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A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels, Volume X by Robert Kerr

Part 4 out of 10

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On the 16th of April they had some friendly intercourse with a party of
savages, to whom they gave various trifling articles in exchange for
pearls. But on the 1st May, some of the people were surprised by the
natives while on shore, and two of them slain. On the 6th of May they
got into the South Sea, not without terror, having no anchorage that
day, and being in much danger from many shoals and islands at the mouth
of the straits, between the northern and sourthern shore.

SECTION II.

_Transactions in the South Sea, along the Western Coast of America_.

They were welcomed into the great South Sea by a terrible storm, and
were fearful of being cast away on certain islands a little without the
straits, which, from their likeness to the islands of Scilly, they named
the _Sorlings_. On the 21st they had sight of the coast of Chili and the
isle of Mocha. This island is low and broad on the north, and is full of
rocks on the south. The 26th endeavours were made to enter into traffic
with the natives of this island. The chief and his son dined on board
the admiral, seemingly rejoiced to see such large and well-armed ships
sent against the Spaniards, and all the native Chilese were delighted to
see the soldiers mustered and exercised. The Dutch here procured great
plenty of sheep, in exchange for hatchets and ornaments of coral and
such like toys, getting two sheep for one hatchet. But the natives
brought every thing to the boats, and would not suffer any of the Dutch
to go near their houses, being very jealous of their wives, even more so
than Spaniards. These sheep resembled camels, having long legs and
necks, hare lips, hunches on their backs, and are used as beasts of
draught and burden.

They left Mocha on the 27th of May, and next day came to the coast not
far from the island of St Mary, where the land was much broken and very
rocky. The 29th they cast anchor at the island of St Mary, whence a
Spaniard came on board, having a pledge left for him ashore. This man
invited the admiral and others to dine on shore; but one of the boats
observed a body of soldiers marching to the place at which they were to
have dined; on which appearance of treachery, the Spanish messenger was
made prisoner. The Dutch landed next day in force, on which the
Spaniards set their church on fire and fled; having four of their men
slain, while two of the Dutch were wounded. They here found much
poultry, and took 500 sheep, with other spoil. Learning at this place of
three Spanish ships fitted out in April expressly against them, the
admiral of which carried forty brass guns, and the whole manned by 1000
Spaniards, Spilbergen resolved to go in search of them at Conception and
Valparaiso, and afterwards on the coast of Arica. A farther squadron, of
similar force, was also said to be in preparation at _Calao de Lima_. In
consequence of this intelligence, the Dutch gunners were ordered to have
every thing in readiness for battle, rules of military discipline were
established, and each ship and every person received distinct orders for
conducting the expected battle, in which it was resolved to conquer or
die.

Sailing from the island of St Mary on the 1st June, 1615, they passed
not far from the town of _Aurora_,[93] where the Spaniards kept a
garrison of 500 men, which were continually disquieted by the
unconquered natives of Chili. On the 3d they came to the island of
_Quinquirina_, within which is the town of Conception, inhabited by many
Indians and about 200 Spaniards. The 12th they entered the safe and
commodious road of Valparaiso, in which was a Spanish ship, but which
was set on fire by its own mariners, who escaped on shore. The 13th at
noon, they were in lat. 32 deg. 15' S.[94] and in the afternoon came into
the fair and secure harbour of Quintero. Here they took in wood and
water, and caught abundance of fish. But they found the inhabitants
every where aware of them, and prepared to receive them, so that nothing
of any importance could be effected. They came next to _Arica_ in lat.
12 deg. 40' S.[95] to which place the silver is brought from the mines of
Potosi, whence it is shipped for Panama. Finding no ships there, they
proceeded along the coast, and took a small ship on the 16th, in which
was some treasure, but it was mostly embezzled by the sailors.

[Footnote 93: Arauco, a fortress on the northern frontier of the
independent country of Araucania, but somewhat inland, not far to the
N.E. of the island of St Mary.--E.]

[Footnote 94: Quintero is in lat. 32 deg. 44' S.]

[Footnote 95: This is a great error, as Arica is in lat 18 deg. 28' S.]

They soon after had sight of eight ships, which the master of the prize
said were the royal fleet sent out in search of the Hollanders, contrary
to the opinion of the council of Peru; but Dou Rodrigo de Mendoza, the
Spanish admiral, a kinsman to the viceroy, insisted on putting to sea,
alleging that two even of his ships could take all England, and much
more those _hens_ of Holland, who must be spent and wasted by so long a
voyage, and would assuredly yield at first sight. On this, the viceroy
gave him leave to depart, with orders to bring all the Hollanders in
chains. Mendoza then swore that he would never return till the
Hollanders were all taken or slain, and set sail from Calao, the haven
of Lima, on the 11th July. The flag ship was the Jesu Maria, of
twenty-four brass guns and 460 men, which was said to have cost the king
158,000 ducats. The vice-admiral was the Santa Anna, of 300 men,
commanded by Captain Alvarez de Piger, who had before taken an English
ship in the South Sea, and this ship cost 150,000 ducats, being the
handsomest that had ever been seen in Peru. The other ships were the
Carmelite and St Jago of eight brass cannon and 200 men each; the Rosary
of four guns and 150 men; the St Francis having seventy musketeers, and
twenty sailors, but no ordnance; the St Andrew of eighty musketeers,
twenty-five sailors, and no cannon; and an eighth, the name and strength
of which is not mentioned.

The adverse fleets drew near on the evening of the 17th July, when the
Spanish vice-admiral sent a message to his admiral, advising to postpone
battle till next morning. Mendoza was, however, too impatient to follow
this advice, and set upon the Great Sun, in which was Admiral
Spilbergen, about ten that night, when they exchanged broadsides. The St
Francis being next to the Jesu Maria, attacked the Dutch admiral; but
being beaten off, fell upon the yacht, and by her was sent to the
bottom. At this instant, the yacht was attacked by the Spanish admiral,
and had soon shared the fate of her former antagonist, but was succoured
by two boats full of men, one from the Dutch admiral, and the other from
the vice-admiral; on this occasion, the Dutch admiral's boat was
unfortunately mistaken by the Huntsman, and sent to the bottom by a
cannon-shot, and all her men drowned except one.

Next morning, five of the Spanish ships sent word to their admiral that
they meant to do their best to escape: But the Dutch admiral and
vice-admiral set upon the Spanish admiral and vice-admiral, and an
obstinate engagement ensued, in which the Eolus, another of the Dutch
ships, also partook. The two Spanish ships were lashed together, for
mutual support. At length, all the men forsook the vice-admiral, going
on board the admiral's ship, in which they afterwards confessed they
found only fifty men alive. Being reduced to great distress, the Spanish
seamen several times hung out a white flag, in token of surrender, which
was as often hauled down by the officers and other gentlemen, who chose
rather to die than yield.

After some time, being sore pressed by the Hollanders, the men belonging
to the Spanish vice-admiral returned to their own ship, and renewed the
fight; on which occasion the Dutch vice-admiral was in imminent danger
of being taken, as the Spaniards boarded her, but were all repelled or
slain. Being no longer able to continue the fight, the Spanish admiral
fled under cover of the night, and escaped the pursuit of Spilbergen;
but her leaks were so many and great that she went to the bottom, as did
likewise another of the Spanish ships called the Santa Maria.[96] The
Dutch vice-admiral and the Eolus bestirred themselves so briskly, that
the Spanish vice-admiral hung out a white flag, on which the Dutch
vice-admiral sent two boats to bring the Spanish commander on board, but
he refused going that night, unless the Dutch vice-admiral came to fetch
him, or sent a captain to remain in pledge for him. At this time ten or
twelve of the men belonging to the Eolus remained on board, contrary to
orders, wishing to have a first hand in the plunder. These men assisted
the Spaniards in their efforts to prevent the ship from sinking: But all
their labour being in vain, they shewed many lights, and cried out aloud
for help, which was too late of being sent, and they went to the bottom.
Next morning the Dutch sent out four boats, which found thirty Spaniards
floating on pieces of the wreck, and crying out for mercy; which was
shewn by the Dutch to some of the chiefs, but the rest were left to the
mercy of the sea, several of them being even knocked on the head by the
Dutch, contrary to orders from their officers. Before this ship went
down her commander expired of his wounds. In this engagement forty
Dutchmen were wounded and sixteen slain, on board the admiral,
vice-admiral, and Eolus; and in the rest eighteen were wounded and four
slain.

[Footnote 96: There is no such name in the list of the Spanish fleet, so
that we may suppose this to have been the one formerly mentioned without
a name.--E.]

The Dutch now made sail for Calao de Lima, but were becalmed. The 20th
they passed by the island [St Lorenzo], and saw fourteen ships in the
haven, but could not get near for shoals. They went, therefore, to the
road of Calao in search of the Spanish admiral, but learned afterwards
at Payta that his ship had sunk. The Spaniards fired upon them from the
shore, and a ball of thirty-six pounds weight had nearly sunk the
Huntsman. They saw also on shore a considerable army, commanded by the
viceroy in person, consisting of eight troops of horse and 4000 foot.
Going beyond reach of shot from the shore, the Dutch cast anchor off the
mouth of the haven, where they remained till the 25th of July, expecting
to capture some Spanish ships, but all that appeared made their escape
by superior sailing, except one bark laden with salt and eighty jars of
molasses.

In regard that they were now on an enemy's coast, where they had no
opportunity of repairing their losses, orders were issued by Spilbergen
to act with great caution, in case of falling in with the fleet of
Panama, and especially to take care not to separate from each other,
which had much endangered them in the late fight. It was also ordered,
if any Spanish ship should yield, that the Dutch captains and chief
officers should on no account leave their own ships, but should order
the enemy to come aboard them in their own boats. They sailed from Calao
on the 27th of July, and came to the road of _Huarmey_ in lat. 10 deg. S. on
the 28th. This is a pleasant place, with a large port, near which is a
lake. The Dutch landed here, but the inhabitants fled, leaving little
plunder, except poultry, hogs, oranges, and meal, which they brought on
board. They dismissed some of their Spanish prisoners on the 3d August,
on which day they passed between the main and the island of _Lobos_, so
called from being frequented by seals, or sea wolves.[97] The 8th they
cast anchor near Payta, in about the latitude of 5 deg. S. The 9th they
landed 300 men, but re-embarked after some skirmishing, as they found
the city too strongly defended. On this occasion they took a Peruvian
bark, strangely rigged, having six stout natives on board, who had been
out fishing for two months, and had a cargo of excellent dried fish,
which was distributed through the fleet.

[Footnote 97: There are three islands or groups of that name off the
coast of Peru. The southern Lobos is in lat. 7 deg. S. near fifty miles from
the nearest land; the middle, or inner Lobos, in lat. 6 deg. 22' S. is only
about nine miles from the coast of Peru; and the northern Lobos is in
lat. 5 deg. 8' S. almost close to the shore. It is probably the middle or
inner Lobos that is meant in the text.--E.]

The 10th of August three of the Dutch ships battered the town of Payta,
and afterwards sent a party of armed men on shore, who found the
inhabitants had fled to the mountains with all their valuables. The
Dutch sent five of the Peruvian captives on shore to endeavour to
procure fruit, and to learn with more certainty what had become of the
Spanish admiral. On their return they brought word that the Spanish
admiral had gone to the bottom, six only of her crew escaping. They
brought letters also from the lady of Don Gasper Calderon, the
commandant of Payta, who had fled to the town of St Michael, thirty
miles from Payta; who, in commiseration of the captives, sent many
citrons and other provisions to the Dutch ships. Towards the sea the
town of Payta is strongly fortified, and almost impregnable. It is a
place of some importance, having two churches, a monastery, and many
good buildings; and has an excellent harbour, to which many ships resort
from Panama, whence their cargoes are transmitted by land to Lima, to
avoid the dangers of the wind and the seas at that place. While at the
island of Lobos, the Dutch took two birds of enormous size, not unlike
an eagle in beak, wings, and talons; their necks being covered with down
resembling wool, and their heads having combs like those of a cock. They
were two ells in height, and their wings, when displayed, measured three
ells in breadth.[98]

[Footnote 98: Probably the Condour, or Vultur Gryphus of naturalists,
which is of vast size, sometimes measuring sixteen feet between the tips
of the wings when extended.

At this place we have omitted a vague rambling account of the kingdoms
of Peru and Chili, as in 1616, which could have conveyed no useful
information, farther than that Don Juan de Mendoza, Marquis des Montes
Claros, was then viceroy of Peru.--E.]

