOOK III. CONTINUED.

* * * * *

CONTINUATION OF THE DISCOVERIES AND CONQUESTS OF THE PORTUGUESE IN THE
EAST; TOGETHER WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF THE EARLY VOYAGES Of OTHER EUROPEAN
NATIONS TO INDIA.

* * * * *

CHAPTER IV. CONTINUED.

CONTINUATION OF THE PORTUGUESE TRANSACTIONS IN INDIA, AFTER THE RETURN
OF DON STEPHANO DE GAMA FROM SUEZ IN 1541, TO THE REDUCTION OF PORTUGAL
UNDER THE DOMINION OF SPAIN IN 1581.

SECTION XIII.

_Account of an Expedition of the Portuguese from India to Madagascar in
1613._

Being anxious to find out a considerable number of Portuguese who were
reported to exist in the island of St. Lawrence or Madagascar, having
been cast away at different times on that island, and also desirous of
propagating the ever blessed gospel among its inhabitants, and to
exclude the Hollanders from that island by establishing a friendly
correspondence with the native princes, the viceroy Don Jerome de
Azevedo sent thither, in 1613, a caravel from Goa commanded by Paul
Rodrigues de Costa, accompanied by two Jesuits, some interpreters, and a
competent number of soldiers. This island is about 260 leagues in length
and 600 in circumference[1], its greatest extent being from N.N.E. to
S.S.W. It is 80 leagues from E. to W. where widest, but considerably
less towards the north, where it ends in a point named St Ignatius which
is about 15 leagues from east to west[2]. It may be considered as
divided into three parts. The first or northern portion is divided from
the other two by an imaginary line from east to west at Cape St
Andrew[3]. The other two divisions are formed by a chain of mountains
running nearly south from this line to Cape St Romanus, otherwise Cape
St Mary, but much nearer the east coast than the west. The island is
divided into a great number of kingdoms, but so confusedly and
ill-defined, that it were endless to enumerate them. It is very
populous, the inhabitants having many cities and towns of different
extent and grandeur[4]. The country is fertile and well watered, and
everywhere diversified with mountains, vallies, rivers, bays, and ports.
The natives have no general name for the island, and are entirely
ignorant of those of Madagascar and St Lawrence, which are given to it
by strangers. The general population of the island consists of a nation
called _Buques_, who have no religion and consequently no priests or
places of worship, yet all their youth are circumcised at six or seven
years old, any one performing the operation. The natives are not all of
one colour; some being quite black with crisp or curled hair like
negroes; others not quite so black with lank hair; others again
resembling mulatoes; while some that live in the interior are almost
white, yet have hair of both kinds. They are of large stature, strong
and well made, of clear judgment, and apt to learn. Every man has as
many wives as he pleases or can maintain, turning them off at pleasure,
when they are sure to find other husbands, all of whom buy their wives
from their fathers, by way of repaying the expence of their maintenance
before marriage. Their funeral obsequies consist chiefly in feasting the
guests; and their mourning in laying aside all appearance of joy, and
cutting off their hair or daubing their faces and bodies with clay.
Their government is monarchical, their kings or chiefs being called
_Andias_, _Anrias_, and _Dias_, all independent of each other and almost
continually engaged in war, more for the purpose of plunder than
slaughter or conquest. On the Portuguese going among them, no arms were
found in their possession except a few guns they had procured from the
Moors and Hollanders, which they knew not how to use, and were even
fearful of handling. They have excellent amber[5], white sandal,
tortoises, ebony, sweet woods of various kinds, and abundance of slaves,
with plenty of cattle of all kinds, the flesh of their goats being as
sweet as mutton. The island likewise produces abundance of sea cows,
sea-horses, monkeys, and some say tigers, with a great many snakes which
are not very venomous. It has no elephants, horses, asses, lions, bears,
deer, foxes, nor hares.

[Footnote 1: Madagascar, between the latitudes of 12 deg. 30' and 35 deg. 45' S.
and the longitudes of 44 deg. and 53 deg. W. from Greenwich, rather exceeds 1000
statute miles from N.N.W to S.S.E. and is about 220 miles in mean width
from east to west. This island therefore, in a fine climate, capable of
growing all the tropical productions in perfection, and excellently
situated for trade, extends to about 200,000 square miles, or 128
millions of acres, yet is abandoned entirely to ignorant
barbarians.--E.]

[Footnote 2: The north end of Madagascar, called the point of St
Ignatius, is 70 miles from east to west, the eastern headland being Cape
Natal or de Ambro, and the western Cape St Sebastian.--E.]

[3][Footnote 3: 3 Cape Antongil on the east coast is probably here
meant, in lat. 15 deg. 45' S. as at this place the deep bay of Antongil or
Manghabei penetrates about 70 mile inland, and the opposite coast also
is deeply indented by port Massali. It is proper to mention however,
that Cape St Andrew is on the west coast of Madagascar, in lat. 17 deg. 12'
S.--E.]

[Footnote 4: There may be numerous villages, or collections of huts, in
Madagascar, and some of these may possibly be extensive and populous;
but there certainly never was in that island any place that merited the
name of a city.--E.]

[Footnote 5: More probably Ambergris thrown on their shores.--E.]

The first place visited by de Costa on this voyage of discovery was a
large bay near _Masilage_[6] in lat. 16 deg. S. in which there is an island
half a league in circumference containing a town of 8000 inhabitants,
most of them weavers of an excellent kind of stuff made of the
palm-tree. At this place the Moors used to purchase boys who were
carried to Arabia and sold for infamous uses. The king of this place,
named _Samamo_, received the Portuguese in a friendly manner, and
granted leave to preach the gospel among his subjects. Coasting about 40
leagues south from this place, they came to the mouth of a large river
named _Balue_ or _Baeli_ in about 17 deg. S. and having doubled Cape St
Andrew, they saw the river and kingdom of _Casame_, between the
latitudes of 17 deg. and 18 deg. S. where they found little water and had much
trouble[7]. Here also amity was established with the king, whose name
was Sampilla, a discreet old man; but hitherto they could get no
intelligence of the Portuguese whom they were sent in search of. On
Whitsunday, which happened that year about the middle of May, mass was
said on shore and two crosses erected, at which the king appeared so
much pleased that he engaged to restore them if they happened to fall or
decay. During the holidays they discovered an island in lat. 18 deg. S. to
which they gave the name of Espirito Santo[8], and half a degree farther
they were in some danger from a sand bank 9 leagues long. On Trinity
Sunday, still in danger from sand banks, they anchored at the seven
islands of _Cuerpo de Dios_ or _Corpus Christi_[9] in 19 deg. S. near the
kingdom and river of _Sadia_ to which they came on the 19th of June,
finding scarcely enough of water to float the caravel. This kingdom is
extensive, and its principal _city_ on the banks of the river has about
10,000 inhabitants. The people are black, simple, and good-natured,
having no trade, but have plenty of flesh, maize, tar, tortoises,
sandal, ebony, and sweet woods. The name of the king was _Capilate_, who
was an old man much respected and very honest. He received the
Portuguese kindly, and even sent his son to guide them along the coast.
All along this coast from _Massalage_ to _Sadia_ the natives speak the
same language with the Kafrs on the opposite coast of Africa; while in
all the rest of the island the native language called _Buqua_ is spoken.

[Footnote 6: On this bay is a town called New Massah to distinguish it
from Old Massah on the bay of Massali, somewhat more than half a degree
farther north. Masialege or Meselage is a town at the bottom of the bay
of Juan Mane de Cuna, about half a degree farther south.--E.]

[Footnote 7: They were here on the bank of Pracel, which seems alluded
to in the text from the shallowness of the water; though the district
named Casame in the text is not to be found in modern maps--E.]

[Footnote 8: Probably the island of the bay of St Andrew in 17 deg. 30' is
here meant; at any rate it must be carefully distinguished from Spiritu
Santo, St Esprit, or Holy Ghost Island, one of the Comoros in lat. 15 deg.
S.--E.]

[Footnote 9: Perhaps those now called _barren isles_ on the west coast,
between lat. 18 deg. 40' and 19 deg. 12' S. The river Sadia of the text may be
that now called _Santiano_ in lat. 19 deg. S.--E.]

Continuing towards the south they came to the country of the _Buques_,
a poor and barbarous people feeding on the spawn of fish, who are much
oppressed by the kings of the inland tribes. Passing the river
_Mane_[10], that of _Saume_[11] in 20 deg. 15'; _Manoputa_ in 20 deg. 30', where
they first heard of the Portuguese; _Isango_ in 21 deg.; _Terrir_ in 21 deg.
30'; the seven islands of _Elizabeth_ in 22 deg.; they came on the 11th of
July into the port of _St Felix_[12] in 22 deg., where they heard again of
the Portuguese of whom they were in search, from _Dissamuta_ the king of
that part of the country. On offering a silver chain at this place for
some provisions, the natives gave it to an old woman to examine if it
was genuine, and she informed the Portuguese that at the distance of
three days journey there was an island inhabited a long while before by
a white people dressed like the Portuguese and wearing crosses hanging
from their necks, who lived by rapine and easily took whatever they
wanted, as they were armed with spears and guns, with which information
the Portuguese were much gratified. Continuing their voyage past the bay
of _St Bonaventura_ and the mouth of the river _Massimanga_, they
entered the bay of _Santa Clara_, where _Diamassuto_ came to them and
entered into a treaty of friendship, worshipping the cross on his knees.
They were here told that white people frequented a neighbouring port,
and concluded that they were Hollanders. Going onwards they found banks
of sand not laid down in any chart, and entered a port in lat. 24 deg. S.
The king of this place was named _Diacomena_, and they here learnt that
there were Portuguese on the opposite coast who had been cast away, and
now herded cattle for their subsistence. They said likewise that the
Hollanders had been three times at their port, and had left them four
musketeers with whose assistance they had made war upon their enemies.
On some trees there were several inscriptions, among which were the
following. _Christophorus Neoportus Anglus Cap_. and on another _Dominus
Robertus Scherleius Comes, Legatus Regis Persarum_.

[Footnote 10: It is singular that the large circular bay of Mansitare in
lat. 19 deg. 30' S. is not named, although probably meant by the river
_Mane_ in the text.--E.]

[Footnote 11: Now called Ranoumanthe, discharging its waters into the
bay of St Vincents.--E.]

[Footnote 12: Now Port St James.--E.]

In the latitude of 25 deg. S. they entered a port which they named St
Augustine[13] in a kingdom called _Vavalinta_, of which a _Buque_ named
_Diamacrinale_ was king, who no sooner saw the Portuguese than he asked
if these were some of the men from the other coast. This confirmed the
stories they had formerly heard respecting the Portuguese, and they were
here informed that the place at which they dwelt was only six days sail
from that place. In September they got sight of Cape _Romain_ or St
_Mary_ the most southern point of Madagascar, where they spent 40 days
in stormy weather, and on St Lukes day, 18th October, they entered the
port of that name in the kingdom of Enseroe. The natives said that there
were white people who wore crosses, only at the distance of half a days
journey, who had a large town, and _Randumana_ the king came on board
the caravel, and sent one of his subjects with a Portuguese to shew him
where these white people dwelt, but the black ran away when only half
way.

[Footnote 13: In lat. 23 deg. 30' or directly under the tropic of Capricorn,
is a bay now called St Augustine. If that in the text, the latitude 1s
erroneous a degree and a half.--E.]

