Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Books, poems, drama…

A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels, Volume VI by Robert Kerr

Part 4 out of 11

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 1.3 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

sail for the month of the Red Sea. But before leaving Aden, he took a
redoubt or bulwark which defended the entrance into the harbour, where a
great many Moors, or Arabs rather, were slain, and 37 pieces of cannon
taken. Having plundered the ships in the harbour, they were all burnt;
and on the fourth day after arriving at Aden, the fleet set sail for the
mouth of the Red Sea, on their arrival at which great rejoicings were
made by Albuquerque and the Portuguese, as being the first Europeans who
had ever navigated that celebrated sea.

The form of the Red Sea is not unlike that of a crocodile, having its
mouth at the narrow Straits of Mecca or Babelmandeb, the head being that
sea which lies between Cape Guardafu and Fartaque, and the extremity of
the tail at the town of Suez. Its general direction is from N.N.W. to
S.S.E. being 530 leagues long, and 40 over where broadest[132]. The
channel for navigation is about the middle, where it has sufficient
depth of water for the largest ships, but both sides are very shallow,
and much encumbered by sand banks and numerous small islands. No river
of any note falls into it during its whole extent. It is called by the
Moors or Arabs, _Bahar Corzu_ or the Closed Sea, and by others the Sea
of Mecca; but by Europeans the Arabian Gulf or the Red Sea, owing to the
red colour it derives from its bottom, as was proved by a subsequent
viceroy, Don Juan de Castro, who caused some of the bottom to be dragged
up in several places, when it was found to consist of a red coralline
substance; while in other places the bottom was green, and white in
some, but mostly red. The water itself, when taken up, is as clear as in
any other part of the sea. The Red Sea does not abound in fish, but it
produces small pearls in many places. The mouth of the Red Sea, called
the Straits of Mecca or of Bab-al-mandeb, is in lat. 12 deg. 40' N. and is
as it were locked up by seven small islands, the largest of which, now
_Mehun_, was called by Ptolemy _Perantonomasiam_. On going from the
straits towards Suez along the eastern or Arabian shore, there are only
a few small ports of no note for the first 44 leagues, till we come to
the island of _Kamaran_, which is subject to the king of Aden. At 60
leagues from thence we come to _Gezan_ a large town; thence 130 leagues
to _Yambo_, all in the dominions of Mecca, having several good towns and
harbours. Among these are the famous and well known ports of _Ziden_ and
_Juddah_, or _Joda_; _Mecca_ being 15 leagues inland from the latter.
From Yambo it is 60 leagues to _Toro_, where the children of Israel are
said to have crossed the Red Sea, which at this place is 3 leagues
across. Thence to _Suez_ is 40 leagues, and there ends the Arabian
shore. On sailing back to the straits along the western shore of Egypt
and Ethiopia, from Suez which is 20 leagues from Grand Cairo the vast
metropolis of Egypt, it is 45 leagues to Al-cosier; thence 135 to the
city of Suakem, in which space there are many ports: From thence 70
leagues farther on is the island and port of Massua, and opposite to it
Arkiko; and thence other 85 leagues bring us back to the Straits of
Bab-el-mandeb. Behind a ridge of mountains which runs close along the
whole coast of Ethiopia, lie the dominions of Prester John, which has
always preserved Christianity after its own manner, and has of late been
much supported therein by the Portuguese arms.

[Footnote 132: The extreme length of the Red Sea is 400 geographical
leagues, 20 to the degree, or about 1380 statute miles, and its greatest
breadth 65 of the same leagues, about 225 miles.--E.]

Entering into the Red Sea, Albuquerque sailed along the coast to the
island of Kamaran, which he found abandoned by its inhabitants from
dread of his approach. He took two vessels by the way, and found four
others at this place, one of which belonged to the Soldan of Egypt. From
this island he visited several others; and one day there appeared in
the sky to the whole persons in the fleet a very bright red cross,
seemingly about six feet broad, and of a proportional length. All the
Portuguese knelt down and worshipped the heavenly sign, Albuquerque
making a devout prayer; after which the happy omen was joyfully hailed
by the sound of music and cannon, till at length it was covered over by
a bright cloud and disappeared. As the trade wind failed for carrying
him to Judduh, Albuquerque returned to Kamaran where he wintered, and
where his people suffered extreme misery from famine and sickness. In
July 1513, as soon as the weather would permit, he sailed again for
India, meaning to appear again before Aden, and touched at the island of
Mehun, in the middle of the straits, to which he gave the name of Vera
Cruz, in memory of the miraculous vision with which they had been
favoured, and erected a very high cross upon an eminence. From thence he
sent two ships to examine the city and port of Zeyla, on an island in a
bay of the coast of Adel, where they burnt two ships belonging to the
Moors, and joined the fleet again before Aden. He found the
fortifications of this place repaired and strengthened; and after
exchanging a cannonade which did little damage on either side, and
burning some ships in the harbour, he sailed for India.

Albuquerque arrived at Diu about the middle of August 1513, and was
immediately supplied, with some provisions accompanied by a courteous
message from Malek Azz the lord of that city under the king of Cambaya,
more from fear than affection. Being aware of his duplicity, Albuquerque
dealt cautiously with this chief, and demanded permission to erect a
fort at Diu; but Malek Azz excused himself, referring Albuquerque to the
king of Cambaya, whom he secretly advised to refuse if asked. However it
was agreed to settle a Portuguese factor at this place to conduct the
trade; and at parting Azz treated Albuquerque with so much artful
civility, that he said he had never seen a more perfect courtier, or one
more fitted to please and deceive a man of understanding. Some time
afterwards, the king of Cambaya gave permission for the Portuguese to
erect a fort at Diu, on condition that he might do the same at Malacca.
At this time there arrived two ships from Portugal, a third having been
cast away in the voyage, but the men saved. Albuquerque went to Goa, and
sent his nephew Noronha to Cochin to dispatch the homeward bound trade,
along with which an ambassador was sent from the zamorin to the king of
Portugal, peace being now established with that sovereign, who permitted
a fort to be erected at his capital. By these ships likewise were sent
the presents of many of the Indian princes to the king of Portugal,
together with many captives taken in war. There went also a Portuguese
Jew, who had been an inhabitant of Jerusalem, and had been sent by the
guardian of the Franciscans to acquaint Albuquerque that the Soldan of
Egypt threatened to destroy all the holy places at Jerusalem.

Pate Quitir, the native of Java, who had been preferred by Albuquerque
to the command of the native inhabitants of Malacca, continued to carry
on measures for expelling the Portuguese, and having strengthened
himself secretly, at last broke out into rebellion. Having slain a
Portuguese captain and several men, and taken some pieces of cannon, he
suddenly fortified the quarter of the city in which he resided, and
stood on his defence with 6000 men and two elephants. Ferdinando Perez
and Alfonso Pessoa went against him with 320 men, partly by land and
partly by water, and after a long contest forced him to flee for refuge
into the woods after many of his men were slain. A considerable quantity
of artillery and ammunition was found in that part of the city which he
had fortified, which was burnt to the ground after being plundered of
much riches. Having received succour from Java and Mahomet, the expelled
king of Malacca, Quitir, erected another fort in a convenient place at
some distance from the city, where he became powerful by sea and land,
being in hopes of usurping the sovereignty of Malacca. Perez went out
against him, but though he fought as valiantly as before, he was forced
to retreat after losing three captains and four soldiers. At this time
_Lacsamana_, an officer belonging to Mahomet, entered the river of
Malacca with a great number of men and many cannon on board several
vessels. Perez attacked him with three ships, and a furious battle took
place which lasted for three hours, with much advantage on the side of
the Portuguese, but night obliged the combatants to desist, and Perez
took a position to prevent as he thought the Malayans from escaping out
of the river during the darkness. But Lacsamana threw up an intrenchment
of such respectable appearance during the night, that it was thought too
dangerous to attempt an attack, and Perez retired to the fort. At this
time three ships entered the port from India, bringing a supply of
ammunition and a reinforcement of 150 soldiers; but Lacsamana had
established himself so advantageously, that he intercepted all the
vessels carrying provisions for Malacca, which was reduced to such
straits that many fell down in the streets from famine. The same plague
attended Pate Quitir in his quarters.[133]

[Footnote 133: It is probable that Mr Stevens has mistaken the sense of
Faria at this place, and that the famine in Malacca was occasioned by
the joint operations of Lacsamana and Pate Quitir, holding the city in a
state of blockade.--E.]

When the season became fit for navigation, Perez set out with ten ships
and a galley in quest of provisions. While sailing towards Cincapura,
the galley discovered a sail, and stuck by it till the fleet came up. It
was found to be laden with provisions and ammunition for Pate Quitir.
Perez brought the captain and other head men on board his own ship,
where they attempted to slay the Portuguese, even Perez being stabbed in
the back by a cris or dagger. Being foiled in this attempt, most of them
leapt into the sea, but some were taken and put to the rack who
confessed there was a son of Quitir among them, and that they were
followed by three other vessels similarly laden. These were likewise
captured and carried to Malacca. At the same time Gomez de Cunna arrived
with his ship laden with provisions from Pegu, where he had been to
settle a treaty of amity and commerce with the king of that country. The
famine being thus appeased, and the men recovered, Perez attacked Pate
Quitir by sea and land; and having fortunately succeeded in the capture
of his fortified quarters, which were set on fire, that chieftain was
forced to retire to Java, and Lacsamana, on seeing this success of the
Portuguese, retired with his forces.

Java is an island to the south-east of Sumatra, from which it is divided
by a strait of fifteen leagues in breadth. This island is almost 200
leagues in length from east to west, but is narrow in proportion to its
breadth, being divided by a long range of mountains through its whole
length, like the Apennines of Italy, which prevents intercourse between
the two coasts. It has several ports and good cities, and its original
inhabitants appear to have come from China. In after times the Moors of
Malacca[134] possessed themselves of the sea coast, obliging the natives
to take shelter in the forests and mountains of the interior. At this
period a Malay chief named _Pate Unuz_ was lord of the city of Japara,
who became afterwards king of Sunda. Indignant that the metropolis of
the Malayan territories should he possessed by the enemies of the
Mahometan faith, he had been seven years preparing a powerful armament
of 90 sail to attempt the conquest of Malacca, during all which time he
kept up a secret correspondence with the Javan Malays who inhabited that
city. Several of his ships were equal in size to the largest Portuguese
galleons, and the one destined for himself was larger than any ship then
built by the Europeans. Having completed his preparations, he embarked
with 12,000 men and a formidable train of artillery, and appeared
suddenly before the city. Ferdinando Perez immediately embarked with 350
Portuguese and some native troops in 17 vessels, and attacked the Javan
fleet, with which he had an obstinate engagement, doing considerable
damage to the enemy, but night parted the combatants. Next morning Pate
Unuz endeavoured to get into the river Maur with his fleet; but Perez
pursued him, and penetrating into the midst of the enemy plied his
cannon and fireworks with such success, that many of the Javan ships
were sunk and set on fire. After a furious battle of some endurance,
Unuz fled and was pursued all the way to Java, where he preserved his
own vast vessel as a memorial of his escape and of the grandeur of his
fleet, and not without reason, as a merchant of Malacca engaged to
purchase it of Perez for 10,000 ducats if taken. This victory cost the
Portuguese some blood, as several were slain, and few escaped without
wounds. From this time forwards, the natives of Java were for ever
banished from Malacca.

[Footnote 134: Faria perpetually confounds all Mahometans under the
general denomination of Moors. These possessors of the coast of Java
were unquestionably Malays.--E.]

Soon after this brilliant victory, Ferdinando Perez sailed from Malacca
to Cochin with a valuable cargo of spice, accompanied by Lope de Azevedo
and Antonio de Abreu, who came from the discovery of the Molucca islands
with three ships. After their arrival at Cochin, Antonio de Miranda
arrived there from Siam, to the great joy of Albuquerque, who thus
reaped the rich fruits of his care and labour for the acquisition of
Malacca, and the happy return of those whom he had sent upon other
discoveries.

King Mahomet had not yet lost all hope of recovering Malacca, to which
he now drew near; and having in vain attempted to succeed by force, had
recourse to stratagem. For this purpose he prevailed on a favourite
officer named Tuam Maxeliz, to imitate the conduct of Zopirus at
Babylon. Being accordingly mutilated, Tuam fled with some companions to
Malacca, giving out that he had escaped from the tyrannical cruelty of
his sovereign. Ruy de Brito, who then commanded in the citadel of
Malacca, credited his story and reposed so much confidence in his
fidelity that he was admitted at all times into the fortress. At length,
having appointed a particular day for the execution of his
long-concerted enterprise, on which Mahomet was to send a party to
second his efforts or to bring him off, he and his accomplices got
admittance into the fort as usual, and immediately began to assassinate
the Portuguese garrison by means of their daggers, and had actually
slain six before they were able to stand to their defence. Brito, who
happened to be asleep when the alarm was given, immediately collected
his men and drove the traitor and his companions from the fort, at the
very moment, when a party of armed Malays came up to second their
efforts. The commander of this party, named Tuam Calascar, on learning
the miscarriage of Tuam Maxeliz, pretended that he came to the
assistance of Brito, and by that means was permitted to retire.