The Dutch set sail from Payta on the 21st of August, and anchored on the
23d in the road off the mouth of the Rio Tumbez, in lat. 3 deg. 20' S. They
here agreed to return to the isle of Coques, in lat. 5 deg. S.[99] that they
might endeavour to procure refreshments. But they were so distressed by
storms of wind, with rain and excessive thunder, that they in vain
endeavoured to get to that island till the 13th September, and in the mean
time became very sickly. Proceeding therefore towards the north they came
in sight of New Spain on the 20th September, in lat. 13 deg. 30' N. when the
weather became again very tempestuous. After much bad weather they came in
sight of a pleasant land on the 1st October, but were unable to land.
Beating off and on till the 11th of that month, they then entered the
harbour of Accapulco, within shot of the castle, and hung out a flag of
truce. Two Spaniards came on board, with whom they agreed to exchange
their prisoners for sheep, fruits, and other provisions, which was
accordingly performed. On the 15th Melchior Hernando, nephew to the
viceroy of New Spain, came on board, to take a view of the fleet which
had vanquished that of his king, and was kindly entertained by the
Dutch admiral. The castle of Accapulco was found to be well fortified,
and had seventy pieces of brass cannon mounted on its ramparts; and the
Dutch were here informed that their intended arrival had been known eight
months before.

[Footnote 99: This is probably the northern Lobos, in lat 5 deg. 8' S.
formerly mentioned in a note.--E.]

They set sail from Accapulco on the 18th of October, and soon afterwards
took a bark bound for the pearl fishery, which they manned and took into
their service as a tender. On the 1st November they anchored before the
port of _Selagua_, in lat. 19 deg. 8' N. At this place they were informed of
a river abounding in a variety of excellent fish, and having extensive
meadows on its banks well stocked with cattle, together with citrons and
other fruits in great plenty, all of which they much wanted; but the
company they sent to endeavour to procure these conveniences returned
empty handed, after a smart engagement with the Spaniards. They sailed
thence on the 11th November for the port of Nativity, in lat. 20 deg. 40' N.
where they furnished themselves with necessaries, and from whence they
set sail on the 20th.

SECTION III.

_Voyage Home from America, by the East Indies and Cape of Good Hope_.

The 26th November, 1615, being in lat. 20 deg. 26' N. they determined on
shaping their course for the Ladrones across the great Pacific Ocean. On
the 3d December, to their great astonishment, they saw two islands at a
great distance, and next day a vast rock in lat. 19 deg. N. fifty leagues
from the continent of America.[100] The 5th they saw another new island,
having five hills, that at first appeared like so many distinct islands.
The new year 1616 was ushered in with distempers that proved fatal to
many of the sailors. On the 3d of January they came in sight of the
Ladrones, where they landed and procured refreshments. Setting sail from
thence on the 26th January, they arrived at the Philippine islands on
the 9th February, but the Indians refused to trade with them, because
enemies of the Spaniards, though some among them, for that very reason,
would willingly have transferred all the trade and riches of the country
to them. In _Capul_, where they arrived on the 11th, the people gave
them fat hogs and poultry in exchange for mere trifles. Having thus
procured abundant refreshments, they set sail on the 16th, passing
through the straits towards the bay of Manilla.

[Footnote 100: The three Marias are nearly in the indicated latitude,
but are only about thirty leagues from the western coast of N.
America.--E.]

They anchored in these straits on the 19th, where they saw a curious
fabric erected on the top of trees, looking at a distance like a palace,
but they could not imagine what it was. The 24th they passed the high
and flaming hill of _Albaca_, and came in sight of the other end of the
straits [of St Bernardino] on the 28th, when they anchored before the
island, of _Mirabelles_, remarkable for two rocks which tower to a vast
height in the air. Behind this island is the city of Manilla, and here
the pilots wait for the ships from China, to pilot them safe to the
city, as the passage is very dangerous. On the 5th of March they took
several barks, which were going to collect the tribute paid by the
adjacent places to the city of Manilla. They had now intelligence of a
fleet of twelve ships and four gallies, manned by 2000 Spaniards besides
Indians, Chinese, and Japanese, sent from Manilla to drive the Dutch
from the Moluccas, and to reduce these islands under the dominion of
Spain. On this news they discharged all their prisoners, and resolved to
go in pursuit of the Manilla fleet.

The 11th March they got into a labyrinth of islands, whence they knew
not how to get out, but their Spanish pilot carried them safe through
next day. The 14th they anchored all night before the island of _Paney_,
by reason of the shoals; and on the 18th they sailed close past the
island of Mindanao. The 19th they came again close to the shore, and
brought provisions from the islanders at a cheap rate. They reached Cape
_Cudera_ on the 20th, where the Spaniards usually water on their voyages
to the Moluccas. Till the 23d, having a perfect calm, they made no
progress except with the tide; and when between _Mindanao_ and _Tagano_
they were stopt by an adverse current. The people here professed great
enmity against the Spaniards, and offered to assist the Dutch with fifty
of their vessels against that nation. The 27th they passed the island of
_Sanguin_, and came on the 29th to Ternate, in which island the Dutch
possessed the town of _Macia_, where they were made most welcome by
their countrymen. They observed that the straits of _Booton_ was full of
shoals, without which the water was deep. On the east there is good
fresh water, and two leagues to the west lies a very rocky shoal. On the
8th of April, Cornelius de Vicaneze went for Banda, where the soldiers
were landed, after being long on board ship.

Being detained in the Moluccas and at Bantam in the service of the Dutch
East India Company till the 14th December, 1616, admiral Spilbergen then
sailed from Bantam for Holland, in the Amsterdam of 1400 tons, having
also under his command the Zealand of 1200 tons, leaving the ships with
which he had hitherto sailed in India. On the 1st January, 1617, the
Zealand parted company, and on the 24th of that month the Amsterdam
anchored at the island of Mauritius. They doubled the Cape of Good Hope
on the 6th March, and arrived at St Helena on 30th of that month, where
they found the Zealand. Leaving that island on the 6th April, they
passed the line on the 24th of that month, and arrived safe in Holland
on the 1st July, 1617, having been absent two years, ten months, and
twenty-four days; nearly nine months of which time were spent in India,
without prosecuting the direct purpose of their circumnavigation.

The directors of the Dutch East India company bestowed the highest
commendations on Spilbergen for his prudence and good conduct in this
voyage, which contributed both to the advantage of the company, his own
reputation, and the glory of his country. The Dutch company may be said
to have dated their grandeur from the day of his return, both in respect
to reputation, power, and riches; the former resulting from his
successful circumnavigation of the globe, and the others from their
conquests in the Moluccas, in which he not only assisted, but likewise
brought home the first intelligence. On his return to Holland,
Spilbergen confirmed the report of Magellan respecting a gigantic people
inhabiting the straits, named _Patagons_. He said that he had gone
several times on shore, and had examined several graves of the natives,
and saw several savages at different times in their canoes, all of whom
were of the ordinary size; or rather under. But one day he observed a
man on shore, who first climbed one hill and then another, to look at
the ships, and at last came to the sea-side for that purpose, and this
man was allowed by all who saw him to be even taller than those spoken
of by Magellan. This is likewise confirmed by the accounts given to Van
Noort and De Weert, by a boy they took from the savages; who said there
were only two tribes of these giants, all the other savages being of the
ordinary size.[101]

[Footnote 101: Without pretending to give any opinion on this subject,
it may be remarked, that the account from the savage boy is worthy of
little credit, as a kind of nursery tale, and given by one who certainly
could hardly have sufficient language to express himself. The solitary
giant seen looking at the ships from a distance, may have been of the
ordinary size, magnified to the eye in looking through a hazy
atmosphere.--E.]

CHAPTER VI.

VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD, IN 1615-1617, BY WILLIAM CORNELISON SCHOUTEN AND
JACQUES LE MAIRE, GOING ROUND CAPE HORN.[102]

INTRODUCTION.

The States General of the United Provinces having granted an exclusive
privilege to the Dutch East India Company, prohibiting all their
subjects, except that company, from trading to the eastwards beyond the
Cape of Good Hope, or westwards through the Straits of Magellan, in any
of the countries within these limits, whether known or unknown, and
under very heavy penalties; this prohibition gave great dissatisfaction
to many rich merchants, who were desirous of fitting out ships and
making discoveries at their own cost, and thought it hard that their
government should thus, contrary to the laws of Nature, shut up those
passages which Providence had left free. Among the number of these
discontented merchants was one Isaac Le Maire, a rich merchant of
Amsterdam, then residing at Egmont, who was well acquainted with
business, and had an earnest desire to employ a portion of the wealth he
had acquired in trade in acquiring fame as a discoverer. With this view
he applied to William Cornelison Schouten of Horn, a man in easy
circumstances, deservedly famous for his great skill in maritime
affairs, and his extensive knowledge of trade in the Indies, having been
thrice there in the different characters of supercargo, pilot, and
master.

[Footnote 102: Harris, I.51. Callender, II. 217.

It is proper to remark, that in this and several of the subsequent
circumnavigations, considerable freedom has been taken in abbreviating
numerous trivial circumstances already noticed by former voyagers: But
whereever the navigators treat on new topics of discovery, or other
subjects of any importance, the narratives are given at full length. Had
not this liberty of lopping redundancies been taken, this division of
our collection must have extended to a very inconvenient length, without
any corresponding advantage.--E.]

The main question proposed to him by Le Maire was, Whether he thought it
possible to find a passage into the South Sea, otherwise than by the
Straits of Magellan; and if so, whether it were not likely that the
countries to the south of that passage might afford as rich commodities
as either the East or the West Indies? Schouten was of opinion that such
a passage might be found, and gave several reasons as to the probable
riches of these countries.[103] After many conferences, they came to the
determination of attempting this discovery, under a persuasion that the
States did not intend, by their exclusive charter to the East India
Company, to preclude their subjects from discovering countries in the
south by a new route, different from either of those described in the
charter.

[Footnote 103: The idea of rich countries is here surely wrong stated,
as none such could possibly be conceived to the south of the Straits of
Magellan. The expected rich countries must have been to the westwards of
these straits, and in the tropical regions far to the north, in the hope
of not trenching upon the exclusive trade to the East Indies.--E.]

In consequence of this determination, it was agreed that Le Maire
should advance half of the necessary funds for the expence of the
proposed voyage, while Schouten and his friends were to advance the
other moiety. Accordingly Le Maire advanced his part of the funds; and
Schouten, with the assistance of Peter Clementson, burgomaster of Horn,
Jan Janson Molenwert, one of the schepens or aldermen of that city, Jan
Clementson Keis, a senator of that city, and Cornelius Segetson, a
merchant, produced the rest. These matters being adjusted, in spring
1615, the company proposed to equip two vessels, a larger and a less, to
sail from Horn at the proper season. That all parties might be
satisfied, it was agreed that William Cornelison Schouten, in
consideration of his age and experience, should command the larger ship,
with the entire direction of the navigation during the voyage; and that
Jaques le Maire, the eldest son of Isaac, should be supercargo. Every
thing was got ready in two months for the prosecution of the enterprise,
and a sufficient number of men engaged as mariners: but, as secrecy was
indispensable, they were articled to go wherever the masters and
supercargoes should require; and, in consideration of such unusual
conditions, their wages were considerably advanced beyond the ordinary
terms.

SECTION I.

_Journal of the Voyage from the Texel to Cape Horn_.

The larger of the two vessels prepared for this voyage was the Unity, of
360 tons, carrying nineteen cannon and twelve swivels; having on board
two pinnaces, one for sailing and another for rowing, a launch for
landing men, and a small boat, with all other necessaries for so long a
voyage. Of this vessel William Cornelison Schouten was master and pilot,
and Jaques le Maire supercargo. The lesser vessel was named the Horn, of
110 tons, carrying eight cannons and four swivels, of which Jan
Cornelison Schouten was master, and Aris Clawson supercargo. The crew of
the Unity consisted of sixty-five men, and that of the Horn of
twenty-two only. The Unity sailed on the 25th of May for the Texel,
where the Horn also arrived on the 3d June.

The proper season being now arrived, in their judgment, they sailed from
the Texel on the 14th of June, and anchored in the Downs on the 17th,
when William Schouten went ashore at Dover to hire an experienced
English gunner. This being effected, they again set sail the same
evening; and meeting a severe storm in the night between the 21st and
22d, they took shelter under the Isle of Wight. Sailing thence on the
25th, they arrived at Plymouth on the 27th, where they hired a carpenter
named Muydenblick. Sailing finally from Plymouth on the 28th June, with
the wind at N.E. and fair weather, they proceeded on their voyage.

Distinct rules were now established in regard to the allowance of
provisions at sea, so that the men might have no reason to complain, and
the officers might be satisfied of having enough for the voyage. The
rate fixed upon was, a cann of beer for each man daily; four pounds of
biscuit, with half a pound of butter and half a pound of suet weekly;
and five large Dutch cheeses for each man, to serve during the whole
voyage. All this was besides the ordinary allowance of salt meat and
stock-fish. Due orders were likewise issued for regulating the conduct
of the men and officers. Particularly on all occasions of landing men in
a warlike posture, one of the masters was always to command: and in such
ports as they might touch at for trade, the supercargo was to go on
shore, and to have the exclusive management of all commercial dealings.
It was also enjoined, that every officer should be exceedingly strict in
the execution of his duty, but without subjecting the men to any
unnecessary hardships, or interfering with each other in their several
departments. The officers were also warned against holding any
conversation with the men, in regard to the objects of the voyage, all
conjectures respecting which were declared fruitless, the secret being
solely known to the first captain and supercargo. It was also declared,
that every embezzlement of stores, merchandises, or provisions, should
be severely punished; and, in case of being reduced upon short
allowance, any such offence was to be punished with death. The two
supercargoes were appointed to keep distinct journals of all
proceedings, for the information of the company of adventurers, that it
might appear how far every man had done his duty, and in what manner the
purposes of the voyage had been answered.