Among others of the natives who came to this place to trade with the
Portuguese, was a king named _Bruto Chembanga_ with above 500 fighting
men. His sons were almost white, with long hair, wearing gowns and
breeches of cotton of several colours with silver buttons and bracelets
and several ornaments of gold, set with pearls and coral. The territory
of this king was named _Matacassi_, bordering on _Enseroe_ to the west.
He said that the Portuguese were all dead, who not far from that place
had built a town of stone houses, where they worshipped the cross, on
the foot or pedestal of which were unknown characters. He drew
representations of all these things on the sand, and demanded a high
reward for his intelligence. Some of his people wore crosses, and
informed the Portuguese that there were two ships belonging to the
Hollanders in port _St Lucia_ or _Mangascafe_. In a small island at this
place there was found a _square stone fort_[14], and at the foot of it
the arms of Portugal were carved on a piece of marble, with this
inscription

REX PORTUGALENSIS O S.

[Footnote 14: This is unintelligible as it stands in the text. It may
possibly have been a square stone pedestal for one of the crosses of
discovery, that used to be set up by the Portuguese navigators as marks
of possession.--E.]

Many conjectures were formed to account for the signification of the
circle between the two last letters of this inscription, but nothing
satisfactory could be discovered. King _Chembanga_ requested that a
Portuguese might be sent along with him to his residence, to treat upon
some important affairs, and left his nephew as an hostage for his safe
return. Accordingly the master, Antonio Gonzales, and one of the priests
named Pedro Freyre, were sent; who, at twelve leagues distance, came to
his residence called _Fansaria_, a very populous and magnificent place.
At first he treated them with much kindness, after which he grew cold
towards them, but on making him a considerable present he became
friendly, and even delivered to them his eldest son to be carried to
Goa, desiring that the two Jesuits and four other Portuguese might be
left as hostages, to whom he offered the island of _Santa Cruz_ to live
in. These people are descended from the Moors, and call themselves
_Zelimas_; they have the alcoran in Arabic, and have faquirs who teach
them to read and write; they are circumcised, eat no bacon, and some of
them have several wives. The king said that in the time of his father a
ship of the Portuguese was cast away on this coast, from which about 100
men escaped on shore, some of whom had their wives along with them, and
the rest married there and left a numerous progeny. He repeated several
of their names, and even showed a book in Portuguese and Latin which had
belonged to them, and some maps; and concluded by saying that there were
more Portuguese on that coast, seven days journey to the north. On
farther inquiry, a man 90 years of age was found, who had known the
Portuguese that were cast away there, and could still remember a few
detached words of their language.

The Portuguese set all hands to work to build a house and chapel for the
two Jesuits and four Portuguese who were to remain, and when the work
was finished, mass was solemnly said on shore, many of the natives
coming to learn how to make the sign of the cross. One day while the
king was looking on, and saw several men labouring hard to carry a cross
that was meant to be set upon a rock, he went half naked and bareheaded,
and carried it without assistance to the place appointed. The Portuguese
might well say they had found another emperor Heraclius; for after this
pious act of gigantic strength, he became very wicked; for being ready
to sail, De Costa demanded that the king's son who had been promised
should be sent, but he denied having ever made any such promise, and
offered a slave. On this the captain sent the master and pilot with some
men to enforce the demand, and safe conduct for some Portuguese to go to
port _St Lucia_ to see an inscription said by the natives to be at that
place. The peace was thus broken, and a party of Portuguese soldiers was
sent armed against the king, who endeavoured to resist, and the king's
son, a youth of eleven years of age was brought away, the natives being
unable to contend against fire-arms. Several messages were sent offering
a high ransom for the boy; but on being told by the captain that he
would lose his head if he did not carry him to the viceroy, they went
away much grieved. This happened about the end of 1613; and towards the
middle of 1614, de Costa arrived safe at Goa with the boy, whom the
viceroy caused to be instructed in Christianity by the jesuits, and
stood god-father at his baptism on St Andrews day, when he was named
Andrew Azevedo.

The viceroy treated him with much honour and magnificence, in hopes that
when he succeeded to his father, he might encourage the propagation of
the gospel in Madagascar; and when he was supposed to be sufficiently
instructed, he was sent away, accompanied by four Jesuits. On this
occasion a pink and caravel were sent to Madagascar, commanded by Pedro
de Almeyda Cabral, and Juan Cardoso de Pina, who sailed from Goa on the
17th of September 1616. On the 20th of March 1617, they discovered a
most delightful island, watered with pure springs, and producing many
unknown plants besides others already known, both aromatic and
medicinal. To this island, in which were two mountains which overtopped
the clouds, they gave the name of _Isola del Cisne_ or swan island, and
on it the jesuits planted some crosses and left inscriptions
commemorative of the discovery[15]. The wreck of two ships of the
Hollanders were found on this island. On the arrival of the two
Portuguese ships in the port of St Lucia in Madagascar, the king and
queen of _Matacassi_ received their son with the strongest
demonstrations of joy, and gave back the hostages left on taking him
away. The four jesuits with six soldiers accompanied the young prince
to his father's court at _Fansaria_, where, and at every place through
which he passed, he was received with demonstrations of joy, which to
the Portuguese seemed ridiculous, as no doubt those used by the
Portuguese on similar occasions would have appeared to them. The king
made a similar agreement with the two commanders on this voyage with
that formerly made with De Costa, which was that the fathers should
inhabit the inland of Santa Cruz and have liberty to preach the gospel
in Madagascar. Upon this the fathers went to the fort at Santa Cruz,
where Don Andrew, the king's son, sent them workmen and provisions.

[Footnote 15: The text gives no indication by which even to conjecture
the situation of this island, unless that being bound towards the
southern part of the east coast of Madagascar, it may possibly have been
either the isle of France, or that of Bourbon.--E.]

The captain, Pedro de Almeyda, had orders to bring another of the king's
sons to Goa, and if refused to carry one away by force; but the king
declared that he had only one other son, who was too young for the
voyage, on which Almeyda satisfied himself with Anria Sambo, the king's
nephew, who was carried to Goa, and baptized by the name of Jerome. When
sufficiently instructed in the Christian religion, he was sent back to
his country in a pink, commanded by Emanuel de Andrada, together with
two Jesuits, 100 soldiers, and presents for the king and prince, worth
4000 ducats. They set out in the beginning of February 1618; and being
under the necessity of watering at the _Isola de Cisne_, they found
three ships sunk at the mouth of the river. On landing, twenty
Hollanders were found about two leagues from the shore, guarding the
goods they had saved from the wreck. They made some opposition, but were
forced to submit to superior numbers, and were found to have a large
quantity of cloves, pepper, arms, ammunition, and provisions. Andrada
carried the prisoners, and as many of the valuable commodities on board
his pink as it could contain, and set fire to the rest, though the
Hollanders alleged that they had come from the Moluccas, with a regular
pass.

When Andrada arrived in the port of St Lucia, the two Jesuits came to
him both sick, declaring that it was impossible to live in that country,
where all the men who had been left along with them had died. Andrada
sent the letters with which he was intrusted to the king and prince, by
the servants of Don Jerome; and in return, the king sent 100 fat oxen,
with a great quantity of fowls and honey, and six slaves, but would not
come himself, and it was found that his son had reverted to
Mahometanism. The tribes in Madagascar called _Sadias_ and _Fansayros_
are _Mahometan Kafrs_[16], and are attached to the liberty allowed by
the law of Mahomet, of having a plurality of wives. The king was of the
_Fansayro_ tribe, and was now desirous to destroy Andrada and the
Portuguese by treachery; incited to this change of disposition by a
_Chingalese_ slave belonging to the Jesuits, who had run away, and
persuaded the king, that the Portuguese would deprive him of his
kingdom, as they had already done many of the princes in Ceylon and
India. The Kafrs came accordingly to the shore in great numbers, and
began to attack the Portuguese with stones and darts, but were soon put
to flight by the fire-arms, and some of them slain, whose bodies were
hung upon trees as a warning to the rest, and one of their towns was
burnt.

[Footnote 16: In strict propriety, this expression is a direct
contradiction, is Kafr is an Arabic word signifying _unbelievers_; but
having been long employed as a generic term for the natives of the
eastern coast of Africa, from the Hottentots to the Moors of Zeyla
exclusively, we are obliged to employ the ordinary language.--E.]

Andrada carried away with him Don Jerome, the king's nephew, and a
brother of his who was made prisoner in a skirmish with the natives, who
was converted, and died at Goa. All the Jesuits agreed to desist from
the mission of Madagascar, and departed along with Andrada much against
his inclination; and thus ended the attempt to convert the natives of
Madagascar to the Christian religion.

SECTION XIV.

_Continuation of the Transactions of the Portuguese in India, from 1617
to 1640; and the conclusion of the Portuguese Asia of Manuel de Faria._

Towards the end of 1617, Don Juan Coutinno, count of Redondo, came to
Goa, as viceroy, to succeed Azevedo. During this year, three ships and
two fly-boats, going from Portugal for India, were intercepted near the
Cape of Good Hope by six English ships, when the English admiral
declared that he had orders from his sovereign to seize effects of the
Portuguese to the value of 70,000 crowns, in compensation for the injury
done by the late viceroy Azevedo to the four English ships at Surat.
Christopher de Noronha, who commanded the Portuguese ships, immediately
paid the sum demanded by the English admiral, together with 20,000
crowns more to divide among his men. But Noronha, on his arrival at Goa,
was immediately put under an arrest by the viceroy, for this
pusillanimous behaviour, and was sent home prisoner to Lisbon, to answer
for his conduct.

In the year 1618, the Moor who had been seen long before, at the time
when Nunno de Cunna took Diu, and was then upwards of 300 years old,
died at Bengal now 60 years older, yet did not appear more than 60 years
old at his death. In 1619, a large wooden cross, which stood on one of
the hills which overlook Goa, was seen by many of the inhabitants of
that city, on the 23d of February, to have the perfect figure of a
crucified man upon it. The truth of this having been ascertained by the
archbishop, he had it taken down, and got made from it a smaller cross,
only two spans long, on which was fixed a crucified Jesus of ivory, and
the whole surrounded by a golden glory; the rest of the cross being
distributed to the churches and persons of quality. Ten days after this
cross was removed, water gushed from the hole in which it was formerly
fixed, in which cloths being dipped wrought many miraculous cures. A
church was built on the spot to commemorate the miracle. At this time it
was considered, in an assembly of the principal clergy, whether the
threads, worn by the bramins across their shoulders, were a heathenish
superstition or only a mark of their nobility, and, after a long debate,
it was determined to be merely an honourable distinction. The reason of
examining this matter was, that many of the bramins refused to embrace
the Christian faith, because obliged to renounce these threads.

In November 1619, the count of Redondo died; and, by virtue of a patent
of succession, Ferdinand de Albuquerque became governor-general, being
now 70 years of age, 40 of which he had been an inhabitant of Goa, and
consequently was well versed in the affairs of India, but too slow in
his motions for the pressing occasions of the time. During his
administration, the Portuguese were expelled from Ormuz by the sultan of
Shiras, assisted by six English ships.

In July 1620, the Hollanders were desirous of gaining possession of the
city of Macao in China, and appeared before it in seventeen ships, or,
as some say, twenty-three, having 2000 soldiers on board, and were
likewise in hopes of taking the fleet at that place, which was bound for
Japan, having already taken several Portuguese and Chinese ships near
the Philippine islands. After battering the fort of St Francis for five
days, the Dutch admiral, Cornelius Regers, landed 800 men, with which he
got possession of a redoubt or entrenchment, with very little
opposition. He then marched to take possession of the city, not then
fortified, where he did not expect any resistance; but Juan Suarez
Vivas, taking post on some strong ground with only 160 men, defeated the
Hollanders and compelled them to return precipitately to their ships,
leaving 300 of their men slain, seven only with the colours and one
piece of cannon being taken, and they threw away all their arms to
enable them to swim off to their ships. In the mean while, the ships
continued to batter the fort, but were so effectually answered that some
of them were sunk and sixty men slain. After this the enemy abandoned
the enterprise, and the citizens of Macao built a wall round the city
with six bastions; and, as the mountain of _our Lady of the Guide_
commanded the bastion of St Paul, a fort was constructed on its summit
armed with ten large guns.