Soon after this Pedro de Faria arrived at Malacca from the Straits of
Sabam, bringing with him _Abdela_ king of Campar, who being no longer
able to endure the insolence of his father-in-law Mahomet, came to
reside in security under the protection of the Portuguese in Malacca.
This was in the month of July [135], shortly after the arrival of George
de Albuquerque from Goa to command at Malacca. By instructions from the
viceroy, Abdela was appointed _Bendara_, or governor, of the natives,
which office had till then been enjoyed by _Ninachetu_, who was now
displaced on account of some miscarriage or malversation. Ninachetu, who
was a gentile, so much resented this affront, that he resolved to give a
signal demonstration of his fidelity and concern. He was very rich, and
gave orders to dress up a scaffold or funeral pile in the market-place
or bazar of Malacca, splendidly adorned with rich silks and cloth of
gold, the middle of the pile being composed of a vast heap of aromatic
wood of high price. The entire street from his dwelling to the pile was
strewed with sweet-scented herbs and flowers, and adorned with rich
hangings, correspondent to the magnificence of the pile. Having
collected all his friends, and clad himself and family in splendid
attire, he went in solemn procession to the bazar, where he mounted the
scaffold and made a long harangue, in which he protested his innocence
and declared that he had always served the Portuguese with the utmost
zeal and fidelity. Having ordered the pile to be fired, and seeing the
whole in flames, he declared that he would now mount to heaven in that
flame and smoke, and immediately cast himself into the flaming pile, to
the great admiration of all the beholders.

[Footnote 135: Faria omits any mention of the year, but from the context
it appears to have been in 1513.--E.]

At this time the king of Campar had gone home, intending to return to
assume his office of Bendara, but was hindered by Mahomet and the king
of Bintang, who fitted out a fleet of 70 sail with 2500 men under the
command of the king of _Linga_, and besieged Campar, in the harbour of
which town there were eight Portuguese vessels and some native _proas_,
under the command of George Botello. Observing this squadron to be
somewhat careless, the king of Linga fell suddenly with his galley on
the ship commanded by Botello, followed by the rest of his fleet; but
met with so warm a reception that his galley was taken, so that he had
to leap overboard, and the rest of the enemies fleet was put to flight.
The siege was now raised, and Botello conveyed the king of Campar to
Malacca, where he exercised the office of Bendara with so much judgment
and propriety, that in four months the city was visibly improved, great
numbers of people resorting thither who had formerly fled to Mahomet to
avoid the oppressions of Ninachetu. Perceiving the growth of the city
under the wise administration of Abdela, Mahomet determined to put a
stop to this prosperity by means of a fraud peculiar to a Moor. He gave
out secretly, yet so that it might spread abroad, that his son-in-law
had gone over to the Portuguese at Malacca with his knowledge and
consent, and that the same thing was done by all those who seemed to fly
there from Bintang, with the design to seize upon the fort on the first
opportunity, and restore it to him who was the lawful prince. This
secret, as intended by Mahomet, was at length divulged at Malacca, where
it produced the intended effect, as the commandant, George de
Albuquerque, gave more credit to this false report than to the honest
proceedings of the Bendara, who was tried and condemned as a traitor,
and had his head cut off on a public scaffold. In consequence of this
event, the city was left almost desolate by the flight of the native
inhabitants, and was afterwards oppressed by famine.

During the year 1513, while these transactions were going on at Malacca,
the viceroy Albuquerque visited the most important places under his
charge, and gave the necessary, orders for their security. He dispatched
his nephew Don Garcia to Cochin, with directions to expedite the
construction of the fort then building at Calicut. He appointed a
squadron of four sail, under the command of his nephew Pedro de
Albuquerque, to cruise from the mouth, of the Red Sea to that of the
Persian Gulf, with orders to receive the tribute of Ormuz when it became
due, and then to discover the island of Bahrayn, the seat of the great
pearl-fishery in that gulf. He sent ambassadors well attended to several
princes. Diego Fernandez de Beja went to the king of Cambaya, to treat
about the erection of a fort at Din, which had been before consented to,
but was now refused at the instigation of Maluk Azz. Fernandez returned
to Goa with magnificent presents to Albuquerque, among which was a
Rhinoceros or _Abada_, which was afterwards lost in the Mediterranean on
its way from king Manuel to the pope along with other Indian rarities.
Juan Gonzalez de Castello Branco was sent to the king of Bisnagar, to
demand restitution of the dependencies belonging to Goa, but with little
success.

In September 1513, five ships arrived at Goa from Portugal under the
command of Christopher de Brito, one of which bound for Cambaya was
lost. Having dispatched these ships with their homeward cargoes,
Albuquerque prepared for a military expedition, but was for some time
indetermined whether to bend his course for Ormuz or the Red Sea, both
expeditions having been ordered by the king. In order to determine which
of these was to be undertaken, he convened a council of all his
captains, and it was agreed that Ormuz was to be preferred, which was in
fact quite consonant to the wishes of the viceroy. He accordingly set
sail on the 20th of February 1514, with a fleet of 27 sail, having on
board a land force of 1500 Portuguese and 600 native Malabars and
Canaras. The fleet anchored in the port of Ormuz on the 26th of March,
and an immediate message of ceremony came off from the king with rich
presents; but Albuquerque was better pleased with finding that Michael
Ferreyra, whom he had sent on an embassy to Ismael king of Persia, to
negociate a treaty of amity and commerce, had strong hopes of success.

_Seif Addin_ king of Orrauz and his governor Khojah Attar were now both
dead, and Reis Hamet now possessed the entire favour and confidence of
the new king. Among other things, Albuquerque sent to demand being put
immediately in possession of the fort which he had formerly begun to
build at Ormuz, and that some principal persons should be sent to ratify
and confirm the submission which the former king Seif Addin had made of
the kingdom to the supremacy of the king of Portugal. All was consented
to, as there was no sufficient power for resistance; and Reis Noradin
the governor came to wait upon Albuquerque accompanied by his nephew, to
make the desired ratification. The viceroy made rich presents on the
occasion, and sent a splendid collar of gold to the king, with the
Portuguese standard, as a mark of the union between the two nations.
Public rejoicings were made on both sides on account of this amicable
arrangement; and Albuquerque took possession of the fort, which had been
formerly begun, and by using every exertion it rose in a few days to a
great height, so that the viceroy and his principal officers took up
their residence in some houses in its neighbourhood. Albuquerque now
made splendid preparations to receive the ambassador from the king of
Persia, who brought a magnificent present from his sovereign, consisting
of rich brocades, precious stones, splendid golden ornaments, and many
fine silks. The ambassador was honourably received, and the treaty
concluded to mental satisfaction. This ceremony took place on a scaffold
erected in public near the residence of the viceroy, and had been
delayed for a considerable time on purpose to be exhibited in great
splendour to the people of Ormuz, that they might see that the
Portuguese friendship was sought after by so powerful a sovereign. The
king of Ormuz was at a window to see the procession.

Reis Hamet[136], formerly mentioned, had come to Ormuz from Persia with
the design of seizing the city and delivering it up to the Sophi. He had
insinuated himself so effectually into the favour of the king as to
govern him in all respects, and nothing was done but by his directions.
The better to carry on his enterprise, he had gradually introduced a
number of his dependents into the city, and was actually preparing to
kill the king and seize the government, but deferred his intentions to
a more favourable opportunity. Albuquerque was fully informed of all
these secret practices, and that the king was anxious to be delivered
from the influence of Hamet; he therefore endeavoured to devise means
for effectuating the purpose, and fortune soon gave him an opportunity.
An interview had been appointed to take place between the king and
Albuquerque; but prompted by his fears, Hamet endeavoured to shun this
danger, by proposing that Albuquerque should wait upon the king, lest if
the king went to visit the viceroy, he might be obliged to attend him.
But Albuquerque insisted upon receiving the visit of the king, which was
at last agreed to, on condition that neither party was to be armed. Some
of the attendants upon Hamet were however secretly armed, and Hamet came
armed himself, and pressed foremost into the room with much rudeness, on
which Albuquerque made a concerted signal to his captains, who.
instantly dispatched him. After this the king came, and a conference
began between him and the viceroy, which was soon interrupted by a
violent clamour among the people, who supposed their king was slain. But
the people belonging to Hamet, knowing that their master had been
killed, ran and fortified themselves in the kings palace. Albuquerque
proposed immediately to have dispossessed them by means of his troops;
but the king and governor found other means of expelling these men from
the city, who to the number of 700 men went to Persia.

[Footnote 136: Reis or Rais signifies a chief, and is commonly given on
the coasts of Arabia and Persia to sea captains: In Faria it is
Raez.--Astl I. 75. 2.]

When this tumult was appeased, the people of Ormuz were much gratified
at seeing their king conducted back to his palace in great pomp,
attended by Albuquerque and all his officers, more especially as he was
now freed from the tyranny of Hamet, and restored to the majesty of a
king[137]. Albuquerque now dispatched the Persian ambassador,
accompanied by Ferdinando Gomez, carrying a present of double the value
of that he had received, and having orders to give a proper account of
the late transactions at Ormuz, especially in regard to Reis Hamet.
Gomez was well received, and brought back a favourable answer. It would
require more room than can be spared in this history to give an account
of the affairs of Persia; it may therefore suffice to say that the
valiant prince who reigned over Persia at this time was engaged in war
with the Turks, and was desirous of taking advantage of the Portuguese
assistance against his enemy.

[Footnote 137: It is scarce possible to conceive how Faria could gravely
make this observation, when the Portuguese had imposed an annual tribute
on the king of Ormuz, and were actually building a fortress to keep the
capital under subjection.--E.]

While the fort of Ormuz was building, or rather finishing, Albuquerque
persuaded the king that it would contribute to the safety of the city to
put all their cannon into the fort to defend them against their enemies,
but in reality to disable them from resisting the Portuguese domination.
Security is a powerful argument with those who are in fear, so that the
king and his governor reluctantly consented to this demand. Thus the
rich and powerful kingdom of Ormuz was completely subjected to the
Portuguese dominion, yet more to the advantage than detriment of its
native princes; who were more oppressed before by the tyranny of their
ministers, than afterwards by the tribute they had to pay to the
Portuguese, besides the security they enjoyed under protection of the
Portuguese arms. Yet liberty is sweeter than all other conveniences.

Albuquerque dispatched his nephew Don Garcia de Noronha with most of the
fleet to Cochin, with orders to send home the ships of the season with
the trade to Portugal, remaining behind to conclude such arrangements as
seemed to require his presence. He soon afterwards fell sick, and was
persuaded by his attendants to return to India for the recovery of his
health, which he consented to, and left Pedro de Albuquerque in the
command of the fort at Ormuz. His departure gave great concern to the
king, who loved him as a father. While on the voyage to Goa, he got
notice that 12 ships were arrived in India from Portugal with orders for
his return to Europe, Lope Soarez who commanded that fleet being
appointed his successor. He was likewise informed that Diego Mendez and
Diego Pereyra, both of whom he had sent home as prisoners for heinous
crimes, had come back to India, the one as governor of Cochin and the
other as secretary to the new viceroy. These news gave him much
dissatisfaction, and he is reported to have vented his distress on the
occasion to the following purpose. "It is now time for me to take
sanctuary in the church, having incurred the kings displeasure for the
sake of his subjects, and their anger for the sake of the king. Old man!
fly to the church! Your honour requires that you should die, and you
have never yet omitted any thing in which your honour was concerned!"
Then raising his hands and eyes to heaven, he gave God thanks that a
governor had come out so opportunely, not doubting that he should soon
die. He fell into a profound melancholy, and arrived at Dabul almost in
the arms of death, at which place he wrote the following letter to the
king. "This, Sir! is the last letter your highness will receive from me,
who am now under the pangs of death. I have formerly written many to
your highness full of life and vigour, being then free from the dread
thought of this last hour, and actively employed in your service. I
leave a son behind me, _Blas de Albuquerque_, whom I entreat your
highness to promote in recompence of my services. The affairs of India
will answer for themselves and me."

Having arrived on the bar of Goa, which he called his _Land of Promise_,
he expired on the 16th of December, 1515, in the sixty-third year of his
age, retaining his senses to the last, and dying as became a good
Christian. Alfonso de Albuquerque was second son to Gonzalo de
Albuquerque lord of Villaverde, by Donna Leonora de Menezes, daughter of
Alvaro Gonzalez de Atayde, first count of Atouguia. He had been master
of the horse to King John the Second. He was of moderate stature, having
a fair and pleasing countenance, with a venerable beard reaching below
his girdle to which he wore it knotted. When angry his looks were
terrible; but when pleased his manners were merry, pleasant, and witty.
He was buried in a chapel which he built near the gate of the city of
Goa, dedicated to _Our Lady of the Mountain_, but, after a long
resistance from the inhabitants of Goa, his bones were transferred to
the church of _Our Lady of Grace_ at Lisbon.

The dominion of the Portuguese in India was founded by three great men,
Duarte Pacheco, Francisco de Almeyda, and Alfonso de Albuquerque; after
whom scarcely was there a single successor who did not decline from
their great character, having either a mixture of timidity with their
valour, or of covetousness with their moderation, in which the vices
predominated. In gaining this Indian crown, Pacheco alone acted with
that fiery heat which melted the arms and riches of the zamorin; only
_Almeyda_ could have filed and polished it, by his own and his sons
sword, bringing it into form by humbling the pride of the Egyptian
Soldan while _Albuquerque_ gave a finish to its ornaments, by adorning
it with three precious jewels, _Goa, Malacca_ and _Ormuz_[138].

[Footnote 138: Portuguese Asia, II. vii. This rhetorical flourish by De
Faria, gives a specimen of what was perhaps considered fine writing in
those days; but it strongly marks the important services of Albuquerque,
and is therefore here inserted.--E.]

SECTION VI.

_Portuguese Transactions in India, under several governors, from the
close of 1515, to the year 1526_.