On the 11th July they had sight of Madeira, and on the 13th they passed
through between Teneriff and Grand Canary, with a stiff breeze at N.N.E.
and a swift current. The 15th they passed the tropic of Cancer; and the
20th in the morning fell in with the north side of Cape de Verd.
Procuring here a supply of water, by leave of the Moorish alcaide or
governor, for which they had to pay _eight states_ of iron, they left
the cape on the 1st August, and came in sight of the high land of Sierra
Leona on the 21st of that month, as also of the island of _Madre bomba_,
which lies off the south point of Sierra Leona, and north from the
shallows of the island of St Ann. This land of Sierra Leona is the
highest of all that lie between Cape Verd and the coast of Guinea, and
is therefore easily known.

On the 30th of August, they cast anchor in eight fathoms water on a fine
sandy bottom, near the shore, and opposite a village or town of the
negroes, in the road of Sierra Leona. This village consisted only of
eight or nine poor thatched huts. The Moorish inhabitants were willing
to come on board to trade, only demanding a pledge to be left on shore
for their security, because a French ship had recently carried off two
of the natives perfidiously. Aris Clawson, the junior merchant or
supercargo, went accordingly on shore, where he drove a small trade for
lemons and bananas, in exchange for glass beads. In the mean time some
of the natives came off to the ships, bringing with them an interpreter
who spoke many languages. They here very conveniently furnished
themselves with fresh water, which poured down in great abundance from a
very high hill, so that they had only to place their casks under the
waterfall. There were here whole woods of lemon-trees, and lemons were
so cheap that they might have had a thousand for a few beads, and ten
thousand for a few common knives; so that they easily procured as many
as they wished, and each man had 150 for sea store. The 3d September
they found a vast shoal of fish, resembling a shoemaker's knife.

They left Sierra Leona on the 4th September; and on the 5th October,
being in lat 4 deg. 27' S. they were astonished by receiving a violent
stroke on the bottom of one of the ships, though no rock appeared to be
in the way. While forming conjectures on the occasion of this shock, the
sea all about the ship began to change colour, appearing as if some
great fountain of blood had opened into it. This sudden alteration of
the water seemed not less wonderful than the striking of the ship; but
the cause of both was not discovered till after their arrival in Port
Desire, when the ship was laid on shore to clean her bottom, when they
found a large horn, of a substance resembling ivory, sticking fast in
the bottom. It was entirely firm and solid, without any internal cavity,
and had pierced through three very stout planks, grazing one of the ribs
of the ship, and stuck at least a foot deep in the wood, leaving about
as much on the outside, up to the place where it broke off.[104]

[Footnote 104: This must have been a Narvai, or Narwhal, the Monodon
Monoceros, Licorne, or Unicornu Marinum, of naturalists, called likewise
the Unicorn Fish, or Sea Unicorn.--E.]

On the 25th of October, when no person knew whereabouts they were except
Schouten, the company was informed that the design of the voyage was to
endeavour to discover a new southern passage into the South Sea; and the
people appeared well pleased, expecting to discover some new golden
country to make amends for all their trouble and danger. The 26th they
were in lat. 6 deg. 25' S. and continued their course mostly to the south
all the rest of that month, till they were in lat 10 deg. 30' S. The 1st
September they had the sun at noon to the north; and in the afternoon
of the 3d they had sight of the isle of Ascension, in 20 deg. S. otherwise
called the island of Martin Vaz, where the compass was observed to vary
12 deg. to the east of north. The 21st, in lat. 38 deg. S. the compass varied
17 deg. in the same eastern direction. The 6th December, they got sight of
the mainland of South America, appearing rather flat, and of a white
colour, and quickly after fell in with the north head-land of Port
Desire, anchoring that night in ten fathoms water with the ebb-tide,
within a league and a half of the shore. Next day, resuming their course
southwards, they came into Port Desire at noon, in lat. 47 deg. 40' S. They
had very deep water at the entrance, where they did not observe any of
the cliffs which were described by Van Noort, as left by him to the
northward on sailing into this haven, all the cliffs they saw being on
the south side of the entrance, which therefore might be those mentioned
by Van Noort, and misplaced in his narrative by mistake.

In consequence of this error, they overpassed Port Desire to the south,
so as to miss the right channel, and came into a crooked channel, where
they had four and a half fathoms water at full sea, and only fourteen
feet at low water. By this means the Unity got fast aground by the
stern, and had infallibly been lost, if a brisk gale had blown from the
N.E. But as the wind blew west from the land, she got off again without
damage. Here they found vast quantities of eggs upon the cliffs; and the
bay afforded them great abundance of muscles, and smelts sixteen inches
long, for which reason they called it _Smelt Bay_. From this place they
sent a pinnace to the Penguin Islands, which brought back 150 of these
birds, and two sea lions.

Leaving Smelt Bay on the 8th December, they made sail for Port Desire, a
boat going before to sound the depth of the channel, which was twelve
and thirteen fathoms, so that they sailed in boldly, having a fair wind
at N.E. After going in little more than a league, the wind began to veer
about, and they cast anchor in twenty fathoms; but the ground,
consisting entirely of slippery stones, and the wind now blowing strong
at N.W. they drifted to the south shore, where both ships had nearly
been wrecked. The Unity lay with her side to the cliffs, yet still kept
afloat, and gradually slid down towards the deep water as the tide fell.
But the Horn stuck fast aground, so that at last her keel was above a
fathom out of the water, and a man might have walked under it at low
water. For some time, the N.W. wind blowing hard on one side, kept her
from falling over; but, that dying away, she at length fell over on her
bends, when she was given over for lost; but next flood, coming on with
calm weather, righted her again. Having escaped this imminent danger,
both ships went farther up the river on the 9th, and came to King's
Island, which they found full of black sea-mews, and almost entirely
covered with their eggs; so that a man without moving from one spot
might reach fifty or sixty nests with his hands, having three or four
eggs in each. They here accordingly were amply provided with eggs, and
laid in several thousands of them for sea store.

The 11th the boats were sent down the river in search of fresh water, on
the south side, but found it all brackish and unpleasant. They saw
ostriches here, and a sort of beasts like harts, having wonderfully long
necks, and extremely wild. Upon the high hills, they found great heaps
of stones, under which some monstrous carcass had been buried, some of
the bones being ten or eleven feet long, which, if having belonged to
rational creatures, must have been the bones of giants.[105] They here
had plenty of good fish and fowls, but no water could be found for some
days.

[Footnote 105: Giants indeed; for thigh bones of ten or eleven feet
long, and these are the longest in the human body, would argue men of
_thirty-one feet high_!--E.]

On the 17th December, the Unity was laid ashore on King's island, in
order to clean her bottom, and next day the Horn was hauled on shore for
the same purpose, but providentially at the distance of about 200 yards
from her consort: For, on the 19th, while burning a fire of dry reeds
under the Horn, which was necessary for the object in view, the flame
caught hold of the ship, and they were forced to see her burn without
being able to do any thing to extinguish the fire, as they were at least
fifty feet from the water side. They launched the Unity at high water on
the 20th, and next day carried on board all the iron-work, anchors,
cannon, and whatever else they had been able to save belonging to the
Horn.

On the 25th some holes full of fresh water were found, which was white
and muddy, yet well tasted, and of which a great quantity was carried
on board, in small casks on the men's shoulders. At this place, they
found great numbers of sea lions, the young of which are good to eat.
This creature is nearly as big as a small horse, their heads resembling
lions, and the males having long manes on their necks of tough coarse
hair; but the females have no manes, and are only half as large as the
males. They are a bold and fierce animal, and only to be destroyed by
musket shot.

January 18th, 1616, they departed from Port Desire: and on the 18th,
being in lat. 51 deg. S they saw the Sebaldine [or Faulkland] islands, as
laid down by de Weert. The 20th, being in lat. 53 deg. S. and by estimation
twenty leagues to the South of the Straits of Magellan, they observed a
strong current running to the S.W. The 22d the wind was uncertain, and
shifting, and the water had a white appearance, as if they had been
within the land; and holding on their course, S. by W. they saw land
that same day, bearing from them W. and W.S.W. and quickly afterwards
saw other land to the south. Then attempting, by an E.S.E. course, to
get beyond the land, they were constrained to take in their topsails, by
the wind blowing hard at north. In the forenoon of the 24th they saw
land to starboard, at the distance of a league, stretching out to the
east and south, having very high hills all covered with snow. They then
saw other land bearing east from the former, which likewise was high and
rugged. According to estimation, these two lands lay about eight leagues
asunder, and they guessed there might be a good passage between them,
because of a brisk current which ran to the southward in the direction
of that opening. At noon they made their latitude 54 deg. 46',[106] and
stood towards the before-mentioned opening, but were delayed by a calm.
At this place they saw a prodigious multitude of penguins, and such
numbers of whales that they had to proceed with much caution, being
afraid they might injure their ship by running against them.

[Footnote 106: They were here obviously approaching the Straits of Le
Maire, discovered on the present occasion, the northern opening of which
is in lat. 54 deg. 40' S. the southern in 55 deg. S. and the longitude 65 deg. 15'
W. from Greenwich.--E.]

In the forenoon of the 25th they got close in with the eastern land, and
upon its north side, which stretched E.S.E. as far as the eye could
carry. This they named _States Land_, and to that which lay westward of
the opening they gave the name of _Maurice Land_.[107] The land on both
sides seemed entirely bare of trees and shrubs, but had abundance of
good roads and sandy bays, with great store of fish, porpoises,
penguins and other birds. Having a north wind at their entrance into
this passage, they directed their course S.S.W. and going at a brisk
rate, they were at noon in lat. 55 deg. 36' S. and then held a S.W. course
with a brisk gale. The land on the south side of the passage or Straits
of _Le Maire_, and west side, to which they gave the name of _Maurice
Land_, [being the east side of the Terra del Fuego] appeared to run
W.S.W. and S.W. as far as they could see, and was all a very rugged,
uneven, and rocky coast. In the evening, having the wind at S.W. they
steered S. meeting with prodigious large waves, rolling along before the
wind; and, from the depth of the water to leeward, which appeared by
very evident signs, they were fully convinced that they had the great
South Sea open before them, into which they had now almost made their
way by a new passage of their own discovering.

[Footnote 107: The former of these names is still retained, but not the
latter; the land on the west of the Straits of Le Maire being Terra del
Fuego; and the cape at the N.W. of the straits mouths is now called Cape
St Vincent, while the S.W. point is named Cape St Diego.--E.]

At this place the _sea-mews_ were larger than swans, their wings when
extended measuring six feet from tip to tip. These often alighted on the
ship, and were so tame as to allow themselves to be taken by hand,
without even attempting to escape. The 26th at noon they made their
latitude 57 deg. S. where they were assailed by a brisk storm at W.S.W. the
sea running very high, and of a blue colour. They still held their
course to the southwards, but changed at night to the N.W. in which
direction they saw very high land. At noon of the 27th they were in 56 deg.
51' S. the weather being very cold, with hail and rain, and the wind at
W. and W. by S. The 28th they had great billows rolling from the west,
and were at noon in 56 deg. 48' S. The 29th having the wind at N.E. they
steered S.W. and came in sight of two islands W.S.W. of their course,
beset all round with cliffs. They got to these islands at noon, giving
the name of _Barnevelt's Islands_, and found their latitude to be 57 deg.
S.[108] "Being unable to sail _above_ them, they held their course to
the north; and taking a N.W. course in the evening from Barnevelt's
islands, they saw land N.W. and N.N.W. from them, being the lofty
mountainous land covered with snow, which lies to the south of the
straits of Magellan, [called Terra del Fuego,] and which ends in a sharp
point, to which they gave the name of _Cape Horn_, which is in lat. 57 deg.
48' S."[109]

[Footnote 108: Only 56 deg., so that by some inaccuracy of instruments or
calculation, the observations of the latitude, in this voyage, seem all
considerably too high.--E.]

[Footnote 109: The course in the text within inverted commas, from
Barnevelt's islands to Cape Horn, is evidently erroneously stated. It
ought to have run thus. "Being unable to pass to the north of these
islands, they held their course S.W. seeing land on the N.W. and N.N.W.
of their course, which ended in a sharp point, which they named _Cape
Horn_."--Cape Horn is in lat. 56 deg. 15' S. and long. 67 deg. 45' W. from
Greenwich.--E.]