We have formerly mentioned the destruction of the Portuguese cities of
_Liampo_ and _Chincheo_, in China, through their own bad conduct. From
that time, they lived in the island of _Lampazau_ till the year 1557,
when they were permitted to build the city _Macao_, the largest
belonging to the Portuguese in the east after Goa. They had been in use
to resort to the island of _Sanchuan_, on the coast of China, for trade,
where they lived in huts made of boughs of trees, and covered with sails
during their stay. At this time, the island of Goaxama, eighteen leagues
nearer the coast of China, being wild and mountainous, was the resort of
robbers who infested the neighbouring part of the continent, and, as the
Chinese considered the Portuguese a more tolerable evil than these
outlaws, they offered them that island on condition of extirpating the
nest of thieves. The Portuguese undertook this task, and succeeded
without losing a man. Then every one began to build where he liked best,
as there were no proprietors to sell the land, which now sells at a dear
rate. The trade and reputation of this city increasing, it soon became
populous, containing above 1000 Portuguese inhabitants all rich; and as
the merchants usually give large portions with their daughters, many
persons of quality used to resort thither in search of wives. Besides
these, there are a number of Chinese inhabitants who are Christians, who
are clothed and live after the manner of the Portuguese; and about 6000
heathens, who are artificers, shop-keepers, and merchants. The duties of
ships trading from thence to Japan, amount to 300,000 Xeraphins, at 10
_per cent_, being about equal to as many pieces-of-eight, or Spanish
dollars[17]. The yearly expence of the garrison and repairs of the
fortifications is above 40,000 ducats. A similar sum is paid yearly for
duties at the fair of _Quantung_, or Canton. The Japan voyage, including
presents to the King and _Tonos_, and the expence of the embassy, costs
25,000. The Misericordia expends about 9000 in charity, as the city
maintains two hospitals, three parish churches, and five monasteries,
besides sending continual alms to the Christians in China, Hainan,
Japan, Tonkin, Cochin-china, Cambodia, and Siam.

[Footnote 17: The xeraphin, as formerly mentioned, being 5s. 9d., this
yearly revenue amounted to L.52,250 sterling. But the state of Macao, in
the text, refers to what it was 150 years ago. It is still inhabited by
Portuguese, and remains a useless dependence on Portugal, owing its
principal support to the residence of the British factory for the
greater part of the year.--E.]

Albuquerque governed India from the end of 1619, to the month of
September 1622, during all which time so little care was taken in Spain
of the affairs of Portuguese India that he did not receive a single
letter from the king. In every thing relating to the civil government he
was equal to any of his predecessors, but was unfortunate in military
affairs, especially in the loss of Ormuz. In 1621, Don Alfonso de
Noronna was nominated viceroy of India; but sailing too late, was driven
back to Lisbon, being the last viceroy appointed by the pious Philip
III. On the news coming to Lisbon, of the shameful surrender of the city
of _Bahia_, in the Brazils, to the Hollanders, without considering his
age, quality, and rank, he listed as a private soldier for that service,
an instance of bravery and patriotism deserving of eternal fame, and an
example that had many followers.

Don Francisco de Gama, Count of Vidugueyra, who had been much hated as
viceroy of India, and sore affronted at his departure, as formerly
related, always endeavoured to obtain that command a second time, not
for revenge, as some asserted, but to satisfy the world that he had been
undeservedly ill used. At length he obtained his desire, after twenty
years solicitation, upon the accession of Philip IV. of Spain. He sailed
from Lisbon on the 18th of March 1622, with four ships. On the coast of
Natal, a flash of lightning struck his ship, and burnt his colours, but
killed no one. Under the line two of his ships left him, and arrived at
Goa in the end of August; another ship staid behind, and it was thought
they shunned his company designedly. At this time six Dutch ships plied
near the islands or Angoxa, or the Comoros, one of which perished in
pursuit of a Portuguese ship; and while standing on for Mozambique, the
viceroy encountered the other five, on the 22d of June. _His other ships
had now joined him_, and a terrible battle ensued, which fell heaviest
on the vice-admiral, whose ship was entirely disabled, but the viceroy
and Francisco Lobo rescued and brought him off; yet the ship was so much
battered that it sunk, some men and part of the money on board being
saved, but some of the men fell into the hands of the enemy. Night
coming on, the ships of the viceroy and Lobo were cast upon certain
sands and lost, when they saved what goods, rigging, ammunition, and
cannon they were able, and burnt the rest, to prevent them from falling
into the hands of the enemy. The viceroy shipped all the goods that were
saved on board some galliots, with what men they could contain, and went
to Cochin, whence he went to Goa in September. On seeing him replaced in
the dignity of viceroy, his enemies were terrified lest he might revenge
the affronts formerly given him, but he behaved with unexpected
moderation. He wished to have punished Simon de Melo, and Luis de Brito,
for the shameful loss of Ormuz. Melo had fled to the Moors, and Brito
was in prison; so that he only was punished capitally, and the other was
hung in effigy.

About the year 1624, some of the Portuguese missionaries penetrated into
the country of Thibet, in which are the sources of the river Ganges. The
natives are well inclined, and of docile dispositions; zealous of their
salvation, and value much the devotions enjoined them by their priests,
called _Lamas_, who profess poverty and celibacy, and are much given to
prayer. They have churches and convents like the most curious of those
in Europe, and have some knowledge of the Christian religion, but mixed
with many errors, and with strange customs and ceremonies; yet it
plainly appears that they had formerly the light of the true gospel[18];
and they abhor the Mahometans and idolaters, being easily converted to
the Christian faith. The habit of the Lamas is a red cassock, without
sleeves, leaving their arms bare, girt with a piece of red cloth, of
which the ends hang down to their feet. On their shoulders they wear a
striped cloth, which they say was the dress of the Son of God; and they
have a bottle of water hung at their girdle. They keep two fasts, during
the principal of which they eat but once a day, and do not speak a word,
using signs on all necessary occasions. During the other fast they eat
as often as they have a mind, but use flesh only at one meal The people
are called to prayers by the sound of trumpets, some of which are made
of dead men's bones; and they use human skulls as drinking-vessels. Of
other bones they make beads, which they allege is to remind them of
death. The churches are only opened twice a year, when the votaries walk
round the outside three times in procession, and then go in to reverence
the images, some of which are of angels, called by them _Las_, the
greatest being the one who intercedes with God for the souls of men.
This being represented with the devil under his feet, was supposed by
the missionaries to be St Michael the archangel. It is not unworthy of
remark, that the word _Lama_, signifying priest, begins with _La_, which
means an angel. The young Lamas go about the towns, dancing to the sound
of bells and other noisy instruments of music; which, they say, is in
imitation of the angels, who are painted by the Christians as singing in
choirs.

[Footnote 18: Wherever any coincidence appears in the ceremonies and
externals of the heathen worship, the zealous catholics are eager to
conceive that these have been borrowed from Christianity; unconscious
that their own mummeries have all been borrowed from heathen worship,
and superadded to the rational purity of primitive Christianity,--E.]

At the beginning of every month a procession is made in which are
carried black flags and the figures of devils, and attended by drums and
music, which they believe chases away the devils. They use holy water,
which is consecrated with many prayers, having gold coral and rice put
into it, and is used for driving devils from their houses. The country
people bring black horses, cows and sheep, over which the Lamas say many
prayers, as it is alleged the devils endeavour to get into cattle of a
black colour. They cure the sick by blowing on the part affected. They
have three different kinds of funerals, according to the star which
rules at the time of death. In one the body is buried in a tomb adorned
with gilded pyramids. In another the body is burnt and the ashes being
mixed with clay are formed into images by which they swear. In the
last, which is reckoned the most honourable, the body is exposed to be
devoured by certain birds resembling cranes. These three forms are used
with such as have spent good lives, but others are cut in pieces and
thrown to the dogs. They believe that the good go directly to heaven,
and the bad to hell; while such as are indifferent remain in an
intermediate state, whence their souls return to animate noble or base
creatures according to their deserts. They give their children the names
of filthy beasts, at the recommendation of their priests, that the devil
may be loth to meddle with them. They believe in one God in Trinity; the
son having become a man and died, yet is now in heaven. God equal with
the father, yet man at the same time; and that his mother was a woman
who is now in heaven: And they compute the time of the death of the son
nearly as we do the appearance of the Redeemer on earth. They believe in
a hell as we do, and burn lamps that God may light them in the right
road in the other world: Yet do they use divination after a ridiculous
manner. The country of Thibet produces several fruits of the same kinds
with those grown in Europe, together with rice and wheat, and has
abundance of cattle; but a great part of the land is barren.

The Jesuit fathers Andrada and Marquez went from Delhi in the country of
the Great Mogul to Thibet along with a caravan of pilgrims that were
going to visit a famous pagoda. Passing through the kingdom of _Lahore_,
they came to the vast mountains whence the Ganges flows into the lower
plain country of Hindostan, seeing many stately temples by the way full
of idols. At the kingdom of _Sirinagur_ they saw the Ganges flowing
among snow, the whiteness of which is dazzling to the eyes of
travellers. At the end of 50 days journey they came to a pagoda on the
borders of _Sirinagur_, to which multitudes resort to bathe in a spring,
the water of which is so hot as to be hardly sufferable, and which they
imagine cleanses them from sin. The people here feed on raw flesh and
eat snow, yet are very healthy; and the usual order of the sexes is
reversed, as the women plough and the men spin. Having rested at the
town of _Mana_ the fathers pursued their journey, almost blinded by
travelling continually among snow, and came at length to the source of
the Ganges, which flows from a great lake. They soon afterwards entered
the kingdom of Thibet, and were honourably received by officers sent on
purpose from _Chaparangue_, the residence of the king of Thibet. The
king and queen listened to their doctrines with much complacency, and
even admitted their truths without dispute, and would not allow them to
return to India till they promised an oath to come back, when the king
not only engaged to give them liberty to preach, but that he would build
them a church, and was greatly pleased with a picture they left him of
the Virgin and Child.

The fathers returned according to promise, on which the king built them
a church and was afterwards baptised along with the queen, in spite of
every thing the Lamas could say to prevent him. From merchants who
traded to this place from China, the fathers understood that it was 60
days journey from _Chaparangue_ to China, 40 of which was through the
kingdom of _Usangue_, and thence 20 days to China. They likewise learnt
that Cathay is not a kingdom, but a great city--the metropolis of a
province subject to the grand _Sopo_, very near China, whence perhaps
some give the name of Cathay to China[19]. Perhaps this kingdom of
Thibet is the empire of Prester John, and not Ethiopia as some have
believed.

[Footnote 19: This is evidently erroneous, as we know certainly from the
travels of Marco Polo and other authorities, that Cathay was the
northern part of China, once a separate kingdom.--E.]