While the great Alfonso de Albuquerque was drawing towards the last
period of his life, Manuel, as if he had foreseen that event, sent out
Don Lope Soarez de Albergaria to succeed him in the government, with a
fleet of 13 ships, carrying a force of 1500 soldiers, many of whom were
gentlemen by birth, and still more so by their actions. Among them was
Duarte Galvam, a person of learning and judgment, who was sent
ambassador to Abyssinia with considerable presents, some for _Prester
John_, and some for the church. On his arrival at Cochin, the new
governor offended many by the reservedness of his carriage and manners,
and became particularly disagreeable to the rajah, who had been
accustomed to the discreet and easy civility of Albuquerque. Don Garcia
de Noronha took charge of the homeward bound ships, and went away after
no small disagreement with Soarez. Till this time, the Portuguese
gentlemen in India had followed the dictates of honour, esteeming arms
their greatest riches; but henceforwards they gave themselves entirely
up to trade, those who had been captains becoming merchants; insomuch
that command became a shame, honour a scandal, and reputation a
reproach. Having entered upon the exercise of his government, he visited
the forts, in which he placed new captains, gave out orders, and
transacted other affairs of small moment, which serve rather to fill the
page than to advance the dignity of history.

In the year 1515, five ships sailed from Lisbon under the command of
Juan de Sylveira, three of which arrived in Lisbon, and the other two
were lost on the sands of St Lazarus. By orders from the king,
proceeding on information that the Soldan was fitting out a great fleet
at Suez, Soarez sailed from Goa on the 8th of February 1516, with 27
sail of vessels of various sizes and descriptions, having 1200
Portuguese and 800 Malabar soldiers on board, besides 800 native seamen,
and directed his course for the Red Sea in order to oppose the Mameluke
fleet. On arriving at Aden, Miramirzan the governor immediately offered
to surrender the place, declaring he would have done so to Albuquerque
if that officer had not at the very first proceeded to hostility. The
real state of the matter was that the place was indefensible, as Reis,
Soliman, the admiral of the Egyptian fleet of which Soarez was in search
had beaten down a part of the wall so that the town was defenceless.
Lope Soarez was so much pleased by this flattering offer that he trusted
Miramirzan and declined taking possession of the city till his return
from the Red Sea, and went away in search of Reis Soliman; but he
neither met with him, nor did he take Aden on his return. While on his
voyage up the Red Sea, Don Alvaro do Castro with forty men was lost
through covetousness, as he so overloaded his ship with goods from some
captured vessels that she became water-logged and went to the bottom.
Some other ships of the fleet received damage during this part of the
voyage. Hearing that Soliman was driven by stress of weather to Jiddah,
where he had no means of defence, Soarez determined to sail to that
place.

Jiddah or Juddah, the sea-port of Mecca, is a town and harbour of Arabia
on the eastern shore of the Red Sea in about 22 deg. of north latitude,
situated in a most barren soil composed of deep loose sand, being more
calculated for commerce than delight. The buildings are good, but the
harbour very bad, and its inhabitants consist partly of native Arabs and
partly of foreign merchants. It was fortified by Mir Husseyn after his
defeat by Almeyda, under pretence, of defending the sepulchre of
Mahomet, but in reality for his own security as he was afraid to return
defeated to the Soldan. While he was occupied in constructing the
fortifications, Reis Soliman a low born Turk of Mitylene in the
Archipelago, but a bold and successful corsair, offered his services to
the Soldan, and was appointed admiral of the Suez fleet of 27 sail,
which was fitting out for the attack of Aden. Mir Husseyn was
accordingly discarded and Soliman appointed in his place. After the
failure of his attempt on Aden, where he lost a considerable number of
men, Soliman made a descent on Zobeid in the Tehamah near the island of
Kamaran, where he acquired a considerable booty, from whence he
proceeded to Jiddah, where he slew Mir Husseyn: And learning that the
emperor of the Turks had slain the Soldan in battle, and subverted the
sovereignty of the Mamelukes in Egypt, he surrendered the Egyptian fleet
and the port of Jiddah to the conqueror.

Finding the port dangerous, Soarez came to anchor about a league from
the city of Jiddah, yet so excellent were some of the cannon of the
place, that three or four pieces were able to carry that prodigious
distance. Soliman sent a message to the Christian fleet offering a
single combat man to man, which Gaspar de Silva and Antonio de Menezes
both offered to accept, but Soarez would not allow the combat. Soarez
now caused the channel leading up to Jiddah to be sounded, and at this
time the inhabitants were much alarmed by the fire of one of the
Portuguese vessels; but Soliman appeased the tumult, and made his
appearance without the walls with some of his men, while the walls were
filled by vast multitudes of the infidels, who rent the air with loud
cries. After two days of inaction, the Portuguese began to complain of
the delay; but Soarez appeased his officers by shewing his instructions,
in which he was ordered to fight the fleet of the Mamelukes, which could
not be accomplished, and not to attack the city, where there might be
much danger and little chance of profit. Though the votes differed in
the council of war, it was resolved by a majority to desist from the
enterprise against Jiddah, and accordingly Soarez and his armament
retired to Kamaran, whence he detached several ships to different parts
of the Red Sea. At this place died Duarte Galvam, a learned and
ingenious man, who had been employed in several embassies in Europe, and
though above seventy years of age was now going ambassador to _Prester
John_. At the time of his death, he told his attendants that his son
George and all his men had been cast away in their vessel, and that the
inhabitants of the island of Dalac had cut off the heads of Lorenzo de
Cosme and others that had been sent to that place. All this was
afterwards found true, yet it was utterly impossible that the
intelligence could have reached Duarte at Kamaran before his death.

After suffering much distress from famine, of which several men died,
and losing seventeen Portuguese who were made prisoners by the Arabs,
and carried to Jiddah, Soarez set sail from Kamaran and appeared before
Zeyla in the kingdom of Adel, on the north-east coast of Africa, a
little way out from the mouth of the Red Sea. This place was called
_Emporium Avalite_ by Ptolemy, who describes it as a great mart in
ancient times. On the present occasion Zeyla was taken with little
opposition, being unprepared for defence, and was reduced to ashes. From
Zeyla, Soarez went to Aden on the coast of Arabia, but soon found he had
been to blame for not taking possession when formerly offered it; as
Miramirzan had repaired the wall, and now procrastinated the surrender
of his city by various affected delays. Soarez fearing to lose the
season of the trade winds for returning to India, set sail for Barbora
on the same coast with Zeyla, which he meant likewise to destroy; but
the fleet was dispersed in a storm, and on its being afterwards
collected, it was found that more than eight hundred men had perished,
from famine, disease, and shipwreck, in this disastrous and
ill-conducted expedition.

While these disasters attended Soarez, the city of Goa, where Monroy
commanded, was threatened with destruction. According to orders from
Soarez, some ships had been taken from the enemy, but with more profit
than reputation, though not without danger. One Alvaro Madureira, who
had married at Goa, fled to the enemy and turned Mahometan. He
afterwards repented and returned to Goa; but again fled to the Moors and
brought them to attack the Portuguese ships, which were in imminent
danger of being captured. About this time likewise, one Ferdinando
Caldera, who was also married at Goa, fled from that city to avoid
punishment for some crime he had committed, and joined the Moors; though
some say that he was forced to desert by Monroy, who was in love with
his wife. However this may have been, Caldera went to serve under
_Ancostan_ an officer of the king of Bisnagar. Don Gutierre de Monroy
demanded of Ancostan to deliver him up, which was refused; after which
Monroy suborned another person to go over to the enemy to assassinate
Caldera; which was done, but the assassin was instantly slain by the
Moors. On the return of Soarez to Goa, being informed of these
incidents, he left Monroy to take what satisfaction he thought proper
from Ancostan. Monroy accordingly sent out his brother Don Fernando at
the head of 150 Portuguese, 80 of whom were horse, and a considerable
body of natives, to attack Ancostan. Fernando defeated the Moors at
_Ponda_; but the Moors having rallied defeated him in his turn, and
obliged him to retire with the loss of 200 men killed and taken
prisoners. On these hostilities, the whole country was up in arms, and
Adel Khan the king of Bisnagar ordered his general _Sujo Lari_ to
besiege Goa. Lari accordingly endeavoured to cross over into the island
at the head of 4000 horse and 26,000 foot, but was repulsed. In the mean
time, as all intercourse was cut off between the island and the
continent, the besieged became distressed by want of provisions; but on
the arrival of three ships, one from Portugal, one from Quiloa, and the
third from China, Lari raised the blockade and the former peace was
renewed.

Similar misfortunes took place at Malacca, through the misrule of George
de Brito and others, which occasioned all the native inhabitants to
desert the city to avoid oppression. In this situation, Mahomet, the
exiled king, sent a considerable force to attempt recovering his
capital, under the command of _Cerilege Rajah_ his general. Cerilege
intrenched his army, and so pressed the besieged that the Portuguese had
assuredly been driven from Malacca, had not Don Alexius de Menezes
arrived to assume the government with a reinforcement of 300 men.

Antonio de Saldanna arrived in India in 1517 with six ships. In this
fleet one Alcacova came out as surveyor of the king's revenue, invested
with such power as greatly curtailed the influence of Soarez, and having
the inclination to encroach still farther on his authority than he was
warranted. This occasioned great dissensions between the governor and
surveyor; who finding himself unable to prevail, returned into Portugal
where he made loud complaints against the administration of affairs in
India. Hence began the practice of listening to complaints at home
against the governors and commanders employed in India; and hence many
took more care in the sequel to amass riches than to acquire honour,
knowing that money is a never-failing protection from crimes. Soarez
sent Juan de Sylveira to the Maldive islands, Alexius de Menezes to
Malacca, Manuel de la Cerda to Diu, and Antonio de Saldanna with six
ships to the coast of Arabia by orders from the king. The only exploit
performed by Saldanna was the capture and destruction of Barbora, a town
near Zeyla but much smaller, whence the inhabitants fled. Saldanna then
returned to India, where he found Soarez about to sail for the island of
Ceylon.

The island of Ceylon, the southernmost land in India, is to the east of
Cape Comorin. It is sixteen leagues distant from the continent[139], to
which some imagine that it was formerly joined. This island is about 80
leagues from north to south, and about 45 leagues from east to
west[140]. The most southerly point, or Dondra Head, is in lat. 5 deg. 52' N.
The most northerly, or Point Pedro, in 9 deg. 48'. In the sea belonging to
this island there is a fishery of the most precious pearls. By the
Persians and Arabs it is called _Serendib_[141]. It took the name of
_Ceylon_ from the sea by which it is surrounded, owing to the loss of a
great fleet of the Chinese, who therefore named that sea _Chilam_,
signifying danger, somewhat resembling _Scylla_; and this word was
corrupted to Ceylon. This island was the _Taprobana_ of the ancients,
and not Sumatra as some have imagined. Its productions are numerous and
valuable: Cinnamon of greatly finer quality than in any other place;
rubies, sapphires, and other precious stones; much pepper and cardamoms,
Brazil wood, and other dyes, great woods of palm-trees, numbers of
elephants which are more docile than those of other countries, and
abundance of cattle. It has many good ports, and several rivers of
excellent water. The mountains are covered with pleasant woods. One of
these mountains, which rises for the space of seven leagues, has a
circular plain on the top of about thirty paces diameter, in the middle
of which is a smooth rock about six spans high, upon which is the print
of a man's foot about two spans in length. This footstep is held in
great veneration, being supposed to have been impressed there by a holy
man from Delhi, who lived many years on that mountain, teaching the
inhabitants the belief in the one only God. This person returned
afterwards to his own country, whence he sent one of his teeth to the
king of the island as a token of remembrance, and it is still preserved
as a holy relick, on which they repose much confidence in time of
danger, and many pilgrims resort thither from places a thousand miles
distant. The island is divided into nine kingdoms, _Columbo_ on the west
being the chief of these. The others are _Gale_ on the south, _Jaula,
Tanavaca, Cande, Batecalon, Vilacem, Trinquinimale,_ and
_Jafanapatam_[142].

[Footnote 139: The distance between Ceylon and the Carnatic across Palks
Bay is about 63 English miles; but at Jafnapatnam and Ramiseram, this
distance is lessened to 43, by two capes, at the former projecting from
the island, and at the latter from the continent.--E.]

[Footnote 140: From Point Pedro in the north to Dondra Head in the south
are 265 miles, and its widest part from Negombo in the west to Poukiri
Chene in the east is 143 statute miles.--E.]

[Footnote 141: More properly Selan-dib, or the Isle of Selan. The
derivation of the name of Ceylon in the text does not admit of
commentary.--E.]

[Footnote 142: All of these except _Cande, Candi_, or _Kandi_, the
central mountainous region, still occupied by the native Hindoo race,
appear to have been small sovereignties of the Moors or Malays; and have
been long under European rule, having been conquered by the Portuguese,
Dutch; and British in succession. The topography of Ceylon will be
illustrated hereafter, and does not admit of being explained in the
compass of a note--E.]

Albuquerque had established a treaty of amity and commerce with the king
of Columbo, who furnished the Portuguese with cinnamon; and Soarez went
thither at this time, by order of the king of Portugal, to construct a
fort at Columbo, and to reduce the prince of that country to pay
tribute. On this occasion his fleet consisted of seven gallies, two
ships, and eight small vessels, carrying materials and workmen for
building the fort, and 700 Portuguese soldiers. At first the king
consented to have the fort built, but changed his mind at the
instigation of the Moors, and put Soarez to considerable difficulty; but
in the end the Moors were put to flight, the fort built, and the king
constrained to become a tributary vassal of Portugal, by the yearly
payment of 1200 quintals of cinnamon, twelve rings of rubies and
sapphires, and six elephants.