They now held their course westwards, being assisted by a strong current
in that direction; yet had the wind from the north, and had heavy
billows meeting them from the west. The 30th, the current and billows as
before, they were fully assured of having the way open into the South
Sea, and this day at noon they made their latitude 57 deg. 34' S. The 31st
sailing west, with the wind at north, their latitude at noon was 58 deg. S.
But the wind changing to W. and W.S.W. they passed Cape Horn, losing
sight of land altogether, still meeting huge billows rolling from the
west with a blue sea, which made them believe they were in the main
South Sea. February 1st, they had a storm at S.W. and sailed N.W. and
W.N.W. The 2d, having the wind at W. they sailed southwards, and came
into the lat. of 57 deg. 58' S. The 3d they made their latitude 59 deg. 25' S.
with a strong wind at W. but saw no signs of any land to the South.

SECTION II.

_Continuation of the Voyage, from Cape Horn to the Island of Java._

Altering their course to the northwards, they plainly discerned the
western mouth of the Straits of Magellan, bearing east from them, on the
12th February; and being now quite sure of their new and happy
discovery, they returned thanks to the Almighty for their good fortune
over a cup of wine, which was handed three times round the company. To
this new-found passage or straits, leading from the Atlantic into the
Pacific, they gave the name of the _Straits of Le Maire_, though that
honour ought justly to have been given to _Schouten,_ by whose excellent
conduct these straits were discovered.

By the 27th of February they were in lat. 40 deg. S. with fair weather,
continuing their course to the north; but on the 28th, they determined
to sail for the island of Juan Fernandez, to give some rest and
refreshment to their sickly and wearied company. That day their latitude
at noon was 35 deg. 53' S. In the evening they shortened sail, fearing to
fall in with the land in the night. Next day, being the 1st of March,
they saw the islands of Juan Fernandez to the N.N.E. and got up to them
at noon, being in the lat. of 35 deg. 53' S.[110] The smaller of these
islands is that to the westwards, [Masafuero,] which is very barren and
rocky. The greater [Juan Fernandez,] to the eastwards, though also very
high and mountainous, is yet fruitful and well shaded with trees. This
island affords plenty of hogs and goats; and there is such excellent
fishing all round, that the Spaniards come hither for that purpose, and
transport vast quantities of fish from hence to Peru.

[Footnote 110: The latitude of Juan Fernandez is only 33 deg. 42' S. The two
islands mentioned in the text under this name, are Juan Fernandez and
Masafuero; the former in long. 77 deg. 80', the latter in 79 deg. 40', both W.
from Greenwich. Or perhaps, the second island may be the Small Goat's or
Rabbit Island, off its S.W. end, called _Isola de Cabras_, or _de
Conejos_.--E.]

The road or haven of Juan Fernandez, [named la Baia, or Cumberland
Harbour,] is at the east end of the island; but they shaped their course
to the west end, where they could find no place in which to anchor. The
boat being sent in search of an anchorage, brought an account of a
beautiful valley, full of trees and thickets, and refreshed by streams
of water running down from the hills, with a variety of animals feeding
in this pleasant spot. The boat brought also great store of fish on
board, being mostly lobsters and crabs, and reported having seen many
sea wolves. Finding the island inaccessible, they took a considerable
quantity of fish, and procured a supply of fresh water, after which they
determined to pursue their voyage.

The 11th March they passed the tropic of Capricorn to the north, the
wind in general being E.S.E. and they held their course N.N.W. till the
15th, when being in lat. 18 deg. S. they changed their course to W. The 3d
April they were in 15 deg. 12' S. being then much afflicted with the flux,
and that day they saw a small low island which they got up to at noon.
Finding no bottom, they could not come to anchor, but sent some men
ashore in the boat. They found nothing here fit for refreshment, except
some herbs which tasted like scurvy grass, and saw some dogs which
could neither bark nor snarl, and for which reason they named it Dog
Island. It is in lat. 15 deg. 12', and they judged it to be 925 leagues west
from the coast of Peru.[111] The interior of this island is so low, that
it seemed mostly overflowed at high water, its outskirt being a sort of
dike or mound, overgrown with trees, between which the salt water
penetrates in several places.

[Footnote 111: Dog Island is in lat. 15 deg. 18' S. and long. 137 deg. W. about
1200 marine leagues west from the coast of Peru under the same parallel.
By the description in the text it seems one of those which are usually
termed _lagoon_ islands--E.]

The 14th, sailing W. and W. by N. they saw a large low island in the
afternoon, reaching a considerable way N.E. and S.W. At sun-set, being
about a league from this island, a canoe came to meet them, in which
were some naked Indians of a reddish colour, having long black hair.
They made signs to the Dutch to go on shore, and spoke to them in a
language which was not understood; neither did the Indians understand
them, though spoken to in Spanish, Moluccan, and Javan. Getting near the
coast, no bottom could be found, though only a musket-shot from land.
They now sailed S.S.W. along the island, making ten leagues during the
night, and continued along the shore on the 15th, many naked people
continually inviting them to land. At length a canoe came off, but the
natives would not venture into the ship, yet came to the boat, where the
Dutch gave them beads, knives, and other trifles; but they found them
thievishly disposed, much like the natives of the Ladrones, and were so
fond of iron, that they stole the nails from the cabin windows, and the
bolts from the doors. Their skins were all pictured over with snakes,
dragons, and such like reptiles, and they were entirely naked, except a
piece of mat before them. A boat was sent ashore well armed, and
immediately on landing, about thirty of the natives rushed from a wood,
armed with clubs, slings, and long staves or spears, and would have
seized the boat and taken away the arms from the soldiers; but on
receiving a discharge of musquetry they run off. Not being able to
anchor here, they called this the _Island without ground_. It is low,
and mostly composed of white sandy ground, on which are many trees,
which were supposed to be cocoas and palmitos. It is not broad, but of
considerable length, being in lat. 15 deg. S. and about 100 leagues from Dog
Island.[112]

[Footnote 112: Sondre-ground, or Without-ground, is in lat. 15 deg. 12' S.
and 143 deg. 25' W. long.--E.]

Finding nothing could be done here, they held on their course to the
west, and on the 16th came to another island, about fifteen leagues
north from the former. This seemed all drowned land, yet its skirts were
well clothed with trees. Here also they found no ground, and it yielded
nothing but a few herbs, with some crabs and other shell-fish, which
they found good eating. It afforded them also good fresh water, which
they found in a pit not far from the shore. The pottage or soup, which
they made of certain herbs gathered here, proved serviceable to those
who were afflicted with the flux. They called this _Water Island_,[113]
because it supplied them with fresh water.

[Footnote 113: Water-land is in lat. 15 deg. S. and 146 deg. W. long.--E.]

Sailing from this island westwards, they came on the 18th to another
island 20 leagues distant from the last, and extending a considerable
way N.W. and S.E. Dispatching the boat in search of anchorage, a bottom
was found near a point of land, in 25 and 40 fathoms, about a
musket-shot from the shore, where also was a gentle stream of fresh
water. This news induced them to send back the boat with some casks for
water: But after using much pains to get on shore, and searching in the
wood to find a spring, they were frightened away by seeing a savage. On
getting back to their boat, five or six more of the savages came to the
shore, but on seeing the Dutch put off they soon retired into the woods.
Although they thus got rid of the savages, they encountered other
adversaries of a formidable nature; for they were followed from the
woods by innumerable myriads of black flies, so that they came on board
absolutely covered with them from head to foot, and the plague of flies
began to rage in the ship in a most intolerable manner. This persecution
lasted three or four days, on which account they called this _Fly
Island_,[114] and by the help of a good breeze of wind, they left it as
fast as they could.

[Footnote 114: The next island W. or rather S.W. from Water-land, and
nearly at the distance in the text, is now called Palliser's
island.--E.]

Continuing their course westwards from the 19th of April to the 9th of
May, when they were in lat. 15 deg. 20' S. and estimated their distance from
Peru 1510 leagues to the west, they perceived a bark coming towards
them, on which they fired a gun or two to make them strike. But those
who were in her, either not understanding the language of cannon, or
unwilling to obey, made off as fast as they could; on which the Dutch
sent their boat with ten musqueteers to intercept them. Some of the
savages in the bark leapt overboard, and the rest surrendered without
resistance, on which the Dutch used them kindly, dressing those that
were wounded, and saving the lives of some who had leapt into the sea.
Besides the men, there were eight women and several children, being in
all twenty-three, remaining in the bark. They were a cleanly neat kind
of people, of a reddish colour, and entirely naked except the parts of
shame. The men wore their long black curled hair, but that of the women
was cut short.

The bark was of a singular figure and construction, consisting of two
canoes fastened together, in the midst of each of which were two planks
of red wood to keep out the water, and several others went across from
one canoe to the other, being made fast and close above, and projected
over a good way on each side. At the end of one of the canoes, on the
starboard side, there stood a mast, having a fork at its upper end,
where the yard lay; the sail being of mats, and the ropes of that kind
of stuff of which fig-frails are made in Spain. Their only furniture
consisted of a few fishing-hooks, the upper part of which was of stone,
and the other of bone, tortoise-shell, or mother-of-pearl. They had no
water on board, instead of which they satisfied themselves with the
liquor of a few cocoa-nuts; in default of which they drank sea-water,
which even the children did heartily. The Dutch sent them all again on
board their vessel, where the women welcomed their husbands with joyful
embraces, after which they made away to the south-east.[115]

[Footnote 115: This double canoe seems to have belonged to the Society
islands, and was perhaps bound towards Otaheite, by the course which it
followed on getting rid of the Dutch.--E.]

The 10th of May, Schouten continued his course W.S.W. and that day saw
some very high land to larboard, S.E. by S. about eight leagues off. The
11th they came to a very high island, and about two leagues south from
this to one much lower; and the same day sailed over a bank where they
had fourteen fathoms on a stoney bottom, about two leagues from the
land, and being past this bank could find no bottom. At this time
another bark, or double canoe like the former, came up to them, having a
small loose single canoe in her, to put out upon occasion. She sailed so
fast that few Dutch ships could have outstripped her. She was steered
behind by two oars, one in each canoe, and when they have a mind to
tack they use oars forwards. Sending their boat to sound at one of these
islands, ground was found a cannon-shot from the shore, in twelve,
fourteen, and fifteen fathoms, but shelvy. The savages in the bark made
signs as if directing them to the other island, but they anchored at the
former in twenty-five fathoms on a sandy bottom, a cannon-shot from
shore.

This island, in lat. 16 deg. 10' S. is one entire mountain, looking like one
of the Molucca islands, and all covered with cocoa-nut trees, for which
reason they named it Cocoa island.[116] The other island is much lower
than this, but longer, and stretches east and west. While at anchor off
Cocoa island there came three _ships_,[117] and nine or ten canoes about
them, having three or four men in each. Some of these holding out white
flags in token of peace, the Dutch did so likewise. The canoes were flat
before and sharp behind, hewed each out of one piece of a red kind of
wood, and sailed very swiftly. On coming near the Unity, some of the
savages leapt into the sea and swam to the ship, having their hands full
of cocoa-nuts and _ubes-roots,_[118] which they bartered for nails and
beads, giving four or five cocoa-nuts for a nail or a small string of
beads, so that the Dutch that day procured 180 cocoa-nuts. This traffic
brought so many of the natives on board, that the Dutch could hardly
stir about the ship.

[Footnote 116: Cocas, or Boscawen island, is in 16 deg. 32' S. and long.
169 deg. 35' W. The other island mentioned in the text, Traitors, or Keppel
island, is a few leagues S.S.W. from Cocos.--E.]

[Footnote 117: These ships must have been large double canoes.--E.]

[Footnote 118: These _ubes_-roots were perhaps the same that are called
_eddoes_ by modern navigators among the South Sea islands.--E.]

The boat was now sent to the other island to see for a more convenient
place in which to anchor; but she was presently beset by a vast number
of canoes filled with a mad sort of people, armed with clubs, who
boarded the boat and attacked the Dutchmen. On firing their muskets, the
savages laughed at them for making so much noise and doing so little
hurt; but, on the next discharge, one of them being shot through the
breast, they learnt to pay more respect to the muskets, and to keep
their due distance for the future. The savages were lusty,
well-proportioned men, and most expert swimmers, but naked and thievish,
and very fantastical in the fashion of their hair, some having it
short, others long, some curled, and others plaited or folded up in
various forms.