After having governed five years, the Count of Vidugueyra was ordered by
the king to resign to Don Francisco de Mascarennas in 1628; but as that
gentleman had left India for Europe, the viceroy resigned the charge of
government to Don Luis de Brito, bishop of Cochin, and went home to
Portugal. In this year the king of Acheen made an attempt to gain
possession of Malacca, against which he sent a fleet of 250 sail, with
20,000 soldiers and a great train of artillery. In this great fleet
there were 47 gallies of extraordinary strength, beauty, and size, all
near 100 feet long and of proportional breadth. The king embarked with
his wife, children, and treasure; but upon some ill omen the fleet and
army sailed without him, and came before Malacca in the beginning of
July 1629, the former under the command of _Marraja_, and the latter of
Lacsamana, an experienced general who had made many conquests for his
master. Having landed the troops, they were attacked by Antonio Pinto de
Fonseca with only 200 men, who slew above 300 of the enemy without
losing a man, and then retreated into the city. Juan Suarez Vivas with
350 Portuguese, who commanded at Iller, defended that post for some time
with great gallantry and did great execution among the enemy; but at
length, overpowered by numbers, was forced to retire. Having gained an
eminence called mount St Juan, the enemy erected a battery there from
which they played furiously against the fort, which answered them with
great spirit. The Capuchin convent dedicated to the Mother of God, being
considered as of great importance for the defence of the fort, was
gallantly defended for 50 days by Diego Lopez de Fonseca, who on one
occasion made a sally with 200 Portuguese and defeated 2000 of the
enemy. On Lopez falling sick, Francisco Carvallo de Maya took the
command of that post, and defended it till the convent was entirely
ruined, so that he was obliged to withdraw into the city, on which the
enemy converted it into a strong post in which _Lacsamana_ took up his
quarters with 3000 men. _Marraja_ occupied mount St Juan, on which he
erected a large fort; others were established at the convent of St
Lawrence, at _Iller_ and other places, having strong batteries and lines
of communication, so that the city was invested on all sides by land,
while a number of armed boats presented all access by sea for relief.
Fonseca, who commanded in the besieged city, sent out Vivas with 220
Portuguese troops to dislodge Lacsamana from his head-quarters on the
ruins of the Capuchin convent, on which occasion Vivas gained possession
of the post by a night attack, killing 100 of the enemy, and retired
with several cannon. The King of _Pam_, who was in alliance with the
Portuguese, sent a fleet of _paraos_ with 2000 men to the assistance of
the town; and Michael Pereyra Botello brought five sail from the city of
San Thome: Yet these reinforcements were insufficient to induce the
enemy to retire, though they had lost above 4000 men during the siege,
while 60 were slain on the side of the defenders.

Although the bishop of Cochin was informed in June of the intended
attack on Malacca and the weak state of its garrison, he postponed
sending any reinforcement, as it was then the dead of winter on the
Malabar coast, proposing to dispatch succours in September. He died
however about the end of July 1629, after having governed India for
nineteen or twenty months. Upon his death the next patent of succession
was opened, which named Don Lorenzo de Cunna, the commander of Goa, to
the civil government of India, and Nunno Alvarez Pereyra to the
military command. Of this last name there happened to be two in India,
or none. If Don Nunno Alvarez Pereyra, a gentleman well known, were
meant, the title of _Don_ was omitted in the patent; if Nunno Alvarez
Botello, the sirname teemed wrong. It was thought unlikely that the
title of Don could be omitted through mistake, as that in Portugal is
peculiar to certain families. The mistake of name in regard to Nunno
Alvarez Botello was more probable, as he had long gone by the name of
_Pereyra_, in memory of his grandfather Alvarez Pereyra, and had dropped
that name for _Botello_ when he inherited the estate of his father,
whose name was Botello; yet some continued to call him by the old name,
and others gave him the new one. The council of Goa, and the Count de
Linnares after his arrival in India, allowed the pretensions of Botello.

In the meantime, considering how dangerous delay might prove to Malacca
in its distress, Nunno Alvarez Botello undertook the relief of that
place, saying that he would postpone the decision of the dispute till
his return. By general consent however, he went by the title of
governor; and by direction of the council of Goa, the Chancellor Gonzalo
Pinto de Fonseca assumed the administration of justice, so that the
government was divided between him, De Cunna, and Botello, who used such
diligence in preparing for his expedition to relieve Malacca, that, from
the 2d of August, when the charge of governor was awarded to him, to the
beginning of September, he had collected 900 Portuguese troops, a good
train of artillery, a large supply of arms and ammunition, and 30
vessels, and was ready to put to sea as soon as the weather would allow.
He set sail on the 22d of September, rather too early, and encountered
four several storms during his voyage, two of which were so terrible
that every one expected to be lost. He at length reached _Pulobutum_,
whence he sent two vessels to give notice at Malacca of his approach,
yet arrived himself before them. At Pulobutum he found a vessel
belonging to Cochin and two from Negapatnam, being some addition to his
fleet He arrived at Malacca on the afternoon of the 22d October 1629, to
the great surprise of _Lacsamana_, as his fleet was then in the river
_Pongor_, a league from Malacca, and so situated as to be unable to
escape.

Botello immediately landed and gave the necessary orders and again
embarking forced his way up the river through showers of bullets, which
he repaid with such interest that the enemy abandoned their advanced
works that same night, and retired to that which they had constructed on
the ruins of the Capuchin monastery. As the river Pongor had not
sufficient water for the Portuguese ships, Botello embarked a strong
detachment in 33 _balones_ or _balames_, being country-vessels of
lighter draught, with which he went in person to view the strength and
posture of the hostile fleet. Being anxious for the safety of their
gallies, the enemy abandoned their works at _Madre de Dios_ and _San
Juan_, and threw up other works with wonderful expedition for the
protection of their fleet. But having attacked these with much
advantage, Botello proposed to the enemy to surrender, on which
_Marraja_ returned a civil but determined refusal. His situation being
desperate, Marraja endeavoured the night to escape with the smaller
vessels, leaving his large gallies at the mercy of the Portuguese, but
was prevented by the vigilance and bravery of Vasquez de Evora, who cut
off many of his men, not without some loss on his own side, having one
of his arms carried off. The enemy now endeavoured to make use of their
formidable gallies, and the chief among them called the _Terror of the
World_ was seen in motion; on which Botello sent the admiral of the
Portuguese gallies, Francisco Lopez to attack her, which he did with
great gallantry, passing through clouds of smoke, and a tremendous fire
of artillery, and after two hours hard fighting, carried her by
boarding, after killing 500 of her men out of 700, with the loss only of
seven of his own men.

On the 25th of November, the enemy set fire to a galley that was full of
women whom they had brought to people Malacca, and made a fresh attempt
to break through the Portuguese fleet, but without success, many of them
being slain and taken, and great numbers leapt into the water, and fled
to the woods, where they were devoured by wild beasts. Lacsamana then
hung out a flag of truce, and sent a deputation to treat with Botello,
who answered that he would listen to no proposals till they restored
Pedro de Abren the Portuguese ambassador, whom they kept prisoner; and
as they delayed compliance; the Portuguese cannon recommenced a
destructive fire. On the last day of November, Botello got notice that
_Marraja_ the Acheen admiral was slain, and that the king _Pam_ was
approaching to the assistance of the Portuguese with 100 sail of
vessels. Botello went immediately to visit him, and was received with
the customary ceremonies used by the eastern princes to the Portuguese
governors. After interchanging presents and mutual compliments, Botello
returned to his post, where he found the Portuguese rather slackening
their efforts in consequence of a desperate cannonade from the enemy.
But on the 4th of December, the enemy sent fresh proposals for an
accommodation, accompanied by the ambassador Abreu, requiring only to be
allowed to withdraw with three of their gallies and 4000 men, being all
that remained of 20,000 with which they had invested Malacca. In answer
to this, they were told they must surrender at discretion on promise of
life; and as Lacsamana hesitated to accept such humiliating terms,
Botello assaulted and forced all his works, where many of the enemy were
put to the sword; some throwing themselves into the river to swim across
were drowned, and others who fled to the woods were devoured by beasts
of prey. In fine, Botello obtained the most glorious victory that was
ever gained by the Portuguese in India; as of all the fleet which came
against Malacca, not a single vessel got away, and of the large army,
not one man escaped death or captivity. So great was the booty, that the
whole of the Portuguese troops and mariners were enriched, Botello
reserving nothing to his own share but a _parrot_ which had been much
valued by Lacsamana.

On going to Malacca after this great victory, he entreated to be allowed
to walk barefooted and unaccompanied to church, that he might humbly
prostrate himself before the Lord of Hosts, in acknowledgement that the
victory was entirely due to God, and not to the Portuguese valour; but
he was constrained to enter the city in triumph. The streets were
crowded with men, and the windows and house tops thronged with women,
who sprinkled the hero with sweet waters and strewed flowers in his
path. The music could not be heard for the noise of cannon, and all the
city was filled with extreme joy. At this time an embassy came from the
king of _Pera_, who was tributary to the king of _Acheen_, offering to
pay tribute to the king of Portugal, and to deliver up a large treasure
left in his custody belonging to the king of Acheen and his general
_Lacsamana_. Don Jerome de Silveyra was sent with eleven ships to
receive the treasure, and establish a treaty with the king of _Pera_,
who performed his promise, and the treasure was applied to pay the men
and refit the fleet.

About the middle of January 1630, Botello being off the straits of
Cincapura to secure the ships expected from China against the
Hollanders, _Lacsamana_ and two other officers who had fled to the woods
were brought prisoners to him, having been taken by the king of Pam.
Owing to contrary winds, he was unable to get up with five Dutch ships
that were about _Pulo Laer_, and which took a Portuguese galliot coming
from China. He returned therefore to Malacca to refit his ships, and
resolved to attempt the Dutch fort of _Jacatara_[20], the best which was
possessed by _these rebels_ in all Asia. In the first place, he sent
Antonio de Sousa Coutinno in the admiral galley lately belonging to
_Lacsamana_ called the _Terror of the World_, in which Lacsamana was now
prisoner, to Goa; directing that Lacsamana should be sent to Portugal,
and that this large and magnificent galley should be given as a present
to the city of Goa. In this galley there was one cannon made of
_tombac_, a precious sort of metal, which was valued at above 7000
ducats, and another cannon reckoned still more valuable on account of
its curious workmanship. Lacsamana died before he could be carried to
Portugal.

[Footnote 20: In the neighbourhood of which was afterwards built the
city of Batavia, the emporium at the Dutch trade in the east, now
subject to Britain.--E.]

Learning that the Count de Linnares, now viceroy of India, had arrived
at Goa in October 1629, Botello transmitted to him an account of all
that he had done, and desired his assistance and approbation to continue
in these parts in order to carry on his designs against the English and
Hollanders. About the end of April 1630, the viceroy not only sent him
every thing he asked, but gave him full power to act as governor
general, without being obliged to wait for orders from Goa. In the
meantime Botello sailed with 27 ships towards the straits of Cincapura,
and put in at _Jambo_[21], a place abounding in pepper, and on that
account much resorted to by the Dutch and English. At this place he took
two large ships after a stout resistance; and going higher up the river
he discovered another ship so large and beautiful that he designed to
make use of her for his entrance into Goa; but a ball falling into her
powder-room, blew her up. After employing three weeks in working up the
river, Botello learnt that at a town about two leagues distant, two
Dutch ships had taken shelter, and being desirous of taking them, he
manned 14 light vessels with which he went to view the place, on which
he was opposed by 26 sail of small vessels manned with Hollanders and
natives, whom he put to flight; but on viewing the place he found it
impracticable to attempt the two vessels, on account of the strength of
the works by which they were protected. He destroyed therefore all the
neighbourhood with tire and sword, and then sailed down the river,
intending to proceed against _Jacatara_.

[Footnote 21: Probably _Jambee_ on the N.E. side of Sumatra, in about
lat. 18 20' S. to the S.E. of the straits of Cincapura.--E.]