At this time Juan de Sylveira returned from the Maldives, where he had
taken two ships belonging to Cambaya, and had got permission of the king
of the Maldives to erect a fort at the principal harbour. Sylveira went
upon a similar mission to Bengal, where he was in great danger; as a
young man of Bengal who sailed there with him, gave notice of his having
taken these two ships, so that he was considered as a pirate. He had
fared worse than he did, but for the arrival of Juan Coello from Pisang,
sent by Andrada to the king of Bengal. After passing the winter in
Bengal with great difficulty on account of famine, Sylveira set sail,
being invited by the king of Aracan to come to his port of Chittagon by
a messenger who brought him a valuable present; but all this kindness
was only intended to decoy him to his ruin, at the instigation of the
king of Bengal. He escaped however from the snare, and arrived at Ceylon
as Soarez had finished the fort of Columbo, of which he appointed
Sylveira to the command, leaving Azevedo with four ships to guard the
sea in that neighbourhood.

About the same time Menezes secured the safety of Malacca, as mentioned
before, by supplying it with men and ammunition, and appointed Alfonso
Lopez de Costa to the government, in place of Brito who was dying.
Duarte de Melo was left there with a naval force; and Duarte Coello was
sent with an embassy and present to the King of Siam, to confirm a
treaty of peace and amity, and to request of him to send a colony of his
subjects to inhabit the city of Malacca, so that the Moors whom he hated
as much as the Portuguese, might be for ever excluded from that place.
All this was agreed to, and as a testimonial of his friendship to the
Christians, he caused a great cross, ornamented with the arms of
Portugal, to be erected in a conspicuous part of the city of Hudia,
where he then resided. Having thus succeeded in his mission, Coello was
forced by stress of weather upon the coast of Pahang, where he was
received in a friendly manner by the king, who voluntarily submitted to
become a vassal to the crown of Portugal, and to pay a cup of gold as an
annual tribute. This was done more from hatred to the king of Bintang,
than from love to the Portuguese.

The kingdom of Siam was at this time one of the greatest in the east,
the two others of greatest consequence being China and Bisnagar. The
great river _Menam_ runs through the middle of the kingdom of Siam from
north to south, having its source in the great lake of _Chiamay_ in lat.
30 deg. N. and its mouth in 13 deg., so that the length of this kingdom is 330
leagues. On the west it joins Bengal, on the south Malacca, on the north
China, and on the east Cambodia. Its territory contains both mountains
and plains, and it is inhabited by many different races of people, some
of whom are extremely cruel and barbarous, and even feed on human flesh.
Among these the _Guei_ ornament themselves with figures impressed by hot
irons[143]. Siam abounds in elephants, cattle, and buffaloes. It has
many sea-ports and populous cities, _Hudia_ being the metropolis or
residence of the court. The religion of the Siamese agrees in many
considerable points with Christianity, as they believe in one God, in
heaven and hell, and in good and bad angels that attend upon every
person[144]. They build sumptuous temples, in which they have images of
vast size. They are very religious, sparing in their diet, much given to
divination, and addicted to the study of astrology. The country is
exceedingly fertile, and abounds in gold, silver, and other metals. The
memorable services of the subjects are recorded that they may be read to
the kings. When the king of Siam takes the field, he is able to set on
foot a force of 300,000 men and 10,000 elephants.

[Footnote 143: Perhaps tattooing may be here alluded to.--E.]

[Footnote 144: It is hardly possible to conceive how it could enter into
the conception of any one to compare the stupid polytheism of the
worshippers of Budda with the Christian religion: In one thing indeed
the Catholic church has contrived to establish a resemblance, by the
subordinate worship of innumerable idols or images.--E.]

About this time, Fernan Perez de Andrada arrived at Pisang, where he was
well received, but lost his largest ship, which was set on fire by the
careless management of a lighted candle, so that he was forced to return
to Malacca. From that place Juan Coello[145], was sent to China, meeting
with furious storms and other dangers by the way. While on the coast of
Tsiompa, taking in fresh water, he was nearly lost. At Patane and other
places he established commercial treaties with the native princes, and
spent the winter without being able to reach China, being obliged to
return to Malacca to refit. After which he again resumed his voyage for
China with eight ships. The empire of China is the most eastern in Asia,
as Spain is the most westerly in Europe; and opposite to China is the
island of Hainan, as that of Cadiz is to Spain. It is almost as large as
all Europe, being divided from Tartary by a wonderful wall which runs
from east to west above 200 leagues, and ends at a vast mountain or
promontory which is washed by the eastern sea of Tartary. This vast
empire is divided into fifteen provinces. Along the coast are those of
_Quantung, Fokien, Chekiang, Nanking, Xantung_, and _Leaotung_; those of
the inland country are _Queichieu, Junnan, Quangsi, Suchuen, Huquang,
Xensi, Kiangsi, Honan_, and _Xansi_, in all of which there are 244
cities. Its riches are prodigious, and its government admirable above
all others. The natives allege that they alone have two eyes, the
Europeans one, and that all the other nations are blind. They certainty
had both printing and cannon long before the Europeans. The city of
Quantung or Canton, which is the principal sea-port, is remarkable for
its size, the strength of its fortifications, and the prodigious resort
of strangers for trade.

[Footnote 145: It will appear from the sequel that Fernan Perez de
Andrada commanded on this voyage, not Coello as stated in the text.--E.]

After some considerable difficulties and dangers, Fernan Perez arrived
at Canton, where he had a conference with the three governors of the
city, to whom he presented Thomas Perez as ambassador to the emperor
from the king of Portugal, and requested them to forward him and the
present he was charged with. Perez settled a commercial treaty with the
governors of Canton, and having concluded his traffic there and at the
neighbouring parts, he returned to Malacca, loaded with riches. He was
no less welcome there than Menezes had been formerly, as it was reduced
to a dangerous situation in consequence of war with the king of Bintang,
of which we shall have occasion to give an account in the sequel.

In 1518 Diego Lopez de Sequeira was sent out as governor of India, in
reward for his services in Africa and for having discovered Malacca. One
of his ships was in danger of perishing at the Cape of Good Hope in
consequence of being run against by a great fish, which stuck a long
horn or beak two spans length into her side. It was afterwards found
that this was a fish called the _needle_. Soarez immediately resigned
the government to Sequeira, and set sail for Portugal with nine ships.
On taking possession of the government, Sequeira sent Alonson de Menezes
to reduce Baticala in the island of Ceylon, the king of which place had
neglected to pay the stipulated tribute; and Juan Gomez was sent to
build a fort at the Maldive islands. Sequeira then went from Cochin to
Goa, whence he dispatched Antonio de Saldanna to the coast of Arabia,
and Simon de Andrada to China.

About this time the king of Bintang attacked Malacca by land with 1500
men and many elephants, while 60 vessels blockaded the harbour. The
Portuguese garrison consisted only of 200 men, many of whom were sick,
but the danger cured them of their fevers, and every one ran to repel
the enemy. After a severe encounter of three hours the enemy was
repulsed with great loss: He continued however before the town for three
weeks and then retired, having lost 330 men, while 18 of the Portuguese
were slain. On the arrival of reinforcements, having been much injured
by frequent inroads from the fort of _Maur_ not far from Malacca, the
Portuguese took that place by assault, killing most of the garrison
which consisted of 800 Moors, and after securing the spoil burnt Maur to
the ground. There were 300 cannon at this place, some of which were
brass. Nothing more of any note happened this year, except that Diego
Pacheco with most of his men were lost in two ships, which went in
search of the _Island of Gold_[146].

[Footnote 146: Possibly Japan is here meant.--E.]

In the year 1519, Antonio Correa concluded a treaty of amity and
commerce with the king of Pegu, which was mutually sworn to between him
and the kings ministers, assisted by the priests of both nations,
Catholic and Pagan. The heathen priest was called the grand _Raulim_,
who, after the treaty or capitulation was read, made according to their
custom _in the golden mine_[147], began to read from a book, and then
taking some yellow paper, a colour dedicated to holy purposes, and some
sweet-smelling leaves impressed with certain characters, set both on
fire; after which, holding the hands of the minister over the ashes, he
pronounced some words which rendered the oath inviolable. By way of a
parallel to this solemnity, Correa ordered his priest to attend in his
surplice with his breviary; but that was so tattered and torn that it
was unfit to be seen by these heathens, on which he ordered a book of
church music to be brought, which had a more creditable appearance,
being larger and better bound; and opening at the first place which
appeared, the priest began the lesson _Vanity of Vanities_, which
answered among these ignorant people as well as if it had been the
gospel[148]. The metropolis of the kingdom is called _Bagou_, corruptly
called Pegu, which name is likewise given to the kingdom. It has the Bay
of Bengal on the west, Siam on the east, Malacca on the south, and
Aracan on the north. This kingdom is almost 100 leagues in length, and
in some places of the same breadth, not including the conquered
provinces. The land is plain, well watered, and very fertile, producing
abundance of provisions of all kinds, particularly cattle and grain. It
has many temples with a prodigious multitude of images, and a vast
number of ceremonies. The people believe themselves to have descended
from a Chinese _dog_ and a woman, who alone escaped from shipwreck on
that coast and left a progeny; owing to which circumstance in their
opinion, the men are all ugly and the women handsome. The Peguers being
much addicted to sodomy, a queen of that country named Canane, ordered
the women to wear bells and open garments, by way of inviting the men to
abandon that abominable vice.

[Footnote 147: This singular expression may have been some court phrase
of the court of Pegu, meaning the royal presence.--E.]

[Footnote 148: On this trifling incident, the editor of Astley's
Collection gives the following marginal reference, _A merry passage_.
Ludere cum sacris is rather a stale jest, and perhaps the grand Raulim
was as ingenious as Correa and his priest, to trick the ignorant
unbelievers in their sacred doctrines of Bhudda.--E.]

On the arrival of Antonio Correa with relief at Malacca, Garcia de Sa
resolved to take revenge on the king of Bintang. He therefore gave
Correa the command of 30 ships, with 500 soldiers, 150 of whom were
Portuguese, with which armament Correa proceeded to the place where the
king had fortified himself, which was defended by a fort with a great
number of cannon and a numerous garrison. The access to this place was
extremely difficult and guarded by a great number of armed vessels; yet
Correa attacked without hesitation and carried the fort, which had 20
pieces of cannon, the garrison being forced to retire to the town, where
the king still had a force of 2000 men and several armed elephants. The
Portuguese, following up their first success, pushed up the river
clearing away all that obstructed them; after which they landed and took
the town, killing many of the enemy, and put the rest to flight, the
king among the rest fled on an elephant, and never stopped till they
came to Bintang. The town above mentioned was plundered and burnt by the
Portuguese; and the discomfited king remained long at Bintang unable for
any new enterprise against the Portuguese. The successes of the king of
Bintang in the beginning of this war had encouraged the kings of Pisang
and Acheen to commit some outrages against the Portuguese; for which
reason being now victorious, Garcia de Sa determined to be revenged upon
them. Having some success, he fitted out a ship commanded by Manuel
Pacheco to take some revenge for the injuries, he had sustained; and
Pacheco had occasion to send a boat for water rowed by Malays, having
only five Portuguese on board, which fell in with three ships belonging
to Pisang each having 150 men. Finding it impossible to escape, they
boarded the commander with such resolute fury that they soon strewed the
deck with the dead bodies of the enemy, and the remainder of the crew
leapt overboard, followed by their captain, who was seen hewing them
with his cymeter in the water in revenge for their cowardice. The _five_
Portuguese thus obtained possession of the ship, and the other two fled,
on which Pacheco returned to Malacca with his prize in triumph, and the
captured ship was long preserved as a memorial of this signal exploit.
The king of Pisang was so much terrified by this action that he sued
for peace, and offered ample reparation of all the injuries he had done
to die Portuguese.

In this same year 1519 Diego Gomez went to erect a fort at the principal
island of the Maldives; but behaved himself with so much arrogance that
the Moors lulled ten or twelve of his men. This is the chief of _a
thousand isles_ which lie in clusters in that sea, and such is the
signification of _Male-dive_. They resemble a long ridge of mountains,
the sea between being as valleys and serving for communications from
isle to isle; and about the middle of the group is the large island, in
which the king resides. The natives of these islands are gentiles, but
the government is in the hands of the Moors. They are so close together,
that in many of the channels the yard-arms of ships passing through rub
against the shores, or on the trees on both sides. Their chief product
is cocoa-nut trees, the kernel of these nuts producing a pleasant and
nutritive fruit, while the outer rhind or husk is useful for making
cables. There is another sort of these trees _growing at the bottom of
the sea_, having larger fruit than the land cocoa-nut, and which is a
more powerful antidote against poison than even the _Bezoar_ stone[149].

[Footnote 149: This submarine cocoa-nut tree is utterly inexplicable.
--E.]

During this same year 1519, a fleet of 14 ships was sent from Portugal
to India, which was dispersed to several parts. Some fell in with the
coast of Brazil, where fifty men were slain; and Don Luis de Guzman, one
of the captains, turned pirate and became very rich, but afterwards met
with his deserts. Six staid at Mozambique. George de Albuquerque the
admiral reached India with only four sail. One was driven back to
Lisbon. Another watering at _Matira_ lost some men, and six more at
_Oja_, whom the king long kept with kind entertainment; but their ship
which left them was lost on a sand bank off Quiloa, and the Moors of
that place and of Monfia and Zanzibar slew them all except one man.