On the 12th the savages came again in their canoes, laden with cocoas,
bananas, _ubes-roots_, hogs, and fresh water, contending violently who
should get first on board. Those who were behind, being unable to get
over the throng of canoes and men before them, leapt into the sea, and
diving under the canoes, swam to the ship with bunches of cocoas in
their mouths, and climbed up the side like so many rats, and in such
swarms that the Dutch had to keep them off with cudgels. The Dutch
bartered with them that day for so many cocoas, as to produce twelve for
each of their men, being eighty-five in number. The natives wondered
much at the size and strength of the Dutch ship; and some of them even
dived under her bottom, knocking it with stones, as if to try how strong
it was. The king of these savages sent a black hog on board as a
present, charging the messenger to take no reward. Shortly after he came
in person, in a large ship of their fashion, attended by thirty-five
single canoes; and when at a small distance from the ship, he and all
his people began to bawl out as loud as they could, being their manner
of welcoming strangers. The Dutch received him with drums and trumpets,
which pleased him much; and he and his attendants shewed their sense of
this honourable reception by bowing and clapping their hands. The king
gave them a present after his fashion, which they requited with an old
hatchet, some rusty nails and glass beads, and a piece of linen, with
all which he seemed much pleased. This king was not distinguished from
his subjects by any external mark of dignity, but merely by the
reverence they shewed him, as he was equally naked with all the rest;
but he could not be prevailed on to come on board the Unity.

At noon on the 13th, the Dutch ship was surrounded by twenty-three large
double canoes, or ships of their fashion, and forty-five single canoes,
in all of which there could not be less than seven or eight hundred men.
At first they pretended to come for the purpose of trade, making signs
of friendship, and endeavouring to prevail upon the Dutch to remove
their ship to the other island, where they would be better accommodated.
Yet, in spite of all these fair pretences, the Dutch suspected that some
mischief was intended by the savages, who now began to environ the ship
all around, and then, with a great outcry, made a sudden attack. The
king's ship was the foremost in the action, and rushed with such
violence against the Unity, that the heads of the two canoes composing
it were both dashed to pieces. The rest came on as well as they could,
throwing repeated showers of great stones on board; but the Dutch,
having been on their guard, so galled them with musquetry, and with
three great guns loaded with musket-balls and nails, that all the
savages were fain to quit their canoes, and seek for safety in the
water. Being thus put to the rout, they dispersed as quickly as
possible. These treacherous savages were inhabitants of the lower, or
more southerly, of the two islands, which therefore the Dutch named
_Traitor's Island_.

Schouten sailed from Cocoa Island that same day, holding a course to the
W. and W. by S. and came on the 14th to another island, about thirty
leagues from Cocoa Island, to which he gave the name of _Hope
Island_,[119] because expecting there to meet with refreshments. Finding
no ground for anchorage, the boat was sent to sound along shore, and
found a stony bottom about a musket-shot from the shore, in some places
having forty, and in others twenty and thirty fathoms, and then no
bottom at all next throw of the lead. Some ten or twelve canoes came off
to the ship, bartering a small quantity of flying fishes for beads, the
articles being reciprocally exchanged by means of a rope let down from
the stern of the ship. From this peddling traffic the Indians soon after
withdrew, and endeavoured to board and carry away the boat which was
employed in sounding; but met with such a reception from guns, pikes,
and cutlasses, that after two of them were slain, they were glad to
hurry away as fast as they could. This island was mostly composed of
black cliffs, which were green on the top, and seemed well stocked with
cocoa-trees. There were several houses seen along the sea side; and in
one place was a large village close beside a strand, or landing-place.
As there was no convenient anchorage at this place, the ground being
extremely rough, Schouten proceeded on his voyage to the S.W. meaning to
pursue the originally intended discovery of a southern continent.

[Footnote 119: Hope Island is in lat. 16 deg. 32' S. and in 177 deg. 25' W.
longitude.--E.]

The 18th May, being in lat. 16 deg. 5' S. and the west wind becoming very
unsteady, they began to consult as to the farther prosecution of their
voyage. Schouten represented that they were now at least 1600 leagues
westward from the coast of Peru, without having made the expected
discovery of a southern land, of which there was now no great
probability of success, having already sailed much farther west than
they at first intended. He said also, if they persisted in following
their present course, they would assuredly come to the southern side of
New Guinea; and if they were unable to find a passage through that
country, to the west or north, they would inevitably be lost, since it
would be impossible for them to get back again, by reason of the east
winds which continually reign in these seas. For these reasons, and
others which he urged, he proposed, that they should now alter their
course to the northwards, so as to fall in with the north side of New
Guinea.[120] This proposal was embraced by all the company, and it was
immediately determined to change the course to N.N.W. Accordingly,
holding their course in that new direction, they saw two islands at noon
of the 19th, about eight leagues from them, N.E. by E. and seeming to be
a cannon-shot distant from each other.[121] Upon this they steered N.E.
with fair weather and a scanty wind, meaning to approach this island,
but could only get within a league of it on the 21st, when they were
visited by two canoes, the people in which began immediately to threaten
them with loud cries, and at the same time seemed preparing to dart
their _assagays_ or spears: but, on a discharge from the ship, they made
off in haste, leaving two of their companions behind them who were
slain, and a shirt they had stolen from the ship. Next day other natives
came to the ship on friendly and peaceable terms, bringing cocoa-nuts,
ubes-roots, and roasted hogs, which they bartered for knives, beads, and
nails.

[Footnote 120: It is almost needless to mention, that if Schouten had
continued his course in the former parallel of between 15 deg. and 16 deg. S. he
must have fallen in with the group of islands now called the New
Hebrides, and afterward with the northern part of New South Wales.--E.]

[Footnote 121: This was only one island, in lat. 15 deg. S. and long. 180 deg.
10' W. which they named Horn Island.--E.]

The natives of this island were all as expert swimmers and divers as
those in Traitor's Island, and as well versed in cheating and stealing,
which they never failed to do when an opportunity offered. Their houses
stood all along the shore, being thatched with leaves, and having each a
kind of penthouse to shed off the rain. They were mostly ten or twelve
feet high, and twenty-five feet in compass, their only furniture within
being a bed of dry leaves, a fishing-rod or two, and a great club, even
the house of their king being no better provided than the rest. At this
island the Dutch found good convenience for watering; and on the 26th
they sent three of their principal people on shore as hostages, or
pledges, of friendship with the islanders, retaining six of them aboard
in the same capacity. The Dutch pledges were treated on shore with great
respect by the king, who presented them with four hogs; and gave strict
orders that none of his people should give the smallest disturbance to
the boat while watering. The natives stood in great awe of their king,
and were very fearful of having any of their crimes made known to him.
One of them having stolen a cutlass, and complaint being made to one of
the king's officers, the thief was pursued and soundly drubbed, besides
being forced to make restitution; on which occasion the officer
signified, that it was well for the culprit that the king knew not of
his crime, otherwise his life would certainly have been forfeited.

These islanders were extremely frightened at the report of a gun, which
would set them all running like so many madmen. Yet on one occasion the
king desired to hear one of the great guns let off, and being set for
that purpose under a canopy, with all his courtiers about him, in great
state, the gun was no sooner fired than he ran off into the woods as
fast as possible, followed by his attendants, and no persuasions of the
Dutch could stop them. The 25th and 26th the Dutch went ashore to
endeavour to procure hogs, but were unable to get any, as the islanders
had now only a few left, and would only part with cocoas, bananas, and
ubes-roots; yet the king continued his wonted kindness and respect, and
he and his lieutenant took the crowns from their own heads, and set them
on the heads of two of the company. These crowns were composed of the
white, red, and green feathers of parrots and doves. The doves of this
island are white on the back, and black every where else except the
breast; and each of the king's counsellors has one of these birds
sitting beside him on a stick.

The ship being completely supplied with fresh water on the 28th,
Schouten and Le Maire went ashore with the trumpets, with which music
the king was highly gratified. He told them of his wars with the
inhabitants of the other island, and shewed several caves and thickets
where they were in use to place ambuscades. It plainly appeared that he
was fearful of the Dutch having some design of seizing his country, as
he would fain have engaged them to go to war with the other island, and
even offered to give them ten hogs and a good quantity of cocoas, if
they would be gone from his island in two days. Yet he made them a visit
aboard, praying when he entered the ship, and praying also at every
cabin he entered. He used always to pray likewise every time the Dutch
came ashore to visit him. His subjects also shewed great submission to
the Dutch, kissing their feet, and laying them on their own necks, with
all the marks of awe and fear they could express.

The 30th of May was a day of great ceremony, in consequence of the king
of the _other island_[122] coming to visit the king of this. This king
was accompanied by a train of 300 naked Indians, having bunches of green
herbs stuck about their waists, of which herb they make their drink. To
make sure of a welcome, this king brought with him a present of sixteen
hogs. When the two kings came in sight of each other, they began to bow
and to mutter certain prayers; on meeting they both fell prostrate on
the ground, and after several strange gestures, they got up and walked
to two seats provided for them, where they uttered a few more prayers,
bowing reverently to each other, and at length sat down under the same
canopy. After this, by way of doing honour to the stranger king, a
messenger was sent aboard, requesting to send the drums and trumpets
ashore, which was done accordingly, and they played a march to the great
entertainment of the two kings. After this a solemn banquet was
prepared, for which they began to make ready their liquor, and in the
following strange and abominable manner. A number of Indians came into
the presence of the two kings and their attendants, bringing a good
quantity of _cana_, the herb of which they make their drink, each of
whom took a large mouthful thereof, and having chewed it a while, put it
from their mouths into a large wooden trough, and poured water on the
chewed herb. After stirring it some time, they squeezed out all the
liquor, which they presented in cups to the two kings.[123] They also
offered of it to the Dutch, who were ready to vomit at the nastiness of
its preparation.

[Footnote 122: No _other island_ is to be found in modern maps near Horn
Island, the nearest being the Feejee Islands, a numerous group, about
thirty leagues S.S.W. It is therefore probable that Horn Island may have
consisted of two peninsulas, united by a low narrow neck, appearing to
Schouten as two distinct islands.--E.]

[Footnote 123: In the Society Islands, as related by modern navigators,
an intoxicating liquor is prepared nearly in a similar manner, by
chewing the _ava_, or pepper-root.--E.]

The eating part of this entertainment consisted of ubes-roots roasted,
and hogs nicely dressed in the following manner: Having ripped open
their bellies and taken out the entrails, they singed off the hair, and
put hot stones into their bellies, by which, without farther cleaning or
dressing, they were made fit for the royal feast.[124] They presented
two hogs dressed in this manner to the Dutch, with all the form and
ceremony used to their kings, laying them first on their heads, then
kneeling with much humility, they left them at their feet. They gave the
Dutch also eleven living hogs; for which they got in return a present of
knives, old nails, and glass beads, with which they were well pleased.
The natives of this island were of a dark yellow colour, so tall, large,
strong, and well-proportioned, that the tallest of the Dutch could only
be compared with the smallest among them. Some wore their hair curled,
frizzled, or tied up in knots, while others had it standing bolt upright
on their heads, like hog's-bristles, a quarter of an ell high. The king
and some of his chief men had long locks of hair, hanging down below
their hips, bound with a few knots. The women were all very ugly
figures, short and ill-shaped, their breasts hanging down to their
bellies like empty satchels, and their hair close cropped. Both sexes
were entirely naked, except a slight covering in front. They seemed
altogether void of any devotion, and free from care, living on what the
earth spontaneously produces, without any art, industry, or cultivation.
They neither sow nor reap, neither buy nor sell, neither do any thing
for a living, but leave all to nature, and must starve if that fail them
at any time. They seem also to have as little regard for the dictates of
decency and modesty, as for those of civil policy and prudence; for they
will use their women openly in the largest assembly, even in presence of
their king, whom, in other respects, they so greatly reverence. To this
island the Dutch gave the name of Horn Island, from the town in Holland
whence they fitted out; and named the haven in which they anchored
_Unity Bay_, after their ship. This bay, resembling a natural dock, is
on the south side of the island, in the latitude of 14 deg. 16' S.[125]

[Footnote 124: Modern voyagers describe this mode of dressing more
minutely. A pit is dug in the earth, which is lined with heated stones,
on which the hog is placed, having hot stones in its belly, and is
covered with other hot stones, when the pit is covered up like a grave.
After remaining a sufficient time in this situation, the _barbacued hog_
is said to be nicely dressed.--E.]

[Footnote 125: The latitude and longitude of Horn Island have been given
in a former note, but its most extreme south point may reach to 15 deg. 16'
S.--E.]

Leaving Horn Island on the 1st of June, they saw no other land till the
21st, when they made towards a very low island bearing S.S.W. by W. from
them, in lat. 4 deg. 47' S. near which were several sands stretching N.W.
from the land, as also three or four small islands very full of trees.
Here a canoe came to the Unity, of the same odd fashion with those
formerly described. The people also were much like those formerly seen,
only blacker, and armed with bows and arrows, being the first they had
seen among the Indians of the South Sea. These people told them, by
signs, that there was more land to the westwards, where their king
dwelt, and where there were good refreshments to be had. On this
information, they sailed on the 22d W. and W. by N. in the lat. of 4 deg.
45' S. and saw that day at least twelve or thirteen islands close
together, lying W.S.W. from them, and reaching S.E. and N.W. about half
a league, but they left these to larboard. The 24th, the wind being S.
they saw three low islands to larboard, S.W. of their course, one of
them very small, the other two being each two miles long, all very full
of trees, to which they gave the name of _Green Islands_.[126] The
shores of these islands were rugged and full of cliffs, presenting no
place for anchoring, wherefore they proceeded on their voyage.