While on his way thither, a Dutch ship of 24 guns was met, which was
laden with powder for their forts, and on being attacked and boarded by
some of his ships she took fire. In this situation, Botello gave orders
for his ships to draw off from the danger, and on going up in his
galliot to bring off Antonio Mascarennas, the Dutch ship blew up while
Botello was passing her stern, by which his galliot was instantly sunk.
His body was found and taken to Malacca, where it was honourably
interred.

Don Michael de Noronna, Count de Linnares, arrived at Goa as viceroy of
India in October 1629. About the commencement of his administration,
Constantine de Sa, who commanded in Ceylon, marched from Columbo, which
he left almost without any garrison, meaning to reduce the interior
provinces to subjection. His force consisted of 400 Portuguese, with a
considerable number of Christian Chingalese, in whose fidelity he
reposed too much confidence, although a Franciscan friar who resided
among the enemy, and his own officers warned him of the danger to which
he was exposed. He penetrated to the city of _Uva_ with very little
opposition, which he destroyed; but was met on his return by the king of
Candy with a considerable army, to whom the greatest part of the
Christian Chingalese immediately deserted, and aided him in battle
against the Portuguese, now reduced to 400 of their own troops and 200
Chingalese who remained faithful. De Sa and his inconsiderable army
fought against prodigious odds during three entire days, but the general
being slain, the Portuguese troops fell into disorder, and were all
slain or taken prisoners.

Immediately after this victory, the king of Candy laid siege to Columbo
with an army of 50,000 men, while the garrison under Launcelot de Leixas
did not exceed 400, even including the priests and monks. The garrison
was reduced to extreme distress, and even threatened with famine, when a
ship from Cochin brought them a relief of provisions and ammunition;
after which five ships came from San Thome and one from Goa. Though not
mentioned by De Faria, it appears that the siege was now raised; as at a
subsequent period, after the natives had reduced almost the whole of the
island, the kings of Candy, Uva, and Matale again laid siege to Columbo
with an army of 20,000 men. At this time five ships came from Goa to
carry off the cinnamon to Portugal, on which the enemy raised the siege,
believing these ships had come to relieve and reinforce the garrison.

The viceroy now appointed Don George de Almeyda to the command in
Ceylon, who sailed from Goa for that place on the 19th of February 1631,
in the great galley taken by Botello when he destroyed the fleet of
Acheen: But encountering a storm off Cape Comorin, the galley was ready
to founder, on which Almeyda took to the boat with 29 persons, and
reached one of the Maldive islands after four days of incredible
distress. Going over from thence to Cochin, he received a reinforcement
of some Portuguese troops, with 500 kafrs and 800 Canarin lascars, and a
supply of money, ammunition, and provisions. Having raised some more men
at Cochin, Almeyda sailed again for Ceylon, where he arrived on the 21st
October 1631, and landed at Columbo. He marched immediately against the
enemy, though then the rainy season, and was soon forced to desist, as
the country was mostly overflowed, and at this season the trees swarm
with _leeches_, which drop down upon the men as they pass, and bleed
them to death.

On the return of fine weather, Almeyda marched again on the 5th January
1632, though with much difficulty, as the waters were still out, so that
the men had often to wade up to their breasts. Being opposed by the
enemy near the fort of _Tranqueyra Grande_, many of them were slain, as
the general gave three or four pistoles for every head that was brought
him. At another pass, the enemy were defended, to the number of 6000
men, by some works, but on being attacked, and many of them killed, the
rest fled, destroying every thing they could not carry away. After these
successes, many of the natives came in, and submitted, and were treated
with kindness; but as others hid themselves in hopes of getting away to
join the enemy, Almeyda caused them to be apprehended, and given as
slaves among his officers. One was delivered to the Kafrs, who, in sight
of his wife and children, cut him immediately in pieces, which they
divided among them to eat. At _Cardevola_, the enemy had two forts,
which were carried by escalade. The enemy fled in every quarter, making
no stand till they arrived at the foot of the mountains of Candy, where
they were defeated, and the forts of _Manicravare_, _Safragam_,
_Maluana_, and _Caliture_, were immediately afterwards reduced, as was
the district of Matura, of which the commander of the Chingalese
Christians, who deserted from de Sa, had made himself king. At last the
king of Candy sent to implore peace, which was granted at the
intercession of the priests and monks. In fine, Almeyda not only
restored the reputation of the Portuguese arms in Ceylon, but increased
it, and established the government of the island in good order. He was
removed, however, by the succeeding viceroy, and returned to Goa poor,
and full of honour, where he died poor, more from grief than age; and no
sooner was he deprived of the command, than all he had gained was
speedily lost, though it was again recovered by Diego de Melo y Castro
in 1633.

About the end of the year 1635, the Count de Linares resigned the
government of India to Pedro de Silva, who was usually called _Mole_ or
the Soft, on account of the easiness of his disposition. He disliked the
government so much, that he was often heard to exclaim, "God forgive
those who appointed me viceroy, as I am not fit for the office." He held
the government, however, nearly four years, and died in the end of June
1639, when he was succeeded as governor by Antonio Tellez de Silva,
whose name was found in one of the royal patents, which was now opened.
Tellez happened to be absent from Goa at the time, for which reason, the
archbishop of Goa, who was next in nomination, assumed the government in
his name, and sent notice to him of his appointment, and in the
meantime, employed himself in fitting out twelve ships of war for the
relief of Malacca, then threatened by the king of Acheen and the
Hollanders. At this time nine Dutch ships entered the river of Goa, and
set on fire three Portuguese galleons then lying at _Marmugam_, after
which they retired without loss or opposition, because the fort was
destitute of men and ammunition. Antonio Tellez arrived immediately
after this unfortunate accident, at which he was exceedingly enraged,
not so much for the actual loss, as that the enemy should be able to
insult the harbour of the Portuguese Indian capital without harm or
resistance. On the back of this misfortune, news came that the Dutch
fleet of 12 sail, and that of Acheen of 35 gallies, were in sight of
Malacca. While occupied in making great preparations to relieve Malacca,
and to remedy other disorders then subsisting in Portuguese India, he
was superseded in the government of India, by the arrival of Juan de
Silva Tello, as viceroy, towards the end of 1640; on which Antonio
Tellez, having resigned the sword of command, immediately embarked for
Portugal, not thinking proper to serve as admiral where he had enjoyed
the supreme authority.

Other authors will write the actions of the new viceroy, Juan de Silva
Tello, for he begins his task where I end mine.[22]

[Footnote 22: Manuel de Faria rightly thought proper to close his work
at this period, which was immediately followed by the expulsion of the
Portuguese from Malacca and Ceylon, and many other of their Indian
possessions; where, except a few inconsiderable factories, they now only
hold Goa, Diu, and Macao, and even these possess very little trade, and
no political importance. From their subjection to the crown of Spain,
the Dutch, who had thrown off the iron yoke of the Austrian princes of
Spain, revenged their own injuries upon the Portuguese in India: And in
the present age, at the distance of 160 years, having themselves fallen
under the heavy yoke of the modern French Caesar, they have been
stripped by Britain of every foreign possession in Asia, Africa, and
America.--E]

SECTION XV.

_Occurrences in Pegu, Martavan, Pram, Siam, and other places._[23]

We here propose to give some account of the exploits of the _black_ king
of Siam, in whose character there was a strange mixture of virtues and
vices. In the year 1544, the king of the _Birmans_ [24] besieged the
city of _Martavan_ by sea and land, being the metropolis of the great
and flourishing kingdom of that name, which had a revenue of three
millions of gold. _Chaubainaa_ was then king of Martavan, and fell from
the height of fortune to the depth of misery. The Birman fleet, on this
occasion, consisted of 700 sail, 100 of which were large gallies, in
which were 700 Portuguese, commanded by one Juan Cayero, who was reputed
a commander of courage and conduct. After a siege of some months, during
which the Birmans lost 12,000 men in five general assaults, _Chaubainaa_
found himself unable to withstand the power of his enemy, being reduced
to such extremity that the garrison had already eaten 3000 elephants. He
offered, therefore, to capitulate, but all terms were refused by the
enemy; on which he determined to make use of the Portuguese, to whom he
had always been just and friendly: But favours received from a person in
prosperity, are forgotten when the benefactor falls into adversity. He
sent therefore one Seixas, a Portuguese in his service, to make an offer
to Cayero, if he would receive himself, his family, and treasures, into
the four ships which he commanded; that he would give half the treasure
to the king of Portugal, to whom he would become vassal, paying such
tribute as might be agreed on, being satisfied that he could recover his
kingdom with the assistance of 2000 Portuguese troops, whom he proposed
to take into his pay. Cayero consulted with his principal officers on
this proposition, and asked Seixas, in their presence, what might be the
amount of treasure belonging to the king of Martavan. Seixas said, that
he had not seen the whole, but affirmed that he had seen enough in gold
and jewels to load two ships, and as much silver as would load four or
five. Envious of the prodigious fortune that Cayero might make by
accepting this offer, the Portuguese officers threatened to delate him
to the Birman sovereign, if he consented, and the proposal was
accordingly refused.

[Footnote 23: De Faria, III. 347--364. Both as in a great measure
unconnected with the Portuguese transactions, and as not improbably
derived from the worse than suspicious source of Fernand Mendez de
Pinro, these very problematical occurrences have been kept by
themselves, which indeed they are in de Faria. After this opinion
respecting their more than doubtful authenticity, it would be a waste of
labour to attempt illustrating their geographical obscurities. Indeed
the geography of India beyond the Ganges, is still involved in almost
impenetrable darkness, from the Bay of Bengal to the empire of
China.--E.]

[Footnote 24: Called always the _Bramas_ by De Faria.--E.]

The king of Martavan was astonished at the rejection of his proposals,
and finding Seixas determined to withdraw from the danger that menaced
the city, made him a present of a pair of bracelets, which were
afterwards sold to the governor of _Narsinga_ for 80,000 ducats.
Despairing of relief or retreat, the king of Martavan now determined to
set his capital on fire, and sallying out at the head of the few men
that remained, to die honourably fighting against his enemies. But that
night, one of his principal officers deserted to the enemy, and gave
notice of his intention. Thus betrayed, he surrendered on promise of
having his own life, and those of his wife and children spared, and
being allowed to end his days in retirement. These terms were readily
granted, as the conqueror meant to perform no part of his engagement.

From the gate of the city to the tent of the Birman king, at the
distance of a league, a double lane of musketeers of sundry nations was
formed, the Portuguese under Cayero being stationed nearest the gate,
through which the captives were to march in procession. In the first
place, came the queen of Martavan in a chair, her two sons and two
daughters being carried in two other chairs. These were surrounded by
forty beautiful young ladies, led by an equal number of old ladies, and
attended by a great number of _Talegrepos_, who are a kind of monks or
religious men, habited like Capuchins, who prayed with and comforted the
captives. Then followed the king of Martavan, seated on a small she
elephant, clothed in black velvet, having his head, beard, and eyebrows
shaved, and a rope about his neck. On seeing the Portuguese, he refused
to proceed till they were removed, after which he went on. Being come
into the presence of the king of the Birmans, he cast himself at his
feet; and being unable to speak owing to grief, the _Raolim_ of
_Mounay_, _Talaypor_, or chief priest of Martavan, who was esteemed a
saint, made a harangue in his behalf, which had been sufficient to have
moved compassion from any other than the obdurate tyrant to whom it was
addressed, who immediately ordered the miserable king, with his wife,
children, and attendant ladies, into confinement. For the two following
days, a number of men were employed to remove the public treasure of
Martavan, amounting to 100 millions in gold; and on the third day, the
army was allowed indiscriminate plunder, which lasted for four days, and
was estimated at 12 millions. Then the city was burnt, and above 60,000
persons were supposed to have perished by fire and sword, an equal
number being reduced to slavery. On this occasion, 2000 temples and
40,000 houses were destroyed.