After Sequeira had dispatched the homeward bound trade of the season,
under the command of Fernan Perez de Andrada, he sailed on the 13th of
February 1520, from Goa with 24 sail of ships of various sizes, having
on board 1800 Portuguese soldiers, and about an equal number of Malabars
and Canarins, bound for the Red Sea. Off the coast of Aden his ship
struck on a rock and split in pieces; but the men were all saved, and
Sequeira the governor went into the galleon of Pedro de Faria. A Moorish
ship was taken at the entrance into the Red Sea, from which they learnt
that there were six Turkish gallies at Jiddah with 1200 men, intending
to proceed against Aden.. The weather prevented the Portuguese from
going in quest of the Turkish squadron, and in fact it would have been
to no purpose; as on hearing that the Portuguese were in these seas, the
Turks hauled their gallies on shore. While Sequeira was on his voyage
for Massua, a small black flag was seen on the disk of the sun towards
evening on the 9th of April being Easter Sunday. On arriving at Massua
they found all the inhabitants had fled, yet they found some vessels in
the port which they captured. The inhabitants of Massua had fled to the
neighbouring port of _Arkiko_ in the dominions of _Prester John_, and
the governor of the town sent a messenger with a letter to Sequeira
desiring that he would make peace with the people who had fled to him
for protection; at the same time he asked nothing for the town where he
commanded, because they were all Christians, and because they had a
prophecy among them which foretold the coming of Christians to settle a
correspondence with them, and which he now believed to be fulfilled on
seeing the Christian colours. Sequeira sent a courteous answer, and drew
nearer the shore, on which several Christians came on board. They told
him that their prince had sent several years before an ambassador named
Mathew, to a king at the other end of the world whose fleet had
conquered India, on purpose to become acquainted with these remote
Christians and to demand succour against the Moors; but that the
ambassador had never returned. On hearing this, Sequeira was satisfied
that they dealt ingeniously with him, as he had actually brought that
ambassador along with him, and had orders from the king of Portugal to
land him safe in the dominions of _Prester John_. On this, the
ambassador of whom they spoke of was brought before them, to their great
mutual joy, as he had been ten years absent from his country. Next day
ten monks came from a neighbouring convent of _the Vision_ to visit
Mathew, and were received in great ceremony by the priests of the fleet
dressed in their surplices. Great rejoicings were made on occasion of
this meeting between two such distant nations agreeing in the same
faith; and the consequence of this meeting was, that those who from the
beginning had not acknowledged the supremacy of the Roman pontiff, now
submitted to his authoritye[150].

[Footnote 150: The submission of the Abyssinian church to the Roman
pontiff was a mere pretence, which afterwards produced long and bloody
civil wars, and ended in the expulsion of the Portuguese from the
country.--E.]

The kingdom of _Prester John_, now first visited by Sylveira, is mostly
known by this appellation but improperly, as its right name is the
empire of Abyssinia, Abassia, Habesh, or the higher Ethiopia. It
received the former appellation from the great king _Jovarus_, who came
to it from the Christians of Tartary, having a cross carried before him
like our bishops, and carrying a cross in his hand, with the title of
_Defender of the Faith_, as being a Jacobite Christian[151]. The
dominions of this prince are situated between the rivers _Nile,
Astabora_, and _Astapus_. To the east they border on the Red Sea for 120
leagues, this being the smallest side, as their whole extent is 670
leagues. On the west it borders on those Negroes who possess the great
mines of gold, and who pay tribute to the sovereign of Abyssinia. On the
north it is divided from the Moors by a line drawn from the city of
_Suakem_ to the isle of _Meroe_ in _Nubia_. On the south it borders on
the kingdom of _Adel_, from the mountains of which country the river
_Obi_ descends, and falls into the sea at the town of _Quilimane_ in the
kingdom of _Melinda_.

[Footnote 151: It is not worth while to inquire whence this ridiculous
legend of king or Saint Jovarus has been derived. The origin of
Christianity in Abyssinia will be considered on an after occasion, when
we come to the particular travels in that country.--E.]

The kings of Abyssinia pretend to descend from King Solomon by the queen
of _Sheba_ or _Saba_; who being delivered by the way, named her son
_Melech_, and sent him to his father, to be by him declared king of
Ethiopia. Whereupon Solomon anointed him, and gave him the name of
_David_, after his grandfather. Solomon likewise appointed him a
household, giving him officers of his own, and sent with him as high
priest, Azaria the son of Zadoc, who stole the tables of the law from
the temple of Jerusalem, and carried them along with his new prince. It
is affirmed that the descendants of these original officers still
possess the same employments. The Abyssinians had some knowledge of the
law of Christ from Queen _Candace_, in whom they glory as being of their
country: But their true apostles were St Philip and St Mathew. In memory
of his descent, the king or emperor of Abyssinia begins the enumeration
of his many titles in this manner: "_David_, beloved of God, pillar of
the Faith, descendant of Judah, grandson of David, son of Solomon, son
of the pillar of Sion, son of the progeny of David, son of the hand of
Mary, &c. Emperor of the higher Ethiopia," &c. He dwells for the most
part in a camp, resembling a populous city, and is frequently removing
from one part of the country to another. In his messages, he uses a
style similar to that of the kings of Portugal and Spain, beginning "_I
the king_." The people are very religious, having many churches and
great numbers of monasteries which belong only to two religious orders,
that of St Anthony, and the Canons regular. Those religious persons who
live in convents wear long cotton garments; but all the others, and
their priests and nuns, are dressed in skins, hardly covering so much as
modesty requires. They have no considerable towns, have little learning,
no skill in mechanics, and are very rude in their diet and clothing. In
such houses as assume any degree of grandeur, all the furniture is
brought from other countries. There are as expert thieves in this
country as our gypsies are in Europe. This is the substance of what
could be gathered by the first discoverers of Abyssinia.

On the news of the arrival of the Portuguese fleet at Massua, and of the
return of Mathew the ambassador, the Baharnagash[152] or governor of the
province in which Arkiko is situated came there attended by 200 horse
and 2000 foot. After some difference about a proper place of meeting
between him and Sequeira, they at length agreed to meet on the
sea-shore, and were seated on chairs on the sand, under the burning heat
of the sun. At this meeting, Sequeira delivered Mathew the Abyssinian
ambassador to the Baharnagash, and recommended to his protection Don
Rodrigo de Lima who was sent ambassador from King Manuel to the emperor
of Abyssinia. They treated likewise about building a fort as a
protection against the Moors, either at Kamaran or Massua, and both
swore to the sincerity of their friendly intentions on a cross, after
which they separated and presents were mutually interchanged. Don
Rodrigo de Lima set forwards on his journey unaccompanied by Mathew, who
soon afterwards died in the monastery of the Vision. Sequeira erected a
great cross in that port, in memory of the arrival of the Portuguese
fleet, and caused many masses to be said in the mosque of Massua. From
that port he went to the island of Dalac, where he burnt the town,
previously abandoned by its inhabitants. He then stood over to the coast
of Arabia, where one galley was cast away in a storm and most of her men
lost. Leaving the Red Sea and sailing along the coast of Yemen, the
fleet arrived at Cape Kalayat, towards the entrance of the Persian Gulf,
where George Albuquerque waited its arrival. Going from thence to
Muscat, Albuquerque was left to winter there with all the ships, and
Sequeira went on to Ormuz with the gallies.

[Footnote 152: In Faria called Barnagux.]

In this same year 1520, during the expedition of Sequeira to the Red
Sea, _Chrisna-rao_ king of Bisnagar collected together a vast army of
35,000 horse, 733,000 foot, and 686 armed elephants, each of which
carried a castle on its back with four men. In this army there were
12,000 water-bearers, that all might be supplied without any being under
the necessity of dispersing to seek for it. The baggage was immense and
the followers numberless, among whom were above 20,000 common women.
This prodigious army was collected for the purpose of taking the city of
_Rachol_ then under the power of Adel Khan king of Visiapour, but which
had belonged to the ancestors of Chrisna-rao, who had left it in charge
to their successors to attempt its recovery. The city of Rachol was
naturally almost impregnable, being situated on a high mountain and
fortified by several stone walls, with large deep ditches and strong
towers, well stored with artillery and other means of defence, and
having a garrison of 400 horse, 8000 foot, 20 elephants, and a
sufficient quantity of provisions and ammunition to tire out the most
patient besiegers. Chrisna-rao encamped his vast army around the city,
to which he gave many fruitless assaults during three months. At length
Adel Khan approached to relieve the siege, having an army of 18,000
horse, 120,000 foot, 150 elephants, and many large pieces of cannon.
After many skirmishes, the two armies at last joined battle, in which at
the beginning Chrisna-rao received much damage; but rallying his
innumerable forces, made such havoc among the troops of Adel Khan, that
only those escaped from the sword or from captivity who at last moved
pity even in their enemies. Besides great riches in the camp of Adel
Khan, the victor got 100 elephants, 4000 horses, 400 large cannons, and
a great many small ones. Adel Khan made his escape on an elephant; but
forty Portuguese who served in his army were all slain after behaving
themselves with great valour.

After this great victory, Chrisna-rao resumed the siege of Rachol, but
was unable to make any impression on its walls. At this tine one
_Christopher de Figueredo_ came to his camp, attended by twenty other
Portuguese, bringing some Arabian horses for sale to the king. In
discourse with Chrisna-rao respecting the siege, Figueredo asked
permission to view the place, and to try what he could do with his
Portuguese, which was granted. Figueredo gave two assaults, and being
seconded in the latter by the troops of Chrisna-rao, he gained
possession of the place. Soon afterwards, Adel Khan sent an embassy to
Chrisna-rao, begging the restoration of the prisoners and plunder which
had been taken in the late battle and in the captured city. Chrisna-rao
offered to restore the whole, on condition that Adel Khan would
acknowledge his supreme authority, as emperor of Canara, and come to
kiss, his foot in token of submission and vassalage. This degrading
condition was accepted, but its performance was prevented by several
accidents. In the mean while, however, Ruy de Melo, who commanded in
Goa, taking advantage of the declining situation of the affairs of Adel
Khan, possessed himself of those parts of the continent adjoining to the
Isle of Goa, with a force only of 250 horse and 800 Canara foot.

In the same year 1520, Lope de Brito went to succeed Juan de Sylveira in
the command of the fort of Columbo in Ceylon, and carried with him 400
soldiers and many workmen, by whose means he made the fort so strong
that it raised the jealousy of the natives of Columbo, who at the
instigation of the Moors gave over trade with the Portuguese, and
besieged the fort for five months, during which the garrison suffered
great hardships. At length Antonio de Lemos arrived with a reinforcement
of fifty men; with which small additional force Brito ventured to attack
the vast multitude of the enemy, whom he completely routed, and matters
were immediately restored to their former quiet.

On the change of the monsoon, Sequeira set sail from Ormuz and joined
Albuquerque at Muscat, where he found one ship from Lisbon of nine that
sailed together, but all the rest came safe afterwards. One of the ships
of this fleet, while sailing before the wind beyond the Cape of Good
Hope, was stopped all of a sudden. On examining into the cause, it
appeared that a sea monster bore the ship on its back, the tail
appearing about the rudder and the head at the boltsprit, spouting up
streams of water. It was _removed by exorcisms_, no human means being
thought sufficient. By the sailors it was called the _Sambrero_, or the
_hat-fish_, as the head has some resemblance to a hat. A similar fish,
though less, had been seen on the coast of Portugal near _Atouguia_,
where it did much harm.

As the king had sent orders to the governor to build forts at the
Moluccas, Sumatra, Maldive, Chaul, and Diu, Sequeira determined upon
attempting the last first. Having dispatched the homeward ships from
Cochin, he collected a fleet of 48 vessels of various kinds and sizes,
on board of which he embarked 3000 Portuguese and 800 Malabars and
Canarins. With this great force he appeared before Diu on the 9th of
February 1521. Malek Azz, being suspicious that this armament was
destined against him, had fortified and intrenched the city with great
care. At the arrival of the Portuguese, Malek Azz was at the court of
Cambaya, but had left his son Malek Saca with a strong garrison and
three experienced commanders. Observing the strength of the place,
Sequeira called a council of war to consult upon what was proper to be
done, when it was concluded to desist from the enterprise. The officers
of the fleet, though they had all concurred in this decision, and even
privately allowed its prudence and necessity, accused the governor of
cowardice on this occasion, though his valour was well known. Sequeira
accordingly retired to Ormuz for the winter, sending Alexius de Menezes
to Cochin with full power to conduct the government during his absence,
and several of the other captains went to different ports to trade.
Menezes dispatched the homeward trade from Cochin, and sent other ships
to various parts of India, some of which went to Sumatra.

The island of Sumatra extends in length from the north-west to the
south-east, for about 220 leagues, by 70 in its greatest breadth, and is
cut nearly in two equal parts by the equinoctial line. It is separated
from Malacca by a narrow strait, and its most southern point is parted
from Java by one still narrower. Java is above 100 leagues long by
twelve in breadth. To the east of Sumatra is the great island of Borneo,
through which likewise the equinoctial passes, leaving two-thirds of the
island on the north side of the line. The maritime parts of Sumatra are
flat, but the interior is full of mountains, pervaded by many large
rivers, and covered by impenetrable woods which even the rays of the sun
are unable to pierce. Owing to these circumstances Sumatra is very
unhealthy, yet is much resorted to for its rich and valuable
productions, and particularly on account of its abounding in gold.
Besides gold, it produces white sandal-wood, benzoin, camphor, pepper,
ginger, cinnamon[153], abundance of silk, and abounds in fish and
cattle. It has in one part a spring of petroleum or rock oil, and one of
its mountains is a volcano. The original natives of the island are
pagans; but the Moors who came there first as merchants, have possessed
themselves of the island as lords ever since the year 1400. Among the
inland tribes is one called _Batas_, who are of most brutal manners, and
even feed on human flesh. The Moors who dwell on the coast, use several
languages, but chiefly the _Malay_. Their weapons are poisoned arrows
like the natives of Java from whom they are descended, but they likewise
use fire-arms. This island is divided into nine kingdoms; of which
_Pedier_ was once the chief; but now that of _Pacem_ or _Pisang_ is the
most powerful, yet its kings only continue to reign so long as it
pleases the rabble.