[Footnote 126: These Green Islands of Schouten are laid down in our best
modern maps in lat. 4 deg. S. and long. 205 deg. 20' W. The other two groups
mentioned at this place in the text and without names, seem to have been
the _Four Islands_ and the _Nine Islands_ of Carteret, to the S.E. of
Green Islands.--E.]

On the 25th, being St John the Baptist's day, they sailed past another
island, on which were seven or eight hovels, which they named St John's
Island. [Lat. 3 deg. 40' S. long. 206 deg. 20' W.] At this time they saw some
very high land to the S.W. which they thought to be the western point of
New Guinea.[127] They reached this coast by noon, and sailed along,
sending their boat in search of an anchorage, but no bottom could then
be found. Two or three canoes filled with a barbarous people attacked
the boat with slings, but were soon driven away by the muskets. These
people were very black, entirely naked, and spoke a quite different
language from that of the islanders they had seen hitherto. They kept
fires burning on the coast all night, and some of them came lurking
about the ship in their canoes; but though the Dutch, on discovering
them, did every thing they could to conciliate, they would not
understand any signs made for procuring provisions, but answered all
with horrible noises and outcries.

[Footnote 127: This land was discovered afterwards to be separate from
New Guinea, and is now named New Ireland, having another large island
interposed, called New Britain.--E.]

At night, they anchored in a bay in 40 fathoms on uneven ground. About
this place the country was high and verdant, and afforded a pleasant
prospect, being, as they guessed, 1840 leagues west from the coast of
Peru. In the morning of the 26th, three canoes came to the ship, quite
full of these barbarians, being well armed after their manner, with
clubs, wooden swords, and slings. The Dutch treated them kindly, giving
them several toys to procure their favour; but they were not to be won
by kindness, neither could they be taught good manners except by the
language of the great guns: For they presently assaulted the ship with
all their force, and continued till ten or twelve of them were slain by
cannon-shot. They then threw themselves into the water, endeavouring to
escape by swimming and diving; but they were pursued in the water by the
boat, when several were knocked in the head, and three prisoners taken,
besides four of their canoes, which were cut up as fuel for the use of
the ship. Though these savages would not formerly understand any signs,
they were now more apt, and understood that hogs and bananas were
demanded in ransom for the prisoners. One wounded man was set at
liberty, but the Dutch exacted ten hogs for the others. This island
afforded a sort of birds that are all over bright red. North of it lay
another island, of which they made no other discovery, except its
position in regard to this. The Dutch concluded that these people were
of the _Papuas_ nation, because of their short hair, and because they
chewed betel mixed with chalk.

In the evening of the 28th, they sailed from hence, and next day held a
course to the N.W. and N.W. by N. with a shifting wind till noon, and
then a calm. They had the point of the island in view till evening,
though they sailed along the coast, which was full of bays and turnings,
and trended N.W. and N.W. by W. This day they saw other three high
islands, which lay northwards five or six miles from the greater one,
being then in the latitude of 3 deg. 20' S. The 30th in the morning, several
canoes of these black Papuas came off to the ship, and being allowed to
come aboard, broke certain staves over the Dutch, in sign of peace.
Their canoes were more artificially made and ornamented than the others,
and the people seemed more civilized and more modest, as they had the
pudenda covered, which the others had not. Their hair was rubbed over
with chalk, their black frizly locks appearing as if powdered. They
affected to be poor, and came to beg, not bringing any thing to the
ship, yet the four islands whence they came appeared, to be well stored
with cocoas.

On the 1st June, the Dutch came to anchor between the coast of New
Guinea and an island two miles long. They were soon after surrounded by
twenty-five canoes, full of the same people who had broken staves the
day before in token of peace, and who came now fully armed in guise of
war. They were not long of entering on the work they came about. Two of
them laid hold of two anchors which hung from the bows of the ship, and
endeavoured with their girdles to tug the ship on shore. The rest lay
close to the ship's sides, and gave a brisk onset with slings and other
weapons; but the great guns soon forced them to retire, with twelve or
thirteen killed, and many more wounded. After this, the Dutch sailed
peaceably along the coast, with a good gale of wind, continuing their
course W.N.W. and N.W. by W. The 2d they were in lat. 3 deg. 12' S. and saw
a low land to larboard, and right before them a low island. Continuing
W.N.W. with a slight current at E.N.E. they sailed gently along. The 3d
they saw high land, bearing W. about 14 leagues from the other island,
and in lat. 2 deg. 41' S. The 4th, while passing these four island, they
suddenly came in view of twenty-three other islands, some great, some
small, some high, and others low, most of which they left to starboard,
and only two or three to larboard. Some of these were a league distant
from the others, and some only a cannon-shot. Their latitude was in 2 deg.
30' S. a little more or less.

On the 6th in the morning, the weather being variable and even sometimes
stormy, they had in the morning a very high hill before them, bearing
S.W. which they thought to have been _Geeminassi_ in Banda; but, on a
nearer approach, they discovered three other hills more like it in the
north, some six or seven leagues distant, which they were convinced were
that hill of Banda.[128] Behind these hills lay a large tract of land,
stretching east and west, of very great extent, and very uneven. In the
morning of the 7th, they sailed towards these mighty hills, some of
which they found were volcanoes, for which reason they named this
_Vulcan's Island_. It was well inhabited and fall of cocoa-nut trees,
but had no convenient place for anchorage. The inhabitants were naked,
and extremely fearful of the Dutch, and their language so different from
that of all the neighbouring people, that none of the blacks could
understand them. More islands appeared to the N. and N.W. but they
proceeded to a very low island, bearing N.W. by W. which they reached in
the evening. The water here was observed to be of several colours,
green, white, and yellow, perhaps occasioned by the mixture of some
river, as it was far sweeter than ordinary sea water, and was full of
leaves and boughs of trees, on some of which were birds, and even some
crabs.

[Footnote 128: They still had the north-western end of Papua or New
Guinea between them and Banda, from which they were distant at least
twelve degrees of longitude.--E.]

On the 8th, continuing their course W.N.W. having a high island on the
starboard, and another somewhat lower to larboard, they anchored in the
afternoon in 70 fathoms on a good sandy bottom, about a cannon-shot from
the land, at an island in 3 deg. 40' S. which seemed an unhealthy place,
yielding nothing of any value except a little ginger. It was inhabited
by Papuas or blacks, whose ridiculous mode of dress, and their own
natural deformity, made them appear little short of a kind of monsters.
Hardly any of them but had something odd and strange, either in the
bigness or position of their limbs. They had strings of hog's teeth hung
about their necks; their noses were perforated, in which rings were
fastened; their hair was frizled, and their faces very ugly. Their
houses also were extremely singular, being mounted on stakes, eight or
nine feet above the ground. Before noon of the 9th, they anchored in a
more convenient bay, in 26 fathoms, on a bottom of sand mixed with clay.
There were two villages near the shore, whence some canoes brought off
hogs and cocoas, but the Indians held them at so dear a rate that the
Dutch would not buy any of them.

Though they had now sailed so long upon this new land, yet were they
unable to determine with any certainty if it actually were the coast of
New Guinea, as their charts neither agreed with each other, nor with the
coast in view. This coast for the most part ran N.W. by W. sometimes
more westerly, and at other times more northerly. Yet they held on their
course W.N.W. along the coast, having quiet weather though dull winds,
but assisted by a stream or current setting along the coast to the
westwards. Proceeding in this manner, they came into the lat. of 2 deg. 58'
S. at noon of the 12th. Continuing their course on the 13th and 14th,
the coast in sight was sometimes high and at other times low. The 15th,
still pursuing the same course, they reached two low islands about half
a league from the main, about the latitude of 2 deg. 54' S. where they had
good anchorage in 45 and 46 fathoms. Seeing the country well stored with
cocoas, two boats well armed were sent with orders to land and procure
some cocoa-nuts. But they were forced to retire by the Indians, in spite
of their muskets, at least sixteen of the Dutch, being wounded by arrows
and stones thrown from slings.

In the morning of the 16th, they sailed in between the two low islands,
and anchored in a safe place in nine fathoms. They landed that day on
the smaller island, where they burnt some huts of the natives, and
brought away as many cocoa-nuts as gave three to each man of the
company. The barbarous natives became now more tractable; as on the 17th
they came to make their peace-offerings of cocoas, bananas, ginger, and
certain yellow roots [turmeric] used instead of saffron. They even
trusted the Dutch so far as to come on board, when peace was entirely
restored, and their hearts won by a few nails and beads. They continued
bartering on the 18th, for cocoas and bananas, procuring fifty nuts and
two bunches of bananas for each man of the company, with a smaller
quantity of cassava and _papade_. These cassavas and papades are East
India commodities, the former being also to be had particularly good in
the West Indies, and far preferable to what they got here. The people
make all their bread of this substance, baking it in large round cakes.
This smaller island, which is the more easterly, the natives named
_Mosa_; the other over against it they call _Jusan_, and the farthest
off _Arimea_, which, is very high, and about five or six leagues from
the coast of New Guinea.[129] These places had probably been visited
before by Europeans, as they had among them some Spanish pots and jars.
They were not nearly so much surprised at the report of the great guns
as the others had been, neither were they so curious in looking at the
ship.

[Footnote 129: These names are not to be found in our modern general
maps, though certainly infinitely better for all the uses of geography
than the absurd appellations so much in use among voyagers.--E.]

On the 21st at noon, sailing along the land as before N.W. they were in
lat. 1 deg. 13' S. The current drove them to a cluster of islands, where
they anchored in thirteen fathoms, and were detained all day of the 22d
by storms of thunder and rain. Setting sail in the morning of the 23d,
six large canoes overtook them, bringing dried fish, cocoas, bananas,
tobacco, and a small sort of fruit resembling plums. Some Indians also
from another island brought provisions to barter, and some vessels of
China porcelain. Like other Savages, they were excessively fond of beads
and iron; but they were remarkably distinguished from the natives in the
last islands, by their larger size, and more orange-coloured
complexions. Their arms were bows and arrows, and they wore glass
earrings of several colours, by which latter circumstance it appeared
that they had been previously visited by other Europeans, and
consequently that this was not to be considered as a discovery.

The 24th, steering N.W. and W.N.W. and being in lat. 0 deg. 30' S. they
sailed along a very pleasant island, which they named Schouten's Island,
after their master,[130] and called its western point Cape of Good Hope.
The 25th they passed an extensive tract of uneven land on their larboard
hand, stretching from E.S.E. to W.N.W. The 26th they saw three other
islands, the coast stretching N.W. by W. The 27th they were in lat. 0 deg.
29' S. still seeing much land to the south, some of which were very high
and some low, which they passed, continuing their course to the north of
west. The 29th they felt the shock of an earthquake, which shook the
ship to that degree that the men ran terrified out of their births,
believing the ship had run a-ground, or had bilged against some rock. On
heaving the lead they found the sea unfathomable, and their ship clear
from all danger of rocks or shoals. The 30th they put into a great bay,
out of which they could find no opening to the west, and resumed
therefore a northern course. Here the ship trembled again with loud
claps of thunder, and was almost set on fire by the lightning, had it
not been prevented by prodigious rain.

[Footnote 130: The centre of Schouten Island is in lat. 0 deg. 30' S. and
long. 223 deg. W. It is nearly 24 leagues long from E. to W. and about eight
leagues from N. to S. In some maps this island is named _Mysory_,
probably the native appellation, and it lies off the mouth of a great
bay, having within it another island of considerable size, called
_Jobie_, or Traitor's Island.--E.]

The 31st, continuing a northern course, they passed to the north of the
equator, and being encompassed almost all round by land, they anchored
in twelve fathoms on good ground, near a desolate island which lay close
by the main land. The 1st of August they were in lat. 0 deg. 15' N. The 2d
and 3d being calm, they were carried by the current W. and W. by N. This
day at noon their latitude was 0 deg. 35' N. when they saw several whales
and sea-tortoises, with two islands to the westwards. They now reckoned
themselves at the western extremity of the land of New Guinea, along
which they had sailed 280 leagues. Several canoes came off to them in
the morning of the 5th, bringing Indian beans, rice, tobacco, and two
beautiful birds of paradise, all white and yellow. These Indians spoke
the language of Ternate, and some of them could speak a little Spanish
and Malayan, in which last language Clawson the merchant was well
skilled. All the people in these canoes were finely clothed from the
waist downwards, some with loose silken robes, and others with breeches,
and several had silken turbans on their head, being Mahometans. All of
them had jet black hair, and wore many gold and silver rings on their
fingers. They bartered their provisions with the Dutch for beads and
other toys, but seemed more desirous of having linen. They appeared so
fearful and suspicious of the Dutch, that they would not tell the name
of their country, which however was suspected to be one of the three
eastern points of Gilolo, and that the people were natives of Tidore,
which was afterwards found to be the case.