On the morning after the destruction of the city, 21 gibbets were
erected on a neighbouring hill called Beydao, which were surrounded by a
strong guard of cavalry, and on which the queen, with her children and
attendants, to the number in all of 140 persons, were all hung up by the
feet. The king of Martavan, with 50 men of the highest quality, were
flung into the sea with stones about their necks. At this barbarous
spectacle, the army of the Birmans mutinied, and for some time the king
was in imminent danger. Leaving a sufficient number of people to rebuild
the ruined city, the Birman king returned to Pegu with the rest of his
army, accompanied by Juan Cayero, and his 700 Portuguese. Four
Portuguese remained at Martavan, among whom was Juan Falcam; who,
instead of assisting _Fernan Mendez Pinta_, sent by Pedro de Faria, the
commander of Malacca, to confirm the peace which subsisted with the late
king of Martavan, accused him to the governor of the town as an enemy to
the king of the Birmans. On this false accusation, the governor seized
the vessel commanded by Pinto, in which were goods to the value of
100,000 ducats, killed the master and some others, and sent the rest
prisoners to Pegu. This false dealing was not new in Falcam, who had
deserted from the late unfortunate king of Martavan, after having
received many benefits from him.

Instead of being allowed to enjoy the fruits of his victories in peace,
the king of the Birmans was obliged to engage in a new war with the king
of Siam, who endeavoured to recover the kingdom of Tangu, which had been
wrested from him. For this purpose, in March 1546, he embarked with
900,000 men in 12,000 vessels, on the river _Ansedaa_, out of which he
passed in the month of April into the river _Pichau Malacoa_, and
invested the city of _Prom_. The king of this territory was recently
dead, leaving his successor, only thirteen years of age, who was married
to a daughter of the king of Ava, from whom he looked for the assistance
of 60,000 men. For this reason, the king of Siam pressed the siege, that
he might gain the city before the arrival of the expected succours.
After six days, the queen of Prom, who administered the government,
offered to become tributary if he would grant a peace; but the king
insisted that she should put herself into his hands with all her
treasure. She refused these degrading terms, knowing his perfidious
character, and resolved to defend the city to the last extremity. The
king of Siam accordingly gave several assaults, in all of which he was
repulsed, and in a short time, lost above 80,000 of his men, partly by
the sword, and partly by a pestilential disease, which raged in his
army, 500 Portuguese who were in his service perishing among the rest.

Being unable to take the place by assault, the king of Siam caused a
great mount to be raised, which overlooked the city, and was planted
with a great number of cannon, by which the defenders were prodigiously
annoyed. Upon this, 5000 men sallied from the city, and destroyed the
mount, killing 16,000 of the enemy, and carrying off 80 pieces of
cannon. In this affair the king of Siam was wounded; and being greatly
enraged against a body of 2000 Portuguese, who were in his pay, and had
the guard of the mount, he caused them all to be massacred. About the
end of August, _Xemin Maletay_, one of the four principal officers, who
commanded in Prom, treacherously betrayed the city to the king of Siam,
who ordered it to be utterly destroyed with fire and sword. Two thousand
children were cut in pieces, and given as food to the elephants. The
queen was publicly whipped, and given up to the lust of the soldiers
till she died. The young king was tied to her dead body, and cast into
the river; and above 300 principal nobles were impaled. The king of Ava,
who was marching to the assistance of his sister, understood the
unfortunate events of Prom, but came to battle with the traitor _Zemin_,
who had betrayed her, who was at the head of a numerous army. In this
battle all the soldiers of Ava were slain except 800, after making a
prodigious slaughter among the enemy; after which the king of Siam came
up with a part of his army, and slew the remaining 800 men of Ava, with
the loss of 12,000 of his own men, and then beheaded the traitor
_Zemin_. He then went up the river _Queytor_, with 60,000 men in 1000
boats, and coming to the port of Ava, about the middle of October, he
burnt above 2000 vessels, and several villages, with the loss of 8000 of
his men, among whom were 62 Portuguese. Understanding that the city of
Ava was defended by 20,000 men, 30,000 of which people had slain 150,000
of his army at _Maletay_, and that the king of _Pegu_ was coming to
their relief, he returned in all haste to _Prom_, where he fortified
himself, and sent an ambassador to the emperor of _Calaminam_, with rich
presents, and the offer of an extensive territory, on condition of
sending him effectual succours.

The empire of _Calaminam_ is said to be 300 leagues in length and as
much in breadth, having been formerly divided into 27 kingdoms, all
using the same language, beautified with many cities and towns, and very
fertile, containing abundance of all the productions of Asia. The name
of the metropolis is _Timphan_, which is seated on the river _Pitni_, on
which there are innumerable boats. It is surrounded by two strong and
beautiful walls, contains 400,000 inhabitants, with many stately palaces
and fine gardens, having 2500 temples belonging to 24 different sects.
Some of these use bloody sacrifices. The women are very beautiful, yet
chaste, two qualities that seldom go together. In their law-suits, O
happy country! they employ no attornies, solicitors, or proctors, and
every dispute is decided at one hearing. This kingdom maintains
1,700,000 soldiers, 400,000 of which are horse, and has 6000 elephants.
On account of their prodigious number, the emperor assumes the title of
_Lord of the Elephants_, his revenue exceeding 20 millions. There are
some remnants of Christianity among these people, as they believe in the
blessed Trinity, and make the sign of the cross when they sneeze.

Such was the great empire of _Calaminam_ to which the king of the
Birmans[25], sent his ambassador. On his return, the king sent 150,000
men in 1300 boats against the city of _Sabadii_, 130 leagues distant to
the north-east. The general of this army, named _Chaunigrem_, lost many
of his men in several assaults, after which he raised two mounts whence
he did much harm to the city: But the besieged sallying out, killed at
one time 8000 and at another 5000 of his men. Leaving this siege for a
time and the affairs of the king of the _Birmans_, we purpose to relate
what was done at _Siam_, in order to treat of them both together.

[Footnote 25: Formerly this was attributed to the king of _Siam_: But
the whole story of this section is so incredible and absurd as not to
merit any observations. It is merely retained from De Faria, as an
instance of the fables of Fernand Mendez de Pinto.--E.]

The king of _Chiammay_, after destroying 30,000 men that had guarded the
frontiers, besieged the city of _Guitivam_ belonging to the king of
_Siam_, who immediately drew together an army of 500,000 men, in which
was a body of 120 Portuguese in which he placed great reliance. This
vast multitude was conveyed along the river in 3000 boats, while 4000
elephants and 200 pieces of cannon were sent by land. He found the enemy
had 300,000 men and 2000 boats. The king of Siam gave the command of his
vast army to three generals, two of whom were Turks, and the third was
Dominic Seixas a Portuguese. At first the _Siamese_ were worsted, but
recovering their order they gained a complete victory, in which 130,000
of the enemy were slain, 40,000 of whom were excellent cavalry, with the
loss of 50,000 Siamese, all of whom were the worst troops in their
army. After this victory the king of Siam marched against the queen of
_Guibem_, who had allowed the enemy to pass through her country; and
entering the city of _Fumbacar_ spared neither age nor sex. Being
besieged in her capital of _Guirar_, the queen agreed to pay an yearly
tribute of 60,000 ducats, and gave her son as an hostage. After this the
king of Siam advanced to the city of _Taysiram_, to which place he
thought the king of Chiammay had fled, destroying every thing in his
course with fire and sword, only sparing the women; but winter coming on
he returned to Siam.

On his return to his court of _Odiaa_ or _Odiaz_, he was poisoned by his
queen, then big with child by one of her servants; but before he died he
caused his eldest son, then young, to be declared king. He left 30,000
ducats to the Portuguese then in his service, and gave orders that they
should pay no duties in any of his ports for three years. The adulterous
queen, being near the time of her delivery, poisoned her lawful son,
married her servant, and caused him to be proclaimed king. But in a
short time they were both slain at a feast by the King of _Cambodia_ and
_Oya Pansilaco_.

There being no lawful heir to the kingdom of Siam, _Pretiel_ a religious
_Talagrepo_, bastard brother to him who was poisoned, was raised to the
throne by common consent in the beginning of the year 1549. Seeing the
affairs of Siam in confusion, the king of the Birmans, who was likewise
king of Pegu, resolved to conquer that kingdom. For this purpose he
raised an army of 800,000 men, of which 40,000 were horse, and 60,000
armed with muskets, 1000 being Portuguese. He had 20,000 elephants, 1000
cannon drawn by oxen and _abadias_[26], and 1000 ammunition waggons
drawn by buffaloes. The Portuguese troops in his service, were commanded
by Diego Suarez de Mello, commonly called the Gallego, who went out to
India in 1538. In 1542 this man became a pirate in the neighbourhood of
Mozambique. In 1547 he was at the relief of Malacca: And now in 1549,
being in the service of the king of the Birmans, was worth four millions
in jewels and other valuables, had a pension of 200,000 ducats yearly,
was stiled the king's brother, and was supreme governor of the kingdom
and general in chief of the army. With this prodigious army the king of
the Birmans, after one repulse, took the fort of _Tapuram_ by assault,
which was defended by 2000 Siamese, all of whom he put to the sword in
revenge for the loss of 3000 of his own men in the two assaults. In the
prosecution of his march, the city of Juvopisam surrendered, after which
he set down before the city of Odiaa the capital of Siam. Diego Suarez
the commander in chief gave a general assault on the city, in which he
was repulsed with the loss of 10,000 men: Another attempt was made by
means of elephants, but with no better success. The king offered 500,000
ducats to any one who would betray one of the gates to him; which coming
to the knowledge of _Oya Pansiloco_, who commanded in the city, he
opened a gate and sent word to the king to bring the money as he waited
to receive it. After spending five months in the siege, during which he
lost 150,000 men, news came that _Xemindoo_ had rebelled at Pegu where
he had slain 15,000 men that opposed him. When this was known in the
camp, 120,000 Peguers deserted, in hatred to the king of the Birmans who
oppressed them, and in revenge of the insolence of Diego Suarez their
general in chief.

[Footnote 26: Rhinoceroses, which are so brutishly ferocious as in
no instance to have been tamed to labour, or to have ever shewn the
slightest degree of docility. Being of enormous strength, the only way
of preserving them when in custody, is in a sling; so that on the first
attempt to more forwards, they are immediately raised from the
ground.--E.]

_Xemindoo_ was of the ancient blood royal of Pegu, and being a priest
was esteemed as a great saint. On one occasion he preached so eloquently
against the tyranny and oppression which the Peguers suffered under the
Birmans, that he was taken from the pulpit and proclaimed king of Pegu.
On this he slew 8000 Birmans that guarded the palace, and seizing the
royal treasure, he got possession of all the strong-holds in a short
time, and the whole kingdom submitted to his authority. The armies of
the rival kings met within two leagues of the city of Pegu; that of the
Birmans amounting to 350,000 men, while _Xemindoo_ had 600,000; yet
Xemindoo was defeated with the loss of 300,000 men, while the Birmans
lost 60,000. The victorious king of the Birmans immediately entered
Pegu, where he slew a vast multitude of the inhabitants, and recovered
his treasure. Meanwhile the city of _Martavan_ declared for _Xemindoo_,
and massacred the garrison of 2000 Birmans. _Zemin_ did the same in the
city of _Zatam_ where he commanded. The king marched towards him, but he
contrived to have him murdered by the way; on which _Zemin_ was
proclaimed king by his followers, and soon raised an army of 30,000 men.
_Chaumigrem_, brother to the dead king, plundered the palace and city,
and then fled to _Tangu_ where he was born. In four months _Zemin_
became so odious to his new subjects by his tyranny, that many of them
fled to _Xemindoo_, who was soon at the head of 60,000 men.