[Footnote 153: Probably cassia.]

At this time George Albuquerque was sent to Sumatra, on purpose to
restore a king of Pisang who had been expelled and had fled to the
Portuguese for protection and aid. On his arrival, having secured the
co-operation and assistance of the neighbouring king of Ara, Albuquerque
sent a message to the usurper desiring him to resign the kingdom to the
lawful prince, who had submitted to the king of Portugal, _Genial_, the
usurper, offered to make the same submission, if allowed to retain
possession, but this offer was refused. Albuquerque then attacked Genial
in his fort, which was scaled and the gate broke open; yet the usurper
and thirty men valiantly defended a tower over the gateway, till Genial
was slain by a musket-shot, on which the others immediately fled. The
Portuguese troops, about 300 in number, were opposed by 3000 Moors in
the market-place, assisted by some elephants. Hector de Sylveira
endeavoured to strike one of these in the trunk with his lance, which
the beast put aside, and laying hold of Sylveira threw him into the air,
yet he had the good fortune to survive. Two other Portuguese soldiers
had better success, as one of them killed the rider and the other
wounded the elephant, on which he turned among his own party whom he
trampled to death without mercy. The Moors now returned to another
post, but with the aid of the king of Ara, they were completely defeated
by the Portuguese, 2000 of them being slain. In this battle Albuquerque
received two wounds in his face, and four or five persons of note were
killed on the side of the Portuguese, besides a great many wounded. Next
day the dispossessed prince of Pisang was reinstated with much ceremony,
being made tributary to the king of Portugal, and a fort was erected at
his capital, as at other places, to keep him under subjection.

At this time Antonio de Brito arrived at Pisang from, Acheen, where his
brother George de Brito had been slain by the Moors with a great number
of men, in a scandalous attempt to rob the sepulchres of the kings of
that country of a great quantity of gold they were said to contain.
Antonio was now left by Albuquerque in the command of the new fort of
Pisang, with three ships which were afterwards of great service against
a Moor who infested the coast. On his return to Malacca, of which he had
the command, Albuquerque prepared to make war upon the king of Bintang.
That island, about 40 leagues from Malacca, is forty leagues in
circumference, having two strong castles, and its rivers staked to
prevent the access of ships, so that it was considered as almost
impregnable. Albuquerque went from Malacca with 18 vessels and 600 men,
and finding it impossible to get his ships up, he endeavoured to land
his men from boats to attack one of the forts; but the water being up to
their middles, and the enemy making a brave resistance, they were forced
to retire after losing twenty men, besides a great number wounded.

In the same year 1521, Antonio de Brito sailed for the Molucca islands.
These islands are in the middle of a great number of others under the
equator, about 300 leagues east from Malacca. There are five principal
islands to which the general name of Moluccas is applied, about 25
leagues distant from each other, the largest not exceeding six leagues
in circumference. The particular names of these are _Ternate_, _Tidore_,
_Mousell_, _Macquein_ and _Bacham_[154]. They are covered with woods and
subject to fogs, and are consequently unhealthy. These five islands
produce cloves, but no kind of food; and the large island of
_Batochina_, which is 60 leagues long, produces food but no cloves. In
some of these islands, particularly Ternate, there are burning
mountains. Their chief subsistence is of a kind of meal made from the
bark of certain trees resembling the palm[155]. There are certain canes
that have a liquor in their hollows between the joints, which is
delightful to drink. Though the country abounds in animals, the natives
eat very little flesh, but live chiefly on fish which their seas produce
inexhaustibly. They are very warlike and by no means affable, and are
most expert both in running and swimming. Their religion is idolatrous,
but we have no account whatever respecting their original. The Moors had
possessed themselves of this country not long before the coming of the
Portuguese, as a Mahometan priest who had come along with the first of
the Moorish invaders was still alive at the arrival of Brito.

[Footnote 154: The principal island of the Molucca group is Gilolo;
those in the text being small islands to the west of Gilolo. The large
island mentioned in the text under the name of Batochina, can be no
other than Gilolo.--E.]

[Footnote 155: This is obviously an erroneous account of _Sago_, an
alimentary substance procured from the _pith_ of a tree of the palm
tribe, not from the _bark_.--E.]

Antonio de Brito was sent on this occasion to build a fort in the island
of Ternate, which had been long desired by its king _Boylefe_. His force
consisted of six ships and 300 soldiers, and was increased at the island
of Agacim by four sail under the command of Garcia Enriquez. On arriving
at Ternate, the old king Boylefe was dead, and the king of Tidore had
admitted the Spaniards to settle on his island; yet seeing that the
queen who governed Ternate during the minority of her son gave a
friendly reception to Brito, the king of Tidore visited him and offered
to deliver up the Spaniards to him if he would build the fort on Tidore
instead of Ternate. But Ternate was preferred as the most convenient,
Brito laying the first stone on the festival of St John the Baptist, the
28th of December 1521.

At this time a private correspondence was carried on between Francis
Serram, who resided in Ternate and Ferdinando de Magallanes in Portugal,
which turned to the advantage of Spain and the detriment of Portugal.
Magalanes, otherwise named Magellan, was a man of note and a knight of
St Jago, who had served with reputation at Azamor in Africa and in
several parts of India. Having solicited for a small allowance usually
given in reward of service, and which was refused, he left Portugal and
entered into the service of Spain. From his skill in sea affairs, and
the correspondence he held with Serram at Ternate, he concluded there
might be another way to India; and as the Spaniards had already tasted
the fruits of these islands, he wrote to Serram that he hoped soon to be
his guest at Ternate going thither by a new way[156]. He accordingly got
the command of five ships with 250 men, some of whom were Portuguese.
Sailing from the port of San Lucar de Barameda on the 20th of September
1519, after having renounced his country by a solemn act, he sailed
toward the south along the eastern coast of South America. When past Rio
de Janeiro on the coast of Brazil, the men began to grow mutinous, and
still more so when they had gone beyond the river of St Julian on the
coast of Patagonia, where they did not immediately find the strait of
passage to the Pacific Ocean, and found themselves pinched by the cold
of that inhospitable climate. As they proceeded to hold disrespectful
discourses against Magellan, both reflecting upon his pretended
knowledge, and espousing doubts of his fidelity, which came to his
knowledge, he called together all the principal people in his squadron,
to whom he made a long and learned discourse. Yet a conspiracy was
entered into to kill Magellan, by three of his captains, named
Cartagene, Quixada, and Mendoza. Their design however was discovered, on
which Mendoza was immediately stabbed, and the other two arrested and
punished as traitors; Quixada being quartered _alive_, while Cartagene
and a priest concerned in the plot were set ashore on the barbarous
coast. Most of the men were engaged in the conspiracy, but it was
necessary to pardon them that there might be seamen for prosecuting the
voyage.

[Footnote 156: From the text, coupled with a consideration of the
infallible grants of his holiness, who had given every part of the world
to the west of a certain meridian to the Spaniards and all eastwards to
the Portuguese, or all to both, those Spaniards who had been at the
Moluccas must have come from the western coast of Mexico. Magellan
proposed a new route by the southwest, to evade the grant of the
sovereign pontiff, which was actually accomplished, though he lived not
to enjoy what may in some measure be termed the treasonable honour.--E.]

Magellan wintered at this place[157], and some men who were sent about
twenty leagues into the interior brought a few natives to the ships, who
were of a gigantic stature, being above three yards high. After
suffering much through cold, hunger, and continual fatigue, they at
length reached the _Cabo de las Virgines_, in lat. 52 deg. S. so named
because discovered on the day of the 11,000 virgins. Below this cape,
they discovered the strait of which they were in search, being about a
league wide.[158] In their progress, the strait was found in some places
wider and in others narrower than its mouth. The land on both sides was
high, partly bare, and part covered with wood, among which were many
cypress trees. The mountains were covered with much snow, which made
them appear very high. Having advanced about 50 leagues into this
strait, another was seen and Magellan sent one of his ships to explore
it; but after waiting much beyond the time appointed for her return, _he
ordered the astrologer_, Andrew Martin _to erect a figure_, who answered
that she was gone back to Spain, and that the crew had confined the
captain, Alvaro de Mesquita, for opposing that measure. This was
actually the case, and they were eight months on the voyage. After this
event, which gave much vexation to Magellan, he continued his voyage
through the straits much against the inclination of his people, and at
length got out into the southern Pacific Ocean with three ships, that
commanded by Juan Serrano having been wrecked and the men saved with
much difficulty.

[Footnote 157: Though not directly so expressed in the text, Magellan
appears to have wintered at Port St Julian.--E.]

[Footnote 158: Now called the Straits of Magellan from its
discoverer.--E.]

To escape from the excessive cold of the southern extremity of America,
Magellan now shaped his course W.N.W. and when about 1500 leagues from
the straits, he found an island in lat. 18 deg. S. and another 200 leagues
further on. Having lost his computation for the Moluccas, he discovered
several islands in lat. 15 deg. 30' N. and at length came to the island of
_Subo_ in lat. 10 deg. N. being about 12 leagues in circumference. He was
hospitably received here, and found the natives of so tractable a
disposition, that the king and queen of the island, with their children
and above 800 of the inhabitants were baptised. This prince was at war
with a neighbour, and was assisted by Magellan. After two victories,
Magellan was slain in a third battle on the 27th of April 1521, together
with his astrologer and some others. The baptised king now entered into
an agreement with his enemies, and poisoned all the Christians who were
on shore. Those who remained on board, being too few in number to
navigate the three ships, burnt one, and set sail with the other two,
one of which was the famous _Victory_, commanded by Juan Sebastian
Cano, _being the first ship that circumnavigated the globe_. They
arrived at the Moluccas, where they were well received by the king of
Tidore, who was much dissatisfied by the Portuguese having given the
preference to Ternate in forming their establishment. At this place they
took in a loading of spice, and went thence to _Banda_, where they
completed their cargo by the assistance of a Portuguese named Juan de
Lourosa. One of the Spanish ships returned to Ternate, many of the crew
having died of a contagious disease, and the small remnant being unable
to continue the voyage. They were hospitably received by Antonio de
Brito, who relieved and sent them to India, whence they returned to
Europe in the Portuguese ships.

The _famous ship Victory_ returned in triumph to Spain, after performing
that wonderful _Voyage round the World_. Her arrival occasioned new
contests between the courts of Spain and Portugal, Charles V. and John
III. then reigning, because the Molucca islands were considered as
belonging to Portugal, according to the former agreement respecting the
discoveries of the globe. In the year 1524, a congress of civilians and
geographers was held to determine this affair, at a place between
Badajos and Elvas; but it was not settled till the year 1526.[159]

[Footnote 159: As this first circumnavigation will fall to be related
more at large, in a division of our arrangement devoted expressly to
that subject, it has not been deemed necessary to elucidate this short
incidental account from De Faria, by any geographical commentary.--E.]

In one of the former years, Fernan Perez de Andrada had established a
trade at Quantung or Canton in China, which was so exceedingly
profitable that every one was eager to engage in it. In the present year
1521, Simon de Andrada was sent by Sequeira to China with five ships,
and cast anchor in the port of the island of _Tamou_ opposite to Canton,
where his brother had been formerly. The Portuguese ambassador to the
emperor of China still remained at that place, but set out soon
afterwards up a large river with three vessels splendidly decorated with
Portuguese colours, it being a received custom that none but those of
China should be seen there, which are gules a lion rampant.[160] In this
manner he arrived at the foot of a mountain from which that great river
derives its source. This mountainous ridge, called _Malexam_, beginning
at the bay of Cochin-China in the province of Fokien,[161] runs through
the three southern provinces of China, Quangsi, Quantung, and Fokien,
dividing them from the interior provinces, as Spain is divided from
France by the Pyrenees. Thomas Perez, leaving the vessels at this place,
travelled northwards to the city of Nanking, where the king then was,
having spent four months in the journey without stopping at any place.
The emperor however thought proper to appoint his audience at Peking, a
city far distant, to which place Perez accordingly followed. While on
the journey, Simon de Andrada behaved himself so improperly in the
island of Tamou that an account of his proceedings was sent to court,
and Thomas Perez and his companions were condemned to death as spies.
The rigour of this sentence was mitigated, but the embassy was not
received, and Perez was sent back as a prisoner to Canton, with orders
that the Portuguese should restore Malacca to its native king, who was a
vassal to China, in which case the embassy would be received; but
otherwise the ambassador and his suite were to be put to death, and the
Portuguese for ever excluded from China as enemies. Simon de Andrada
conducted himself with a high hand, as if he had been king of Tamou,
where he raised a fort, and set up a gallows to intimidate the people.
He committed violence against the merchants who resorted to the port,
and bought young people of both sexes, giving occasion to thieves to
steal them from their parents. These extravagant proceedings lost
nothing in their transmission to court, and were the cause of the severe
orders respecting Perez and his followers.

[Footnote 160: The text seems irreconcileably contradictory, perhaps
from mistranslation; but the circumstance is not important.--E.]

[Footnote 161: This account of the ridge of Malexam is considerably
erroneous. The ridge of mountains in the text begins in the west of
China on the borders off the province of Yunnan, between Koeitchoo and
Quansee, and ends in the east at the province of Foo-tchien.--E.]