In the morning of the 6th they set sail, holding a northern, course,
intending to go round the north point of Gilolo. The 7th they saw the
north point of Morty, or Moraty, N.E. of Gilolo. Contending with
variable winds and adverse currents it was the 19th before they could
get into the bay of _Soppy_ in Gilolo, where they anchored in ten
fathoms on sandy ground, about a cannon-shot from shore. Here they
procured poultry, tortoises, sago, and rice, which was a great relief
for the company, still consisting of eighty-five men in health and
vigour. Leaving Soppy on the 25th August they came to the desert island
of Moro on the 1st September, and, on closer examination, found it
composed of several islands close together. They saw here a worm, or
serpent, as thick as a man's leg and of great length. On the 5th they
anchored off the coast of Gilolo. At this place some of the seamen went
ashore unarmed to catch fish, when four Ternatese soldiers rushed
suddenly out of the wood sword-in-hand while the Dutchmen were drawing
their net, intending to have slain them; but the surgeon called out to
them _Oran Hollanda_, that is, _Holland men_, on which the soldiers
instantly stopped, throwing water on their heads in token of peace, and
approaching in a friendly manner, said they had mistaken the Dutchmen
for Spaniards. At the request of the seamen they went on board, where,
being well treated, they promised to bring provisions and refreshment to
the ship, which they afterwards did.

Sailing thence on the 14th they got sight of Ternate and Tidore on the
16th, and anchored on the 17th in the evening before Malaya in Ternate,
in eleven fathoms sandy ground. Here captain Schouten and Jaques Le
Maire went ashore, and were kindly entertained by the general Laurence
Real, admiral Stephen Verhagen, and Jasper Janson, governor of Amboina.
On the 18th they sold two of their pinnaces, with most of what had been
saved out of the unfortunate Horn, receiving for the same 1350 reals,
with part of which they purchased two lasts of rice, a ton of vinegar, a
ton of Spanish wine, and three tons of biscuit. On the 27th they sailed
for Bantam, and on the 28th of October anchored at Jacatra, now Batavia.
John Peterson Koen, president for the Dutch East India Company at
Bantam, arrived there on the 31st of October, and next day sequestered
the Unity and her cargo, as forfeited to the India company for illegally
sailing within the boundaries of their charter.

* * * * *

In consequence of the seizure of the Unity, captain Schouten and Jaques
Le Maire, with others of their people, embarked at Bantam in the
Amsterdam and Zealand on the 14th December, 1616, on which they set sail
for Holland. On the 31st of that month Jaques Le Maire died, chiefly of
grief and vexation on account of the disastrous end of an enterprise
which had been so successful till the arrest of the ship and cargo. He
was, however, exceedingly solicitous about his journal, which he had
kept with the utmost care during the voyage, and left a recommendation
that it should be published, that the world might know and judge of the
usage they had received. The Amsterdam arrived in Zealand on the 1st
July, 1617, where her consort had arrived the day before. Thus was this
circumnavigation of the globe completed in two years and eighteen days;
which, considering the difficulties of the course, and other
circumstances of the voyage, was a wonderfully short period.[131]

[Footnote 131: In the Collection of Harris this voyage is succeeded by a
dissertation on the high probability of a southern continent existing,
and that this supposed continent must be another _Indies_. Both of these
fancies being now sufficiently overthrown by the investigations of our
immortal Cook, and other modern navigators, it were useless to encumber
our pages with such irrelevant reveries.--E.]

CHAPTER VII.

VOYAGE OF THE NASSAU FLEET ROUND THE WORLD, IN 1623-1626, UNDER THE
COMMAND OF JAQUES LE HERMITE.[132]

[Footnote 132: Harris I. 66. Callend. II. 286.]

INTRODUCTION.

The government of the United Netherlands, considering it proper to
distress their arch enemy the king of Spain by every means in their
power, determined upon sending a powerful squadron into the South Sea,
to capture the ships of his subjects, to plunder the coasts of his
dominions, and to demolish his fortifications. Accordingly, in autumn
1622, a final resolution for this purpose was entered into by the States
General, with the concurrence of their stadtholder, Prince Maurice of
Orange, who even advanced a considerable sum of money towards it from
his own funds; and a fleet of no less than eleven ships of war, besides
smaller vessels, were ordered to be fitted out for the expedition, by
the several admiralties of the Union and the East India Company. This
fleet was in condition for putting to sea in spring 1623, when the
command was intrusted to Jaques Le Hermite, an able and accomplished
seaman of great experience, who had been long in the service of the East
India Company, and was now appointed admiral of the fleet; Hugo
Schapenham being vice-admiral. The ships fitted out on this occasion by
the admiralty of Amsterdam were,--

1. The Amsterdam of 800 tons, admiral, carrying twenty brass cannon and
twenty-two iron, with 237 men, commanded by Leenders Jacobson Stolk, as
captain, Peter Wely being supercargo, Engelbert Schutte commander of the
soldiers on board, Frederick van Reneygom fiscal or judge-advocate, John
van Walbeck, engineer, and Justin van Vogelair engineer extraordinary.

2. The Delft of 800 tons, vice-admiral, having twenty brass and twenty
iron cannon, with 242 men, commanded by captain Cornelius de Witte.

3. The Eagle of 400 tons, captain Meydert Egbertson, of twelve brass and
sixteen iron cannon, with 144 men.

4. A yacht called the Greyhound, of sixty tons, captain Solomon
Willelmson, carrying four brass cannons and twenty men.

The admiralty of Zealand fitted out only one ship for this expedition.

5. The Orange of 700 tons, captain Laurence John Quirynen, and carrying
likewise the rear-admiral, John William Verschoor. Her complement of men
was 216.[133]

[Footnote 133: Her number of guns is not mentioned, but she could hardly
have less than thirty-six from her size--E.]

The admiralty of the Maes furnished the following ships:

6. The Holland of 600 tons and 152 men, carrying ten pieces of brass and
twenty of iron ordnance. In this ship was Cornelius Jacobson, who was
counsellor to admiral Le Hermite, but the ship was immediately commanded
by captain Adrian Troll.

7. The Maurice of 360 tons and 169 men, having twelve brass and twenty
iron cannon, commanded by captain James Adrianson.

8. The Hope of 260 tons and eighty men, with fourteen iron cannon,
captain Peter Hermanson Slobbe.

The admiralty of North Holland also provided the following ships:

9. The Concord of 600 tons and 170 men, with eighteen brass and fourteen
iron cannon, captain John Ysbrandtz.

10. The King David of 360 tons and seventy-nine men, with sixteen pieces
of brass cannon, captain John Thomason.

11. The Griffin of 320 tons, and seventy-eight men, with fourteen iron
cannon, captain Peter Cornelison Hurdloop.

The whole of this fleet of eleven sail, carrying 294 pieces of cannon,
had 1637 men, of whom 600 were regular soldiers, divided into five
companies of 120 men in each. The East India Company contributed largely
to the expence, but does not appear to have equipped any ships on this
occasion.

SECTION I.

_Incidents of the Voyage from Holland to the South Sea_.

This armament, usually called the Nassau fleet, was by far the most
considerable that had hitherto been sent against the Spaniards in the
new world, and none so powerful has since navigated along the western
coast of America in an hostile manner. It sailed on the 29th April,
1622, from Goeree roads, all but the Orange, which joined next day.

On the 7th June, while chasing a Barbary corsair, a Christian slave, who
happened to be at the helm, ran the corsair on board the Dutch
vice-admiral, and immediately he and other slaves took the opportunity
of leaping on board to escape from slavery. The captain of the corsair,
who happened to be a Dutch renegado, followed them, and demanded
restitution of his slaves; but the vice-admiral expostulated so strongly
with him on the folly and infamy of deserting his country and religion,
that he sent for every thing belonging to him out of the corsair, and
agreed to go along with the fleet, to the regret of the Turks, who thus
lost their captain and seventeen good men.

On the 5th July the fleet anchored in the road of St Vincent, which is
extremely safe and commodious, where they procured refreshments of
sea-tortoises, fish, goats, and oranges. The islands of St Vincent and
St Antonio are the most westerly of the Cape Verds, being in from 16 deg.
30' to 18 deg. N. latitude, and about two leagues from each other. The bay
of St Vincent, in which they anchored, is in lat. 16 deg. 56' N. and has a
good firm sandy bottom, with eighteen, twenty, and twenty-five fathoms
water. The island of St Vincent is rocky, barren, and uncultivated,
having very little fresh water, though they found a small spring which
might have served two or three ships. By digging wells they procured
plenty of water, but somewhat brackish, to which they attributed the
bloody flux, which soon after began to prevail in the fleet. The goats
there, of which they caught fifteen or sixteen every day, were very fat
and excellent eating. The sea-tortoises which they took there were from
two to three feet long. They come on shore to lay their eggs, which they
cover with sand, leaving them to be hatched by the heat of the sun.
Their season of laying eggs is from August to February, remaining all
the rest of the year in the sea. They caught every night great numbers
of these animals while ashore to lay their eggs, and the sailors found
them wholesome and pleasant food, eating more like flesh than fish.

This island is altogether uninhabited, but the people of St Lucia come
here once a year to catch tortoises, for the sake of an oil they prepare
from them; and to hunt goats, the skins of which are sent to Portugal,
and their flesh, after being salted and dried at St Jago, is exported to
Brazil. There are no fruit-trees in this island, except a few wild figs
in the interior; besides which, it produces colocinth, or bitter apple
which is a very strong purge.[134] This island has a very dry climate,
except during the rainy season, which begins in August and ends in
February, but is not very regular.

[Footnote 134: Cucumis Colocynthis, a plant of the cucumber family,
producing a fruit about the size of an orange, the medullary part of
which, when ripe, dried, and freed from the seeds, is a very light,
white, spongy substance, composed of membranous leaves, excessively
bitter, nauseous, and acrid.]

The island of St Antonio is inhabited by about 500 negroes, including
men, women, and children, who subsist chiefly on goats, and also
cultivate a small quantity of cotton. On the sea-side they have
extensive plantations of lemons and oranges, whence they gather great
quantities every year. These were very readily supplied to the Dutch by
the negroes in exchange for mercery goods, but they saw neither hogs,
sheep, nor poultry in the island.

Sailing from St Vincent's on the 25th July, they anchored in the road of
Sierra Leona on the 11th August. Here on the 15th some of the crew being
on shore, eat freely of certain nuts resembling nutmegs, which had a
fine taste, but had scarcely got on board when one of them dropt down
dead, and before he was thoroughly cold he was all over purple spots.
The rest recovered by taking proper medicines. Sierra Leona is a
mountain on the continent of Africa, standing on the south side of the
mouth of the river Mitomba, which discharges itself into a great bay of
the sea. The road in which ships usually anchor is in the lat. of 8 deg. 20'
N. This mountain is very high, and thickly covered with trees, by which
it may be easily known, as there is no mountain of such height any where
upon the coast. There grow here a prodigious number of trees, producing
a small kind of lemons called _limasses_, (limes?) resembling those of
Spain in shape and taste, and which are very agreeable and wholesome, if
not eaten to excess. The Dutch fleet arrived here at the season when
this fruit was in perfection, and having full leave from the natives,
the people eat them intemperately; by which, and the bad air, the bloody
flux increased much among them, so that they lost forty men between the
11th of August and the 5th September. Sierra Leona abounds in
palm-trees, and has some ananas, or pine-apples, with plenty of wood of
all sorts, besides having an exceedingly convenient watering-place
opposite to the anchorage.

They sailed from Sierra Leona on the 4th September, on which day the
admiral fell sick. On the 29th they were off the island of St Thomas,
just on the north side of the line, and anchored on the 1st of October
at Cape Lopo Gonzalves, in lat. 0 deg. 50' S. At this place the surgeon of
the Maurice was convicted on his own confession of having poisoned seven
sick men, because they had given him much trouble, for which he was
beheaded. On the 30th of October they anchored in the road of Annobon,
where they obtained hogs and fowls, and were allowed to take in water,
and to gather as many oranges as they thought proper. The east end of
this island, where are the road and village, is in lat. 1 deg. 30' S. and
long. 6 deg. E. from Greenwich. The island is about six leagues in circuit,
consisting of high and tolerably good land, and is inhabited by about
150 families of negroes, who are governed by two or three Portuguese, to
whom they are very submissive. If any of them happen to be refractory,
they are immediately sent away to the island of St Thomas, a punishment
which they greatly dread. The island abounds in ananas, bananas,
cocoa-nuts, tamarinds, and sugar-canes; but the principal inducement for
ships touching here is the great plenty of oranges, of which the Dutch
gathered upwards of 200,000, besides what the seamen eat while on shore.
These oranges were of great size and full of juice, some weighing three
quarters of a pound, and of an excellent taste and flavour, as if
perfumed. They are to be had ripe all the year round, but there is one
season in which they are best and fittest for keeping, which was past
before the Dutch arrived, and the oranges were then mostly over ripe and
beginning to rot. The island also produces lemons, and has plenty of
oxen, cows, goats, and hogs, which the negroes bartered for salt. On the
S.E. part of the island there is a good watering-place, but difficult to
find, which is commanded by a stone breast-work, whence the negroes
might greatly annoy any who attempted to water by force. They grow here
some cotton, which is sent to Portugal. The natives are treacherous, and
require to be cautiously dealt with.