Some short time before this, as Diego Suarez was passing the house of a
rich merchant on the day of his daughter's intended marriage, being
struck by the great beauty of the bride, he attempted to carry her off
by force, killing the bridegroom and others who came to her rescue, and
the bride strangled herself to avoid the dishonour. As the father
expected no justice while that king reigned, he shut himself up till
_Zemin_ got possession of the throne, on which he so published his
wrongs about the city, that 50,000 of the people joined with him in
demanding justice. Fearing evil consequences, _Zemin_ caused Suarez to
be apprehended and delivered up to the people, by whom he was stoned to
death. His house was plundered, and as much less treasure was found than
he was supposed to be worth, he was believed to have buried the rest.

_Zemin_ soon followed Suarez, for his subjects being unable to endure
his cruelty and avarice, fled in great numbers to Xemindoo, who was now
master of some considerable towns. Xemindoo having gathered an army of
200,000 men and 5000 elephants, marched to the city of Pegu, near which
he was encountered by Zemin at the head of 800,000 men. The battle was
long doubtful, but at last Gonzalo Neto, who served under _Xemindoo_
with 80 Portuguese, killed _Zemin_ with a musket ball, on which his army
fled, and _Xemindoo_ got possession of the capital. This happened on the
3d of February 1550. Gonzalo was rewarded with a gift of 10,000 crowns,
and 5000 were divided among his companions.

_Chaumigrem_, who had fled the year before to _Tangu_, hearing that
_Xemindoo_ had disbanded most of his forces, marched against him and
obtained a complete victory, by which the kingdom of Pegu was again
reduced under the authority of the Birmans. Xemindoo was taken some time
afterwards and put to death. _Chaumigrem_ being now king of the Birmans
and of Pegu, went to war against Siam, with an army of 1,700,000 men,
and 17,000 elephants, having a considerable body of Portuguese in his
service. All this army came to ruin, and the kingdom of Pegu was soon
afterwards reduced to subjection by the king of Aracan, as formerly
related.

The kingdom of Siam, though much harassed by these invasions, still
held out, and, in 1627, was possessed by the _black_ king, so called
because he really was of a black colour, though all the inhabitants of
that country are fair complexioned[27]. In 1621, this _black_ king of
Siam sent ambassadors to Goa, desiring that some Franciscans might be
sent to preach the gospel in his dominions. Accordingly, father Andrew,
of the convent of the Holy Ghost, went to _Odiaa_[28], where he was
received honourably, and got leave to erect a church, which was done at
the king's expence. He likewise offered great riches to the venerable
father, who constantly refused his offers, to the great admiration and
astonishment of the king. This _black_ king of Siam was of small
stature, of an evil presence, and an extraordinarily compound character,
of great wickedness, mixed with great generosity. Although cruel men are
for the most part cowards, he was at the same time exceedingly cruel,
and very valiant; and though tyrants are generally covetous, he was
extremely liberal; being barbarous in some parts of his conduct, and
generous and benevolent in others. Not satisfied with putting thieves
and robbers to ordinary deaths, he was in use to have them torn in
pieces in his presence by tigers and crocodiles for his amusement.
Understanding that one of his vassal kings intended to rebel, he had him
shut up in a cage, and fed him with morsels of his own flesh torn from
his body, after which he had him fried in a pan. On one occasion he slew
seven ladies belonging to the court, only because they walked too quick;
and on another occasion he cut off the legs of three others, because
they staid too long when sent by him for some money to give to certain
Portuguese. He even extended his severity to animals; having cut off the
paw of a favourite monkey for putting it into a box containing some
curiosities. A valuable horse was ordered to be beheaded, in presence of
his other horses, because he did not stop when he checked him. A tiger
that did not immediately seize a criminal thrown to him, was ordered to
be beheaded as a coward. Yet had this cruel and capricious tyrant many
estimable virtues. He kept his word inviolable; was rigorous in the
execution of justice; liberal in his gifts; and often merciful to those
who offended him. Having at one time sent a Portuguese to Malacca with
money to purchase some commodities; this man, after buying them lost
them all at play, and yet had the boldness to return to the king, who
even received him kindly, saying that he valued the confidence reposed
in his generosity more than the goods he ought to have brought. He
shewed much respect to the Christian priests and missionaries, and gave
great encouragement to the propagation of the gospel in his dominions.
His valour was without the smallest stain.

[Footnote 27: De Faria seems now to drop the fables of Fernan Mendez
Pinto, and to relate real events in the remainder of this section.--E.]

[Footnote 28: More properly Ythia, vulgarly called Siam.--E.]

The proper name of the kingdom we call _Siam_, is _Sornace_[29]. It
extends along the coast for 700 leagues, and its width inland is 260.
Most part of the country consists of fertile plains, watered by many
rivers, producing provisions of all sorts in vast abundance. The hills
are covered with a variety of trees, among which there are abundance of
ebony, brasilwood, and _Angelin_. It contains many mines of sulphur,
saltpetre, tin, iron, silver, gold, sapphires, and rubies; and produces
much sweet-smelling wood, benzoin, wax, cinnamon, pepper, ginger,
cardamunis, sugar, honey, silk, and cotton. The royal revenue is about
thirteen millions. The kingdom contains 13,000 cities and towns, besides
innumerable villages. All the towns are walled; but the people for the
most part are weak timorous and unwarlike. The coast is upon both seas;
that which is on the sea of India, or bay of Bengal, containing the sea
ports of _Junzalam_[30], and _Tanasserim_; while on the coast of the
China sea, are _Mompolocata_, _Cey_, _Lugor_, _Chinbu_, and _Perdio_.

[Footnote 29: The oriental term _Shan_, probably derived from the
inhabitants of Pegu; but the Siamese call themselves _Tai_, or freemen,
and their country _Meuang tai_, or the country of freemen--E.]

[Footnote 30: Otherwise called Junkseylon.--E.]

SECTION XVI.

_A short Account of the Portuguese possessions between the Cape of Good
Hope and China_.[31]

In the middle of the seventeenth century, the Portuguese empire in the
east, comprehended under the general name of India, from beyond the Cape
of Good Hope in Africa, to Cape Liampo in China, extended for 4000
leagues along the sea-coast, not including the shores of the Rea Sea and
the Persian gulf, which would add 1200 leagues more. Within these limits
are half of Africa, and all of eastern Asia, with innumerable islands
adjoining these two vast divisions of the world. This vast extent may be
conveniently divided into seven parts.

[Footnote 31: De Faria, III. 115. This is to be understood as about the
year 1640, before the Dutch had begun to conquer the Portuguese
possessions. They are now few and unimportant, containing only some
remnant of dominion at Mozambique, with the cities of Goa and Diu in
India, and Macao in China.--E.]

The _first_ division, between the famous Cape of Good Hope, and the
mouth of the Red Sea, contains along the coast many kingdoms of the
_Kafrs_; as the vast dominions of the Monomotapa, who is lord of all the
gold mines of Africa, with those of Sofala, Mozambique, Quiloa, Pemba,
Melinda, Pate, Brava, Magadoxa, and others. In this division the
Portuguese have the forts of Sofala and Mombaza, with the city and fort
of Mozambique.

The _second_ division, from the mouth of the Red Sea to that of the
Persian gulf, contains the coast of Arabia, in which they have the
impregnable fortress of Muskat.

The _third_ division, between Busrah, or Bazorah, at the bottom of the
Persian gulf, and India proper, contains the kingdoms of Ormuz, Guadel,
and Sinde, with part of Persia, and Cambaya, on which they have the fort
of Bandel, and the island of Diu.

The _fourth_ division, from the gulph of Cambaya, to Cape Comorin,
contains what is properly called India, including part of Cambaya, with
the Decan, Canara, and Malabar, subject to several princes. On this
coast the Portuguese have, Damam, Assarim, Danu, St Gens, Agazaim, Maim,
Manora, Trapor, Bazaim, Tana, Caranja, the city of Chaul, with the
opposite fort of Morro; the most noble city of GOA, the large, strong,
and populous metropolis of the Portuguese possessions in the east. This
is the see of an archbishop, who is primate of all the east, and is the
residence of their viceroys; and there are the courts of inquisition,
exchequer, and chancery, with a customhouse, arsenal, and well-stored
magazines. The city of Goa, which stands in an island, is girt with a
strong wall, and defended by six mighty castles called Dauguim, San
Blas, Bassoleco, Santiago de Agazaim, Panguim, and Nuestra Sennora del
Cabo. On the other side of the bar is the castle of Bardes, and opposite
to Dauguim is the fort of Norva, with a considerable town. On one side
of the island of Goa is that of Salsete, in which is the fort of Rachol.
Then going along the coast are the forts of Onor, Barcelor, Mongalor,
Cananor Cranganor, Cochin, which is a bishopric; and near Cape Comorin,
the town and fort of Coulan.

The _fifth_ division, between Cape Comorin and the river Ganges,
contains the coasts of Coromandel and Orixa, on which they have the fort
of Negapatam, the fort and city of Meliapour, which is a bishopric,
formerly named after St Thomas, and the fort of Masulipatan.

The _sixth_ division, between the Ganges and Cape Cincapura, contains
the vast kingdoms of Bengal, Pegu, Tanasserim, and others of less note;
where the Portuguese have the city of Malacca, the seat of a bishop, and
their last possession on the continent.

The _seventh_ division, from Cape Cincapura to Cape Liampo in China,
contains the kingdoms of Pam, Lugor, Siam, Cambodia, Tsiompa, Cochin
China, and the vast empire of China. In this vast extent the Portuguese
have only the island and city of Macao, yet trade all along these
coasts.

In the island of Ceylon, the Portuguese possess the city and fort of
Columbo, with those of Manaar, Gale, and others. Beyond Malacca, a fort
in the island of Timor. The number of our ports in all this great track
is above fifty, with twenty cities and towns, and many dependent
villages.

Much might be said of Ceylon, but we can only make room for a short
account of that famous island[32]. About 500 years before the time of
our Saviour, the heathen king of _Tenacarii_, who ruled over a great
part of the east, banished his son and heir _Vigia Rajah_, for the
wickedness and depravity of his conduct. The young man put to sea with
700 dissipated persons like himself, and landed at the port of
_Preature_, between Trincomalee, and Jafnapatam, in the island of
Ceylon, which was not then inhabited, but abounded in delightful rivers,
springs, woods, and fruit-trees, with many fine birds, and numerous
animals. These new colonists were so delighted with the country, that
they gave it the name of _Lancao_, which signifies the terrestrial
paradise, and, indeed, it is still considered as the delight of all the
east. The first town they built was _Montota_, opposite to _Manaar_,
whence they traded with _Cholca Rajah_, the nearest king on the
continent, who gave his daughter as wife to the prince, and supplied his
companions with women. He likewise sent them labourers and artizans to
forward the new plantation; and seeing his power increase, the banished
prince assumed the title of emperor of the islands. By strangers these
new come people were named _Galas_, signifying banished men on account
of their having actually been banished by the king of _Tenacarii._ Vigia
Rajah died without children, and left the crown to his brother, in whole
lineage it continued for 900 years. The fertility of the island, and the
fame of its excellent cinnamon, drew thither the _Chinese_, who
intermarried with the _Galas_, from which mixture arose a new race,
called to this day the _Chingalas_, or Chingalese, who are very powerful
in the island, being subtle, false, and cunning, and excellently adapted
for courtiers.

[Footnote 32: This is supplied from a former portion of the Portuguese
Asia, Vol II. p. 507.]