At this time Diego Calva arrived with one ship from Lisbon, and several
others from Malacca, and in consequence of this addition to their
strength, the Portuguese acted still more insolently than before, and so
exasperated the governors of the province that they apprehended several
of them, and even contrived to take the last arrived ship. At the
commencement of hostilities Duarte Coello arrived from Malacca with two
ships well manned and armed. The _Itao_, or Chinese admiral in these
seas, attacked the Portuguese with fifty ships, and though he did them
some damage, he was so severely handled by the artillery that he was
forced to retire and to remain at some distance, keeping up a strict
blockade. After matters had remained in this state for forty days,
Ambrose del Rego arrived with two additional ships from Malacca, and the
Portuguese determined upon forcing their way through the Chinese fleet.
The battle on this occasion was very bloody; but in consequence of a
gale of wind dispersing the Chinese fleet, the Portuguese were enabled
to get away from the island of Tamou. The Itao revenged himself upon
such of the Portuguese as had fallen into his hands, and particularly
upon Thomas Perez and his companions, who were all slain, and their
baggage robbed of the present intended for the emperor, and of all the
commodities which Perez had purchased during his residence in China.
Such was the profitableness of the China trade at this time, that Perez
though only an apothecary of mean parentage, had by this time acquired
2000 weight of rhubarb, 1600 pieces of damask, 400 pieces of other
silks, above 100 ounces of gold, 2000 ounces of silver, 84 pounds of
loose musk, above 3000 purses or cods of that perfume, called _Papos_,
and a great deal of other commodities.

As _Mocrim_ king of _Lasah_ refused to pay the tribute which was due to
the king of Ormuz for the islands of Bahrayn and Catifa on the coast of
Arabia, the king of Ormuz was backward in paying the tribute to the
Portuguese, alleging his inability on account of not receiving payment
from his vassal. On this account a force had been already sent against
the king of Lasah, accompanied by some Portuguese auxiliaries, but had
been unsuccessful. The king of Ormuz, wishing effectually to humble his
vassal, applied to Sequeira for assistance, who consented on purpose to
secure the tribute due to the Portuguese. Accordingly in the year 1521,
an armament of 200 vessels belonging to the king of Ormuz, having on
board 3000 Arabs and Persians, sailed for Bahrayn under the command of
Reis Xarafo or Sharafo, accompanied by seven Portuguese ships with 400
soldiers commanded by Antonio Correa. On their arrival at Bahrayn,
Mocrim was found well prepared for their reception, having 300 Arab
horse, 400 Persian archers, 20 Turkish musketeers besides some natives
armed with firelocks, and above 11,000 native troops armed with
different weapons. He had besides thrown up strong intrenchments and
redoubts, well provided with cannon, and these formidable military
preparations were under the charge of experienced commanders.

The Persian Gulf, which intervenes between Arabia and Persia, takes its
name from the latter, as the more noble country. This famous gulf begins
at Cape _Jasques_ or _Carpela_, in lat. 26 deg. N. and ends at the mouth of
the river Euphrates, having many cities, rivers, woods, and islands
along its northern or Persian shores. On the other or Arabian shore,
beginning at Cape _Mozandan_ or _Musaldon_, named _Assaborum_ by the
ancients, and ending where it meets the other side at the Euphrates,
there are only four towns. One of these, _Catifa_ or Al Katif, is
opposite the island of Bahrayn, where is the pearl-fishery. This island
is 30 leagues in circumference, and seven leagues long, and is 110
leagues from Ormuz. The principal product of this island is tamarinds,
but it has likewise all the other fruits that grow in Spain. The largest
town is of the same name with the island, besides which there are about
300 villages, inhabited by Arabs and Moors[162]. The air is very
unhealthy. The pearls found here, though not in such abundance, are more
valuable than those of Ceylon in India, or of Hainan in China. On the
continent of Arabia, opposite to Bahrayn is the city of _Lasah_[163], of
which Mocrim was king.

[Footnote 162: It is difficult to comprehend the distinction; and
perhaps we ought to read Arabs _or_ Moors.--E.]

[Footnote 163: Lasah may have been the name of the territory, and
perhaps applied likewise to the capital which is named _Al Katif_ in our
maps, and the territory _Bahrayn_. These are two islands of Bahrayn, one
of which from the text appears to have been named Catifa.--E.]

Having formed his dispositions of attack, Correa landed at the head of
170 Portuguese, giving orders to Reis Xarafo to send assistance wherever
he might see it necessary. Ayres Correa, the brother of the Portuguese
commander, led the van or forlorn hope of fifty men, all of whom were
knee deep in water. The Portuguese assaulted the trenches with great
bravery, and were opposed with much resolution by the enemy, headed by
the king; and after some time both parties were so much fatigued by the
heat as to be under the necessity of taking some respite, as by mutual
consent. After a short rest, the attack was renewed, and the king being
shot through the thigh, of which wound he died six days afterwards, his
men lost heart, and great numbers of them being killed and wounded, they
fled leaving a complete victory to the Portuguese. During the whole
engagement, Reis Xarafo looked on from his vessel as an unconcerned
spectator; but when afterwards the body of the deceased king was carried
over to Lasah for interment, he went there and cut off his head, which
he sent to Ormuz. In this engagement the Portuguese had seven men killed
and many wounded, but the island was effectually reduced. For this
exploit, Correa had the title of Bahrayn added to his name, and was
authorized to bear a kings head in his coat of arms, which is still
borne by his descendents.

In this same year 1521, the zamorin of Calicut made war against Cochin
at the head of 200,000 men; and although only forty Portuguese were in
the army of Cochin, and but thirty of these armed with muskets, the
enemy retired in dismay. At this time likewise Diego Fernandez de Beja,
who had been left before Diu, came to join Sequeira at Ormuz, having
been attacked by some vessels belonging to Malek Azz, whose double
dealing was now apparent. To prevent certain frauds that had been
practised by the native officers of the customs at Ormuz, Sequeira
thought proper to appoint Portuguese officers in that charge, which so
exasperated the natives that they endeavoured to shake off the yoke, as
will appear hereafter.

Being determined to resume the plan of establishing a fort at Diu,
Sequeira sent back Beja to that place with four stout vessels, with
orders to hinder all ships from entering the port. Beja executed these
orders for some time effectually, and even took some vessels; but Malek
Azz came against him with a number of ships well armed with cannon, sunk
one of the Portuguese galleons and did much damage to the others which
were becalmed; but on the wind springing up, the vessels of the enemy
were forced to retire. While Sequeira was on his voyage from Ormuz
against Diu, he captured a vessel by the way, and divided the Moorish
crew among his ships. Those who were put on board the ship commanded by
Antonio Correa, set fire to the powder-room, by which the poop was blown
into the air and the vessel sunk; in which miserable catastrophe the
brave conqueror of Bahrayn perished. [164]. Owing to these misfortunes,
Sequeira desisted from the enterprise against Diu, and went to _Chaul_
where he found Ferdinando Camelo, who had brought permission from Nizam
al Mulk to build a fort at that place, chiefly to favour the importation
of horses for his own use, as that trade was then confined to Goa. The
building of the fort was accordingly begun without delay. As Malek Azz
suspected that the establishment of the Portuguese at this place might
lessen greatly the trade of Diu, he made his appearance off Chaul with
above fifty vessels, and sunk a large Portuguese ship just come from
Ormuz. Azz continued to blockade the port of Chaul for three weeks,
doing much damage to the squadron which was opposed to him; yet the
construction of the fort went on with all diligence. Learning that his
successor was arrived at Cochin, which rendered his presence necessary
at that place, Sequeira forced his way through the enemy, leaving his
nephew Henry de Menezes to command the fort, and Antonio Correa with the
charge of the ships.

[Footnote 164: Yet only a few lines afterwards, Antonio Correa is found
to be alive and commanding a squadron off Chaul. Having no means to
correct this contradiction, the text is left as published by
Stevens.--E.]

After the departure of Sequeira for Cochin, Aga Mahomet who commanded
the fleet belonging to Malek Azz did every thing in his power to hinder
the construction of the fort. To secure the entrance of the river, the
Portuguese had erected a redoubt or bulwark on the side opposite the
fort, which was commanded by Pedro Vaz Permeo with a garrison of thirty
men. Mahomet sent 300 of his men by night to surprise this bulwark, but
they were so valiantly opposed by the small garrison, though the captain
and several men were slain, that they maintained their ground till
relieved by Ruy Vaz Pereira with a reinforcement of sixty men, who put
the enemy to flight after having lost a hundred men. By this success the
enemy were much daunted, and particularly one Sheikh Mamud, a great man
in the city, who pretended to be a friend to the Portuguese, yet did
every thing in his power secretly to molest them. On occasion of the
defeat of Aga Mahomet, the sheikh sent to congratulate Antonio Correa;
who well knowing his treachery, sent him back the heads of his
messengers, and hung up their bodies along the shore. The sheikh was
astonished at this act, and now proceeded to open hostilities,
encouraging Aga Mahomet to persevere in the blockade, giving him
intelligence that the Portuguese were in want of ammunition. But Don
Luis de Menezes arrived with reinforcements and a supply of ammunition
and provisions, to whom Correa resigned the command.

Don Duarte de Menezes entered upon the government of India on the 22d of
January 1522, John III. being then upon the throne of Portugal. Having
dispatched his predecessor with the homeward trade, and sent off
commanders to the different establishments in India, he began to
experience the bad effects of Sequeira having appointed Portuguese
officers to the custom-house at Ormuz; as he received advice that the
Moors of that place had taken arms and killed some men, and had even
besieged the fort. He immediately sent his brother with relief, and
appointed Simon de Andre to command at Chaul, who began his career by
taking two Turkish gallies, and gaining a victory over the people of
Dabul, by which that city was reduced to pay tribute. Malek Azz was
terrified by these successes, and withdrew his fleet from before Chaul.

As formerly mentioned, the late governor Sequeira had appointed
Portuguese officers to collect the revenue of Ormuz, which in fact had
been done contrary to his own private judgment, but by command of the
king of Portugal. These officers conducted themselves oppressively to
the natives, from whom they made many undue exactions to satisfy their
own cupidity, and behaved to them with much insolence and violence, even
forcing from them their wives and daughters. Unable to endure these
oppressions, the inhabitants of Ormuz and its dependencies formed a
conspiracy against the Portuguese, and broke out into open insurrection
against them suddenly at Ormuz, Bahrayn, Muscat, Kuriat, and Zoar[165],
all in one night by previous concert, by a private order from the king
of Ormuz. This attack was so sudden and well concerted, that above 120
of the Portuguese were slain on that night, and one _Ruy Boto_ was put
to the torture by the Moors in defence of the faith. The Portuguese at
Ormuz, where Don Garcia Coutino then commanded, exerted themselves as
well as they could to defend themselves, and secured the ships which
happened to be at that place under the protection of the fort, which was
immediately besieged. Of these events immediate intelligence was sent by
Don Garcia to Cochin and other places for relief, fearing he might be
constrained to surrender for want of provisions and water; and in fact
two of the Portuguese vessels were burnt by the Moors under the guns of
the fort.

[Footnote 165: These three last mentioned places are all on the
north-eastern point of Arabia, near Cape Rasaigat, and appear to have
been then dependent on the kingdom of Ormuz.--E.]

Tristan Vaz de Vega and Manuel de Souza happened to be then at Muscat in
their ships, and immediately made sail to the relief of Ormuz. Tristan
Vaz arrived first, and made his way to the fort through 160 sail of
Moorish vessels by which it was blockaded. Two days afterwards the ship
commanded by Manuel de Souza was seen at anchor at the distance of two
leagues. It was very dangerous for those at the fort to assist him, and
yet it was absolutely necessary for the common safety that he should be
relieved; wherefore Tristan Vaz adventured with his ship to his aid,
forcing his way as before through the vast Moorish fleet, eighty of
which pursued him in full sail, and even De Souza, thinking him at first
an enemy did him some harm. The king of Ormuz, to inspire his people to
exert themselves in the capture of these two ships, exhibited a large
heap of gold as his intended reward for such of his subjects as should
take Tristan and Manuel prisoners; while at the same time he set apart a
heap of female attire, to be worn in disgrace by those who might not
behave valiantly. Actuated at the same time by desire of reward and fear
of disgrace, the Ormuzians manned 130 of their vessels, with which they
furiously assailed the two Portuguese ships: yet they both made their
way through showers of bullets and arrows to the fort, to the great joy
and relief of the governor and garrison. Despairing of being able to
shake off the Portuguese yoke, and dreading the punishment of his
revolt, the king of Ormuz abandoned his city and retired to _Kishom_ or
_Queixome_, an island about 15 leagues in length and 3 leagues from
Ormuz, close to the shore of Persia. This island is sufficiently fertile
but very unhealthy. On his retreat, he gave orders for all the
inhabitants of Ormuz to follow him, and to set their city on fire, which
burnt furiously for four days and nights. Even at this time some of the
Portuguese gentlemen in the fort of Ormuz were in private correspondence
with the king, giving him instructions how to conduct himself with the
succeeding governor, so as to ensure his restoration; which they did on
purpose to enrich themselves by exacting presents from the king in
recompence of their services.

Don Luis de Menezes, as already mentioned, was sent by his brother
Duarte, the governor-general, with ten sail to relieve and take the
command of Ormuz. On arriving at Zoar, he destroyed the town with fire
and sword, and then gave the sovereignty of it to Sheikh Husseyn, to
hold it in direct vassalage of Portugal, instead of being dependent upon
Ormuz as hitherto. In the mean time the king of Ormuz was murdered at
Kishom by his own officers, who crowned his son Mamud Shah, a youth of
thirteen. On the arrival of Don Luis, a treaty was entered Into with the
new king, by which it was agreed that the king and inhabitants were to
return to Ormuz; that the former tribute of 20,000 _Xerephines_ should
be continued, and all arrears paid up; and that the Portuguese officers
should not interfere in the government of the city or its revenues. On
the conclusion of this treaty, the king sent a present of gold, jewels,
pearls, and silks for the king of Portugal, and another for Don Luis,
but which he publicly ordered to be sent along with the other.