The fleet left Annobon on the 4th November, and on the 6th January,
1624, they were in lat. 44 deg. 40' S. where they saw many sea-gulls, and
much herbage floating on the water, whence they supposed themselves near
the continent of South America. On the 19th the sea appeared as red as
blood, proceeding from an infinite quantity of a small species of
shrimps. On the 28th they lost sight of their bark, in which were
eighteen men, three of them Portuguese. These people, as they afterwards
learnt, having in vain endeavoured to rejoin the fleet, determined to
return to Holland. Being in want of water, they sailed up the Rio de la
Plata till they came into fresh water, after which they continued their
voyage, suffering incredible hardships, and the utmost extremity of
want, till they arrived on the coast of England, where they ran their
vessel on shore to escape a privateer belonging to Dunkirk, and
afterward got back to Holland.

The 1st February the fleet came in sight of land, being Cape de
Pennas.[135] Next day they found themselves at the mouth of the straits.
This is easily distinguished, as the country on the east, called _Saten
Land_, is mountainous, but broken and very uneven; while that on the
west, called _Maurice Land_ by the Dutch, or Terra del Fuego, has
several small round hills close to the shore. The 6th they had sight of
Cape Horn; and on the 11th, being in lat. 58 deg. 30' S. they had
excessively cold weather, which the people were ill able to bear, being
on short allowance. On the 16th they were in lat. 56 deg. 10' S. Cape Horn
being then to the east of them, and anchored on the 17th in a large bay,
which they named _Nassau bay_.[136] Another bay was discovered on the
18th, in which there was good anchorage, with great convenience for
wooding and watering, and which they called Schapenham's bay, after the
name of their vice-admiral.

[Footnote 135: This seems to be what is now called Cape St Vincent, at
the W. side of the entrance into the Straits of Le Maire.--E.]

[Footnote 136: The centre of Nassau bay is in lat. 55 deg. 30' N. long. 68 deg.
20' W. This bay is formed between Terra del Fuego on the north, and
Hermite's island south by east, the south-eastern extreme point of which
is Cape Horn. This island appears to have been named after admiral Le
Hermite.--E.]

On the 23d a storm arose with such violence that nineteen men belonging
to the Eagle were compelled to remain on shore; and next day, when the
boats were able to go for them, only two of these men were left alive,
the savages having come upon them in the dark, and knocked seventeen of
them on the head with their slings and wooden clubs, the poor Dutchmen
being all unarmed, and not having offered the least injury or insult to
the savages. Only five of the dead bodies were found on the shore, which
were strangely mangled, all the rest having been carried away by the
savages, as it was supposed, to eat them. After this, every boat that
went ashore carried eight or ten soldiers for their security; but none
of the savages ever appeared again.

The vice-admiral went on the 25th in the Greyhound to visit the coast.
On his return he reported to the admiral, that he found the Terra del
Fuego divided into several islands, and that it was by no means
necessary to double Cape Horn in order to get into the South Sea, as
they might pass out from Nassau bay to the west into the open sea,
leaving Cape Horn on the south. He apprehended also, that there were
several passages from Nassau bay leading into the Straits of Magellan.
The greatest part of the _Terra del Fuego_ is mountainous, but
interspersed with many fine vallies and meadows, and watered by numerous
streams or rivulets, descending from the hills. Between the islands
there are many good roads, where large fleets may anchor in safety, and
where there is every desirable convenience for taking in wood, water,
and ballast. The winds, which rage here more than in any other country,
and with inexpressible violence, blow constantly from the west, for
which reason such ships as are bound westerly ought to avoid this coast
as much as possible, keeping as far south as they can, where they are
likely to meet with southerly winds to facilitate their westerly course.

The inhabitants of the Terra del Fuego are as fair as any Europeans, as
was concluded by seeing a young child; but the grown-up people disguise
themselves strangely, painting themselves with a red earth after many
fanciful devices, some having their heads, others their arms, their legs
and thighs red, and other parts of their bodies white. Many of them have
one half of their bodies red, from the forehead to the feet, and the
other side white. They are all strong made and well-proportioned, and
generally about the same stature with Europeans. Their hair is black,
which they wear long, thick, and bushy, to make them the more frightful.
They have good teeth, but very thin, and as sharp as the edge of a
knife. The men go entirely naked, and the women have only a piece of
skin about their waists, which is very surprising, considering the
severity of the climate. Their huts are made of trees, in the form of a
round tent, having a hole at the top to let out the smoke. Within they
are sunk two or three feet under the surface of the ground, and the
earth taken from this hollow is thrown upon the outside. Their
fishing-tackle is very curious, and is furnished with hooks made of
stone, nearly of the same shape with ours. They are variously armed,
some having bows and arrows artificially headed with stone; others long
javelins or spears, headed with bone; some have great wooden clubs, some
have slings, and most have stone knives, or daggers, which are very
sharp. They are never seen without their arms, as they are always at war
among themselves; and it would appear that the several tribes paint
differently, that they may distinguish each other; for the people about
the island of _Torhaltens_, and about _Schapenham bay_, were all painted
black, while those about _Greyhound bay_ were painted red.

Their canoes are very singular, being formed of bark, fortified both on
the inside and outside with several pieces of small wood, and then
covered over by bark, so as to be both tight and strong. These canoes
are from ten to fourteen, and even sixteen feet long, and two feet
broad, and will contain seven or eight men, who navigate them as swiftly
as our boats. In manners, these people resemble beasts more than men,
for they tear human bodies in pieces, and eat the raw and bloody flesh.
They have not the smallest spark of religion, neither any appearance of
polity or civilization, being in all respects utterly brutal, insomuch
that if they have occasion to make water, they let fly upon whoever is
nearest them. They have no knowledge of our arms, and would even lay
their hands on the edges of the Dutchmen's swords; yet are exceedingly
cunning, faithless, and cruel; shewing every appearance of friendship at
one time, and instantly afterwards murdering those with whom they have
been familiar. The Dutch found it impossible to procure any kind of
refreshments from them, though such surely were among them, for
quantities of cow-dung were seen; and their bow-strings were made of ox
sinews: besides, a soldier who went ashore from the Greyhound yacht,
while she lay at anchor, reported to the vice-admiral, that he had seen
a large herd of cattle feeding in a meadow.[137]

[Footnote 137: This is not at all likely to have been true. The cattle,
the dung, and the sinews mentioned in the text, are more likely to have
been of some species of the seal tribe--E.]

On the 27th of February, 1624, the admiral made a signal for sailing,
the wind being then N. so that hopes were entertained of getting from
the bay of Nassau to the west; but a storm came on in the evening at W.
and blew hard all night. March 3d, they had an observation at noon, when
they were in lat, 59 deg. 45' S. with the wind at N.W. Hitherto it had been
the opinion of nautical men, that it was easy to get from the Straits of
Le Maire to Chili, but hardly possible to pass from Chili by that strait
into the Atlantic, as they imagined that the south wind blew constantly
in these seas: but they now found the case quite otherwise, as the
frequent tempests they encountered from W. and N.W. rendered it beyond
comparison easier to have passed through the Straits of Le Maire from
the South Sea than from the Atlantic.

The wind still continuing strong from the west on the 6th, the admiral
held a council to consider of a proper rendezvous for the fleet, in case
of separation, or of being forced to winter, if these west winds should
still continue to oppose their entry into the South Sea. Some proposed
the Terra del Fuego, and others the Straits of Magellan. But the
majority were of opinion, that it was best to wait two months for a fair
wind, and to use their utmost endeavours to get into the South Sea. On
the 8th they were in 61 deg. S. on the 14th in 58 deg., and on the 18th, 19th
and 20th they had a fair wind at S.E. with warm weather, so that they
were now in hopes of having accomplished their purpose. On the 24th they
lost sight of the Maurice and David, the fleet being now reduced to
seven sail; and the same evening they were in lat. 47 deg. S. The 25th,
having still a fair wind and good weather, they reached 45 deg. S. and were
then in great hopes of overcoming all difficulties. The 28th they got
sight of the coast of Chili, bearing E.S.E. and in the evening were
within a league of the shore, which appeared high and mountainous.

SECTION II:

_Transactions of the Fleet on the Western Coast of America_.

The admiral was at this time confined to bed, and wished to have put
into the port of Chiloe; but his instructions did not allow of this
measure, requiring the performance of some action of importance against
the Spaniards in Peru. It was therefore resolved to proceed for the
island of Juan Fernandez, to make the best preparations in their power
for attacking the Spanish galleons in the port of Arica, if found there,
and to gain possession of that place, after which it was proposed to
extend their conquests by the aid of the Indians. On the 1st April,
being then in lat. 38 deg. 10' S. the vice-admiral took to his bed, quite
worn out with fatigue, so that they expected to lose both the admiral
and him. On the 4th they had sight of Juan Fernandez, in lat. 33 deg. 50' S.
and next day came to anchor in sixty fathoms in a fine bay. The 6th
orders were issued to provide all the ships with as many
cheveaux-de-frize and pallisades as they could. The Griffin joined the
fleet in the evening, not having been seen since the 2d February. She
had been in the lat. of 60 deg. S. and had got into the South Sea without
seeing Cape Horn. The Orange arrived on the 7th, having twice seen the
southern continent on her passage, once in lat. 50 deg., and the other time
in lat. 41 deg. S.[138] The David came in on the 7th, bringing advice of the
Maurice, both vessels having been five or six days beating about the
island, but hindered from getting in by contrary winds.

[Footnote 138: No land whatever could be seen in these latitudes in the
eastern Pacific, so that they must have been deceived by fog, banks, or
islands of ice.--E.]

The larger and more easterly of the two islands of Juan Fernandez is in
the latitude of 30 deg. 40' S. five degrees west from the coast of Chili;
this island being called by the Spaniards _Isla de Tierra_, and the
smaller or more westerly island _Isla de Fuera_, which is a degree and
a half farther east.[139]

[Footnote 139: Isola de Tierra, the eastermost of these islands of Juan
Fernandez, in lat. 33 deg. 42' S. and long. 79 deg. 5' E. is about 15 English
miles from E. to W. by 5-1/2 miles in its greatest breadth from N. to S.
Besides this and Isola de Fuera, mentioned in the text, there is still a
third, or smallest island, a mile and a half south from the S.W. end of
the Isola de Tierra, called Isola de Cabras or Conejos, Goat or Rabbit
island, three English miles from N.W. to S.E. and a mile in
breadth.--E.]

The more easterly and larger island, at which the Nassau fleet anchored,
is about six leagues in circuit, and is about two leagues and a half
long, from east to west. The road is on the N.E. part of the island,
from whence there is a beautiful prospect of valleys covered with
clover. The ground of this bay is in some places rocky, and in others a
fine black sand, and it affords good anchorage in thirty to thirty-five
fathoms. The island produces excellent water, and fish are to be had in
abundance in the bay, and of various kinds. Many thousand seals and
sea-lions come daily on shore to bask in the sun, of which the seamen
killed great numbers, both for food and amusement. Some of the Dutch
fancied that the flesh of these animals tasted as if twice cooked, while
others thought, after the grease and tallow were carefully taken out,
that it was as good as mutton. There were many goats in the island, but
difficult to be taken, and neither so fat nor so well tasted as those of
St Vincents. There were plenty of palm-trees in the interior, and three
large quince-trees near the bay, the fruit of which was very refreshing.
They found also plenty of timber for all kinds of uses, but none fit for
masts. Formerly, ten or twelve Indians used to reside here, for the sake
of fishing and making oil from the seals and sea-lions, but it was now
quite uninhabited. Three gunners and three soldiers belonging to the
vice-admiral, were so sick of the voyage, that they asked and obtained
leave to remain here.

Every thing being in readiness, the fleet departed from _Isla de Tierra_
on the 13th April. On the 8th May, being near the coast of Peru, they
took a Spanish bark, in which, besides the captain, there were four
Spaniards, and six or seven Indians and Negroes. From these, they learnt
that the Plate fleet had sailed on the 3d of the month from Calao de
Lima for Panama, consisting of five treasure ships, three rich
merchantmen, and two men of war. They were also informed that the
Spanish admiral was still at Calao, his ship being of 800 tons burden,
and mounting 40 brass cannon; besides which, there were two _pataches_
of 14 guns each, and forty or fifty unarmed merchant vessels. All these
vessels were said to have been hauled on shore, and secured by three
strong batteries and other works, furnished with upwards of fifty pieces
of cannon, all ready prepared for the reception of the Dutch, of whose
motions the Spaniards had received early and certain intelligence. The
viceroy had likewise formed four companies of foot, of eighty men each,

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