On the extinction of the ancient royal family, the kingdom fell to
_Dambadine Pandar Pracura Mabago_, who was treacherously taken prisoner
by the Chinese, afterwards restored, and then murdered by _Alagexere_,
who usurped the crown. The usurper dying ten years afterwards without
issue, two sons of _Dambadine_ were sent for who had fled from the
tyrant. _Maha Pracura Mabago_, the eldest, was raised to the throne, who
settled his court at _Cota_, and gave the dominion of the four _Corlas_
to his brother. _Maha Pracura_ was succeeded by a grandson, the son of a
daughter who was married to the Rajah of _Cholca_. This line likewise
failed, and _Queta Permal_, king of Jafnapatam, was raised to the
throne, on which he assumed the name or title of _Bocnegaboa_, or king
by force of arms, having overcome his brother, who was king of the four
_corlas_. His son, _Caypura Pandar_, succeeded, but was defeated and
slain by the king of the four _Corlas_, who mounted the throne, and took
the name of _Jauira Pracura Magabo_. These two kings were of the royal
lineage, and had received their dominions from king _Maha Pracura_.
After _Jauira_, his son _Drama Pracura Magabo_ succeeded, who reigned
when Vasco de Gama discovered the route by sea to India. Afterwards,
about the year 1500, the empire of Ceylon was divided by three brothers,
into three separate kingdoms. _Bocnegababo Pandar_ had _Cota_; _Reigam
Pandar_ had _Reigam_; and _Madure Pandar_ had _Cheitavaca_.

In the district of _Dinavaca_ in the centre of the island, there is a
prodigiously high mountain called the _Peak of Adam_, as some have
conceived that our first parents lived there, and that the print of a
foot, still to be seen on a rock on its summit, is his. The natives call
this _Amala Saripadi_, or the mountain of the footstep. Some springs
running down this mountain form a pool at the bottom, in which pilgrims
wash themselves, believing that it purifies them from sin. The rock or
stone on the top resembles a tomb-stone, and the print of the foot seems
not artificial, but as if it had been made in the same manner as when a
person treads upon wet clay, on which account it is esteemed miraculous.
Pilgrims of all sorts resort thither from all the surrounding countries,
even from Persia and China; and having purified themselves by washing in
the pool below, they go to the top of the mountain, near which hangs a
bell, which they strike, and consider its sound as a symbol of their
having been purified; _as if any other bell, on being struck, would not
sound_. According to the natives, _Drama Rajah_, the son of an ancient
king of the island, having done penance on the mountain along with many
disciples, and being about to go away, left the print of his foot on the
rock as a memorial. It is therefore respected as the relic of a saint,
and their common name for this person is _Budam_, which signifies the
_wise man_. Some believe this saint to have been _St Jesaphat_, but it
was more likely _St Thomas_, who has left many memorials in the _east_,
and even in the _west_, both in Brasil and Paraguay.

The natural woods of Ceylon are like the most curious orchards and
gardens of Europe, producing citrons, lemons, and many other kinds of
delicious fruit. It abounds in cinnamon, cardamums, sugar-canes, honey,
and hemp. It produces iron, of which the best firelocks in the east are
made. It abounds in precious stones, as rubies, sapphires, cats-eyes,
topazes, chrysolites, amythests, and berils. It has many civet-cats, and
produces, the noblest elephants in all the east. Its rivers and shores
abound in a variety of excellent fish, and it has many excellent ports
fit for the largest ships.

_End of the Portuguese Asia_.

CHAPTER V.

VOYAGES AND TRAVELS IN EGYPT, SYRIA, ARABIA, PERSIA, AND INDIA. BY
LUDOVICO VERTHEMA, IN 1503[33].

INTRODUCTION.

This ancient itinerary into the east, at the commencement of the
sixteenth century, together with the subsequent chapter, containing the
peregrinations of Cesar Frederick, about 80 years later, form an
appropriate supplement to the Portuguese transactions in India, as
furnishing a great number of observations respecting the countries,
people, manners, customs, and commerce of the east at an early period.
We learn from the _Bibliotheque Universelle des Voyages_. I. 264, that
this itinerary was originally published in Italian at Venice, in 1520.
The version followed on the present occasion was republished in old
English, in 1811, in an appendix to a reprint of HAKLUYT'S EARLY
VOYAGES, TRAVELS, AND DISCOVERIES; from which we learn that it was
translated from _Latine into Englishe, by Richarde Eden_, and originally
published in 1576. In both these English versions, the author is named
_Lewes Vertomannus_; but we learn from the _Biol. Univ. des Voy._ that
his real name was _Ludovico Verthema_, which we have accordingly adopted
on the present occasion, in preference to the latinized denomination
used by Eden. Although, in the present version, we have strictly adhered
to the sense of that published by Eden 236 years ago, it has appeared
more useful, and more consonant to the plan of our work, to render the
antiquated language into modern English: Yet, as on similar occasions,
we leave the _Preface of the Author_ exactly in the language and
orthography of Eden, the original translator.

[Footnote 33: Hakluyt, iv. App. pp. 547--612. Ed. Lond. 1810-11.]

The itinerary is vaguely dated in the title as of the year 1503, but we
learn from the text, that Verthema set out upon the pilgrimage of Mecca
from Damascus in the beginning of April 1503, after having resided a
considerable time at Damascus to acquire the language, probably Arabic;
and he appears to have left India on his return to Europe, by way of the
Cape of Good Hope and Lisbon, in the end of 1508. From some
circumstances in the text, but which do not agree with the
commencement, it would appear that Verthema had been taken prisoner by
the Mamelukes, when fifteen years of age, and was admitted into that
celebrated military band at Cairo, after making profession of the
Mahometan religion. He went afterwards on pilgrimage to Mecca, from
Damascus in Syria, then under the dominion of the Mameluke Soldan of
Egypt, and contrived to escape or desert from Mecca. By some unexplained
means, he appears to have become the servant or slave of a Persian
merchant, though he calls himself his companion, and along with whom he
made various extensive peregrinations in India. At length he contrived,
when at Cananore, to desert again to the Portuguese, through whose means
he was enabled to return to Europe.

In this itinerary, as in all the ancient voyages and travels, the names
of persons, places, and things, are generally given in an extremely
vicious orthography, often almost utterly unintelligible, as taken down
orally, according to the vernacular modes of the respective writers,
without any intimate knowledge of the native language, or the employment
of any fixed general standard. To avoid the multiplication of notes, we
have endeavoured to supply this defect, by subjoining those names which
are now almost universally adopted by Europeans, founded upon a more
intimate acquaintance with the eastern languages. Thus the author, or
his translator Eden, constantly uses _Cayrus_ and _Alcayr_, for the
modern capital of Egypt, now known either by the Arabic denomination Al
Cahira, or the European designation Cairo, probably formed by the
Venetians from the Arabic. The names used in this itinerary have
probably been farther disguised and vitiated, by a prevalent fancy or
fashion of giving _latin_ terminations to all names of persons and
places in latin translations. Thus, even the author of this itinerary
has had his modern _Roman_ name, _Verthema_, latinized into
_Vertomannus_, and probably the _Cairo_, or _Cayro_ of the Italian
original, was corrupted by Eden into _Cayrus_, by way of giving it a
latin sound. Yet, while we have endeavoured to give, often
conjecturally, the better, or at least more intelligible and now
customary names, it seemed proper to retain those of the original
translation, which we believe may be found useful to our readers, as a
kind of _geographical glossary_ of middle-age terms.

Of _Verthema_ or _Vertomannus_, we only know, from the title of the
translation of his work by Eden, that he was a _gentleman of Rome;_ and
we learn, at the close of his itinerary, that he was knighted by the
Portuguese viceroy of India, and that his patent of knighthood was
confirmed at Lisbon, by the king of Portugal. The full title of this
journal or itinerary, as given by the original translator, is as
follows; by which, and the preface of the author, both left unaltered,
the language and orthography of England towards the end of the sixteenth
century, or in 1576, when Eden published his translation, will be
sufficiently illustrated.--Ed.

THE NAUIGATION AND VYAGES
OF
LEWES VERTOMANNUS,
GENTLEMAN OF THE CITIE OF ROME,
TO THE
REGIONS OF ARABIA, EGYPTE, PERSIA, SYRIA, ETHIOPIA
AND EAST INDIA,
BOTH WITHIN AND WITHOUT THE RYUER OF GANGES, ETC.
IN THE YEERE OF OUR LORDE 1503.
CONTEYNING
MANY NOTABLE AND STRAUNGE THYNGES,
BOTH HYSTORICALL AND NATURALL
TRANSLATED OUT OF LATINE INTO ENGLYSHE,
BY RICHARDE EDEN.
IN THE YEERE OF OUR LORDE 1576.

THE PREFACE OF THE AUTHOR.

There haue been many before me, who, to know the miracles of the worlde,
haue with diligent studie read dyuers authours which haue written of
such thynges. But other giuing more credit to the lyuely voyce, haue
been more desirous to know the same, by relation of such as haue
traueyled in those countreys, and seene such thinges whereof they make
relation, for that in many bookes, geathered of vncertaine aucthoritie,
are myxt false thinges with true. Other there are so greatly desirous to
know the trueth of these thinges, that they can in no wyse be satisfied
vntyll, by theyr owne experience they haue founde the trueth by vyages
and perigrinations into straunge countreys and people, to know theyr
maners, fashions, and customes, with dyuers thynges there to be seene:
wherein the only readyng of bookes could not satisfie theyr thirst of
such knowledge, but rather increased the same, in so much, that they
feared not with losse of theyr goods and daunger of lyfe to attempte
great vyages to dyuers countreys, with witnesse of theyr eyes to see
that they so greatly desired to knowe. The whiche thyng among other
chaunced vnto me also, for as often as in the books of Hystories and
Cosmographie, I read of such marueylous thynges whereof they make
mention [especially of thynges in the east parts of the world], there
was nothyng that coulde pacifie my vnquiet mynde, vntyll I had with myne
eyes seene the trueth thereof.

I know that some there are indued with hygh knowledge, mountyng vnto the
heauens, whiche will contempne these our wrytinges as base and humble,
by cause we do not here, after theyr maner, with hygh and subtile
inquisition intreate of the motions and dispositions of the starres, and
gyue reason of theyr woorkyng on the earth, with theyr motions,
retrogradations, directions, mutations, epicicles, reuolutions,
inclinations, diuinations, reflexions, and suche other parteyning to the
science of Astrologie: whych certeynely we doe not contempne, but
greatly prayse. But measuryng vs with our owne foote, we will leaue that
heauie burden of heauven to the strong shoulders of Atlas and Hercules:
and only creepyng vpon the earth, in our owne person beholde the
situations of landes and regions, with the maners and customes of men,
and variable fourmes, shapes, natures, and properties of beastes,
fruites, and trees, especially suche as are among the Arabians,
Persians, Indians, Ethiopians. And whereas in the searchyng of these
thynges we have [thanked be God], satisfied our desire, we thinke
neuerthelesse that we haue done little, excepte we should communicate to
other, such thynges as we haue seene and had experience of, that they
lykewyse by the readyng therof may take pleasure, for whose sakes we
have written this long and dangerous discourse, of thynges whych we haue
seene in dyvers regions and sectes of men, desiryng nothyng more then
that the trueth may be knowen to them that desyre the same. But what
incommodities and troubles chaunced vnto me in these vyages, as hunger,
thirst, colde, heate, warres, captiuitie, terrours, and dyuers other
suche daungers, I will declare by the way in theyr due places.

SECTION I.

_Of the Navigation from Venice to Alexandria in Egypt, and from thence

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