Some time after this, but in the same year 1522, Don Duarte went to
Ormuz to examine into the cause of the late troubles; but he punished
those who had least influence, and overlooked the most guilty. _Reis
Xarafo_, a person of great power, who had been the most active
instigator in the late troubles, was rewarded; and _Reis Xamexir_, who
had killed _Reis Xahadim_ at the instigation of Don Luis, was banished
instead of the promised reward. Duarte augmented the tribute by adding
35,000 Xerephines to the former 25,000[166], which could not be paid
when the city was in a flourishing condition, and yet 60,000 were now
demanded when it lay in ruins and its trade was destroyed.

[Footnote 166: It was only called 20,000 a few lines before.--E.]

At this time Don Luis was sent with nine ships to the Red Sea. At
Socotora he lost one of his ships. He took and burnt the town
_Zaer_[167] on the coast of Arabia, because the sheikh refused to
restore the goods of a Portuguese merchant or factor who had died there.
At _Veruma_[168] he burned some ships, and then battered the city of
Aden, after which he entered the Red Sea, where he did nothing worthy of
notice, and returned to his brother at Ormuz, but was much dissatisfied
with the conduct of Duarte at that place.

[Footnote 167: Perhaps _Shahr_ near Makulla on the coast of Yemen.--E.]

[Footnote 168: This place was probably near Aden on the coast of
Arabia.--E.]

That part of the continent of India adjoining to Goa, belonging to Adel
Khan king of Visiapour, which had been seized by Ruy de Melo during the
war with the king of Narsinga, was now lost by Francisco Pereyra
Pestana. Pestana was a brave officer, and exerted himself to the utmost;
but as Adel Khan had now no other object to employ his arms, his power
was not to be resisted. Ferdinando Rodriguez Barba indeed obtained a
signal victory over the forces of Adel Khan; and after this Pestana and
Sotomayor, with only thirty horse and a small number of foot, defeated
5000 foot and 400 horse. But in the end numbers prevailed, and the
country was reduced to the obedience of Adel Khan, and afterwards
confirmed to him by treaty.

About this time the governor Duarte made particular inquiry respecting
St Thomas the apostle, in consequence of orders to that effect from the
king of Portugal; and the following is the substance of the information
he transmitted. In the year 1517, some Portuguese sailed in company with
an Armenian, and landed at Palicat on the coast of Coromandel, a
province of the kingdom of Bisnagar, where they were invited by the
Armenian to visit certain ruins of many buildings still retaining the
vestiges of much grandeur. In the middle of these was a chapel of
indifferent structure still entire, the walls of which both outside and
in were adorned with many crosses cut in stone, resembling those of the
ancient military order of Alcantara, which are _fleuree_ and
_fitched_[169]. A Moor resided there who pretended to have miraculously
recovered his sight by a visit to this holy place, and that his
ancestors had been accustomed to entertain a light in the chapel. There
was a tradition that the church, of which this small chapel was all that
remained entire, was built by St Thomas, when he preached Christianity
to the Indians, and that he and two of his disciples were here interred,
together with a king who had been converted by his miracles. In
consequence of this information, Don Duarte sent Ernanuel de Faria, with
a priest and a mason to repair this chapel. On digging about the
foundation on one side which threatened to fall, they found about a yard
below ground a tomb-stone with an inscription implying "That when St
Thomas built this church the king of Meliapour gave him the duties of
all merchandize imported, which was the tenths[170]." Going still
deeper, they came to a hollow place between two stones, in which lay the
bones of a human body with the butt and head of a spear, which were
supposed to be the remains of the saint, as those of the king and
disciple were also found, _but not so white_. They placed the bones of
the saint in a _China chest_, and the other bones in another chest,
and hid both under the altar. On farther inquiry, it appeared by the
ancient records of the kingdom, that Saint Thomas had come to Meliapour
about 1500 years before, then in so flourishing a condition that it is
said by tradition to have contained 3300 stately churches in its
environs. It is farther said that Meliapour was then twelve leagues from
the coast, whereas its ruins are now close to the shore; and that the
saint had left a prediction, "That when the sea came up to the scite of
the city, a people should come from the west having the same religion
which he taught." That the saint had dragged a vast piece of timber from
the sea in a miraculous manner for the construction of his church, which
all the force of elephants and the art of men had been unable to move
when attempted for the use of the king. That the _bramin_ who was chief
priest to the king, envious of the miracles performed by the saint, had
murdered his own son and accused the saint as the murderer; but St
Thomas restored the child to life, who then bore witness against his
father; and, that in consequence of these miracles, the king and all his
family were converted.

[Footnote 169: Heraldic terms, implying that the three upper arms of the
cross end in the imitation of flowers, while the lower limb is
pointed.--E.]

[Footnote 170: The strange expression in the text ought probably to have
been the tenths of the duties on importation.--E.]

An Armenian bishop who spent twenty years in visiting the Christians of
that part of India which is near _Coulam_[171], declared on oath that he
found what follows in their writings: That, when the twelve apostles
were dispersed through the world, Thomas, Bartholomew, and Judas
Thaddeus went together to Babylon where they separated. Thaddeus
preached in Arabia, since possessed by the Mahometans. Bartholomew went
into Persia, where he was buried in a convent of Armenian monks near
_Tebris_. Thomas embarked at Basrah on the Euphrates, crossed the
Persian Gulf, to Socotora, whence he went to Meliapour, and thence to
China where he built several churches. That after his return to
Meliapour and the conversion of the king, he suffered martyrdom through
the malice of the bramins, who counterfeited a quarrel while he was
preaching, and at length had him run through by a lance; upon which he
was buried by his disciples as formerly related in the church he had
built at Meliapour. It was likewise affirmed by a learned native of
Coulam, that there were two religious houses built in that part of the
country by the disciples of St Thomas, one in Coulam and the other at
Cranganor; in the former of which the _Indian Sybil_ was buried, who
advised King _Perimal_ of Ceylon to meet other two Indian kings at
Muscat, who were going to Bethlem to adore the newly born Saviour; and
that King Perimal, at her entreaty, brought her a picture of the Blessed
Virgin, which was kept in the same tomb. Thus was the _invention_ of the
holy relics of the apostle of India; which gave occasion to the
Portuguese to build the city of St Thomas, in the port of Palicat, seven
leagues from the ruins of the ancient Christian city of Meliapour.

[Footnote 171: Coulam is on the coast of Travancore; in which country a
remnant of the ancient Indian Christians has been recently visited by Dr
Buchannan, which will fall to be particularly noticed in a future
division of this collection--E.]

In the year 1522, Antonio Miranda de Azevedo was commander of the fort
at Pisang in the island of Sumatra. On the west coast of that island
there are six Moorish kingdoms of which Pedier was the chief, and to
which those of Achem and Daga were subordinate. But in consequence of
war among themselves, Achem gained the superiority, and the king of
Pedier retired to the fort for the protection of the Portuguese[172]. On
coming to the city of Pedier with a great force, the king of Achem
endeavoured to inveigle the king of that place into his hands, and
prevailed on some of the leading men of the city to write their king
that he might come there in safety as his enemies were expelled, and he
might easily destroy them by the assistance of the Portuguese. He
accordingly went to the city, aided by eighty Portuguese soldiers and
two hundred Moors, which went by sea in small row boats, while the king
himself went along the shore with above a thousand armed elephants[173].
He was received at Pedier with feigned joy, but with a determination to
make him prisoner, which was only deferred till the arrival of the
Portuguese, that they likewise might be secured; but being apprized of
his danger, the king fled next day to the mountains with two elephants
and a few faithful followers. The Portuguese thus left on the shore
unsupported were attacked by the enemy with showers of darts and arrows,
when their commander Don Emanuel Enriquez and thirty-five soldiers were
slain, and the rest fled. Don Andres Enriquez, after this loss, found
himself unequal to defend the fort, and sent for relief to Raphael
Perestello who was at _Chittigon_ the chief port of Bengal. Perestello
immediately sent a ship for this purpose under the command of Dominick
Seixas, who landed at _Tenacari_ to procure provisions; but one _Brito_
who had succeeded _Gago_ as captain of a band of thirty Portuguese
pirates, ran away with the vessel from that port after she was laden,
and left Seixas with seventeen other Portuguese on shore, who were
reduced to slavery by the Siamese. Such is the fate of those who trust
persons who have violated all human and divine laws[174]. Don Andreas
Enriquez, being reduced to great extremity, requested the
governor-general to send him a successor, who accordingly sent Lope de
Azevedo; but Enriquez changed his mind, as the situation was very
profitable, and refused to surrender the command, on which Azevedo
returned to India. In the mean time the king of Achem overran the whole
country with fire and sword, and took possession of the city of Pisang
with fifteen thousand men, summoning Enriquez to surrender the fort.
Enriquez having sustained and repelled these assaults, set sail for
India that he might save the great riches he had acquired, leaving the
command to Ayres Coello, who valiantly undertook the dangerous service.

[Footnote 172: At first sight this appears to have been the fort of
Pisang, but from the sequel it would rather seem to have been another
fort at or in the neighbourhood of Pedier.--E.]

[Footnote 173: It is hardly possible that the lord of a petty state on
the coast of Sumatra should have so large a number of elephants, more
perhaps than the Great Mogul in the height of the sovereignty of
Hindustan. Probably Capt. Stevens may have mistaken the original, and we
ought to read "With above a thousand men and several armed
elephants."--E.]

[Footnote 174: Though obscurely expressed in the text, these thirty
pirates appear to have been employed in the ship commanded by Seixas;
probably pardoned after the punishment of their former leader Gago.--E.]

While on his voyage to India, Enriquez met two ships commanded by
Sebastian Souza and Martin Correa, bound for the Island of Banda to load
with spices; who learning the dangerous situation of Pisang, went
directly to that place. Ayres Coello had just sustained a furious
assault with some loss; and on seeing this relief the enemy abated
their fury. Eight days afterwards, Andres was forced back by stress of
weather to Pisang. One night, above 8000 of the enemy surrounded the
fort, in which there were 350 Portuguese, some of whom were sick and
others disabled by wounds, but all much spent with continual watching
and fatigue. The enemy advanced in profound silence and applied seven
hundred scaling ladders to the walls, on which they immediately mounted
with loud shouts. The dispute was hotly maintained on both sides for
some time; but some ships being set on fire enabled the Portuguese to
point their cannon with such accuracy, that many of the enemy were
slain, and the rest obliged to desist from the assault. Next morning
above two thousand of the enemy were found slain around the walls, with
two elephants; while on the Portuguese side only one woman was slain in
her chamber by an arrow. The remaining six thousand of the enemy
immediately retired, leaving half their ladders and large quantities of
fireworks. Yet taking into consideration the difficulty and expence of
maintaining this port, it was resolved to ship off all the men and
goods, and to set it on fire, leaving the large cannons filled with
powder, that they might burst when the fire reached them. Greater part
of the fort was destroyed; but the enemy saved some of the cannon, which
were afterwards employed with considerable effect against the
Portuguese. Some goods were lost in shipping, as the Portuguese were in
a great fright, and embarked up to the neck in water. By this
abandonment of their post, the Portuguese lost more reputation with the
natives of Sumatra than they had gained by their former valiant defence.
They were fully sensible of this, as they met a powerful reinforcement
at sea under Azevedo; and learnt that the king of Aru was marching by
land to their assistance with 4000 men. The king of Achem followed up
his good fortune, and rendered himself all-powerful in Sumatra, beyond
even his hopes.

About this time[175] Malacca was much straitened by the king of Bintang,
who sent a powerful armament against it, to oppose which. George
Albuquerque sent a naval force under Don Sancho Enriquez; but in a
violent storm 70 out of 200 Portuguese were lost. Till now the king of
Pahang had sided with the Portuguese; but seeing the tide of fortune had
turned against them, he too became their enemy. Ignorant of this change,
Albuquerque sent three-ships to his port for provisions, where two of
his captains and thirty men were killed: The third made his escape, but
was slain with all his men at Java. Simon de Abreu and his crew were
slain on another occasion; and two vessels sent to prevent provisions
from getting into Bintang were lost.

[Footnote 175: De Faria is often defective in dates, and always
confused. The events about this time are only vaguely stated as having
happened during the government of Duarte Menezes, between the years 1522
and 1524, both inclusive. Among the confused mass of ill-digested and
often indistinctly related events, many of which possess hardly any
interest, we have now deemed it proper, in the farther prosecution of
this History of the Portuguese transactions in India, to omit many
trivial and uninteresting events, confining our attention to those of
some importance, and which appear worth recording. The Portuguese Asia
of DeFaria minutely relates every consecutive squadron sent to or from
India, and every trifling commercial adventure; the insertion of which
in our collection would be needlessly tedious.--E.]

In 1524, the memorable DON VASCO DE GAMA, now count of Vidugueyra, went
out to India as viceroy with 14 ships and 8000 soldiers. During the
voyage, two caravels were lost with all their men, and a third was lost
but the men saved. Gaspar Mossem, one of the captains, was basely killed
by his crew, merely because he was not a Portuguese. While at sea near
Cambaya in a dead calm, the sea tossed so violently all of a sudden that
all the people thought they were lost: But the viceroy perceiving it was
caused by an earthquake, called out, "Courage my friends, the sea
trembles for fear of you." One great ship of Mecca, worth 60,000 crowns,

Book of the day: